Science.gov

Sample records for administration permissible exposure

  1. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  2. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  3. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  4. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  5. 46 CFR 197.515 - Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible exposure limits (PELs). 197.515 Section 197.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.515 Permissible exposure limits (PELs). The...

  6. 10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible exposure limit. 850.22 Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.22... concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in 29 CFR 1910.1000,...

  7. 10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissible exposure limit. 850.22 Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.22... concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in 29 CFR 1910.1000,...

  8. 10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permissible exposure limit. 850.22 Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.22... concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in 29 CFR 1910.1000,...

  9. 10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible exposure limit. 850.22 Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.22... concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in 29 CFR 1910.1000,...

  10. 10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permissible exposure limit. 850.22 Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.22... concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in 29 CFR 1910.1000,...

  11. Permissible exposure levels and emergency exposure guidance levels for selected airborne contaminants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Navy requested that the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology recommend permissible exposure levels (PELs) for zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) and ethylhexyl nitrate. No exposure levels for these compounds have been recommended either by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The U.S. Army's Surgeon General's office also requested the 2-min emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) for hydrogen chloride because of the Army's concern for the short-term high-level exposure of soldiers to hydrogen chloride vapors released during firing of various rocket motors and missiles. In response to these requests, the Committee on Toxicology set up the Subcommittee on Permissible Exposure Levels. The subcommittee, whose expertise is in toxicology, inhalation toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, medicine, and pathology, evaluated the toxicity data on ziram, ethylhexyl nitrate, and hydrogen chloride. In addition to the recommendations for PELs for ziram and ethylhexyl nitrate and EEGLs for hydrogen chloride, the subcommittee has identified deficiencies in the data and made recommendations for additional research. The subcommittee believes that the recommended exposure levels will provide adequate protection for workers and soldiers from these chemicals.

  12. Analysis of the asbestos permissible-exposure-level threshold standard. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.W.

    1991-06-01

    This thesis examines the reasoning of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to set stringent exposure levels for airborne asbestos in the work place. Technical recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Bureau of Mines, and the American conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists were presented to OSHA for consideration. OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set industry standards for permissible exposure levels (PEL) of airborne asbestos. Exposure to asbestos poses a health hazard to workers, their families, and consumers of asbestos products. Because it poses an unreasonable risk human life, OSHA has repeatedly lowered the Permissible Exposure Levels and the EPA will ban the manufacture, importation, processing and commercial distribution of asbestos containing products from the United States in phases by 1997. These decisions may have been made too hastily because of the long latency (15-40 years) period before cancer develops, and the added risks that smoking imposes.

  13. Permissible Exposure Level for Lunar Dusts: Gaps are Closing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully Robert; Santana, Patricia; Cooper, Bonnie; McKay, David; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Castranova, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Space faring nations plan to return human explorers to the moon within the next decade. Experience during the Apollo flights suggests that lunar dust will invariably get into the habitat where the finest portion (less than 5 micrometers) could be inhaled by the crew before it is cleared from the atmosphere. NASA is developing a database from which a 6-month, episodic exposure standard for lunar dust can be set. Three kinds of moon dust were prepared from a parent sample of Apollo 14 regolith #14003,96. Our goal was to prepare each type of dust sample with a mean diameter less than 2 m, which is suitable for instillation into the lungs of rats. The three samples were prepared as follows: separation from the parent sample using a fluidized bed, grinding using a jet mill grinder, or grinding with a ball-mill grinder. Grinding simulated restoration of surface activation of dust expected to occur at the surface of the moon on native lunar dust. We used two grinding methods because they seemed to produce different modes of activation. The effects of grinding were preserved by maintaining the dust in ultra-pure nitrogen until immediately before it was placed in suspension for administration to rats. The dust was suspended in physiological saline with 10% Survanta, a lung surfactant. Rats were given intratrachael instillations of the dust suspension at three doses. In addition to the three moon dusts (A, C and E), we instilled the same amount of a negative control (TiO2, B) and a highly-toxic, positive control (quartz, D). These additional mineral dusts were selected because they have well-established and very different permissible exposure levels (PELs). Our goal was to determine where lunar dusts fit between these extremes, and then estimate a PEL for each lunar dust. We evaluated many indices of toxicity to the lung. The figure shows the changes in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of cell death, for the five dusts. Benchmark dose software (Version 2.1.2) from the

  14. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA

    PubMed Central

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is 85 dBA for 8 hours of noise exposure. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the development of hearing threshold levels beyond 25 dBA on adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit compared to 90 dBA. Patients and Methods: This is an intervention study done on two automobile factories. There were 203 employees exposed to noise levels beyond the action level. Hearing protection devices were distributed to reduce noise levels to a level between the permissible exposure limit and action level. The permissible exposure limits were 90 and 85 dBA in factories 1 and 2, respectively, while the action levels were 85 and 80 dBA, respectively. The hearing threshold levels of participants were measured at baseline and at first month of postshift exposure of noise. The outcome was measured by a manual audiometer. McNemar and chi-square tests were used in the statistical analysis. Results: We found that hearing threshold levels of more than 25 dBA has changed significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention among participants from both factories (3000 Hz for the right ear and 2000 Hz for the left ear). There was a statistically significant association between participants at 3000 Hz on the right ear at ‘deteriorated’ level ( χ² (1) = 4.08, φ = - 0.142, P = 0.043), whereas there was worsening of hearing threshold beyond 25 dBA among those embraced 90 dBA. Conclusions: The adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure

  15. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  16. Threshold limit values, permissible exposure limits, and feasibility: the bases for exposure limits in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M

    1993-05-01

    The development of exposure limits in the United States has always relied heavily upon the threshold limit values (TLVs) developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In fact, the TLVs were adopted as official exposure limits by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1972 and 1989. Given the continuing importance of the ACGIH limits, this paper compares the basis of the TLVs with that employed by OSHA de novo in its 12 new permissible exposure limits (PELs). Using benzene as an example, it is shown that OSHA's new PELs have been established following a rigorous assessment of the inherent risks and the feasibility of instituting the limit. The TLVs, on the other hand, have been developed by ad hoc procedures and appear to have traditionally reflected levels thought to be achievable at the time. However, this might be changing. Analysis of the historical reductions of TLVs, for 27 substances on the 1991-1992 list of intended changes, indicates smaller reductions in the past (median reduction of 2.0-2.5-fold between 1946 and 1988) compared to those currently being observed (median reduction of 7.5-fold between 1989 and 1991). Further analysis suggests a more aggressive policy of the ACGIH regarding TLVs for carcinogens but not for substances that produce effects other than cancer. Regardless of whether the basis of the TLVs has changed recently, it would take a relatively long time for the impact of any change to be felt, since the median age of the 1991-1992 TLVs is 16.5 years, and 75% of these limits are more than 10 years old. The implications of OSHA's continued reliance on the TLVs as a means of updating its PELs are discussed, and four alternatives are presented to the ACGIH regarding the future of its activities related to exposure limits. It is concluded that new mechanisms are needed for OSHA to update its PELs in a timely fashion so that the TLVs will not be adopted by default in the future.

  17. Lack of blood formate accumulation in humans following exposure to methanol vapor at the current permissible exposure limit of 200 ppm

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.W.; Terzo, T.S.; D'Arcy, J.B.; Gross, K.B.; Schreck, R.M. )

    1992-02-01

    Accumulation of formate, the putative toxic metabolite of methanol, in the blood and the relationship between pulmonary intake and blood methanol concentration were investigated in six human volunteers following a 6-hr exposure to 200 ppm methanol (the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration 8-hr time-weighted average permissible exposure limit). At the end of a 6-hr exposure to 200 ppm methanol at rest, the blood methanol concentration was increased from a mean of 1.8 micrograms/mL to 7.0 micrograms/mL. Under light exercise, the total amount of methanol inhaled during the 6-hr exposure period was 1.8 times that inhaled at rest. However, no statistically significant increase in blood methanol concentration was observed under exercise: the concentrations averaged 8.1 micrograms/mL. Formate did not accumulate in the blood above its background level following the 6-hr exposures to 200 ppm methanol whether subjects were exposed at rest or during exercise. Unlike the data collected from epidemiologic studies, the authors' results were obtained under well-controlled methanol exposure conditions and by using appropriate dietary restrictions. The data show that (1) the biological load of methanol would be the same regardless of whether workers are engaged in light physical activity when they are exposed to methanol vapors below 200 ppm and (2) the formate that is associated with acute methanol toxicities in humans does not accumulate in blood when methanol exposure concentrations are below 200 ppm.

  18. An improved maximum permissible exposure meter for safety assessments of laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corder, D. A.; Evans, D. R.; Tyrer, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    Current interest in laser radiation safety requires demonstration that a laser system has been designed to prevent exposure to levels of laser radiation exceeding the Maximum Permissible Exposure. In some simple systems it is possible to prove this by calculation, but in most cases it is preferable to confirm calculated results with a measurement. This measurement may be made with commercially available equipment, but there are limitations with this approach. A custom designed instrument is presented in which the full range of measurement issues have been addressed. Important features of the instrument are the design and optimisation of detector heads for the measurement task, and consideration of user interface requirements. Three designs for detector head are presented, these cover the majority of common laser types. Detector heads are designed to optimise the performance of relatively low cost detector elements for this measurement task. The three detector head designs are suitable for interfacing to photodiodes, low power thermopiles and pyroelectric detectors. Design of the user interface was an important aspect of the work. A user interface which is designed for the specific application minimises the risk of user error or misinterpretation of the measurement results. A palmtop computer was used to provide an advanced user interface. User requirements were considered in order that the final implement was well matched to the task of laser radiation hazard audits.

  19. Laser selection based on maximum permissible exposure limits for visible and middle-near infrared repetitively pulsed lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-03-01

    The Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) is central to laser hazard analysis and is in general a function of the radiant wavelength. The selection of a laser for a particular application may allow for flexibility in the selection of the radiant wavelength. This flexibility would allow the selection of a particular laser based on the MPE and the hazards associated with that radiant wavelength. The Calculations of the MPEs for various laser wavelength ranges are presented. Techniques for determining eye safe viewing distances for both aided and unaided viewing and the determination of flight hazard distances are presented as well.

  20. Temporary Blinding Limits versus Maximum Permissible Exposure - A Paradigm Change in Risk Assessment for Visible Optical Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter

    Safety considerations in the field of laser radiation have traditionally been restricted to maximum permissible exposure levels defined as a function of wavelength and exposure duration. But in Europe according to the European Directive 2006/25/EC on artificial optical radiation the employer has to include in his risk assessment indirect effects from temporary blinding. Whereas sufficient knowledge on various deterministic risks exists, only sparse quantitative data is available for the impairment of visual functions due to temporary blinding from visible optical radiation. The consideration of indirect effects corresponds to a paradigm change in risk assessment when situations have to be treated, where intrabeam viewing of low-power laser radiation is likely or other non-coherent visible radiation might influence certain visual tasks. In order to obtain a sufficient basis for the assessment of certain situations, investigations of the functional relationships between wavelength, exposure time and optical power and the resulting interference on visual functions have been performed and the results are reported. The duration of a visual disturbance is thus predictable. In addition, preliminary information on protective measures is given.

  1. Airborne asbestos concentration from brake changing does not exceed permissible exposure limit.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Van Orden, Drew R; Banasik, Marek; Harbison, Raymond D

    2003-08-01

    The use in the past, and to a lesser extent today, of chrysotile asbestos in automobile brake systems causes health concerns among professional mechanics. Therefore, we conducted four separate tests in order to evaluate an auto mechanic's exposure to airborne asbestos fibers while performing routine brake maintenance. Four nearly identical automobiles from 1960s having four wheel drum brakes were used. Each automobile was fitted with new replacement asbestos-containing brake shoes and then driven over a predetermined public road course for about 2253 km. Then, each car was separately brought into a repair facility; the brakes removed and replaced with new asbestos-containing shoes. The test conditions, methods, and tools were as commonly used during the 1960s. The mechanic was experienced in brake maintenance, having worked in the automobile repair profession beginning in the 1960s. Effects of three independent variables, e.g., filing, sanding, and arc grinding of the replacement brake shoe elements, were tested. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of fibers, asbestos fibers, total dust, and respirable dust. The results indicated a presence in the air of only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of other types of asbestos. Airborne chrysotile fiber exposures for each test remained below currently applicable limit of 0.1 fiber/ml (eight-hour time-weighted average).

  2. Permission Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    The prevailing practice in public schools is to routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities that pose potential for liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered to be neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. The following case and the…

  3. Permissive hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Thome, Ulrich H; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2002-10-01

    Although lifesaving, mechanical ventilation can result in lung injury and contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The most critical determinants of lung injury are tidal volume and end-inspiratory lung volume. Permissive hypercapnia offers to maintain gas exchange with lower tidal volumes and thus decrease lung injury. Further physiologic benefits include improved oxygen delivery and neuroprotection, the latter through both avoidance of accidental hypocapnia, which is associated with a poor neurologic outcome, and direct cellular effects. Clinical trials in adults with acute respiratory failure indicated improved survival and reduced incidence of organ failure in subjects managed with low tidal volumes and permissive hypercapnia. Retrospective studies in low birth weight infants found an association of bronchopulmonary dysplasia with low PaCO(2). Randomized clinical trials of low birth weight infants did not achieve sufficient statistical power to demonstrate a reduction of BPD by permissive hypercapnia, but strong trends indicated the possibility of important benefits without increased adverse events. Herein, we review the mechanisms leading to lung injury, the physiologic effects of hypercapnia, the dangers of hypocapnia, and the available clinical data.

  4. Maximum permissible exposure of the retina in the human eye in optical coherence tomography systems using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Sian; Dobre, George

    2014-01-01

    When using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy to produce images of the eye fundus, maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits must be considered. These limits are set out in international standards such as the National Standards Institute ANSI Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers (USA) and BS EN 60825-1: 1994 (UK) and corresponding Euro norms but these documents do not explicitly consider the case of scanned beams. Our study aims to show how MPE values can be calculated for the specific case of retinal scanning by taking into account an array of parameters, such as wavelength, exposure duration, type of scanning, line rate and field size, and how each set of initial parameters results in MPE values that correspond to thermal or photochemical damage to the retina.

  5. 5 CFR 890.1011 - Bases for permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bases for permissive debarments. 890.1011 Section 890.1011 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1011 Bases for permissive debarments. (a)...

  6. 5 CFR 890.1011 - Bases for permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bases for permissive debarments. 890.1011 Section 890.1011 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1011 Bases for permissive debarments. (a)...

  7. 5 CFR 890.1011 - Bases for permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bases for permissive debarments. 890.1011 Section 890.1011 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1011 Bases for permissive debarments. (a)...

  8. 5 CFR 890.1022 - Contesting proposed permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contesting proposed permissive debarments. 890.1022 Section 890.1022 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1022 Contesting proposed permissive...

  9. 5 CFR 890.1014 - Notice of proposed permissive debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of proposed permissive debarment. 890.1014 Section 890.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1014 Notice of proposed permissive...

  10. 5 CFR 890.1014 - Notice of proposed permissive debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of proposed permissive debarment. 890.1014 Section 890.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1014 Notice of proposed permissive...

  11. 5 CFR 890.1022 - Contesting proposed permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contesting proposed permissive debarments. 890.1022 Section 890.1022 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1022 Contesting proposed permissive...

  12. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes.

  13. Radiographic abnormalities in long-tenure Vermont granite workers and the permissible exposure limit for crystalline silica.

    PubMed

    Graham, W G; Vacek, P M; Morgan, W K; Muir, D C; Sisco-Cheng, B

    2001-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of radiographic abnormalities consistent with silicosis in a group of 600 retired granite workers who were receiving pensions. Files of regional clinics and hospitals were searched for chest radiographs taken on these men, and 470 x-ray films suitable for interpretation were located. After exclusions (women, and men who had worked in the granite industry elsewhere), 408 x-ray films were independently read by three experienced readers using the 1980 International Labour Office scheme. Dust exposures were estimated for workers hired after 1940, when the dust-control standard of 10 million particles per cubic foot (mppcf) (equivalent to 0.1 mg/m3) was put in place and monitored by the Vermont Division of Industrial Hygiene. Dust levels were initially high but were gradually reduced from 1940 to 1954, after which average quartz exposures stabilized to a mean of approximately 0.05 to 0.06 mg/m3; however, about 10% to 15% of samples after 1954 exceeded 0.1 mg/m3. Of the 408 x-ray films, 58 were taken on workers hired before dust controls were instituted in 1940, and 25.9% showed abnormalities (a profusion score of 1/0 or greater). A total of 350 x-ray films were taken on workers hired in 1940 or after, and the prevalence in this group was 5.7%. The radiographic changes in workers hired after 1940 are likely due to excessive exposures during the first 15 years of dust control. We conclude that if the exposure standard of 0.1 mg/m3 is rigorously observed in the workplace, radiographic abnormalities caused by quartz dust in long-term workers will be rare.

  14. IN VIVO COMPARISON OF EPITHELIAL RESPONSES FOR S-8 VERSUS JP-8 JET FUELS BELOW PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Simon S.; Vargas, Jason; Thomas, Alana; Fastje, Cindy; McLaughlin, Michael; Camponovo, Ryan; Lantz, R. Clark; Heys, Jeffrey; Witten, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize and compare the pulmonary effects in distal lung from a low-level exposure to jet propellant-8 fuel (JP-8) and a new synthetic-8 fuel (S-8). It is hypothesized that both fuels have different airway epithelial deposition and responses. Consequently, male C57BL/6 mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 and JP-8 at average concentrations of 53 mg/m3 for 1 hour/day for 7 days. A pulmonary function test performed 24 hr after the final exposure indicated that there was a significant increase in expiratory lung resistance in the S-8 mice, whereas JP-8 mice had significant increases in both inspiratory and expiratory lung resistance compared to control values. Neither significant S-8 nor JP-8 respiratory permeability changes were observed compared to controls, suggesting no loss of epithelial barrier integrity. Morphological examination and morphometric analysis of airway tissue demonstrated that both fuels showed different patterns of targeted epithelial cells: bronchioles in S-8 and alveoli/terminal bronchioles in JP-8. Collectively, our data suggest that both fuels may have partially different deposition patterns, which may possibly contribute to specific different adverse effects in lung ventilatory function. PMID:18930109

  15. Chronic caffeine exposure potentiates nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, M; Swanner, L S; Yasar, S; Goldberg, S R

    1999-03-01

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking and coffee drinking place nicotine and caffeine among the most used licit drugs in many societies and their consumption is often characterised by concurrent use. The pharmacological basis for any putative interaction between these drugs remains unclear. Epidemiological reports support anecdotal evidence, which suggests that smokers consume caffeine to enhance the euphoric effects of nicotine. The aim of the present experiment was to examine effects of chronic exposure to caffeine on responding maintained by nicotine. Sprague-Dawley rats consuming caffeine (approximately 150-180 mg/kg per day) in their drinking water for 7 days prior to the beginning and throughout behavioural testing acquired intravenous nicotine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg per infusion) more rapidly than did controls. In a cross-over design, exclusion of caffeine brought levels of nicotine self-administration back to baseline, while adding caffeine to the drinking water of control rats increased responding maintained by nicotine over 90%. These findings strongly suggest that caffeine can potentiate the reinforcing properties of nicotine, thus highlighting the importance of environmental factors in shaping and maintaining tobacco smoking.

  16. 5 CFR 890.1011 - Bases for permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 890.1011 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1011 Bases for permissive debarments. (a) Licensure actions. OPM may debar a health care provider to whom the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8902a(c)(1) apply....

  17. 5 CFR 890.1011 - Bases for permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 890.1011 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1011 Bases for permissive debarments. (a) Licensure actions. OPM may debar a health care provider to whom the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 8902a(c)(1) apply....

  18. 12 CFR 750.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 750.4 Section 750.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 750.4 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a)...

  19. Prior methamphetamine self-administration attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by a subsequent methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-06-01

    Others and we have reported that prior methamphetamine (METH) exposure attenuates the persistent striatal dopaminergic deficits caused by a subsequent high-dose "binge" METH exposure. The current study investigated intermediate neurochemical changes that may contribute to, or serve to predict, this resistance. Rats self-administered METH or saline for 7 d. On the following day (specifically, 16 h after the conclusion of the final METH self-administration session), rats received a binge exposure of METH or saline (so as to assess the impact of prior METH self-administration), or were sacrificed without a subsequent METH exposure (i.e., to assess the status of the rats at what would have been the initiation of the binge METH treatment). Results revealed that METH self-administration per se decreased striatal dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function and DA content, as assessed 16 h after the last self-administration session. Exposure to a binge METH treatment beginning at this 16-h time point decreased DAT function and DA content as assessed 1 h after the binge METH exposure: this effect on DA content (but not DAT function) was attenuated if rats previously self-administered METH. In contrast, 24 h after the binge METH treatment prior METH self-administration: 1) attenuated deficits in DA content, DAT function and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function; and 2) prevented increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein and DAT complex immunoreactivity. These data suggest that changes 24 h, but not 1 h, after binge METH exposure are predictive of tolerance against the persistence of neurotoxic changes following binge METH exposures.

  20. Workplace Measurements by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration since 1979: Descriptive Analysis and Potential Uses for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background : Inspectors from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have been collecting industrial hygiene samples since 1972 to verify compliance with Permissible Exposure Limits. Starting in 1979, these measurements were computerized into the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS). In 2010, a dataset of over 1 million personal sample results analysed at OSHA’s central laboratory in Salt Lake City [Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD)], only partially overlapping the IMIS database, was placed into public domain via the internet. We undertook this study to inform potential users about the relationship between this newly available OSHA data and IMIS and to offer insight about the opportunities and challenges associated with the use of OSHA measurement data for occupational exposure assessment. Methods : We conducted a literature review of previous uses of IMIS in occupational health research and performed a descriptive analysis of the data recently made available and compared them to the IMIS database for lead, the most frequently sampled agent. Results : The literature review yielded 29 studies reporting use of IMIS data, but none using the CEHD data. Most studies focused on a single contaminant, with silica and lead being most frequently analysed. Sixteen studies addressed potential bias in IMIS, mostly by examining the association between exposure levels and ancillary information. Although no biases of appreciable magnitude were consistently reported across studies and agents, these assessments may have been obscured by selective under-reporting of non-detectable measurements. The CEHD data comprised 1 450 836 records from 1984 to 2009, not counting analytical blanks and erroneous records. Seventy eight agents with >1000 personal samples yielded 1 037 367 records. Unlike IMIS, which contain administrative information (company size, job description), ancillary information in the CEHD data is mostly analytical. When the IMIS and

  1. Relevance, Derogation and Permission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolpe, Audun

    We show that a recently developed theory of positive permission based on the notion of derogation is hampered by a triviality result that indicates a problem with the underlying full-meet contraction operation. We suggest a solution that presupposes a particular normal form for codes of norms, adapted from the theory of relevance through propositional letter sharing. We then establish a correspondence between contractions on sets of norms in input/output logic (derogations), and AGM-style contractions on sets of formulae, and use it as a bridge to migrate results on propositional relevance from the latter to the former idiom. Changing the concept accordingly we show that positive permission now incorporates a relevance requirement that wards off triviality.

  2. Exposure to nicotine enhances its subsequent self-administration: contribution of nicotine-associated contextual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Nichole M; Cortright, James J; Sampedro, Georgia R; Vezina, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Contextual stimuli present during nicotine exposure can come to act as conditioned stimuli and have been shown to play an important role in ongoing nicotine self-administration. In the present study, we characterized the effects of contextual stimuli previously paired with non-contingent nicotine exposure injections on subsequent nicotine self-administration. Rats were exposed to five injections of either saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) in either their home cage or a self-administration chamber with the levers retracted. Two weeks later, they were allowed to self-administer nicotine (30 μg/kg/infusion, IV) under fixed ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement across 12 consecutive sessions. Lastly, responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule was assessed. Rats exposed to nicotine in the self-administration chamber subsequently increased their intake of nicotine across the FR test days, obtaining more infusions on average by days 7-12 compared to their saline exposed controls. This increase was not due to nicotine exposure alone as rats exposed to nicotine in the home cage did not show this effect. It was also not due to differences in the final ratio achieved between nicotine and saline exposed rats. Although rats exposed to nicotine in the self-administration chambers displayed reduced discrimination between the active and inactive levers during FR testing, they showed increased motivation to self-administer nicotine under the PR schedule. These results indicate that exposure to nicotine can enhance its subsequent self-administration and highlight the contribution of nicotine-associated contextual stimuli to the work output rats ultimately emit to obtain the drug.

  3. Increased Nicotine Self-Administration Following Prenatal Exposure in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Edward D.; Lawrence, Susan; Petro, Ann; Horton, Kofi; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant association between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and greater subsequent risk of smoking in female offspring. In animal models, prenatal nicotine exposure causes persistent alterations in cholinergic and monoaminergic systems, both of which are important for nicotine actions underlying tobacco addiction. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to determine if there is a cause-and-effect relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure and nicotine self-administration starting in adolescence. Pregnant rats were administered nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) by osmotic minipump infusion throughout gestation and then, beginning in adolescence and continuing into adulthood, female offspring were given access to nicotine via a standard operant IV self-administration procedure (0.03 mg/kg/infusion). Gestational nicotine exposure did not alter the initial rate of nicotine self-administration. However, when animals underwent one week of forced abstinence and then had a second opportunity to self-administer nicotine, the prenatally-exposed animals showed a significantly greater rate of self-administration than did the controls. Prenatal nicotine exposure causes increased nicotine self-administration, which is revealed only when the animals are allowed to experience a period of nicotine abstinence. This supports a cause-and-effect relationship between the higher rates of smoking in the daughters of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy and implicates a role for nicotine in this effect. Our results further characterize the long-term liabilities of maternal smoking but also point to the potential liabilities of nicotine-based treatments for smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:17196243

  4. Optimal PEGylation can improve the exposure of interferon in the lungs following pulmonary administration.

    PubMed

    Mcleod, Victoria M; Chan, Linda J; Ryan, Gemma M; Porter, Christopher J H; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2015-04-01

    The utility of inhaled protein therapeutics to treat lung-resident diseases is limited by protein degradation in the lungs and rapid clearance. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of PEGylation on the lung and systemic exposure of interferon (IFN) α2 after intratracheal administration to rats. An inverse correlation was observed between PEG chain length and systemic exposure, where bioavailability was 5.5% for the 31 kDa PEGylated construct and <0.4% for the 60 kDa PEGylated construct when compared with 15% for native IFN (19 kDa). Retention of PEGylated IFNα within the lungs increased 2.5-fold to threefold when compared with native IFN. When comparing the lung and systemic exposure of PEGylated and native IFN in terms of protein biological activity, the 31 kDa PEGylated construct increased exposure by 50% and 100%, respectively, when compared with native IFN, but the 60 kDa PEG construct offered no benefit. Preliminary work also indicated that the conjugation of IFNγ with 10 kDa PEG significantly increases the retention of the protein within the lung. Optimal PEGylation may therefore be used as a means to improve the exposure of lung-resident diseases to therapeutic cytokines and potentially reduce systemic exposure and side effects as well as dosing frequency.

  5. An evaluation of the external radiation exposure dosimetry and calculation of maximum permissible concentration values for airborne materials containing 18F, 15O, 13N, 11C and 133Xe.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1985-11-01

    To better understand the dose equivalent (D.E.) rates produced by airborne releases of gaseous positron-emitting radionuclides under various conditions of cloud size, a study of the external radiation exposure dosimetry of these radionuclides, as well as negatron, gamma and x-ray emitting 133Xe, was undertaken. This included a calculation of the contributions to D.E. as a function of cloud radii, at tissue depths of 0.07 mm (skin), 3 mm (lens of eye) and 10 mm (whole body) from both the particulate and photon radiations emitted by these radionuclides. Estimates of maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values were also calculated based on the calculated D.E. rates and current regulations for personnel radiation protection (CFR84). Three continuous air monitors, designed for use with 133Xe, were evaluated for applications in monitoring air concentrations of the selected positron emitters. The results indicate that for a given radionuclide and for a cloud greater than a certain radius, personnel radiation dosimeters must respond acceptably to only the photon radiations emitted by the radionuclide to provide acceptable personnel dosimetry. For clouds under that radius, personnel radiation dosimeters must also respond acceptably to the positron or negatron radiations to provide acceptable personnel dosimetry. It was found that two out of the three air concentration monitors may be useful for monitoring air concentrations of the selected positron emitters.

  6. Alterations in the striatal dopamine system during intravenous methamphetamine exposure: effects of contingent and noncontingent administration.

    PubMed

    Laćan, Goran; Hadamitzky, Martin; Kuczenski, Ronald; Melega, William P

    2013-08-01

    The continuing spread of methamphetamine (METH) abuse has stimulated research aimed at understanding consequences of its prolonged exposure. Alterations in nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system parameters have been characterized in experimental studies after discontinuation of long-term METH but fewer studies have included similar assessments during METH exposure. Here, we report METH plasma pharmacokinetics and striatal DA system alterations in rat after noncontingent and contingent METH administration for 7.5 weeks. Escalating METH exposure was delivered by dynamic infusion (DI) that incorporated a "humanized" plasma METH half life or by intravenous self-administration (IVSA) that included binge intakes. Kinetic modeling of DI and IVSA for 24 h periods during the final week of METH exposure showed that plasma METH levels remained between 0.7 and 1.5 µM. Animals were sacrificed during their last METH administration for autoradiography assessment using [³H]ligands and D2 agonist-induced [³⁵S]GTPγS binding. DA transporter binding was decreased (DI, 34%; IVSA, 15%) while vesicular monoamine transporter binding and substantia nigra DA cell numbers were unchanged. Decreases were measured for D2 receptor (DI and IVSA, 15-20%) and [³⁵S]GTPγS binding (DI, 35%; IVSA, 18%). These similar patterns of DI and IVSA associated decreases in striatal DA markers reflect consequences of cumulative METH exposure and not the drug delivery method. For METH IVSA, individual differences were observed, yet each animal's total intake was similar within and across three 24-h binges. IVSA rodent models may be useful for identifying molecular mechanisms that are associated with METH binges in humans.

  7. Alterations in the Striatal Dopamine System During Intravenous Methamphetamine Exposure: Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Administration

    PubMed Central

    Laćan, Goran; Hadamitzky, Martin; Kuczenski, Ronald; Melega, William P.

    2014-01-01

    The continuing spread of methamphetamine (METH) abuse has stimulated research aimed at understanding consequences of its prolonged exposure. Alterations in nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system parameters have been characterized in experimental studies after discontinuation of long term METH but fewer studies have included similar assessments during METH exposure. Here, we report METH plasma pharmacokinetics and striatal DA system alterations in rat after noncontingent and contingent METH administration for 7.5 weeks. Escalating METH exposure was delivered by dynamic infusion (DI) that incorporated a ‘humanized’ plasma METH half life, or by intravenous self-administration (IVSA) that included binge intakes. Kinetic modeling of DI and IVSA for 24 h periods during the final week of METH exposure showed that plasma METH levels remained between 0.7–1.5 μM. Animals were sacrificed during their last METH administration for autoradiography assessment using [3H]ligands and D2 agonist-induced [35S]GTPγS binding. DA transporter binding was decreased (DI, 34%; IVSA, 15%) while vesicular monoamine transporter binding and substantia nigra DA cell numbers were unchanged. Decreases were measured for D2 receptor (DI and IVSA, 15–20%) and [35S]GTPγS binding (DI, 35%; IVSA, 18%). These similar patterns of DI and IVSA associated decreases in striatal DA markers reflect consequences of cumulative METH exposure and not the drug delivery method. For METH IVSA, individual differences were observed, yet each animal’s total intake was similar within and across three 24 h binges. IVSA rodent models may be useful for identifying molecular mechanisms that are associated with METH binges in humans. PMID:23417852

  8. Relationship between lethal toxicity in oral administration and injection to mice: effect of exposure routes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ning, Zhong H; Tai, Hong W; Long, Shuang; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-03-01

    The lethal toxicity (LD₅₀) in oral administration, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular and subcutaneous injections were used to investigate relationships of log 1/LD₅₀ from different exposure routes. Regression analysis showed that log 1/LD₅₀ in oral route was related to the toxicity in injection route. This relationship in lethality between the two routes is apparently due to the same mechanisms of the compounds to the same species. However, the scatter in the correlation curve indicates that exposure route is an important factor that influences the relationship. Some compounds with low intestinal absorption exhibit much less toxicity in oral administration than that in the injection route. A systemic bias of log 1/LD₅₀ between oral and injection routes indicates that tissue distribution of compounds between blood and target site is a very rapid process, leading to log 1/LD₅₀ in injection greater than those in oral administration. Although compounds can be metabolized in the body both from oral and injection routes, first-pass metabolism occurs in oral route but not in injection route. This will result in decrease of toxicity in oral route for most compounds as compared with injection route. In addition, experimental uncertainty, differences in gender, and species can also affect relationships of log1/LD₅₀ between exposure routes.

  9. 5 CFR 890.1015 - Minimum and maximum length of permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum and maximum length of permissive debarments. 890.1015 Section 890.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1015 Minimum and maximum length...

  10. 5 CFR 890.1013 - Deciding whether to propose a permissive debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deciding whether to propose a permissive debarment. 890.1013 Section 890.1013 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1013 Deciding whether to propose...

  11. 5 CFR 890.1013 - Deciding whether to propose a permissive debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deciding whether to propose a permissive debarment. 890.1013 Section 890.1013 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1013 Deciding whether to propose...

  12. 5 CFR 890.1012 - Time limits for OPM to initiate permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time limits for OPM to initiate permissive debarments. 890.1012 Section 890.1012 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1012 Time limits for OPM...

  13. 5 CFR 890.1012 - Time limits for OPM to initiate permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time limits for OPM to initiate permissive debarments. 890.1012 Section 890.1012 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1012 Time limits for OPM...

  14. 5 CFR 890.1015 - Minimum and maximum length of permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum and maximum length of permissive debarments. 890.1015 Section 890.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1015 Minimum and maximum length...

  15. Comparative chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics via multiple routes of exposure and vehicles of administration in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Campbell, James A; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L; Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S; Barr, Dana B; Timchalk, Charles

    2009-06-30

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide. A number of toxicity and mechanistic studies have been conducted in animals, where CPF has been administered via a variety of different exposure routes and dosing vehicles. This study compared chlorpyrifos (CPF) pharmacokinetics using oral, intravenous (IV), and subcutaneous (SC) exposure routes and corn oil, saline/Tween 20, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as dosing vehicles. Two groups of rats were co-administered target doses (5 mg/kg) of CPF and isotopically labeled CPF (L-CPF). One group was exposed by both oral (CPF) and IV (L-CPF) routes using saline/Tween 20 vehicle; whereas, the second group was exposed by the SC route using two vehicles, corn oil (CPF) and DMSO (L-CPF). A third group was only administered CPF by the oral route in corn oil. For all treatments, blood and urine time course samples were collected and analyzed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and isotopically labeled 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (L-TCPy). Peak TCPy/L-TCPy concentrations in blood (20.2 micromol/l), TCPy/L-TCPy blood AUC (94.9 micromol/lh), and percent of dose excreted in urine (100%) were all highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in saline/Tween 20 and second highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in corn oil. Peak TCPy concentrations in blood were more rapidly obtained after oral administration of CPF in saline/Tween 20 compared to all other dosing scenarios (>1.5 h). These results indicate that orally administered CPF is more extensively metabolized than systemic exposures of CPF (SC and IV), and vehicle of administration also has an effect on absorption rates. Thus, equivalent doses via different routes and/or vehicles of administration could potentially lead to different body burdens of CPF, different rates of bioactivation to CPF-oxon, and different toxic responses. Simulations using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF are consistent with these possibilities

  16. C-C1-02: Validity of HMO Administrative Data for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Delate, Thomas; Bowles, Erin; Pardee, Roy; Wellman, Robert; Habel, Laurel; Yood, Marianne; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Goddard, Katrina; Davis, Robert; Mccarty, Catherine; Onitilo, Adedayo; Feigelson, Heather; Freml, Jared; Wagner, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Chemotherapy-related toxicity, while a major focus of randomized clinical trials, has been understudied in population-based research. Eight Cancer Research Network (CRN) sites used Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) data to examine the risk of cardiotoxicity following chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer. However, information on VDW chemotherapy data validity is limited. This study assessed the validity of VDW data related to the reception and dosages of cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents among breast cancer (BC) patients. Methods This was a retrospective, cohort study of women =18 years diagnosed with incident, invasive BC between January 1999 and December 2007. Pharmacy and procedure chemotherapy data were extracted from each site’s administrative databases for up to one year following cancer diagnosis date. Random samples of 50 patients stratified on trastuzumab, anthracyclines, and no chemotherapy exposure were selected from each CRN site for detailed medical chart abstraction. We calculated weighted sensitivities and specificities (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of using administrative data to accurately capture chemotherapy treatment compared to medical records. Median cumulative doses calculated from administrative data were compared to median doses obtained from the medical chart using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results The total cohort included 13,497 BC patients. Patients in the random sample (n=400) had a mean age of 65 (±14) years and were primarily white with most tumors diagnosed at AJCC stage 1 or 2. From the sample, 20% (80/400), 38% (152/400), and 40% (158/400) of patients had VDW exposure to trastuzumab, an anthracycline, and any type chemotherapy, respectively. Trastuzumab, anthracycline, and any chemotherapy sensitivities were 97% (CI=94%–98%), 97% (CI=93%–98%), and 99% (CI=97%–99%), respectively; and specificities were 99% (CI=98%–100%), 99% (CI=96%–99%), and 86% (CI=79%–91%), respectively. Median

  17. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Table D-2). If the value of F e exceeds unity (1) the exposure exceeds permissible levels. (iii) A... value of F e does not exceed unity, the exposure is within permissible limits. (e) Exposure to...

  18. Exposure-Response Analyses for Tafenoquine after Administration to Patients with Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Green, Justin A.; Goyal, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Tafenoquine (TQ), a new 8-aminoquinoline with activity against all stages of the Plasmodium vivax life cycle, is being developed for the radical cure of acute P. vivax malaria in combination with chloroquine. The efficacy and exposure data from a pivotal phase 2b dose-ranging study were used to conduct exposure-response analyses for TQ after administration to subjects with P. vivax malaria. TQ exposure (i.e., area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) and region (Thailand compared to Peru and Brazil) were found to be statistically significant predictors of clinical response based on multivariate logistic regression analyses. After accounting for region/country, the odds of being relapse free at 6 months increased by approximately 51% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 25%, 82%) for each 25-U increase in AUC above the median value of 54.5 μg · h/ml. TQ exposure was also a significant predictor of the time to relapse of the infection. The final parametric, time-to-event model for the time to relapse, included a Weibull distribution hazard function, AUC, and country as covariates. Based on the model, the risk of relapse decreased by 30% (95% CI, 17% to 42%) for every 25-U increase in AUC. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the 300-mg dose of TQ would provide an AUC greater than the clinically relevant breakpoint obtained in a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis (56.4 μg · h/ml) in more than 90% of subjects and consequently result in a high probability of being relapse free at 6 months. This model-based approach was critical in selecting an appropriate phase 3 dose. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01376167.) PMID:26248362

  19. Pre-administration of curcumin prevents neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced neurobehavioral abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Qiu, Li-Li; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ru; Zhu, Si-Hai; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane, a commonly used inhaled anesthetic, can induce neuronal apoptosis in the developing rodent brain and correlate with functional neurological impairment later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects of sevoflurane remain unclear and no effective treatment is currently available. Herein, the authors investigated whether curcumin can prevent the sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane 2h daily for 3 consecutive days and were treated with curcumin at the dose of 20 mg/kg or vehicle 30 min before the sevoflurane anesthesia from postnatal days 6 (P6) to P8. Cognitive functions were evaluated by open field, Morris water maze, and fear conditioning tests on P61, P63-69, and P77-78, respectively. In another separate experiment, mice were killed on day P8 or P78, and the brain tissues were harvested and then subjected to biochemistry studies. Our results showed that repeated neonatal sevoflurane exposure led to significant cognitive impairment later in life, which was associated with increased neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, and decreased memory related proteins. By contrast, pre-administration of curcumin ameliorated early neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, memory related proteins, and later cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, our data suggested that curcumin pre-administration can prevent the sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairment later in life, which may be partly attributed to its ability to attenuate the neural apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative nitrosative stress in mouse brain.

  20. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  1. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  2. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  3. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  4. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement...

  5. Managing clinical research permissions electronically

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Iain C; Obeid, Jihad S; Madathil, Kapil Chalil; Gerken, Katherine; Fryar, Katrina; Rugg, Daniel; Alstad, Colin E; Alexander, Randall; Brady, Kathleen T; Gramopadhye, Anand K; Moskowitz, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Background One mechanism to increase participation in research is to solicit potential research participants’ general willingness to be recruited into clinical trials. Such research permissions and consents typically are collected on paper upon patient registration. We describe a novel method of capturing this information electronically. Purpose The objective is to enable the collection of research permissions and informed consent data electronically to permit tracking of potential research participants’ interest in current and future research involvement and to provide a foundation for facilitating the research workflow. Methods The project involved systematic analysis focused on key areas, including existing business practices, registration processes, and permission collection workflows, and ascertaining best practices for presenting consent information to users via tablet technology and capturing permissions data. Analysis was followed by an iterative software development cycle with feedback from subject matter experts and users. Results An initial version of the software was piloted at one institution in South Carolina for a period of 1 year, during which consents and permission were collected during 2524 registrations of patients. The captured research permission data were transmitted to a clinical data warehouse. The software was later released as an open-source package that can be adopted for use by other institutions. Limitations There are significant ethical, legal, and informatics challenges that must be addressed at an institution to deploy such a system. We have not yet assessed the long-term impact of the system on recruitment of patients to clinical trials. Conclusions We propose that by improving the ability to track willing potential research participants, we can improve recruitment into clinical trials and, in the process, improve patient education by introducing multimedia to informed consent documents. PMID:23785065

  6. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions.

    PubMed

    Graves, K J

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed.

  7. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed. PMID:10658960

  8. Impact of a proposed change in the maximum permissible dose limit for neutrons to radiation-protection programs at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.

    1981-09-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued a statement advising that it is considering lowering the maximum permissible dose for neutrons. This action would present substantive problems to radiation protection programs at DOE facilities where a potential for neutron exposure exists. In addition to altering administrative controls, a lowering of the maximum permissible dose for neutrons will require advances in personnel neutron dosimetry systems, and neutron detection and measurement instrumentation. Improvement in the characterization of neutron fields and spectra at work locations will also be needed. DOE has initiated research and development programs in these areas. However, problems related to the control of personnel neutron exposure have yet to be resolved and investigators are encouraged to continue collaboration with both United States and international authorities.

  9. When Permission Forms Work Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    Public schools routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities of potential liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. This article presents a case involving a student who sustained bicycle injuries…

  10. Foetal Fentanyl Exposure and Ion Trapping after Intravenous and Transdermal Administration to the Ewe.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Emma M; Kokki, Hannu; Heikkinen, Aki; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Räsänen, Juha; Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Kokki, Merja

    2017-02-01

    Opioids given to pregnant and parturient women are relatively freely transferred across the placenta. Spinal, epidural and intravenous fentanyl has been studied in pregnant women and neonates, but foetal safety of fentanyl dosing with transdermal patch during pregnancy and labour is not sufficiently studied. Foetal pH is physiologically lower than maternal pH, and thus, opioids, which are weak bases, are ionized and may cumulate to foetus. Foetal asphyxia may further worsen acidosis, and ion trapping induced by low pH is assumed to increase the foetal exposure to opioids. Here, we show that no correlation between foetal acidosis and ion trapping of fentanyl could be found. In three experiments, 29 pregnant sheep were administered fentanyl with 2 μg/kg/h patch supplemented with IV boluses/infusion. Foetal exposure to fentanyl was extensive, median 0.34 ng/ml (quartiles 0.21, 0.42), yet drug accumulation to foetus was not observed, and median of foetal/maternal concentration (F/M) ratio was 0.63 (0.43, 0.75) during the first hours after the fentanyl administration. Low foetal pH and pH difference between ewe and the foetus did not correlate with fentanyl concentration in the foetus or F/M ratio. At steady-state during the second patch worn, foetal plasma fentanyl was low, 0.13 ng/ml, and the median of F/M ratio was 0.69. Our results demonstrate that drug accumulation to foetus caused by ion trapping seen with some weak base opioids may not be that significant with fentanyl. These results have a clinical relevance when fentanyl is dosed to pregnant woman and the foetus is acidemic.

  11. Validity of Eight Integrated Healthcare Delivery Organizations’ Administrative Clinical Data to Capture Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Delate, Thomas; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Pardee, Roy; Wellman, Robert D.; Habel, Laurel A.; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Goddard, Katrina A.; Davis, Robert L.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Freml, Jared; Wagner, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer Research Network (CRN) sites use administrative data to populate their Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW). However, information on VDW chemotherapy data validity is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of VDW chemotherapy data. Methods This was a retrospective, cohort study of women ≥18 years with incident, invasive breast cancer diagnosed between January 1999 and December 2007. Pharmacy and procedure chemotherapy data were extracted from each site’s VDW. Random samples of 50 patients stratified on trastuzumab, anthracyclines, and no chemotherapy exposure were selected from each site for detailed chart abstraction. Weighted sensitivities and specificities of VDW compared to abstracted data were calculated. Cumulative doses calculated from VDW data were compared to doses obtained from the medical chart review. Results The cohort included 13497 patients with 6456 (48%) chart-review eligible. Patients in the sample (N=400) had a mean age of 65 years. Trastuzumab, anthracycline, and other chemotherapy weighted sensitivities were 95%, 97%, and 100%, respectively; specificities were 99%, 99%, and 93%, respectively; positive predictive values were 96%, 99%, and 55%, respectively; and negative predictive values were 99%, 96%, and 100%. Trastuzumab and anthracyclines VDW mean doses were 873 mgs and 386 mgs, respectively, while abstracted mean doses were 1734 mgs and 369 mgs, respectively (R2=0.14, p<0.01 and R2=0.05, p=0.03, respectively). Conclusions Sensitivities and specificities for CRN chemotherapy VDW data were high and dosages were correlated with chart information. Impact The findings support the use of CRN data in evaluating chemotherapy exposures and related outcomes. PMID:22337532

  12. Adolescent nicotine exposure fails to impact cocaine reward, aversion and self-administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Bostwick, Tamaara A; Wetzell, B Bradley; Riley, Anthony L

    2015-10-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of adolescent nicotine pre-exposure on the rewarding and aversive effects of cocaine and on cocaine self-administration in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal days 28-43) were given once daily injections of nicotine (0.6mg/kg) or vehicle and then tested for the aversive and rewarding effects of cocaine in a combined conditioned taste avoidance (CTA)/conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure in adulthood. In Experiment 2, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-exposed to nicotine then tested for cocaine self-administration (0.25 or 0.75mg/kg), progressive ratio (PR) responding, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement in adulthood. In Experiment 1, rats showed significant dose-dependent cocaine-induced taste avoidance with cocaine-injected subjects consuming less saccharin over trials, but no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. For place preferences, cocaine induced significant place preferences with cocaine injected subjects spending significantly more time on the cocaine-paired side, but again there was no effect of nicotine history. All rats in Experiment 2 showed clear, dose-dependent responding during cocaine acquisition, PR testing, extinction and reinstatement with no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. These studies demonstrate that adolescent nicotine pre-exposure does not have an impact on cocaine's affective properties or its self-administration at least with the specific parametric conditions under which these effects were tested.

  13. Embryo-fetal exposure and developmental outcome of thalidomide following oral and intravaginal administration to pregnant rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hui, Julia Y; Hoffmann, Matthew; Kumar, Gondi

    2014-09-01

    Studies in pregnant rabbits were conducted to evaluate if there are any differences in the uptake of thalidomide into the intrauterine compartment and developmental toxicity risk following oral and intravaginal administration. Thalidomide concentrations in maternal plasma, yolk sac cavity (YSC) fluid and embryo following intravaginal administration were 2- to 7-fold lower than their respective levels after oral administration. Ratios of thalidomide concentration in YSC fluid to maternal plasma were similar between these two routes, indicating no difference in uptake into the intrauterine compartment. A rabbit embryo-fetal development study using oral and intravaginal thalidomide administration at 2mg/kg/day (a dose >10,000-fold higher than the expected amount of thalidomide in human semen) did not result in any developmental abnormalities. These data demonstrated no preferential transfer mechanism of thalidomide from vagina to conceptus, and no additional embryo-fetal developmental toxicity risks with thalidomide exposure via the vaginal route.

  14. D1 dopamine receptor blockade prevents the facilitation of amphetamine self-administration induced by prior exposure to the drug.

    PubMed

    Pierre, P J; Vezina, P

    1998-07-01

    Prior exposure to amphetamine leads to sensitized locomotor responding to subsequent injections and an enhanced predisposition to self-administer low doses of the drug. Because D1 dopamine (DA) receptors have been shown to play an important role in the development of sensitized locomotor responding to amphetamine, the present experiment assessed their contribution to the development of facilitated amphetamine self-administration produced by prior exposure to the drug. During a pre-exposure phase, rats were administered two injections on each of 10 consecutive days. The first injection (saline, 1 ml/kg, i.p., or the D1 DA receptor antagonist SCH23390, 0.04 mg/kg, s.c.) preceded the second (saline or amphetamine, 1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) by 30 min. Starting 10 days after the last injection, animals were given the opportunity to lever press for a low dose of amphetamine (10 microg/kg per infusion) in a two-lever (active versus inactive) continuous reinforcement operant task, in each of seven daily sessions. Consistent with previous reports, prior exposure to amphetamine resulted in an increase in active versus inactive lever pressing. Blocking D1 DA receptors with SCH23390 prior to each of the amphetamine pre-exposure injections prevented the development of this enhanced self-administration of amphetamine. When animals were grouped according to their locomotor response to a novel environment (assessed prior to the experiment), it was found, again in agreement with previous reports, that enhanced drug self-administration (as indicated by increased active versus inactive lever pressing as well as shorter latencies to emit the first active lever press, shorter inter-response times and more time-out responses on this lever) was observed only in amphetamine pre-exposed rats that had shown a locomotor response to novelty above the median of the subject sample (high responders). Preceding the amphetamine pre-exposure injections with SCH23390 blocked the development of enhanced drug

  15. Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues. PMID:20848087

  16. 21 CFR 50.55 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children. 50.55 Section 50.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of each child's parents or guardian is granted. (1) Where parental permission is to be obtained,...

  17. 21 CFR 50.55 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children. 50.55 Section 50.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... determine that the permission of each child's parents or guardian is granted. (1) Where parental...

  18. 21 CFR 50.55 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children. 50.55 Section 50.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of each child's parents or guardian is granted. (1) Where parental permission is to be obtained,...

  19. Developmental lead exposure attenuates methamphetamine dose-effect self-administration performance and progressive ratio responding in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Angelica; Valles, Rodrigo; Hart, Nigel; Bratton, Gerald R; Nation, Jack R

    2008-06-01

    Perinatal (gestation/lactation) lead exposure modifies the reinforcement efficacy of various psychoactive drugs (e.g., cocaine, opiates) across the phases of initial selection, use, and abuse [Nation J.R., Cardon A.L., Heard H.M., Valles R., Bratton G.R. Perinatal lead exposure and relapse to drug-seeking behavior in the rat: a cocaine reinstatement study. Psychopharmacol 2003;168: 236-243.; Nation J.R., Smith K.R., Bratton G.R. Early developmental lead exposure increases sensitivity to cocaine in a self-administration paradigm. Pharmacol Biochem Behave 2004; 77: 127-13; Rocha A., Valles R., Cardon A.L., Bratton G.R., Nation J.R. Enhanced acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats developmentally exposed to lead. Neuropsychopharmacol 2005; 30: 2058-2064.]. However, changes in sensitivity to methamphetamine across the phases of drug abuse have not been examined in animals perinatally exposed to lead. Because the mainstream popularity of methamphetamine in the United States is increasing and lead exposure continues to be widespread, an examination of this drug and how it may be modified by perinatal exposure to lead is warranted. The studies reported here examined the effects of perinatal lead exposure on adult self-administration of intravenous (i.v.) methamphetamine across the maintenance phase of drug addiction. Experiment 1 examined dose-effect patterns in control and lead-exposed animals. Experiment 2 evaluated control and lead-exposed animals in a progressive ratio task. Female rats were administered a 16-mg lead or a control solution for 30 days prior to breeding with non-exposed males. Exposure continued through pregnancy and lactation and was discontinued at weaning (postnatal day [PND] 21). Animals born to control or lead-exposed dams received indwelling jugular catheters as adults (PND 70) and subsequently were randomly assigned to one of the two studies, using only one male rat per litter for each study. The data showed a general attenuation of

  20. Prophylactic administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using terbufos sulfone.

    PubMed

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Nurulain, Syed M; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Kuča, Kamil; Petroianu, Georg A

    2014-10-01

    Poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) poses a serious threat worldwide. OPC-induced mortality can be significantly reduced by prophylactic administration of reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The only American Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved substance for such pre-treatment (to soman exposure) is presently pyridostigmine, although its efficacy is controversial. In search for more efficacious and broad-spectrum alternatives, we have assessed in vivo the mortality-reducing efficacy of a group of five compounds with known AChE inhibitory activity (pyridostigmine, physostigmine, ranitidine, tacrine and K-27), when given in equitoxic dosage (25% of LD01 ) 30 min before exposure to the OPC terbufos sulfone. Protection was quantified in rats by determining the relative risk of death (RR) using Cox analysis, with RR = 1 for animals given only terbufos sulfone, but no pre-treatment. All tested AChE inhibitors reduced terbufos sulfone-induced mortality significantly (p ≤ 0.05) as compared with the non-treatment group (RR = 1: terbufos sulfone only). Best in vivo protection from terbufos sulfone-induced mortality was achieved, when K-27 was given before terbufos sulfone exposure (RR = 0.06), which was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) superior to the pre-treatment with all other tested compounds, for example tacrine (RR = 0.21), pyridostigmine (RR = 0.28), physostigmine (RR = 0.29) and ranitidine (RR = 0.33). The differences in efficacy between tacrine, pyridostigmine, physostigmine and ranitidine were not statistically significant. Prophylactic administration of an oxime (such as K-27) in case of imminent OPC exposure may be a viable option.

  1. Effect of eliminating administrative radiographs on patient exposure and accuracy of provisional treatment plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, M.L.; Slome, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    Published reports and recommendations suggest that radiographs are often ordered because of administrative policies during the screening and selection of patients for dental school clinics. This study examined the prescription of radiographs for two groups of patients: those who were radiographically examined according to an administrative policy and those whose radiographic needs were determined by a clinical examination. The provisional treatment needs assessment based on the screening examination was compared to the final treatment plan based on a complete diagnostic workup for both groups of patients to assess the effect of a change in school policy. Clinicians ordered half the number of panoramic radiographs as would have been ordered by administrative policy. There was no significant difference in the agreement between the provisional and final treatment plans under the two policies. These results suggest that dental schools can comply with federal recommendations against administrative radiographs without compromising patient selection.

  2. Pulmonary administration of a doxorubicin-conjugated dendrimer enhances drug exposure to lung metastases and improves cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaminskas, Lisa M; McLeod, Victoria M; Ryan, Gemma M; Kelly, Brian D; Haynes, John M; Williamson, Mark; Thienthong, Neeranat; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-06-10

    Direct administration of chemotherapeutic drugs to the lungs significantly enhances drug exposure to lung resident cancers and may improve chemotherapy when compared to intravenous administration. Direct inhalation of uncomplexed or unencapsulated cytotoxic drugs, however, leads to bolus release and unacceptable lung toxicity. Here, we explored the utility of a 56kDa PEGylated polylysine dendrimer, conjugated to doxorubicin, to promote the controlled and prolonged exposure of lung-resident cancers to cytotoxic drug. After intratracheal instillation to rats, approximately 60% of the dendrimer was rapidly removed from the lungs (within 24h) via mucociliary clearance and absorption into the blood. This was followed by a slower clearance phase that reflected both absorption from the lungs (bioavailability 10-13%) and biodegradation of the dendrimer scaffold. After 7days, approximately 15% of the dose remained in the lungs. A syngeneic rat model of lung metastasised breast cancer was subsequently employed to compare the anticancer activity of the dendrimer with a doxorubicin solution formulation after intravenous and pulmonary administration. Twice weekly intratracheal instillation of the dendrimer led to a >95% reduction in lung tumour burden after 2weeks in comparison to IV administration of doxorubicin solution which reduced lung tumour burden by only 30-50%. Intratracheal instillation of an equivalent dose of doxorubicin solution led to extensive lung-related toxicity and death withinseveral days of a single dose. The data suggest that PEGylated dendrimers have potential as inhalable drug delivery systems to promote the prolonged exposure of lung-resident cancers to chemotherapeutic drugs and to improve anti-cancer activity.

  3. 12 CFR 704.12 - Permissible services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible services. 704.12 Section 704.12... CREDIT UNIONS § 704.12 Permissible services. (a) Preapproved services. A corporate credit union may... will be treated as a petition to amend § 704.12 and NCUA will request public comment or otherwise...

  4. 7 CFR 29.39 - Permissive inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissive inspection. 29.39 Section 29.39 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.39 Permissive inspection. Inspection authorized under section 6...

  5. 47 CFR 27.902 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.902 Section 27.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.902 Permissible communications....

  6. 47 CFR 27.2 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.2 Section 27.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.2 Permissible communications. (a) Miscellaneous...

  7. 47 CFR 27.802 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.802 Section 27.802 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.802 Permissible communications. Licensees...

  8. 47 CFR 27.902 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.902 Section 27.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.902 Permissible communications....

  9. 47 CFR 27.802 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.802 Section 27.802 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.802 Permissible communications. Licensees...

  10. 47 CFR 27.902 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.902 Section 27.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.902 Permissible communications....

  11. 47 CFR 27.2 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.2 Section 27.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.2 Permissible communications. (a) Miscellaneous...

  12. 47 CFR 27.802 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.802 Section 27.802 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.802 Permissible communications. Licensees...

  13. 47 CFR 27.802 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.802 Section 27.802 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.802 Permissible communications. Licensees...

  14. 47 CFR 27.902 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.902 Section 27.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.902 Permissible communications....

  15. 47 CFR 27.902 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.902 Section 27.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.902 Permissible communications....

  16. 47 CFR 27.2 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.2 Section 27.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.2 Permissible communications. (a) Miscellaneous...

  17. 47 CFR 27.2 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.2 Section 27.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.2 Permissible communications. (a) Miscellaneous...

  18. 47 CFR 27.802 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.802 Section 27.802 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.802 Permissible communications. Licensees...

  19. 47 CFR 27.2 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible communications. 27.2 Section 27.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.2 Permissible communications. (a) Miscellaneous...

  20. 47 CFR 90.405 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible communications. 90.405 Section 90.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.405 Permissible communications....

  1. 47 CFR 90.405 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible communications. 90.405 Section 90.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.405 Permissible communications....

  2. 47 CFR 90.405 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible communications. 90.405 Section 90.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.405 Permissible communications....

  3. 47 CFR 90.405 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible communications. 90.405 Section 90.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.405 Permissible communications....

  4. 47 CFR 90.405 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible communications. 90.405 Section 90.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.405 Permissible communications....

  5. 47 CFR 90.1205 - Permissible operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible operations. 90.1205 Section 90.1205... § 90.1205 Permissible operations. (a) Unattended and continuous operation is permitted. (b) Voice, data and video operations are permitted. (c) Aeronautical mobile operations are prohibited....

  6. Occupational Safety and Health Administration--Access to employee exposure and medical records. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1980-05-23

    This final occupational safety and health standard, promulgated today as a revised 29 CFR 1910.20, provides for employee, designated representative, and OSHA access to employer-maintained exposure and medical records relevant to employees exposed to toxic substances and harmful physical agents. Access is also assured to employer analyses using exposure and medical records. The final standard requires long term preservation of these records, contains provisions concerning informing employees of their rights under the standard, and includes provisions protective of trade secret information.

  7. Childhood Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants and the Onset of Asthma: An Administrative Cohort Study in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although it is well established that air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the link with new asthma onset in children is less clear. Objective: We assessed the association between the onset of childhood asthma with both time of birth and time-varying exposures to outdoor air pollutants. Method: An open cohort of children born in the province of Québec, Canada, was created using linked medical–administrative databases. New cases of asthma were defined as one hospital discharge with a diagnosis of asthma or two physician claims for asthma within a 2 year period. Annual ozone (O3) levels were estimated at the child’s residence for all births 1999–2010, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels during 1996–2006 were estimated for births on the Montreal Island. Satellite based concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) were estimated at a 10 km × 10 km resolution and assigned to residential postal codes throughout the province (1996–2011). Hazard ratios (HRs) were assessed with Cox models for the exposure at the birth address and for the time-dependent exposure. We performed an indirect adjustment for secondhand smoke (SHS). Results: We followed 1,183,865 children (7,752,083 person-years), of whom 162,752 became asthmatic. After controlling for sex and material and social deprivation, HRs for an interquartile range increase in exposure at the birth address to NO2 (5.45 ppb), O3 (3.22 ppb), and PM2.5 (6.50 μg/m3) were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.12), and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.33), respectively. Effects of O3 and PM2.5 estimated with time-varying Cox models were similar to those estimated using exposure at birth, whereas the effect of NO2 was slightly stronger (HR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.09). Conclusions: Asthma onset in children appears to be associated with residential exposure to PM2.5, O3 and NO2. Citation: Tétreault LF, Doucet M, Gamache P, Fournier M, Brand A, Kosatsky T, Smargiassi A. 2016. Childhood exposure to ambient air

  8. Adolescent Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure Alters WIN55,212-2 Self-Administration in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Scherma, Maria; Dessì, Christian; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Lecca, Salvatore; Satta, Valentina; Luchicchi, Antonio; Pistis, Marco; Panlilio, Leigh V; Fattore, Liana; Goldberg, Steven R; Fratta, Walter; Fadda, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, and use is typically initiated during adolescence. The endocannabinoid system has an important role in formation of the nervous system, from very early development through adolescence. Cannabis exposure during this vulnerable period might lead to neurobiological changes that affect adult brain functions and increase the risk of cannabis use disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adolescent rats might enhance reinforcing effects of cannabinoids in adulthood. Male adolescent rats were treated with increasing doses of THC (or its vehicle) twice/day for 11 consecutive days (PND 45-55). When the animals reached adulthood, they were tested by allowing them to intravenously self-administer the cannabinoid CB1-receptor agonist WIN55,212-2. In a separate set of animals given the same THC (or vehicle) treatment regimen, electrophysiological and neurochemical experiments were performed to assess possible modifications of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, which is critically involved in cannabinoid-induced reward. Behavioral data showed that acquisition of WIN55,212-2 self-administration was enhanced in THC-exposed rats relative to vehicle-exposed controls. Neurophysiological data showed that THC-exposed rats displayed a reduced capacity for WIN55,212-2 to stimulate firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area and to increase dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. These findings-that early, passive exposure to THC can produce lasting alterations of the reward system of the brain and subsequently increase cannabinoid self-administration in adulthood-suggest a mechanism by which adolescent cannabis exposure could increase the risk of subsequent cannabis dependence in humans.

  9. 26 CFR 301.7216-2 - Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Crimes, Other Offenses, and Forfeitures Crimes § 301.7216-2 Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the... crime. The provisions of section 7216(a) and § 301.7216-1 shall not apply to the disclosure of any...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7216-2 - Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Crimes, Other Offenses, and Forfeitures Crimes § 301.7216-2 Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the... shall not be disclosed or used for any other purpose. (q) Disclosure to report the commission of a...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7216-2 - Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Crimes, Other Offenses, and Forfeitures Crimes § 301.7216-2 Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the... shall not be disclosed or used for any other purpose. (q) Disclosure to report the commission of a...

  12. 5 CFR 890.1016 - Aggravating and mitigating factors used to determine the length of permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890... history of prior criminal wrongdoing; civil violations related to health care items or services;...

  13. 5 CFR 890.1016 - Aggravating and mitigating factors used to determine the length of permissive debarments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890... history of prior criminal wrongdoing; civil violations related to health care items or services;...

  14. Efficacy of post exposure administration of doxycycline in a murine model of inhalational melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Gelhaus, H Carl; Anderson, Michael S; Fisher, David A; Flavin, Michael T; Xu, Ze-Qi; Sanford, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. Treatment of melioidosis is suboptimal and developing improved melioidosis therapies requires animal models. In this report, we exposed male BALB/c mice to various amounts of aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b to determine lethality. After establishing a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of 2,772 colony forming units (cfu)/animal, we tested the ability of doxycycline administered 6 hours after exposure to a uniformly lethal dose of ~20 LD(50) to prevent death and eliminate bacteria from the lung and spleens. Tissue bacterial burdens were examined by PCR analysis. We found that 100% of mice treated with doxycycline survived and B. pseudomallei DNA was not amplified from the lungs or spleens of most surviving mice. We conclude the BALB/c mouse is a useful model of melioidosis. Furthermore, the data generated in this mouse model indicate that doxycycline is likely to be effective in post-exposure prophylaxis of melioidosis.

  15. Developmental lead exposure induces opposite effects on ethanol intake and locomotion in response to central vs. systemic cyanamide administration.

    PubMed

    Mattalloni, Mara Soledad; Deza-Ponzio, Romina; Albrecht, Paula Alejandra; Cancela, Liliana Marina; Virgolini, Miriam Beatriz

    2017-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant that elicits differential responses to drugs of abuse. Particularly, ethanol consumption has been demonstrated to be increased as a consequence of environmental Pb exposure, with catalase (CAT) and brain acetaldehyde (ACD, the first metabolite of ethanol) playing a role. The present study sought to interfere with ethanol metabolism by inhibiting ALDH2 (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity in both liver and brain from control and Pb-exposed rats as a strategy to accumulate ACD, a substance that plays a major role in the drug's reinforcing and/or aversive effects. To evaluate the impact on a 2-h chronic voluntary ethanol intake test, developmentally Pb-exposed and control rats were administered with cyanamide (CY, an ALDH inhibitor) either systemically or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on the last 4 sessions of the experiment. Furthermore, on the last session and after locomotor activity was assessed, all animals were sacrificed to obtain brain and liver samples for ALDH2 and CAT activity determination. Systemic CY administration reduced the elevated ethanol intake already reported in the Pb-exposed animals (but not in the controls) accompanied by liver (but not brain) ALDH2 inactivation. On the other hand, a 0.3 mg i.c.v. CY administration enhanced both ethanol intake and locomotor activity accompanied by brain ALDH2 inactivation in control animals, while an increase in ethanol consumption was also observed in the Pb-exposed group, although in the absence of brain ALDH2 blockade. No changes were observed in CAT activity as a consequence of CY administration. These results support the participation of liver and brain ACD in ethanol intake and locomotor activity, responses that are modulated by developmental Pb exposure.

  16. 15 CFR 240.3 - Permissible sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARDS FOR BARRELS BARRELS AND OTHER CONTAINERS FOR LIME § 240.3 Permissible sizes. Lime in barrels shall be packed only in barrels containing 280 pounds or...

  17. Occupational Exposure to Beryllium. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-09

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air (0.2 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and 2.0 [mu]g/m\\3\\ as a short-term exposure limit determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing three separate standards--for general industry, for shipyards, and for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

  18. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters the responses to subsequent nicotine administration and withdrawal in adolescence: Serotonin receptors and cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Tate, Charlotte A; Cousins, Mandy M; Seidler, Frederic J

    2006-11-01

    Offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy are themselves more likely to take up smoking in adolescence, effects that are associated with a high rate of depression and increased sensitivity to withdrawal symptoms. To evaluate the biological basis for this relationship, we assessed effects on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) receptors and 5HT-mediated cellular responses in rats exposed to nicotine throughout prenatal development and then given nicotine in adolescence (postnatal days PN30-47.5), using regimens that reproduce plasma nicotine levels found in smokers. Evaluations were then made during the period of adolescent nicotine treatment and for up to one month after the end of treatment. Prenatal nicotine exposure, which elicits damage to 5HT projections in the cerebral cortex and striatum, produced sex-selective changes in the expression of 5HT(1A) and 5HT2 receptors, along with induction of adenylyl cyclase (AC), leading to sensitization of heterologous inputs operating through this signaling pathway. Superimposed on these effects, the AC response to 5HT was shifted toward inhibition. By itself, adolescent nicotine administration, which damages the same pathways, produced similar effects on receptors and the 5HT-mediated response, but a smaller overall induction of AC. Animals exposed to prenatal nicotine showed a reduced response to nicotine administered in adolescence, results in keeping with earlier findings of persistent desensitization. Our results indicate that prenatal nicotine exposure alters parameters of 5HT synaptic communication lasting into adolescence and changes the response to nicotine administration and withdrawal in adolescence, actions which may contribute to a subpopulation especially vulnerable to nicotine dependence.

  19. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride-Modified Human Serum Albumin for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiwu; Wang, Qian; Jia, Ran; Xia, Shuai; Li, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Xu, Wei; Xu, Jin; Du, Lanying; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy is available to prevent and treat RSV infection. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is the only product approved to prevent serious RSV infection, but its high cost is prohibitive in low-income countries. Here, we aimed to identify an effective, safe, and affordable antiviral agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of RSV infection in children at high risk. We found that maleic anhydride (ML)-modified human serum albumin (HSA), designated ML-HSA, exhibited potent antiviral activity against RSV and that the percentages of the modified lysines and arginies in ML- are correlated with such anti-RSV activity. ML-HSA inhibited RSV entry and replication by interacting with viral G protein and blocking RSV attachment to the target cells, while ML-HAS neither bound to F protein, nor inhibited F protein-mediated membrane fusion. Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of mice. ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries. PMID:25690799

  20. Usefulness of administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using paraoxon.

    PubMed

    Petroianu, Georg A; Nurulain, Syed M; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Kuča, Kamil; Lorke, Dietrich E

    2013-09-01

    Reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors can protect against the lethal effects of irreversible organophosphorus AChE inhibitors (OPCs), when administered before OPC exposure. We have assessed in vivo the mortality-reducing efficacy of a group of known AChE inhibitors, when given in equitoxic dosage before exposure to the OPC paraoxon. Protection was quantified in rats by determining the relative risk (RR) of death. Best in vivo protection from paraoxon-induced mortality was observed after prophylactic administration of physostigmine (RR = 0.30) or the oxime K-27 (RR = 0.34); both treatments were significantly superior to the pre-treatment with all other tested compounds, including the established substance pyridostigmine. Tacrine (RR = 0.67), ranitidine (RR = 0.72), pyridostigmine (RR = 0.76), tiapride (RR = 0.80) and 7-MEOTA (RR = 0.86) also significantly reduced the relative risk of paraoxon-induced death, but to a lesser degree. Methylene blue, amiloride and metoclopramide had an unfavorable effect (RR ≥ 1), significantly increasing mortality. When CNS penetration by prophylactic is undesirable K-27 is a promising alternative to pyridostigmine.

  1. Effects of NMDA administration in the substantia nigra pars compacta on the striatal dopamine release before and after repetitive exposures to nitrogen narcosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lavoute, C; Weiss, M; Rostain, J C

    2006-01-01

    Hyperbaric nitrogen-oxygen exposure developed in rats a decrement of the striatal dopamine release, which was reversed by repetitive exposures. This dopamine decrease could be the result of the antagonistic effect of nitrogen on NMDA receptors. The increment of the dopamine release, following repetitive exposures to nitrogen, could be attributed to a desensitisation of NMDA receptors to the effects of nitrogen. To test these hypotheses, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electrodes in the striatum to measure dopamine release by voltammetry and cannula in the substantia nigra pars compacta for NMDA injection. Free-moving rats were exposed up to 3MPa of nitrogen-oxygen mixture before and after 5 exposures to 1MPa. At the first exposure to 3MPa, the dopamine level decreased (-15%) but is counteracted by NMDA administration. In contrast, after repetitive exposure, the second exposure to 3MPa, induces a 10% dopamine increase. NMDA administration significantly potentiated this increase. Our results neither support the hypothesis of an antagonist effect of nitrogen on NMDA receptors at the first exposure, nor that of a NMDA receptor desensitization following repetitive exposures to hyperbaric nitrogen.

  2. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification; approval of plans for modification before modification. 18.81 Section 18.81 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF...

  3. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  4. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  5. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  6. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  7. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written...

  8. 36 CFR 1254.110 - Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm? 1254.110 Section 1254.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL...

  9. 36 CFR 1254.110 - Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm? 1254.110 Section 1254.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL...

  10. 36 CFR 1254.110 - Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm? 1254.110 Section 1254.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL...

  11. 36 CFR 1254.110 - Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm? 1254.110 Section 1254.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL...

  12. 36 CFR 1254.110 - Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does NARA ever rescind permission to microfilm? 1254.110 Section 1254.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1002 - Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors; permissibility. 75.1002 Section 75.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1002 Installation of electric equipment and conductors... equipment is located within 150 feet of pillar workings or longwall faces. (b) Electric conductors...

  14. 21 CFR 1140.30 - Scope of permissible forms of labeling and advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... advertising. 1140.30 Section 1140.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Advertising § 1140.30 Scope of permissible forms of labeling and advertising. (a)(1) A manufacturer... advertising or labeling which bears a cigarette or smokeless tobacco brand name (alone or in conjunction...

  15. 42 CFR 433.67 - Limitations on level of FFP for permissible provider-related donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provider-related donations. 433.67 Section 433.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION... permissible provider-related donations. (a)(1) Limitations on bona fide donations. There are no limitations...

  16. 45 CFR 1638.4 - Permissible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as outreach, public service announcements, maintaining an ongoing presence in a courthouse to provide... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible activities. 1638.4 Section 1638.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION...

  17. 45 CFR 1638.4 - Permissible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as outreach, public service announcements, maintaining an ongoing presence in a courthouse to provide... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible activities. 1638.4 Section 1638.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION...

  18. 12 CFR 28.4 - Permissible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approval process, if any, a national bank may engage in any activity in a foreign country that is: (1) Permissible for a national bank in the United States; and (2) Usual in connection with the business of banking in the country where it transacts business. (b) Additional activities. In addition to its...

  19. 12 CFR 28.4 - Permissible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... approval process, if any, a national bank may engage in any activity in a foreign country that is: (1) Permissible for a national bank in the United States; and (2) Usual in connection with the business of banking in the country where it transacts business. (b) Additional activities. In addition to its...

  20. 47 CFR 101.1307 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible communications. 101.1307 Section 101.1307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems General Provisions § 101.1307...

  1. 47 CFR 101.703 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible communications. 101.703 Section 101.703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Common Carrier Fixed Point-to-Point Microwave Service § 101.703...

  2. 47 CFR 101.1307 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible communications. 101.1307 Section 101.1307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems General Provisions § 101.1307...

  3. 47 CFR 101.1307 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible communications. 101.1307 Section 101.1307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems General Provisions § 101.1307...

  4. 47 CFR 101.703 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible communications. 101.703 Section 101.703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Common Carrier Fixed Point-to-Point Microwave Service § 101.703...

  5. 47 CFR 101.703 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible communications. 101.703 Section 101.703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Common Carrier Fixed Point-to-Point Microwave Service § 101.703...

  6. 18 CFR 341.14 - Special permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....14 Section 341.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... requested waiver. If the application requests permission to make changes in joint tariffs, it must state... refund, until the Commission has had a full 30-day review period in which to process the filing....

  7. 47 CFR 95.1209 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1209 Permissible... a medical implant device or medical body-worn device that has been implanted or placed on the person... that is not included with a medical implant or medical body-worn device. Wireless retransmission...

  8. 47 CFR 101.511 - Permissible services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... authorization. (b) Stations may render any kind of digital communications service consistent with the Commission... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.511 Permissible services....

  9. 7 CFR 29.39 - Permissive inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissive inspection. 29.39 Section 29.39 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  10. 47 CFR 101.511 - Permissible services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.511 Permissible services. (a... authorization. (b) Stations may render any kind of digital communications service consistent with the...

  11. 47 CFR 101.511 - Permissible services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.511 Permissible services. (a... authorization. (b) Stations may render any kind of digital communications service consistent with the...

  12. 47 CFR 101.511 - Permissible services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.511 Permissible services. (a... authorization. (b) Stations may render any kind of digital communications service consistent with the...

  13. 47 CFR 101.511 - Permissible services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.511 Permissible services. (a... authorization. (b) Stations may render any kind of digital communications service consistent with the...

  14. 7 CFR 29.56 - Permissive inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissive inspection. 29.56 Section 29.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., handling, conditioning, or packing of such tobacco. Special tests and services may be performed...

  15. 47 CFR 101.703 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible communications. 101.703 Section 101.703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Common Carrier Fixed Point-to-Point Microwave Service § 101.703...

  16. 47 CFR 101.703 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible communications. 101.703 Section 101.703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Common Carrier Fixed Point-to-Point Microwave Service § 101.703...

  17. 47 CFR 90.1305 - Permissible operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible operations. 90.1305 Section 90.1305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... operations. Use of the 3650-3700 MHz band must be consistent with the allocations for this band as set...

  18. 7 CFR 1410.63 - Permissive uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are consistent with the soil, water, and wildlife conservation purposes of the program: (1) Managed... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.63 Permissive uses. (a... fish and wildlife agency or State department of natural resources; (2) The commercial shooting...

  19. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  20. 47 CFR 78.11 - Permissible service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.11 Permissible service. (a) CARS stations are authorized to relay... systems or other eligible systems. LDS stations are authorized to relay television broadcast and...

  1. 47 CFR 78.11 - Permissible service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.11 Permissible service. (a) CARS stations are authorized to relay... systems or other eligible systems. LDS stations are authorized to relay television broadcast and...

  2. 47 CFR 78.11 - Permissible service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.11 Permissible service. (a) CARS stations are authorized to relay... systems or other eligible systems. LDS stations are authorized to relay television broadcast and...

  3. 47 CFR 78.11 - Permissible service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.11 Permissible service. (a) CARS stations are authorized to relay... systems or other eligible systems. LDS stations are authorized to relay television broadcast and...

  4. 47 CFR 78.11 - Permissible service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.11 Permissible service. (a) CARS stations are authorized to relay... systems or other eligible systems. LDS stations are authorized to relay television broadcast and...

  5. 47 CFR 95.1009 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible communications. 95.1009 Section 95.1009 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1009...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1009 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible communications. 95.1009 Section 95.1009 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1009...

  7. 47 CFR 95.1009 - Permissible communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible communications. 95.1009 Section 95.1009 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1009...

  8. 25 CFR 169.4 - Permission to survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permission to survey. 169.4 Section 169.4 Indians BUREAU... Permission to survey. Anyone desiring to obtain permission to survey for a right-of-way across individually... to cover twice the estimated damages which may be sustained as a result of the survey. With...

  9. 25 CFR 169.4 - Permission to survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to survey. 169.4 Section 169.4 Indians BUREAU... Permission to survey. Anyone desiring to obtain permission to survey for a right-of-way across individually... to cover twice the estimated damages which may be sustained as a result of the survey. With...

  10. 25 CFR 169.4 - Permission to survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permission to survey. 169.4 Section 169.4 Indians BUREAU... Permission to survey. Anyone desiring to obtain permission to survey for a right-of-way across individually... to cover twice the estimated damages which may be sustained as a result of the survey. With...

  11. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  12. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  13. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  14. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  15. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives permission letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives permission letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives permission letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  16. A Comparison of Authoritarian and Permissive Wording of Hypnotic Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Robert B.; Church, Jay K.

    The authoritarian/permissive dimension of hypnosis refers to the manner in which hypnotic suggestions are phrased. In the authoritarian mode suggestions imply the subject is under control of the hypnotist; permissive suggestions are phrased to emphasize the subject's own thinking. To compare the permissive suggestions of the Creative Imagination…

  17. 30 CFR 75.503 - Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment...-General § 75.503 Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance. The operator of each coal mine shall maintain in permissible condition all electric face equipment required by §§ 75.500, 75.501, 75.504 to...

  18. 30 CFR 75.503 - Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment...-General § 75.503 Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance. The operator of each coal mine shall maintain in permissible condition all electric face equipment required by §§ 75.500, 75.501, 75.504 to...

  19. 30 CFR 75.503 - Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment...-General § 75.503 Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance. The operator of each coal mine shall maintain in permissible condition all electric face equipment required by §§ 75.500, 75.501, 75.504 to...

  20. 30 CFR 75.503 - Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment...-General § 75.503 Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance. The operator of each coal mine shall maintain in permissible condition all electric face equipment required by §§ 75.500, 75.501, 75.504 to...

  1. 30 CFR 75.503 - Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment...-General § 75.503 Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance. The operator of each coal mine shall maintain in permissible condition all electric face equipment required by §§ 75.500, 75.501, 75.504 to...

  2. Ethanol administration dampens the prolactin response to psychosocial stress exposure in sons of alcohol-dependent fathers.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Buchmann, Arlette F; Spring, Constance; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    Genetic predisposition and exposure to alcohol and stress increase the risk for alcoholism, possibly by forming a threefold interaction. This is suggested by various aspects of alcohol-induced stress response dampening in offspring of alcoholics. We tested whether such an interaction is also revealed by prolactin secretion, which is predominantly controlled by hypothalamic dopamine. Plasma prolactin was measured during four experimental days in 26 young males with a paternal history of alcoholism (PHA) and in 22 family history negative (FHN) controls. A public speaking stress paradigm was applied on the first 2 days, and a non-stress acoustic startle experiment on the others. Before the tests, subjects drank alcohol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. During placebo experiments, prolactin levels significantly increased after stress, but not after startle, and did not differ between risk groups. Alcohol administration significantly increased prolactin before stress and during startle in both groups, did not alter stress-induced prolactin stimulation in FHN, but significantly attenuated the prolactin stress response in PHA subjects. The alcohol effects on prolactin, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin stress response were positively interrelated with each other. These data confirm that alcohol specifically dampens the stress response in PHA but not FHN subjects. Since prolactin responses to stress alone and alcohol alone were normal in PHA, we conclude that this genetic effect is not related to altered physiology of the hypothalamic dopaminergic system, but to risk-group specific alcohol effects on hierarchically higher brain areas controlling the stress response in general.

  3. Risk analysis for worker exposure to benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.; Flowers, Roxanne E.

    1992-05-01

    Cancer risk factors (characterized by route, dose, dose rate per kilogram, fraction of lifetime exposed, species, and sex) were derived for workers exposed to benzene via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure at the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) and at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites were evaluated. At the current PEL of 1 ppm, the theoretical lifetime excess risk of cancer from benzene inhalation is ten per 1000. The theoretical lifetime excess risk for worker inhalation exposure at LUST sites ranged from 10 to 40 per 1000. These results indicate that personal protection should be required. The theoretical lifetime excess risk due to soil ingestion is five to seven orders of magnitude less than the inhalation risks.

  4. Analysis of the Asbestos Permissible Exposure Level Threshold Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    with breathing and ingesting asbestos. Johns - Manville Corporation was forced to file for bankruptcy because liabilities from litigation were so great... Johns - Manville then set up two separate trust funds, and an injunction to prevent the public from suing them. Once completed, they reorganized and...tons of asbestos were produced [Ref 8: p. 57]. * 1901 Johns - Manville Corporation was formed. 0 1906 Dr. Montague Murray documented the first case of

  5. The use of optical imaging to assess the potential for embryo-fetal exposure to an exogenous material after intravaginal administration.

    PubMed

    Cao, James; Ying, Xiaoyou; Beyer, Bruce K; DeLise, Anthony M

    2014-09-01

    A β-actin-luc transgenic mouse model was used to evaluate whether embryo-fetal exposure could occur after intravaginal administration of a compound. A bioluminescent substrate, d-luciferin, was delivered intravaginally to mimic compound exposure to the female reproductive track and the embryo-fetus. Bioluminescence was observed throughout the reproductive tract during diestrus, but not during estrus, 2-5min after intravaginal d-luciferin administration to female β-actin-luc mice. Intravaginal administration of d-luciferin to wild-type females mated with male β-actin-luc mice indicated that the substrate reached the developing embryo-fetus, with bioluminescence corresponding to transgene expression in the embryo-fetus. d-Luciferin substrate rapidly reached the embryo-fetus regardless of the administration route (intravaginal, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, or intravenous). Vaginal ligation appeared to block at least some direct exposure to the embryo-fetus, but did not prevent d-luciferin from eventually reaching the embryo-fetus. Additional work will be necessary to form the basis for a reliable assessment of the human risk for male-mediated teratogenicity.

  6. No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24h after administration in neonatal female mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-02-01

    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24h after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration.

  7. Industrial-hygiene characterization of ethylene oxide exposures of hospital and nursing-home workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenburg, V.L.; Elliott, L.J.; Morelli-Schroth, P.; Molina, D.

    1986-12-01

    Industrial-hygiene surveys were conducted at 12 hospitals and one nursing home to determine possible employee exposure to ethylene oxide (EtO). Different types of exposure situations existed at each of the facilities as a result of various engineering controls, administrative controls and work practices. Sampling indicated that the time-weighted averages (TWAs) of exposure over periods of 36 to 724 minutes ranged from below the limit of detection to 6.7 parts per million (ppm). Personal short-term exposure levels covering 2 to 30 minutes ranged from less than the limit of detection to 103.2ppm. Factors found to be responsible for these higher-than-permissible levels of EtO exposure included improper installation or lack of engineering controls (such as improper placement of the sterilizing operations), unbalanced ventilation systems, and lack of administrative controls resulting in inappropriate work practices.

  8. Exposure to airborne asbestos in thermal power plants in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Damiran, Naransukh; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Frank, Arthur L; Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Mongolia use various types of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) in thermal insulation of piping systems, furnaces, and other products. Objective: To investigate the occupational exposure of insulation workers to airborne asbestos in Mongolian power plants. Methods: Forty-seven air samples were collected from four power plants in Mongolia during the progress of insulation work. The samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The average phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fiber concentration was 0.93 f/cm3. Sixteen of the 41 personal and one of the area samples exceeded the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) short-term exposure limit of 1.0 f/cm3. If it is assumed that the short-term samples collected are representative of full-shift exposure, then the exposures are approximately 10 times higher than the US OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure limit of 0.1 f/cm3. Conclusion: Power plant insulation workers are exposed to airborne asbestos at concentrations that exceed the US OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit. Action to mitigate the risks should be taken in Mongolia. PMID:25730489

  9. Noise exposure among construction electricians.

    PubMed

    Seixas, N S; Ren, K; Neitzel, R; Camp, J; Yost, M

    2001-01-01

    Data-logging noise dosimetry was used to assess the exposure levels of electricians working for a major electrical subcontractor in Washington State at five sites using four types of construction methods. Subjects documented activities and work environment information throughout their work shift, resulting in an activity/exposure record for each of the 174 full-shift samples collected over the 4-month duration of the study. Over 24% of the TWA samples exceeded 85 dBA; 5.2% exceeded the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health exposure metric, which specifies a 3-dB ER, was also utilized; using this metric, 67.8% of the samples exceeded 85 dBA and 27% exceeded 90 dBA. Subjects were directly observed for a subset of 4469 min during which more detailed activity and environmental information was recorded. Linear and logistic regression models using this subset were used to identify the determinants of average exposure, and exposure exceedences, respectively. These models demonstrated the importance of multiple variable modeling in interpreting exposure assessments, and the feasibility and utility of modeling exposure exceedences using logistic regression. The results further showed that presumably quiet trades such as electrician are at risk of exposure to potentially harmful noise exposures, and that other workers' activities and the general environment contribute substantially to that risk. These results indicate that noise control strategies will have to address the construction work environment as an integrated system.

  10. Cannabinoid-opioid interactions in drug discrimination and self-administration: effect of maternal, postnatal, adolescent and adult exposure to the drugs.

    PubMed

    Spano, M S; Fadda, P; Fratta, W; Fattore, L

    2010-04-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids are known to strictly interact in many physiological and pathological functions, including addiction. The endogenous opioid system is significantly influenced by maternal or perinatal cannabinoid exposure, major changes concerning operant behaviour in adult animals. Copious data suggests that adolescence is also a particularly sensitive period of life not only for the initiation of abusing illicit drugs, but also for the effects that these drugs exert on the neural circuitries leading to drug dependence. This paper examines the role played by the age of drug exposure in the susceptibility to discriminative and reinforcing effects of both cannabinoids and opioids. We first revisited evidence of alterations in the density and functionality of mu-opioid and CB1 cannabinoid receptors in reward-related brain regions caused by either maternal, postnatal, adolescent or adult exposure to opioids and cannabinoids. Then, we reviewed behavioural evidence of the long-term consequences of exposure to opioids and cannabinoids during gestation, postnatal period, adolescence or adulthood, focusing mostly on drug discrimination and self-administration studies. Overall, evidence confirms a neurobiological convergence of the cannabinoid and opioid systems that is manifest at both receptor and behavioural levels. Although discrepant results have been reported, some data support the gateway hypothesis that adolescent cannabis exposure contributes to greater opioid intake in adulthood. However, it should be kept into consideration that in humans genetic, environmental, and social factors could influence the direct neurobiological effects of early cannabis exposure to the progression to adult drug abuse.

  11. Workplace measurements by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration since 1979: Descriptive analysis and potential uses for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Lavoue, J; Friesen, M C; Burstyn, I

    2013-06-01

    This letter summarizes modifications to the results presented in Lavoué et al. (2012): Lavoué, J., Burstyn, I.,Friesen, M. (2012) Workplace Measurements by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration since1979: Descriptive Analysis and Potential Uses for Exposure Assessment. Annals of occupational hygiene57(1):77–97. Although several results were altered, the conclusions were not affected by the changes.

  12. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation facilitates operant self-administration of the drug in 5-day-old rats

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies postnatal affinity to the drug, increasing the probability of ethanol use and abuse. The present study tested developing rats (5-day-old) in a novel operant technique to assess the degree of ethanol self-administration as a result of prenatal exposure to low ethanol doses during late gestation. On a single occasion during each of gestational days 17–20, pregnant rats were intragastrically administered ethanol 1 g/kg, or water (vehicle). On postnatal day 5, pups were tested on a novel operant conditioning procedure in which they learned to touch a sensor to obtain 0.1% saccharin, 3% ethanol, or 5% ethanol. Immediately after a 15-min training session, a 6-min extinction session was given in which operant behavior had no consequence. Pups were positioned on a smooth surface and had access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump, which served to deliver an intraoral solution as reinforcement (Paired group). A Yoked control animal evaluated at the same time received the reinforcer when its corresponding Paired pup touched the sensor. Operant behavior to gain access to 3% ethanol was facilitated by prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation. In contrast, operant learning reflecting ethanol reinforcement did not occur in control animals prenatally exposed to water only. Similarly, saccharin reinforcement was not affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. These results suggest that in 5-day-old rats, prenatal exposure to a low ethanol dose facilitates operant learning reinforced by intraoral administration of a low-concentration ethanol solution. This emphasizes the importance of intrauterine experiences with ethanol in later susceptibility to drug reinforcement. The present operant conditioning technique represents an alternative tool to assess self-administration and seeking behavior during early stages of development. PMID:24355072

  13. Characterization of an inhaled toluene drug discrimination in mice: effect of exposure conditions and route of administration.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Keith L; Slavova-Hernandez, Galina

    2009-06-01

    The drug discrimination procedure in animals has been extensively utilized to model the abuse related, subjective effects of drugs in humans, but it has seldom been used to examine abused volatile inhalants like toluene. The present study sought to characterize the temporal aspects of toluene's discriminative stimulus as well assess toluene blood concentrations under identical exposure conditions. B6SJLF1/J mice were trained to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 6000 ppm inhaled toluene vapor from air. Toluene vapor concentration dependently substituted for the training exposure condition with longer exposures to equivalent concentrations producing greater substitution than shorter exposures. Toluene's discriminative stimulus effects dissipated completely by 60 min after the cessation of exposure. Injected liquid toluene dose-dependently substituted for toluene vapor as well as augmenting the discriminative stimulus effects of inhaled toluene. Toluene blood concentrations measured under several exposure conditions which produced full substitution were all nearly identical suggesting that the concentration of toluene in the animal tissues at the time of testing determined discriminative performance. These results indicate that the discriminative stimulus effects of inhaled toluene vapor are likely mediated by CNS effects rather than by its pronounced peripheral stimulus effects.

  14. Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids: new postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Cuny, E; Carpenter, W M

    1998-04-01

    Dental health care professionals continue to suffer exposure incidents from instruments contaminated with blood and/or body fluids from patients. Each of these cases requires that a rigid protocol be followed for their evaluation. New information regarding the risk factors for HIV-seroconversion following an exposure incident have been identified. Recent data has demonstrated that a 79 percent reduction in disease transmission may be possible with a new combination drug therapy. The anti-retroviral drugs included in this new regimen are now standard in the management of occupational exposure to HIV. Several factors set dentistry apart from other health care occupations, and these differences appear to have an effect on the risks associated with occupational exposures. This article explores these risk factors and the new recommendations for postexposure care.

  15. Sex-dependent effects of periadolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 on morphine self-administration behaviour and the endogenous opioid system.

    PubMed

    Biscaia, Miguel; Fernández, Beatriz; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Miguéns, Miguel; Viveros, Maria-Paz; García-Lecumberri, Carmen; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2008-04-01

    Early cannabinoid consumption may predispose individuals to the misuse of addictive drugs later in life. However, there is a lack of experimental evidence as to whether cannabinoid exposure during adolescence might differently affect opiate reinforcing efficacy and the opioid system in adults of both sexes. Our aim was to examine whether periadolescent chronic exposure to the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 could exert sex-dependent effects on morphine reinforcing and the opioid system in adulthood. Morphine reinforcing was studied under a progressive ratio (PR) reinforcement schedule in adult male and female rats that previously acquired morphine self-administration under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule. Binding levels and functionality of mu-opioid receptors were also evaluated. Periadolescent cannabinoid exposure altered morphine self-administration and the opioid system in adult rats in a sex-dependent manner. CP-55,940-exposed males exhibited higher self-administration rates under a FR1, but not under a PR schedule. In females, CP-55,940 did not modify morphine self-administration under either schedule. Moreover, CP-55,940 also increased mu-opioid receptor levels in the subcallosal streak of pre-treated animals and decreased mu-opioid receptor functionality in the nucleus accumbens shell but again, only in males. Our data indicate that adult male rats exposed to the cannabinoid in adolescence self-administer more morphine than females, but only when the demands required by the schedule of reinforcement are low, which might be related to the decrease in mu-opioid receptor functionality in the NAcc-shell observed in these animals.

  16. Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Shannon E; Sawant, Onkar B; Lunde, Emilie R; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21-30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model.

  17. Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Shannon E.; Sawant, Onkar B.; Lunde, Emilie R.; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21–30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model. PMID:23315157

  18. Maternal administration of melatonin prevents spatial learning and memory deficits induced by developmental ethanol and lead co-exposure.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Elham; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is a radical scavenger with the ability to remove reactive oxidant species. There is report that co-exposure to lead and ethanol during developmental stages induces learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effect of melatonin, with strong antioxidant properties, on memory deficits induced by lead and ethanol co-exposure and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Pregnant rats in lead and ethanol co-exposure group received lead acetate of 0.2% in distilled drinking water and ethanol (4g/kg) by oral gavages once daily from the 5th day of gestation until weaning. Rats received 10mg/kg melatonin by oral gavages. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results demonstrated lead and ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency in probe trial test and had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment could improve memory deficits, antioxidants activity and reduced MDA levels in the hippocampus. We conclude, co-exposure to lead and ethanol impair memory and melatonin can prevent from it by oxidative stress modulation.

  19. 24 CFR 58.75 - Permissible bases for objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permissible bases for objections. 58.75 Section 58.75 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and... RESPONSIBILITIES Release of Funds for Particular Projects § 58.75 Permissible bases for objections. HUD (or...

  20. 24 CFR 58.75 - Permissible bases for objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permissible bases for objections. 58.75 Section 58.75 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and... RESPONSIBILITIES Release of Funds for Particular Projects § 58.75 Permissible bases for objections. HUD (or...

  1. 24 CFR 58.75 - Permissible bases for objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permissible bases for objections. 58.75 Section 58.75 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and... RESPONSIBILITIES Release of Funds for Particular Projects § 58.75 Permissible bases for objections. HUD (or...

  2. 24 CFR 58.75 - Permissible bases for objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permissible bases for objections. 58.75 Section 58.75 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and... RESPONSIBILITIES Release of Funds for Particular Projects § 58.75 Permissible bases for objections. HUD (or...

  3. 24 CFR 58.75 - Permissible bases for objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Permissible bases for objections. 58.75 Section 58.75 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and... RESPONSIBILITIES Release of Funds for Particular Projects § 58.75 Permissible bases for objections. HUD (or...

  4. 25 CFR 227.20 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 227.20 Section 227.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.20 Permission...

  5. 25 CFR 227.20 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 227.20 Section 227.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.20 Permission...

  6. 25 CFR 227.20 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Permission to start operations. 227.20 Section 227.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.20 Permission...

  7. 47 CFR 61.17 - Applications for special permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 61.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... permission must be addressed to “Secretary, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 20554.” The..., if an issuing carrier applies for special permission to revise joint tariffs, the application...

  8. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible investment activities. 703.13... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.13 Permissible investment activities. (a) Regular way settlement and... funds transactions. (c) Investment repurchase transaction. A Federal credit union may enter into...

  9. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investment activities. 703.13... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.13 Permissible investment activities. (a) Regular way settlement and... funds transactions. (c) Investment repurchase transaction. A Federal credit union may enter into...

  10. 40 CFR 1611.3 - Scope of permissible testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of permissible testimony. 1611.3 Section 1611.3 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 1611.3 Scope of permissible testimony. (a) The statute creating the CSB,...

  11. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  12. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  13. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  14. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  15. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  16. 30 CFR 75.1103-7 - Electrical components; permissibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical components; permissibility... Protection § 75.1103-7 Electrical components; permissibility requirements. The electrical components of each... dust when the electrical power is deenergized as required by § 75.313, but these components shall...

  17. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible electric equipment. 75.500 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500 Permissible electric equipment. On and after March 30, 1971: (a) All junction or distribution boxes used...

  18. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permissible electric equipment. 75.500 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500 Permissible electric equipment. On and after March 30, 1971: (a) All junction or distribution boxes used...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1103-7 - Electrical components; permissibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical components; permissibility... Protection § 75.1103-7 Electrical components; permissibility requirements. The electrical components of each... dust when the electrical power is deenergized as required by § 75.313, but these components shall...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1103-7 - Electrical components; permissibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical components; permissibility... Protection § 75.1103-7 Electrical components; permissibility requirements. The electrical components of each... dust when the electrical power is deenergized as required by § 75.313, but these components shall...

  1. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permissible electric equipment. 75.500 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500 Permissible electric equipment. On and after March 30, 1971: (a) All junction or distribution boxes used...

  2. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permissible electric equipment. 75.500 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500 Permissible electric equipment. On and after March 30, 1971: (a) All junction or distribution boxes used...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1103-7 - Electrical components; permissibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical components; permissibility... Protection § 75.1103-7 Electrical components; permissibility requirements. The electrical components of each... dust when the electrical power is deenergized as required by § 75.313, but these components shall...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1103-7 - Electrical components; permissibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical components; permissibility... Protection § 75.1103-7 Electrical components; permissibility requirements. The electrical components of each... dust when the electrical power is deenergized as required by § 75.313, but these components shall...

  5. 25 CFR 225.32 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 225.32 Section 225.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.32 Permission to start operations. (a)...

  6. 25 CFR 225.32 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 225.32 Section 225.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.32 Permission to start operations. (a)...

  7. 25 CFR 225.32 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 225.32 Section 225.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.32 Permission to start operations. (a)...

  8. 25 CFR 225.32 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Permission to start operations. 225.32 Section 225.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.32 Permission to start operations. (a)...

  9. 25 CFR 225.32 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 225.32 Section 225.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.32 Permission to start operations. (a)...

  10. 25 CFR 227.20 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 227.20 Section 227.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.20 Permission...

  11. 25 CFR 227.20 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 227.20 Section 227.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.20 Permission...

  12. 42 CFR 433.66 - Permissible provider-related donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of...

  13. 47 CFR 15.707 - Permissible channels of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible channels of operation. 15.707... Television Band Devices § 15.707 Permissible channels of operation. (a) All TVBDs are permitted to operate available channels in the frequency bands 512-608 MHz (TV channels 21-36) and 614-698 MHz (TV channels...

  14. 46 CFR 170.255 - Class 1 doors; permissible locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 1 doors; permissible locations. 170.255 Section... STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Watertight Bulkhead Doors § 170.255 Class 1 doors; permissible locations. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, Class 1 doors...

  15. 46 CFR 170.260 - Class 2 doors; permissible locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 2 doors; permissible locations. 170.260 Section... STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Watertight Bulkhead Doors § 170.260 Class 2 doors; permissible locations. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a Class 2 door...

  16. 46 CFR 170.260 - Class 2 doors; permissible locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 2 doors; permissible locations. 170.260 Section... STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Watertight Bulkhead Doors § 170.260 Class 2 doors; permissible locations. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a Class 2 door...

  17. 46 CFR 170.255 - Class 1 doors; permissible locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 1 doors; permissible locations. 170.255 Section... STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Watertight Bulkhead Doors § 170.255 Class 1 doors; permissible locations. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, Class 1 doors...

  18. 47 CFR 15.707 - Permissible channels of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible channels of operation. 15.707 Section 15.707 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Television Band Devices § 15.707 Permissible channels of operation. (a) All TVBDs are permitted to...

  19. 25 CFR 212.48 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 212.48 Section 212.48 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.48 Permission to start operations. The provisions of § 211.48 of...

  20. 25 CFR 213.30 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 213.30 Section 213.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.30 Permission to start operations. No operations will be permitted...

  1. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree...

  2. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree...

  3. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree...

  4. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4 Section 359.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.4 Permissible golden parachute...

  5. Priming Sexual and Romantic Representations in Two Media Environments: Sex Encourages and Romance Discourages Sexual Permissiveness … Sometimes.

    PubMed

    Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R

    2016-06-29

    Two experiments (Ns = 314, 447) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of sexual cues in temporarily increasing young adults' self-reported sexual permissiveness, as well as the effects of romantic cues in temporarily decreasing permissiveness. Participants were exposed to sexual or romantic cues embedded as a theme-defining component of an online game (Study 1) or in advertisements peripheral to the online game (Study 2). Sexual and romantic conditions were compared against a control condition. As hypothesized, participants in the romantic conditions rated themselves lower in sexual permissiveness, compared to participants in the sexual and control conditions, particularly when participants positively evaluated the online game experience. Findings suggest that exposure to entertaining media depictions of two people, as a committed couple, expressing love, as well as lust, for each other might deter young adults from considering engagement in casual sexual encounters indicative of "hookup culture."

  6. Long-term methamphetamine administration in the vervet monkey models aspects of a human exposure: brain neurotoxicity and behavioral profiles.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Laćan, Goran; Way, Baldwin M; Pham, Jamie; Morton, Grenvill; Cho, Arthur K; Fairbanks, Lynn A

    2008-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-associated alterations in the human striatal dopamine (DA) system have been identified with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and post-mortem studies but have not been well correlated with behavioral changes or cumulative METH intake. Animal studies that model some aspects of human long-term METH abuse can establish dose-dependency profiles of both behavioral changes and potential brain neurotoxicities for identifying consequences of particular cumulative exposures. Based on parameters from human and our monkey pharmacokinetic studies, we modeled a prevalent human METH exposure of daily multiple doses in socially housed vervet monkeys. METH doses were escalated over 33 weeks, with final dosages resulting in estimated peak plasma METH concentrations of 1-3 microM, a range measured in human abusers. With larger METH doses, progressive increases in abnormal behavior and decreases in social behavior were observed on 'injection' days. Anxiety increased on 'no injection' days while aggression decreased throughout the study. Thereafter, during 3 weeks abstinence, differences in baseline vs post-METH behaviors were not observed. Post-mortem analysis of METH brains showed 20% lower striatal DA content while autoradiography studies of precommissural striatum showed 35% lower [3H]WIN35428 binding to the DA transporter. No statistically significant changes were detected for [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter (METH-lower by 10%) or for [3H]SCH 23390 and [3H]raclopride binding to DA D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Collectively, this long-term, escalating dose METH exposure modeling a human abuse pattern, not associated with high-dose binges, resulted in dose-dependent behavioral effects and caused persistent changes in presynaptic striatal DA system integrity.

  7. Subcutaneous administration of rhIGF-I post irradiation exposure enhances hematopoietic recovery and survival in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shilei; Xu, Yang; Wang, Song; Shen, Mingqiang; Chen, Fang; Chen, Mo; Wang, Aiping; Cheng, Tianmin; Su, Yongping; Wang, Junping

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear how to effectively mitigate against irradiation injury. In this study, we studied the capacity of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) on hematologic recovery in irradiated BALB/c mice and its possible mechanism. BALB/c mice were injected with rhIGF-I subcutaneously at a dose of 100 μg/kg twice daily for 7 days after total body irradiation. Compared with a saline control group, treatment with rhIGF-I significantly improved the survival of mice after lethal irradiation (7.5 Gy). It was found that treatment with rhIGF-I not only could increase the frequency of Sca-1+ cells in bone marrow harvested at Day 14 after irradiation, but also it could decrease the apoptosis of mononuclear cells induced by irradiation as measured by flow cytometry, suggesting that rhIGF-I may mediate its effects primarily through promoting hematopoietic stem cell/progenitor survival and protecting mononuclear cells from apoptosis after irradiation exposure. Moreover, we have found that rhIGF-I might facilitate thrombopoiesis in an indirect way. Our data demonstrated that rhIGF-I could promote overall hematopoietic recovery after ionizing radiation and reduce the mortality when administered immediately post lethal irradiation exposure. PMID:22843623

  8. Growth hormone is permissive for neoplastic colon growth

    PubMed Central

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Zhou, Cuiqi; Recouvreux, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Araki, Takako; Barrett, Robert; Workman, Michael; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Ljubimov, Vladimir A.; Uhart, Magdalena; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) excess in acromegaly is associated with increased precancerous colon polyps and soft tissue adenomas, whereas short-stature humans harboring an inactivating GH receptor mutation do not develop cancer. We show that locally expressed colon GH is abundant in conditions predisposing to colon cancer and in colon adenocarcinoma-associated stromal fibroblasts. Administration of a GH receptor (GHR) blocker in acromegaly patients induced colon p53 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), reversing progrowth GH signals. p53 was also induced in skin fibroblasts derived from short-statured humans with mutant GHR. GH-deficient prophet of pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (Prop1)−/− mice exhibited induced colon p53 levels, and cross-breeding them with Apcmin+/− mice that normally develop intestinal and colon tumors resulted in GH-deficient double mutants with markedly decreased tumor number and size. We also demonstrate that GH suppresses p53 and reduces apoptosis in human colon cell lines as well as in induced human pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids, and confirm in vivo that GH suppresses colon mucosal p53/p21. GH excess leads to decreased colon cell phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), increased cell survival with down-regulated APC, nuclear β-catenin accumulation, and increased epithelial–mesenchymal transition factors and colon cell motility. We propose that GH is a molecular component of the “field change” milieu permissive for neoplastic colon growth. PMID:27226307

  9. Permissive hypercapnia--role in protective lung ventilatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Laffey, John G; O'Croinin, Donall; McLoughlin, Paul; Kavanagh, Brian P

    2004-03-01

    "Permissive hypercapnia" is an inherent element of accepted protective lung ventilation. However, there are no clinical data evaluating the efficacy of hypercapnia per se, independent of ventilator strategy. In the absence of such data, it is necessary to determine whether the potential exists for an active role for hypercapnia, distinct from the demonstrated benefits of reduced lung stretch. In this review, we consider four key issues. First, we consider the evidence that protective lung ventilatory strategies improve survival and we explore current paradigms regarding the mechanisms underlying these effects. Second, we examine whether hypercapnic acidosis may have effects that are additive to the effects of protective ventilation. Third, we consider whether direct elevation of CO(2), in the absence of protective ventilation, is beneficial or deleterious. Fourth, we address the current evidence regarding the buffering of hypercapnic acidosis in ARDS. These perspectives reveal that the potential exists for hypercapnia to exert beneficial effects in the clinical context. Direct administration of CO(2) is protective in multiple models of acute lung and systemic injury. Nevertheless, several specific concerns remain regarding the safety of hypercapnia. At present, protective ventilatory strategies that involve hypercapnia are clinically acceptable, provided the clinician is primarily targeting reduced tidal stretch. There are insufficient clinical data to suggest that hypercapnia per se should be independently induced, nor do outcome data exist to support the practice of buffering hypercapnic acidosis. Rapidly advancing basic scientific investigations should better delineate the advantages, disadvantages, and optimal use of hypercapnia in ARDS.

  10. Growth hormone is permissive for neoplastic colon growth.

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Zhou, Cuiqi; Recouvreux, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Araki, Takako; Barrett, Robert; Workman, Michael; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Ljubimov, Vladimir A; Uhart, Magdalena; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-06-07

    Growth hormone (GH) excess in acromegaly is associated with increased precancerous colon polyps and soft tissue adenomas, whereas short-stature humans harboring an inactivating GH receptor mutation do not develop cancer. We show that locally expressed colon GH is abundant in conditions predisposing to colon cancer and in colon adenocarcinoma-associated stromal fibroblasts. Administration of a GH receptor (GHR) blocker in acromegaly patients induced colon p53 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), reversing progrowth GH signals. p53 was also induced in skin fibroblasts derived from short-statured humans with mutant GHR. GH-deficient prophet of pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (Prop1)(-/-) mice exhibited induced colon p53 levels, and cross-breeding them with Apc(min+/-) mice that normally develop intestinal and colon tumors resulted in GH-deficient double mutants with markedly decreased tumor number and size. We also demonstrate that GH suppresses p53 and reduces apoptosis in human colon cell lines as well as in induced human pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids, and confirm in vivo that GH suppresses colon mucosal p53/p21. GH excess leads to decreased colon cell phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), increased cell survival with down-regulated APC, nuclear β-catenin accumulation, and increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors and colon cell motility. We propose that GH is a molecular component of the "field change" milieu permissive for neoplastic colon growth.

  11. Full-gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol augments nicotine self-administration by altering ventral tegmental dopaminergic function due to NMDA receptors in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Roguski, Emily E; Sharp, Burt M; Chen, Hao; Matta, Shannon G

    2014-03-01

    In adult rats, we have shown full-gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol (Nic + EtOH) augmented nicotine self-administration (SA) (increased nicotine intake) compared to pair-fed (PF) offspring. Therefore, we hypothesized that full-gestational exposure to Nic + EtOH disrupts control of dopaminergic (DA) circuitry by ventral tegmental area (VTA) NMDA receptors, augmenting nicotine SA and DA release in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of adolescents. Both NAcc DA and VTA glutamate release were hyper-responsive to intra-VTA NMDA in Nic + EtOH offspring versus PF (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Similarly, DA release was more responsive to i.v. nicotine in Nic + EtOH offspring (p = 0.02). Local DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid sodium salt (AP5) (NMDA receptor antagonist) infusion into the VTA inhibited nicotine-stimulated DA release in Nic + EtOH and PF offspring. Nicotine SA was augmented in adolescent Nic + EtOH versus PF offspring (p = 0.000001). Daily VTA microinjections of AP5 reduced nicotine SA by Nic + EtOH offspring, without affecting PF (p = 0.000032). Indeed, nicotine SA in Nic + EtOH offspring receiving AP5 was not different from PF offspring. Both VTA mRNA transcripts and NMDA receptor subunit proteins were not altered in Nic + EtOH offspring. In summary, adolescent offspring exposed to gestational Nic + EtOH show markedly increased vulnerability to become dependent on nicotine. This reflects the enhanced function of a subpopulation of VTA NMDA receptors that confer greater nicotine-induced DA release in NAcc. We hypothesized that concurrent gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol would disrupt the control of VTA dopaminergic circuitry by NMDA receptors. Resulting in the augmented nicotine self-administration (SA) in adolescent offspring.

  12. Adolescent alcohol exposure reduces behavioral flexibility, promotes disinhibition, and increases resistance to extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gass, Justin T; Glen, William Bailey; McGonigal, Justin T; Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Lopez, Marcelo F; Randall, Patrick K; Yaxley, Richard; Floresco, Stan B; Chandler, L Judson

    2014-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a brain region that is critically involved in cognitive function and inhibitory control of behavior, and adolescence represents an important period of continued PFC development that parallels the maturation of these functions. Evidence suggests that this period of continued development of the PFC may render it especially vulnerable to environmental insults that impact PFC function in adulthood. Experimentation with alcohol typically begins during adolescence when binge-like consumption of large quantities is common. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated cycles of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (postnatal days 28-42) by vapor inhalation on different aspects of executive functioning in the adult rat. In an operant set-shifting task, AIE-exposed rats exhibited deficits in their ability to shift their response strategy when the rules of the task changed, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. There were no differences in progressive ratio response for the reinforcer suggesting that AIE did not alter reinforcer motivation. Examination of performance on the elevated plus maze under conditions designed to minimize stress revealed that AIE exposure enhanced the number of entries into the open arms, which may reflect either reduced anxiety and/or disinhibition of exploratory-like behavior. In rats that trained to self-administer ethanol in an operant paradigm, AIE increased resistance to extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. This resistance to extinction was reversed by positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 during extinction training, an effect that is thought to reflect promotion of extinction learning mechanisms within the medial PFC. Consistent with this, CDPPB was also observed to reverse the deficits in behavioral flexibility. Finally, diffusion tensor imaging with multivariate analysis of 32 brain areas revealed that while there were no differences in the total brain volume, the volume of

  13. A concept of dynamic permission mechanism on android

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, Lukas; Hanacek, Petr

    2016-02-01

    This paper discuss the main security topic in mobile security area and this topic is protect user against the leakage of data. This work primarily contains the proposal of concept of dynamic permission mechanism for Android operating system. This mechanism deals with assignment or enforcement permissions to the application according to files that the application works with. Application has set of permissions that can use, but if the user opens confident files the application permissions should change its permission set and there should not be possible leakage of this secret data. The permissions set should be stricter according to opened confidential file or more open (without restriction) if the file is not secret file. The concept proposes the solution for protecting this data leakage. Idea covers rule that user should be avoided of change this permissions himself, but this behavior should be dynamic, automatic and independent. This proposal is mainly aimed to Android operating system, but the concept can be applied to other mobile platforms with some implementation changes.

  14. Biliary ochratoxin A as a biomarker of ochratoxin exposure in laying hens: An experimental study after administration of contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Armorini, Sara; Al-Qudah, Khaled Mefleh; Altafini, Alberto; Zaghini, Anna; Roncada, Paola

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the levels of ochratoxin (OTA) in kidney, liver and bile of laying hens, forty-five laying hens were enrolled in this study and divided into three equal groups: a control group D₀, and two experimental groups, D₁ fed with 10 µg/kg OTA diet and D₂ fed with 200 µg/kg OTA diet for 6 weeks. Kidneys, livers, and bile from all hens were collected and analyzed by HPLC method for the presence of OTA. Eggs collected 2 days before the start of the experiment and 2 days after its end were also analyzed for the presence of OTA. Results show a relevant biliary excretion of the mycotoxin, with high levels of OTA in the bile after administration of the toxin. OTA level in eggs was below the limit of detection (LOD). These results suggest the suitability of using bile as a matrix for screening measurements of OTA in laying hens.

  15. Effects of adolescent nicotine exposure and withdrawal on intravenous cocaine self-administration during adulthood in male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Price E; Miller, Mellessa M; Rogers, Tiffany D; Blaha, Charles D; Mittleman, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adolescent drug use show (1) a pattern in which the use of tobacco precedes the use of other drugs and (2) a positive relationship between adolescent tobacco use and later drug use. These observations have led to the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between early exposure to nicotine and the later use of hard drugs such as cocaine. Using male C57BL/6J mice, we tested the hypothesis that nicotine exposure in adolescence leads to increased intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of cocaine in adulthood. Using miniature osmotic pumps, we exposed mice and their littermate controls to nicotine (24 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, respectively, over the entire course of adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. Nicotine exposure was terminated on P56 and mice were not exposed to nicotine again during the experiment. On P73, mice were allowed to acquire cocaine IVSA (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and a dose-response curve was generated (0.18, 0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg/infusion). Lever pressing during extinction conditions was also evaluated. All mice rapidly learned to lever press for the combination of cocaine infusions and non-drug stimuli. Analysis of the dose-response curve revealed that adolescent nicotine-exposed mice self-administered significantly more (P < 0.05) cocaine than controls at all but the highest dose. No significant differences were observed between adolescent nicotine-exposed and control mice during the acquisition or extinction stages. These results indicate that adolescent nicotine exposure can increase cocaine IVSA in mice, which suggests the possibility of a causal link between adolescent tobacco use and later cocaine use in humans.

  16. Effects of combined ferrous sulfate administration and exposure to static magnetic field on brain oxidative stress and emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Elferchichi, Miryam; Maaroufi, Karima; Ammari, Mohamed; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2015-03-01

    The present study was done to investigate behavioral effects and oxidative stress in iron- treated and co-exposed static magnetic field (SMF)-iron rats. Anxiety in the elevated plus- maze test, and motor skills were also assessed in the stationary beam and suspended string tests. After behavioral tests, the rats were anesthetized and their brains were removed for biochemical analysis. The co-exposure to iron and SMF induced a significant difference in elevated plus-maze test in rats. The frequency of entries and time spent in the open arms was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the iron- and SMF-exposed group compared with the group treated with iron alone and in the control group. However, no significant difference was noticed for the motor skill test between the three groups. The biochemical investigation showed that malondialdehyde level increased (p<0.001) and that glutathione level and catalase enzyme activity decreased (p<0.001) in brain of iron- and SMF-exposed group. The dose of iron alone used in present study, was unable to induce any effect. However, the 128 mT SMF in the presence of iron ions in the body can induce disruption in the emotional behavior and can produce oxidative stress in brain tissue of rats.

  17. 50 CFR 216.252 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.252 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of Authorization issued pursuant...

  18. 50 CFR 216.252 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.252 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of Authorization issued pursuant...

  19. 50 CFR 218.232 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.232 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of.... This annual per-stock cap of 12 percent applies regardless of the number of SURTASS LFA sonar...

  20. 50 CFR 218.232 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.232 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of.... This annual per-stock cap of 12 percent applies regardless of the number of SURTASS LFA sonar...

  1. 50 CFR 218.232 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.232 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of.... This annual per-stock cap of 12 percent applies regardless of the number of SURTASS LFA sonar...

  2. 50 CFR 217.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Off Massachusetts § 217.172 Permissible methods of taking. (a... the Letter of Authorization (hereinafter “Neptune”) may incidentally, but not intentionally,...

  3. 50 CFR 217.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Off Massachusetts § 217.172 Permissible methods of taking. (a... the Letter of Authorization (hereinafter “Neptune”) may incidentally, but not intentionally,...

  4. 50 CFR 217.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Off Massachusetts § 217.172 Permissible methods of taking. (a... the Letter of Authorization (hereinafter “Neptune”) may incidentally, but not intentionally,...

  5. 50 CFR 217.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Off Massachusetts § 217.172 Permissible methods of taking. (a... the Letter of Authorization (hereinafter “Neptune”) may incidentally, but not intentionally,...

  6. Systemic exposure of topical erythromycin in comparison to oral administration and the effect on cytochrome P450 3A4 activity

    PubMed Central

    Carls, Alexandra; Jedamzik, Julia; Witt, Lukas; Hohmann, Nicolas; Burhenne, Juergen; Mikus, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Aims Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic, which is frequently used as a topical formulation for the treatment of acne. It is also known as an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 3A4. In this study, the systemic availability of topical erythromycin, hence the influence on the activity of CYP3A, is evaluated in comparison to orally administered erythromycin. Methods Sixteen healthy volunteers received consecutively topical (two applications of 800 mg) and oral erythromycin (two dose groups, 250 and 1000 mg, with n = 8) to assess erythromycin pharmacokinetics. A microdose of midazolam (3 μg orally) was used to determine the effect on CYP3A activity. Results After topical administration, erythromycin was detected in the plasma of every participant without causing a statistically significant alteration of CYP3A activity. After oral administration, the dose-normalized erythromycin exposure (AUC∞) was 1335 h ng ml−1 after 250 mg and 3-fold higher after the 1000 mg dose (4051 h ng ml−1; P < 0.01), suggesting nonlinear pharmacokinetics of erythromycin. Both oral doses inhibited CYP3A activity; midazolam clearance was decreased to 61% (250 mg) and 21% (1000 mg). The relationship between erythromycin exposure and CYP3A activity (Hill equation) revealed a 50% reduction of CYP3A activity by an erythromycin AUC∞ of 2106 h ng ml−1. Conclusions Topical erythromycin did not cause clinically relevant CYP3A alterations, although low systemic availability of erythromycin was observed. This supports the assumption that treatment with topical erythromycin is not critical in terms of CYP3A inhibition. Furthermore, substantial nonlinearity of erythromycin pharmacokinetics after two different oral doses was observed, possibly due to autoinhibition. PMID:25139487

  7. Enhancement of Exposure and Reduction of Elimination for Paeoniflorin or Albiflorin via Co-Administration with Total Peony Glucosides and Hypoxic Pharmacokinetics Comparison.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weizhe; Zhao, Yan; Qin, Yi; Ge, Beikang; Gong, Wenwen; Wu, Yingting; Li, Xiaorong; Zhao, Yuming; Xu, Pingxiang; Xue, Ming

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence suggesting that herbal extracts demonstrate greater bioactivities than their isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. This phenomenon could be attributed to the absence of interacting substances present in the extracts. By measuring the pharmacokinetic parameters of paeoniflorin (PF) and albiflorin (AF) after being orally administered to rats in isolated form, in combination with each other and within total peony glucosides (TPG), respectively, the current study aimed to identify positive pharmacokinetic interactions between components of peony radix extracts. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic profiles of PF and AF under normoxia and hypoxia were also investigated and compared. In order to achieve these goals, a highly sensitive and reproducible ultra-peformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneously quantitation of PF and AF in rat plasma. This study found that compared with that of single component (PF/AF), the exposure of PF in rat plasma after combination administration or TPG administration was significantly increased, meanwhile the elimination of PF/AF was remarkably reduced. It was also noticed that AUC and Cmax of PF in hypoxia rats were significantly decreased compared with that of normaxia rats, suggesting that there was a decreased exposure of PF in rats under hypoxia. The current study, for the first time, revealed the pharmacokinetic interactions between PF/AF and other constitutes in TGP and the pharmacokinetic profiles of PF and AF under hypoxia. In view of the current findings, it could be supposed that the clinical performance of total peony glucosides would be better than that of single constitute (PF/AF). The outcomes of this animal study are expected to serve as a basis for development of clinical guidelines on total peony glucosides usage.

  8. Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II Marten Lohstroh Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...addresses the problem of handling dynamic data, in the statically typed, actor-oriented modeling environment called Ptolemy II. It explores the possibilities

  9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration perspective of the inclusion of effects of low-level exposures in safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gaylor, D W; Bolger, P M; Schwetz, B A

    1998-01-01

    A brief overview is provided of some of the general safety and risk assessment procedures used by the different centers of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) to evaluate low-level exposures. The U.S. FDA protects public health by regulating a wide variety of consumer products including foods, human and animal drugs, biologics, and medical devices under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The diverse legal and regulatory standards in the act allow for the consideration of benefits for some products (e.g., drugs) but preclude them from others (e.g., food additives). When not precluded by statutory mandates (e.g., Delaney prohibition), the U.S. FDA considers both physiologic adaptive responses and beneficial effects. For the basic safety assessment paradigm as presently used, for example in the premarket approval of food additives, the emphasis is on the identification of adverse effects and no observed adverse effect level(s) (NOAEL). Generally, the NOAEL is divided by safety factors to establish an acceptable exposure level. This safety assessment paradigm does not preclude the consideration of effects whether they are biologically adaptive or beneficial at lower dose levels. The flexibility to consider issues such as mechanisms of action and adaptive and beneficial responses depends on the product under consideration. For carcinogenic contaminants and radiation from medical devices, the U.S. FDA considers the potential cancer risk at low exposure levels. This generally involves downward extrapolation from the observed dose-response range. The consideration of adverse effects of other toxicologic end points (e.g., reproductive, immunologic, neurologic, developmental) associated with low exposure levels is also becoming more of a reality (e.g., endocrine disrupters). The evaluation of the biologic effects of low-level exposures to toxic substances must include whether the effect is adverse or a normal physiologic adaptive response and also

  10. Repeated systemic administration of the nutraceutical alpha-linolenic acid exerts neuroprotective efficacy, an antidepressant effect and improves cognitive performance when given after soman exposure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongna; Piermartiri, Tetsade C B; Chen, Jun; McDonough, John; Oppel, Craig; Driwech, Wafae; Winter, Kristin; McFarland, Emylee; Black, Katelyn; Figueiredo, Taiza; Grunberg, Neil; Marini, Ann M

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to nerve agents results in severe seizures or status epilepticus caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, a critical enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine to terminate neurotransmission. Prolonged seizures cause brain damage and can lead to long-term consequences. Current countermeasures are only modestly effective against the brain damage supporting interest in the evaluation of new and efficacious therapies. The nutraceutical alpha-linolenic acid (LIN) is an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that has a wide safety margin. Previous work showed that a single intravenous injection of alpha-linolenic acid (500 nmol/kg) administered before or after soman significantly protected against soman-induced brain damage when analyzed 24h after exposure. Here, we show that administration of three intravenous injections of alpha-linolenic acid over a 7 day period after soman significantly improved motor performance on the rotarod, enhanced memory retention, exerted an anti-depressant-like activity and increased animal survival. This dosing schedule significantly reduced soman-induced neuronal degeneration in four major vulnerable brain regions up to 21 days. Taken together, alpha-linolenic acid reduces the profound behavioral deficits induced by soman possibly by decreasing neuronal cell death, and increases animal survival.

  11. Choline supplementation attenuates learning deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in the rat: effects of varying the timing of choline administration.

    PubMed

    Ryan, S Hunter; Williams, Jennifer K; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2008-10-27

    Despite the harmful effects of fetal alcohol exposure, some pregnant women continue to drink alcohol. Thus, it is imperative to pursue safe, effective treatments for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Using an animal model, our laboratory has demonstrated that choline, an essential nutrient, effectively reduces the severity of some fetal alcohol effects, even when administered after the ethanol insult is complete. The present study investigated whether there is a critical developmental period when choline is most effective in attenuating ethanol's teratogenic effects. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol during the third trimester equivalent brain growth spurt (postnatal days (PD) 4-9) via intubation. A non-intubation control group and a sham intubation control group were included. Following ethanol exposure, pups received subcutaneous injections of saline vehicle or choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) from PD 11-20, PD 21-30, or PD 11-30. Beginning on PD 45, subjects were tested on a Morris water maze spatial learning task. Performance of both the ethanol-exposed group that did not receive choline and the ethanol-exposed group treated with choline from PD 21-30 was significantly impaired compared to controls during acquisition of the Morris water maze task. Performance of ethanol-exposed groups treated with choline from PD 11-20 or PD 11-30 was intermediate, not differing significantly from any other groups. However, during the probe trial, ethanol exposure produced significant deficits in spatial memory which were mitigated by all choline treatments, regardless of the timing of administration. These findings suggest that choline's therapeutic window may be very large, or spans across the two developmental periods examined in this study. Importantly, these findings indicate that choline supplementation may effectively reduce some alcohol-related learning impairments, even when administered in later childhood.

  12. CIRRPC Science Panel report No. 6: Use of probability of causation by the veterans administration in the adjudication of claims of injury due to exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    1988-08-01

    The report was prepared in response to a request from the Administrator of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Administration (VA) Coordination (CIRRPC) to provide guidelines to the VA with respect to the questions ``...for what levels of radiation exposure, if any, the radioepidemiological tables can be used credibly in the rule-making we are conducting pursuant to Public Law 98-542`` and ``...whether CIRRPC`s views in this regard vary with the type of cancer involved and whether use of the NIH tables for certain cancers may be more justifiable than for other cancers.`` The report prepared by the Science Subpanel on Radioepidemiological Tables and approved by the CIRRPC Science Panel answers these questions by listing those cancers both considered to be radiogenic in the NIH Report and to be applicable to veterans and by providing, for these cancers, radiation doses that allow the VA to exclude from further consideration those claims having ``no reasonable possibility`` (a VA stated criteria) of merit. The report provides important scientific information which can be used as part of the evidence for evaluating, along with other evidence, claims not eliminated by the screening procedure.

  13. [Case followed by delayed loss of consciousness after exposure to hydrogen sulfide that was treated with intermittent administration of sodium nitrite].

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yasuhisa; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Endo, Jin; Endo, Shigeatsu; Fujita, Yuji

    2010-12-01

    A 49-year-old man lost consciousness after being accidentally exposed to what was probably hydrogen sulfide gas while performing maintenance on a machine producing feather meal. He was immediately taken to the hospital. Upon admission, his consciousness level was 14 (E4V4M6) on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), but it subsequently decreased, and the patient was intubated when his respirations became depressed as well. About 5 hours after the initial incident, he was transferred to our department. His consciousness level was GCS 9 (E2V2M5), his blood pressure was 95/78 mmHg, and his heart rate was 90 beats per min. There was no metabolic acidosis. Mechanical ventilation was begun and 10% sodium nitrite was intermittently administered intravenously, with the goal of lowering arterial blood methemoglobin saturation to 20%. Two days following admission, the patient regained full consciousness and sodium nitrite administration was stopped. The following day mechanical ventilation was also discontinued. This patient exhibited severe recurring neurologic symptoms without metabolic acidosis; thus, the manifestations of toxicity in this case might have been due to the direct neurologic toxicity of hydrogen sulfide, hypoxia, or delayed post-ischemic cerebral hypoperfusion syndrome. The patient made a full recovery without any sequelae; therefore we would like to hypothesize that repetitive intravenous administration of sodium nitrite is effective in cases of hydrogen sulfide exposure.

  14. Role of cannabinoidergic mechanisms in ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking in rat adult offspring following perinatal exposure to {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Economidou, Daina; Mattioli, Laura; Ubaldi, Massimo; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Soverchia, Laura; Hardiman, Gary; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2007-08-15

    The present study evaluated the consequences of perinatal {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol ({delta}{sup 9}-THC) treatment (5 mg/kg/day by gavage), either alone or combined with ethanol (3% v/v as the only fluid available), on ethanol self-administration and alcohol-seeking behavior in rat adult offspring. Furthermore, the effect of the selective cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist, SR-141716A, on ethanol self-administration and on reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior induced either by stress or conditioned drug-paired cues was evaluated in adult offspring of rats exposed to the same perinatal treatment. Lastly, microarray experiments were conducted to evaluate if perinatal treatment with {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol, ethanol or their combination causes long-term changes in brain gene expression profile in rats. The results of microarray data analysis showed that 139, 112 and 170 genes were differentially expressed in the EtOH, {delta}{sup 9}-THC, or EtOH + {delta}{sup 9}-THC group, respectively. No differences in alcohol self-administration and alcohol seeking were observed between rat groups. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of SR-141716A (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced lever pressing for ethanol and blocked conditioned reinstatement of alcohol seeking. At the same doses SR-141716A failed to block foot-shock stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The results reveal that perinatal exposure to {delta}{sup 9}-THC ethanol or their combination results in evident changes in gene expression patterns. However, these treatments do not significantly affect vulnerability to ethanol abuse in adult offspring. On the other hand, the results obtained with SR-141716A emphasize that endocannabinoid mechanisms play a major role in ethanol self-administration, as well as in the reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior induced by conditioned cues, supporting the idea that cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor antagonists may represent interesting

  15. The role of permissible limits for hazardous airborne substances in the working environment in the prevention of occupational disease

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Theodore F.

    1972-01-01

    Recognized limits of permissible exposure to hazardous airborne substances adopted by different countries for industrial health protection may differ by a factor of 10. A Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health in 1969 was unable to recommend a single set of values as international standards for more than a few toxic agents. The greatest differences are in the tolerance limits employed in the USA and in the USSR. The reasons for this substantial disagreement are discussed in this paper and are explained in terms of fundamental differences in the psychophysiological criteria employed to establish safe limits between the maintenance of good health and the development of a significant threat to the health. Some practical implications in the selection of permissible limits of exposure by developing countries are discussed in relation to living standards, endemic disease, climate, and geographical situation. PMID:4539411

  16. Early administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril, prevents the development of hypertension programmed by intrauterine exposure to a maternal low-protein diet in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R C; Langley-Evans, S C

    1998-04-01

    1. Associations of intrauterine exposure to maternal undernutrition with later hypertension and coronary heart disease in the human population have been duplicated in the rat. Fetal exposure to low protein diets produces offspring that develop raised systolic blood pressure by the age of weaning. This animal model of 'programmed' hypertension was used to investigate the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the initiation and maintenance of high blood pressure. 2. Pregnant rats were fed diets containing 18 or 9% casein from conception until littering. The offspring from these pregnancies were administered captopril either between 2 and 4 weeks of age, or from 10 to 12 weeks of age. 3. The feeding of low protein diets in pregnancy had no effect upon the reproductive ability of female rats and the offspring generated were of normal birthweight. By 4 weeks of age the male and female offspring of low-protein-fed dams had systolic blood pressures that were 24-25 mmHg higher than those of rats exposed to a control diet in utero. 4. Treatment of 10-week-old female offspring with captopril for 2 weeks indicated that angiotensin II formation may play a role in the maintenance of high blood pressure in low-protein-exposed rats. While captopril had no significant effect upon systolic pressures of rats exposed to the control diet in intrauterine life, the systolic blood pressures of low-protein animals rapidly declined by 31 mmHg. 5. Administration of captopril to male and female offspring between 2 and 4 weeks of age exerted long-term effects upon systolic blood pressure. Eight weeks after cessation of treatment, at an age where maximal blood pressures are achieved, captopril-treated, low-protein-exposed rats had similar blood pressures to normotensive rats exposed to the protein-replete diet in utero. 6. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the elevation of adult blood pressure associated with fetal exposure to a maternal low-protein diet, is prevented by early

  17. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication.

    PubMed

    Vito, Stephen T; Austin, Adam T; Banks, Christopher N; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J; Rogawski, Michael A; Hammock, Bruce D; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABAAR positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABAAR antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1mg/kg, ip, starting 1h after diazepam and repeated every 24h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication.

  18. Benzene metabolite levels in blood and bone marrow of B6C3F{sub 1} mice after low-level exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, W.E.; Strunk, M.R.; Thornton-Manning, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) have explored the species-specific uptake and metabolism of benzene. Results have shown that metabolism is dependent on both dose and route of administration. Of particular interest were shifts in the major metabolic pathways as a function of exposure concentration. In these studies, B6C3F{sub 1} mice were exposed to increasing levels of benzene by either gavage or inhalation. As benzene internal dose increased, the relative amounts of muconic acid and hydroquinone decreased. In contrast, the relative amount of catechol increased with increasing exposure. These results show that the relative levels of toxic metabolites are a function of exposure level. Based on these results and assuming a linear relationship between exposure concentration and levels of bone marrow metabolites, it would be difficult to detect an elevation of any phenolic metabolites above background after occupational exposures to the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit of 1 ppm benzene.

  19. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal credit union may purchase a European financial options contract or a series of European financial... Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic...

  20. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... years. (g) European financial options contract. A Federal credit union may purchase a European financial... Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic...

  1. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... years. (g) European financial options contract. A Federal credit union may purchase a European financial... Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic...

  2. Maximum Permissible Body Burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Radionuclides in Air and in Water for Occupational Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-06-05

    Radiological Protection , Act, Radiologica 49, 49-495 (1957); or British J. Radiol- Meeting of the Main Commission and Committee Chairmen of the International Com...2.00 45 Testing of Measuring Equipment.----------------------- 1. 50 416 Code for Protection Against Lightning-------------------.45 -. 48...Phosphorus-32 and Iodine-131 for Medical Users---------------------. 15 -50 X-ray Protection Design------------------------------ .20 -61 Radiological

  3. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  4. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  5. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration...

  6. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration...

  7. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration...

  8. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration...

  9. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration...

  10. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during

  11. Preschool Teachers' Exposure to Classroom Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid

    2006-01-01

    This research examined exposure to classroom noise of 25 full-time teaching staff in 14 preschool settings located across Western Sydney. The results indicated that one teacher exceeded the maximum permissible level of daily noise exposure for employees under the health and safety legislation. Three staff approached this level and 92% of teachers…

  12. Preliminary assessment of worker and ambient air exposures during soil remediation technology demonstration.

    PubMed

    Romine, James D; Barth, Edwin F

    2002-01-01

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead-contaminated soil sites. Industrial hygiene surveys and air monitoring programs for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling activities and during pilot scale technology demonstration activities at two lead-contaminated soil sites to assess whether worker protection or temporary resident relocation would be suggested during any subsequent remediation technology activities. The concentrations of lead and dust in the air during pilot scale technology demonstration studies were within applicable exposure guidelines, including Occupational Health and Safety Administration permissible exposure limits, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limits, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene threshold limit values, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards program limits.

  13. 47 CFR 74.731 - Purpose and permissible service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... danger, to local public service announcements and to seeking or acknowledging financial support deemed... being rebroadcast. When transmitting originations concerning financial support or public service... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and permissible service. 74.731...

  14. 47 CFR 15.707 - Permissible channels of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 15.707 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Television Band Devices § 15.707 Permissible channels of operation. (a) All TVBDs are permitted to operate in....303(a) of this chapter and nearby areas where private land mobile services and commercial land...

  15. 47 CFR 101.1013 - Permissible communications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permissible communications services. 101.1013 Section 101.1013 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Multipoint Distribution Service § 101.1013...

  16. 47 CFR 101.1013 - Permissible communications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible communications services. 101.1013 Section 101.1013 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Multipoint Distribution Service § 101.1013...

  17. 47 CFR 101.1013 - Permissible communications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible communications services. 101.1013 Section 101.1013 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Multipoint Distribution Service § 101.1013...

  18. 12 CFR 211.10 - Permissible activities abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations § 211.10... part in organizations engaged in activities that are not permissible for joint ventures do not exceed...), unless authorized by the Board; (18) Providing futures commission merchant services (including...

  19. 12 CFR 211.10 - Permissible activities abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations § 211.10... part in organizations engaged in activities that are not permissible for joint ventures do not exceed...), unless authorized by the Board; (18) Providing futures commission merchant services (including...

  20. 34 CFR 300.208 - Permissive use of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.208 Permissive use of funds. (a) Uses... used for the following activities: (1) Services and aids that also benefit nondisabled children. For... a regular class or other education-related setting to a child with a disability in accordance...

  1. 34 CFR 300.208 - Permissive use of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.208 Permissive use of funds. (a) Uses... used for the following activities: (1) Services and aids that also benefit nondisabled children. For... a regular class or other education-related setting to a child with a disability in accordance...

  2. 34 CFR 300.208 - Permissive use of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.208 Permissive use of funds. (a) Uses... used for the following activities: (1) Services and aids that also benefit nondisabled children. For... a regular class or other education-related setting to a child with a disability in accordance...

  3. 34 CFR 300.208 - Permissive use of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.208 Permissive use of funds. (a) Uses... used for the following activities: (1) Services and aids that also benefit nondisabled children. For... a regular class or other education-related setting to a child with a disability in accordance...

  4. 34 CFR 300.208 - Permissive use of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.208 Permissive use of funds. (a) Uses... used for the following activities: (1) Services and aids that also benefit nondisabled children. For... a regular class or other education-related setting to a child with a disability in accordance...

  5. 12 CFR 211.10 - Permissible activities abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; (11) Organizing, sponsoring, and managing a mutual fund, if the fund's shares are not sold or distributed in the United States or to U.S. residents and the fund does not exercise managerial control over... securities held in order to hedge bank permissible equity derivatives contracts shall not be included....

  6. Permission to Speak: A Novel Formal Foundation for Access Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-21

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Pennsylvania,Computer and Information Science ,Philadelphia,PA,19104 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER... science • Uniform treatment of access control and conformance – Access control is verification of permissions – Conformance is satisfaction of

  7. 36 CFR 264.12 - Use without permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use without permission. 264.12 Section 264.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.12 Use without...

  8. 36 CFR 264.12 - Use without permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use without permission. 264.12 Section 264.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.12 Use without...

  9. 36 CFR 264.12 - Use without permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use without permission. 264.12 Section 264.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.12 Use without...

  10. 36 CFR 264.12 - Use without permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use without permission. 264.12 Section 264.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.12 Use without...

  11. 36 CFR 264.12 - Use without permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use without permission. 264.12 Section 264.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.12 Use without...

  12. 24 CFR 4.26 - Permissible and impermissible disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permissible and impermissible disclosures. 4.26 Section 4.26 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Prohibition of Advance Disclosure of Funding Decisions §...

  13. 47 CFR 101.1013 - Permissible communications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permissible communications services. 101.1013 Section 101.1013 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Multipoint Distribution Service § 101.1013...

  14. 47 CFR 101.1013 - Permissible communications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible communications services. 101.1013 Section 101.1013 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Multipoint Distribution Service § 101.1013...

  15. Permissive hypercapnia to decrease lung injury in ventilated preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Thome, Ulrich H; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2009-02-01

    Lung injury in ventilated premature infants occurs primarily through the mechanism of volutrauma, often due to the combination of high tidal volumes in association with a high end-inspiratory volume and occasionally end-expiratory alveolar collapse. Tolerating a higher level of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is considered as 'permissive hypercapnia' and when combined with the use of low tidal volumes may reduce volutrauma and lead to improved pulmonary outcomes. Permissive hypercapnia may also protect against hypocapnia-induced brain hypoperfusion and subsequent periventricular leukomalacia. However, extreme hypercapnia may be associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. It may therefore be important to avoid large fluctuations in PaCO2 values. Recent randomized clinical trials in preterm infants have demonstrated that mild permissive hypercapnia is safe, but clinical benefits are modest. The optimal PaCO2 goal in clinical practice has not been determined, and the available evidence does not currently support a general recommendation for permissive hypercapnia in preterm infants.

  16. Minimum permissible leakage resistance established for instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Mathematical formulas are used to determine if, and to what extent, an instrumentation system that has been exposed to the elements should be dried out to restore minimum permissible leakage resistance to ground. Formulas are also derived and used for an intermediate number of systems that are exposed to moisture penetration.

  17. 46 CFR 71.55-1 - Permission required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 71.55-1 Permission required. (a) No repairs or alterations affecting the safety of the vessel with regard to the hull, machinery, or equipment, shall be made without the...

  18. 46 CFR 71.55-1 - Permission required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 71.55-1 Permission required. (a) No repairs or alterations affecting the safety of the vessel with regard to the hull, machinery, or equipment, shall be made without the...

  19. 46 CFR 71.55-1 - Permission required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 71.55-1 Permission required. (a) No repairs or alterations affecting the safety of the vessel with regard to the hull, machinery, or equipment, shall be made without the...

  20. 12 CFR 359.5 - Permissible indemnification payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 359.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.5 Permissible indemnification payments... conditions delineated in paragraph (a) of this section have been met. If independent legal counsel...

  1. 26 CFR 1.422-5 - Permissible provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-5 Permissible provisions. (a) General rule. An option that otherwise qualifies as an incentive stock option does not fail to be an incentive stock option merely... this section. (b) Cashless exercise. (1) An option does not fail to be an incentive stock option...

  2. Systemic exposure of Paracetamol (acetaminophen) was enhanced by quercetin and chrysin co-administration in Wistar rats and in vitro model: risk of liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pingili, Ravindra Babu; Pawar, A Krishnamanjari; Challa, Siva R

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) play an important role in the first-pass-metabolism (FPM) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of majority of drugs. Paracetamol is primarily metabolized by conjugation reactions and a little amount (∼15%) undergoes cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative metabolism produces a hepatotoxic metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinonimine (NAPQI). Quercetin and chrysin are naturally occurring flavonoids, reported as modulators of P-gp and DMEs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin and chrysin on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol using rats and non-everted gut sacs in vitro. Paracetamol was given orally (100 mg/kg) to rats alone and in combination with quercetin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and chrysin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) once daily for 21 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on the 1st day in single dose pharmacokinetic study (SDS) and on the 21st day in multiple pharmacokinetic studies (MDS). The plasma concentrations of paracetamol were determined by HPLC and PK parameters were calculated by using Kinetica (Version 5.1). The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0-12) of paracetamol was significantly increased by quercetin and chrysin co-administration in SDS and MDS. In non-everted rat gut sac method, the absorption of paracetamol was increased by presence of P-gp inhibitors (verapamil, quinidine and ketoconazole), quercetin and chrysin (50 μg/mL). Our findings suggested that the quercetin and chrysin might be inhibited the P-gp and metabolism of paracetamol; thereby increased the systemic exposure of paracetamol. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the quercetin or chrysin are involved in the formation of NAPQI by CYP2E1 or not on isolated rat hepatocytes or using cell lines.

  3. 19 CFR 122.66 - Clearance or permission to depart denied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.66 Clearance or permission to depart denied. If advance electronic air cargo information is not received...

  4. The Use of In Vitro Data and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Predict Drug Metabolite Exposure: Desipramine Exposure in Cytochrome P4502D6 Extensive and Poor Metabolizers Following Administration of Imipramine.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Q; Callegari, Ernesto; Obach, R Scott

    2016-10-01

    Major circulating drug metabolites can be as important as the drugs themselves in efficacy and safety, so establishing methods whereby exposure to major metabolites following administration of parent drug can be predicted is important. In this study, imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, and its major metabolite desipramine were selected as a model system to develop metabolite prediction methods. Imipramine undergoes N-demethylation to form the active metabolite desipramine, and both imipramine and desipramine are converted to hydroxylated metabolites by the polymorphic enzyme CYP2D6. The objective of the present study is to determine whether the human pharmacokinetics of desipramine following dosing of imipramine can be predicted using static and dynamic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models from in vitro input data for CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer (EM) and poor metabolizer (PM) populations. The intrinsic metabolic clearances of parent drug and metabolite were estimated using human liver microsomes (CYP2D6 PM and EM) and hepatocytes. Passive diffusion clearance of desipramine, used in the estimation of availability of the metabolite, was predicted from passive permeability and hepatocyte surface area. The predicted area under the curve (AUCm/AUCp) of desipramine/imipramine was 12- to 20-fold higher in PM compared with EM subjects following i.v. or oral doses of imipramine using the static model. Moreover, the PBPK model was able to recover simultaneously plasma profiles of imipramine and desipramine in populations with different phenotypes of CYP2D6. This example suggested that mechanistic PBPK modeling combined with information obtained from in vitro studies can provide quantitative solutions to predict in vivo pharmacokinetics of drugs and major metabolites in a target human population.

  5. 30 CFR 57.5042 - Revised exposure levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Revised exposure levels. 57.5042 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5042 Revised exposure levels. If levels of permissible exposures to concentrations of radon daughters different...

  6. 30 CFR 57.5042 - Revised exposure levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revised exposure levels. 57.5042 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5042 Revised exposure levels. If levels of permissible exposures to concentrations of radon daughters different...

  7. 30 CFR 57.5042 - Revised exposure levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised exposure levels. 57.5042 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5042 Revised exposure levels. If levels of permissible exposures to concentrations of radon daughters different...

  8. 30 CFR 57.5042 - Revised exposure levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revised exposure levels. 57.5042 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5042 Revised exposure levels. If levels of permissible exposures to concentrations of radon daughters different...

  9. 30 CFR 57.5042 - Revised exposure levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Revised exposure levels. 57.5042 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5042 Revised exposure levels. If levels of permissible exposures to concentrations of radon daughters different...

  10. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suspension for not giving us permission to....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you...

  11. 20 CFR 416.207 - You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false You do not give us permission to contact... Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.207 You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) To be eligible for SSI payments you must give us permission to contact any...

  12. 20 CFR 416.207 - You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You do not give us permission to contact... Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.207 You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) To be eligible for SSI payments you must give us permission to contact any...

  13. 20 CFR 416.207 - You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false You do not give us permission to contact... Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.207 You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) To be eligible for SSI payments you must give us permission to contact any...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension for not giving us permission to....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension for not giving us permission to....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you...

  16. 20 CFR 416.207 - You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false You do not give us permission to contact... Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.207 You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) To be eligible for SSI payments you must give us permission to contact any...

  17. 20 CFR 416.207 - You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false You do not give us permission to contact... Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.207 You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) To be eligible for SSI payments you must give us permission to contact any...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension for not giving us permission to....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you...

  19. 30 CFR 75.505 - Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permissible electric face equipment. 75.505 Section 75.505 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.505 Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face... was required to use permissible electric face equipment and to maintain such equipment in...

  20. 30 CFR 75.505 - Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... permissible electric face equipment. 75.505 Section 75.505 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.505 Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face... was required to use permissible electric face equipment and to maintain such equipment in...

  1. 30 CFR 75.505 - Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... permissible electric face equipment. 75.505 Section 75.505 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.505 Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face... was required to use permissible electric face equipment and to maintain such equipment in...

  2. 30 CFR 75.505 - Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permissible electric face equipment. 75.505 Section 75.505 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.505 Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face... was required to use permissible electric face equipment and to maintain such equipment in...

  3. 30 CFR 75.505 - Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... permissible electric face equipment. 75.505 Section 75.505 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.505 Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face... was required to use permissible electric face equipment and to maintain such equipment in...

  4. Religiosity and Premarital Sexual Permissiveness: A Response to the Reiss-Heltsley and Broderick Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppel, Howard J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    When religiosity among college students was measured by Faulkner and DeJong's 5-D Scale of Religiosity" and the Reiss scale was used to measure permissiveness, the expected stronger relationship between religiosity and permissiveness in groups with traditions of low sexual permissiveness than in groups with traditions of high sexual…

  5. Occupational exposures during the World Trade Center disaster response.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, K M; Snyder, E M

    2001-06-01

    Upon the request of the New York City Department of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monitored occupational exposures among emergency response workers during the rescue and recovery activities at the World Trade Center disaster site from September 18 through 4 October 2001. During this period, over 1,200 bulk and air samples were collected to estimate or characterize workers' occupational exposures. Samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), diesel exhaust, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic acids, mercury and other metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, respirable particulate not otherwise regulated (PNOR), respirable crystalline silica, total PNOR, and volatile organic compounds. Exposures to most of these potential hazards did not exceed NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits or Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limits. However, one torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium and another worker (and possibly three others) was overexposed to CO. The elevated cadmium and CO levels were the result of workers using oxy-acetylene cutting torches and gasoline-powered cutting saws. Recommendations were made to ensure adequate ventilation and worker understanding when using these tools and, where possible, to substitute rechargeable, battery-powered cutting saws for gasoline-powered ones. Toxicology

  6. Evaluation of a disposable diesel exhaust filter for permissible mining machines

    SciTech Connect

    Ambs, J.L.; Cantrell, B.K.; Watts, W.F.; Olson, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines (USBM) Diesel Research Program emphasizes the development and evaluation of emission control devices to reduce exposure of miners to diesel exhaust pollutants. Studies by the USBM have shown that diesel exhaust aerosol (DEA) contributes a substantial portion of the respirable aerosol in underground coal mines using diesel equipment not equipped with emission controls. The USBM and the Donaldson Co., Inc., Minneapolis, MN, have developed a low-temperature, disposable diesel exhaust filter (DDEF) for use on permissible diesel haulage vehicles equipped with waterbath exhaust conditioners. These were evaluated in three underground mines to determine their effectiveness in reducing DEA concentrations. The DDEF reduced DEA concentrations from 70 to 90% at these mines. The usable life of the filter ranged from 10 to 32 h, depending on factors that affect DEA output, such as mine altitude, engine type, and duty-cycle. Cost per filter is approximately $40.

  7. Evaluation of a disposable diesel exhaust filter for permissible mining machines. Report of investigations/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ambs, J.L.; Cantrell, B.K.; Watts, W.F.; Olson, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) Diesel Research Program emphasizes the development and evaluation of emission control devices to reduce exposure of miners to diesel exhaust pollutants. Studies by the USBM have shown that diesel exhaust aerosol (DEA) contributes a substantial portion of the respirable aerosol in underground coal mining using diesel equipment not equipped with emission controls. The USBM and the Donaldson Co., Inc., Minneapolis, MN, have developed a low-temperature, disposable diesel exhaust filter (DDEF) for use on permissible diesel haulage vehicles equipped with waterban exhaust conditioners. These were evaluated in three underground mines to determine their effectiveness in reducing DEA concentrations. The DDEF reduced DEA concentrations from 70 to 90 pct at these mines. The usable life of the filter ranged from 10 to 32 h, depending on factors that affect DEA output, such as mine altitude, engine type, and duty-cycle. Cost per filter is approximately $40.

  8. Efficacy of the GluK1/AMPA Receptor Antagonist LY293558 against Seizures and Neuropathology in a Soman-Exposure Model without Pretreatment and its Pharmacokinetics after Intramuscular Administration

    PubMed Central

    Apland, James P.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Green, Carol E.; Swezey, Robert; Yang, Chun; Qashu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Control of brain seizures after exposure to nerve agents is imperative for the prevention of brain damage and death. Animal models of nerve agent exposure make use of pretreatments, or medication administered within 1 minute after exposure, in order to prevent rapid death from peripheral toxic effects and respiratory failure, which then allows the testing of anticonvulsant compounds. However, in a real-case scenario of an unexpected attack with nerve agents, pretreatment would not be possible, and medical assistance may not be available immediately. To determine if control of seizures and survival are still possible without pretreatment or immediate pharmacologic intervention, we studied the anticonvulsant efficacy of the GluK1 (GluR5)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist (3S,4aR,6R,8aR)-6-[2-(1(2)H-tetrazole-5-yl)ethyl]decahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (LY293558) in rats that did not receive any treatment until 20 minutes after exposure to the nerve agent soman. We injected LY293558 intramuscularly, as this would be the most likely route of administration to humans. LY293558 (15 mg/kg), injected along with atropine and the oxime HI-6 at 20 minutes after soman exposure, stopped seizures and increased survival rate from 64% to 100%. LY293558 also prevented neuronal loss in the amygdala and hippocampus, and reduced neurodegeneration in a number of brain regions studied 7 days after soman exposure. Analysis of the LY293558 pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration showed that this compound readily crosses the blood–brain barrier. There was good correspondence between the time course of seizure suppression by LY293558 and the brain levels of the compound. PMID:23042954

  9. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  10. NIOSH testimony to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by R. A. Lemen, July 17, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-17

    The testimony summarizes the position of NIOSH in support of the proposed rule on cadmium (7440439). NIOSH supports the position of OSHA that exposure to cadmium is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer, emphysema, and kidney dysfunction. Because cadmium is a potential occupational carcinogen, occupational exposures to cadmium should be reduced to the lowest feasible level. NIOSH strongly recommends the use of engineering controls and work practices instead of personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, for controlling exposures to cadmium. NIOSH responds in this testimony to specific areas covered in the proposed rule including respiratory protection, medical surveillance, medical screening requirements, and exposure monitoring frequency. Use of specific control methods is considered for cadmium plating operations, stabilizer production, and pigment production.

  11. Automated Verification of Specifications with Typestates and Access Permissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.; Catano, Nestor

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach to formally verify Plural specifications based on access permissions and typestates, by model-checking automatically generated abstract state-machines. Our exhaustive approach captures all the possible behaviors of abstract concurrent programs implementing the specification. We describe the formal methodology employed by our technique and provide an example as proof of concept for the state-machine construction rules. The implementation of a fully automated algorithm to generate and verify models, currently underway, provides model checking support for the Plural tool, which currently supports only program verification via data flow analysis (DFA).

  12. Identification of cell lines permissive for human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Schildgen, Oliver; Jebbink, Maarten F; de Vries, Michel; Pyrc, Krzysztov; Dijkman, Ronald; Simon, Arne; Müller, Andreas; Kupfer, Bernd; van der Hoek, Lia

    2006-12-01

    Six cell lines routinely used in laboratories were tested for permissiveness to the infection with the newly identified human coronavirus NL63. Two monkey epithelial cell lines, LLC-MK2 and Vero-B4, showed a cytopathic effect (CPE) and clear viral replication, whereas no CPE or replication was observed in human lung fibroblasts MRC-5s. In Rhabdomyosarcoma cells, Madin-Darby-Canine-kidney cells and in an undefined monkey kidney cell line some replication was observed but massive exponential rise in virus yield lacked The results will lead to an improved routine diagnostic algorithm for the detection of the human coronavirus NL63.

  13. Between reason and coercion: ethically permissible influence in health care and health policy contexts.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2012-12-01

    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats-or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the broad middle terrain-and this terrain is in desperate need of conceptual refining and ethical analysis in light of recent interest in using principles from behavioral science to influence health decisions and behaviors. This paper aims to address the neglected space between rational persuasion and coercion in bioethics. First, I argue for conceptual revisions that include removing the "manipulation" label and relabeling this space "nonargumentative influence," with two subtypes: "reason-bypassing" and "reason-countering." Second, I argue that bioethicists have made the mistake of relying heavily on the conceptual categories themselves for normative work and instead should assess the ethical permissibility of a particular instance of influence by asking several key ethical questions, which I elucidate, that relate to (1) the impact of the form of influence on autonomy and (2) the relationship between the influencer and the influenced. Finally, I apply my analysis to two examples of nonargumentative influence in health care and health policy: (1) governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trying to influence the public to be healthier using nonargumentative measures such as vivid images on cigarette packages to make more salient the negative effects of smoking, and (2) a physician framing a surgery in terms of survival rates instead of mortality rates to influence her patient to consent to

  14. An Ethics of Permission: A Response to the California End of Life Option Act

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    An ethics of permission can be helpful in framing a response to the ethical differences surrounding the California End of Life Option Act. Law does not define morality, and reaching a moral understanding demands thorough reflection. An ethics of permission examines the ethical demands of a permissive law for both clinician and patient. Serving the good of the patient, respecting professional conscience, and following the law are three ethical elements. Although developing an ethics of permission includes these three elements, these elements do not exhaust all the moral implications involved. An ethics of permission also includes the importance of exercising professional tolerance in the honoring of clinicians who choose to participate or refuse to participate. In addition, an ethics of permission also provides insight in implementing just and fair behavior among medical professionals. PMID:27541320

  15. An Ethics of Permission: A Response to the California End of Life Option Act.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    An ethics of permission can be helpful in framing a response to the ethical differences surrounding the California End of Life Option Act. Law does not define morality, and reaching a moral understanding demands thorough reflection. An ethics of permission examines the ethical demands of a permissive law for both clinician and patient. Serving the good of the patient, respecting professional conscience, and following the law are three ethical elements. Although developing an ethics of permission includes these three elements, these elements do not exhaust all the moral implications involved. An ethics of permission also includes the importance of exercising professional tolerance in the honoring of clinicians who choose to participate or refuse to participate. In addition, an ethics of permission also provides insight in implementing just and fair behavior among medical professionals.

  16. Impact of inhomogeneous static magnetic field (31.7-232.0 mT) exposure on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during cisplatin administration.

    PubMed

    Vergallo, Cristian; Ahmadi, Meysam; Mobasheri, Hamid; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial or adverse effects of Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) are a large concern for the scientific community. In particular, the effect of SMF exposure during anticancer therapies still needs to be fully elucidated. Here, we evaluate the effects of SMF at induction levels that cisPt-treated cancer patients experience during the imaging process conducted in Low field (200-500 mT), Open field (300-700 mT) and/or inhomogeneous High field (1.5-3 T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines. Human adrenergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with 0.1 µM cisPt (i.e. the lowest concentration capable of inducing apoptosis) were exposed to SMF and their response was studied in vitro. Exposure of 0.1 µM cisPt-treated cells to SMF for 2 h decreased cell viability (30%) and caused overexpression of the apoptosis-related cleaved caspase-3 protein (46%). Furthermore, increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production (23%) and reduction in the number of mitochondria vs controls were seen. The sole exposure of SMF for up to 24 h had no effect on cell viability but increased ROS production and modified cellular shape. On the other hand, the toxicity of cisPt was significantly prevented during 24 h exposure to SMF as shown by the levels of cell viability, cleaved caspase-3 and ROS production. In conclusion, due to the cytoprotective effect of 31.7-232.0 mT SMF on low-cisPt-concentration-treated SH-SY5Y cells, our data suggest that exposure to various sources of SMF in cancer patients under a cisPt regimen should be strictly controlled.

  17. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K.; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke’s Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing. PMID:27910908

  18. Pre-exposure to ethanol, but not to caffeine and nicotine, induced place preference and self-administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist-benzodiazepine combination, Zoletil®.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, June Bryan I; dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Lee, Hye Lim; dela Peña, Ike; Shin, Chan Young; Sohn, Aee Ree; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2013-09-01

    Zoletil® is an equal amount combination of the NMDA receptor antagonist, tiletamine, and the benzodiazepine, zolazepam, usually used as a veterinary anesthetic. Previous studies have shown that pre-exposure to Zoletil® and other psychoactive drugs (e.g. ketamine, diazepam) plays a significant role in the abuse liability of the compound. However, these studies were only focused on illicit psychoactive drugs and not on the more widely used licit psychoactive substances. Thus, the goal of the present work is to investigate whether pre-exposure to the three most commonly used licit psychoactive substances (caffeine, nicotine, and ethanol) affects the rewarding and reinforcing effects of Zoletil®. Rats were pretreated with caffeine (1.25 or 2.5 mg/kg), nicotine (125 or 250 μg/kg), ethanol (0.5, 2, or 4 g/kg), or saline (1 ml/kg) for 14 days, and evaluated for subsequent Zoletil® place preference (2.5 mg/kg) and self-administration (250 μg/kg). Zoletil® produced neither place preference nor self-administration in saline-pretreated rats. Pre-exposure to caffeine or nicotine does not have significant effects on Zoletil®'s abuse potential. However, pretreatment of ethanol significantly produced Zoletil® place preference and self-administration. These results suggest that individuals who are exposed to ethanol may have a high propensity to use/abuse Zoletil®. More importantly, the present result advocates the careful monitoring on the use and dispensation of Zoletil® or related substances.

  19. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, M.J.; Furman, J.; Ryan, C.; Durrant, J.; Kern, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  20. The pattern of exposure to static magnetic field of nurses involved in activities related to contrast administration into patients diagnosed in 1.5 T MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) and time-varying electromagnetic fields exposure is necessary to obtain the diagnostic information regarding the structure of patient's tissues, by the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. A diagnostic procedure may also include the administration of pharmaceuticals called contrast, which are to be applied to a patient during the examination. The nurses involved in administering contrast into a patient during the pause in examination are approaching permanently active magnets of MRI scanners and are exposed to SMF. There were performed measurements of spatial distribution of SMF in the vicinity of MRI magnets and parameters of personal exposure of nurses (i.e. individual exposimetric profiles of variability in time of SMF affecting the nurse who is performing tasks in the vicinity of magnet, characterized by statistical parameters of recorded magnetic flux density affecting the nurse). The SMF exposure in the vicinity of various MRI magnets depends on both magnetic flux density of the main field B 0 (applicable to a patient) and the construction of the scanner, but the most important factor determining the workers' exposure is the work practice. In the course of a patient's routine examination in scanners of B₀ = 1.5 T, the nurses are present over ∼0.4-2.9 min in SMF exceeding 0.03% of B₀ (i.e. 0.5 mT), but only sometimes they are present in SMF exceeding 5% of B 0 (i.e. 75 mT). When patients need more attention because of their health status/condition, the nurses' exposure may be significantly longer--it may even exceed 10 min and 30% of B 0 (i.e. 500 mT). We have found that the level of exposure of nurses to SMF may vary from < 5% of the main field (a median value: 0.5-1.5%; inter-quartile range: 0.04-8.8%; max value: 1.3-12% of B₀) when a patient is moved from the magnets bore before contrast administration, up to the main field level (B₀) when a patient stays in the magnets bore and nurse is crawling into the

  1. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    PubMed

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  2. Designing babies: morally permissible ways to modify the human genome.

    PubMed

    Agar, Nicholas

    1995-01-01

    My focus in this paper is the question of the moral acceptability of attempts to modify the human genome. Much of the debate in this area has revolved around the distinction between supposedly therapeutic modification on the one hand, and eugenic modification on the other. In the first part of the paper I reject some recent arguments against genetic engineering. In the second part I seek to distinguish between permissible and impermissible forms of intervention in such a way that does not appeal to the therapeutic/eugenic distinction. If I am right much of what we would intuitively call eugenic intervention will be morally acceptable. Central to my argument is an asymmetry in the way genetic engineers can influence a person's capacities on the one hand and life-goals on the other. Forms of genetic intervention that have a high probability of producing a mismatch of life-goals and capacities will be ruled out.

  3. Maximally permissive controller synthesis for time Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Parisa; Boucheneb, Hanifa

    2013-03-01

    This article proposes a fully forward on-the-fly algorithm to synthesise safety/reachability controllers for real time systems. Given a time Petri net (TPN) with controllable and uncontrollable transitions and a safety/reachability property, the control consists of limiting the firing intervals of controllable transitions to satisfy the property of interest. This algorithm, based on the state class graph method, computes on-the-fly the reachable state classes of the TPN while collecting progressively firing subintervals to be avoided so that to satisfy the property. It does not need to compute controllable predecessors and then split state classes as it is the case for other approaches based on exploration of state space of the system (backward and forward approaches). Moreover, in the category of state-dependent controllers based on the restriction of firing intervals, the algorithm, proposed here, synthesises maximally permissive controllers.

  4. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p < 0.05). The median of prevalence of support for different tobacco control policies among all countries was as follows: complete ban on tobacco advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 1988–2003

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988–2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988–2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 1988–2003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit. PMID:15743711

  6. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements... CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.2 What are the permissible leasing arrangements? (a) You may engage in direct leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of...

  7. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements... CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.2 What are the permissible leasing arrangements? (a) You may engage in direct leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of...

  8. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements... CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.2 What are the permissible leasing arrangements? (a) You may engage in direct leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of...

  9. E-Reserves Permissions and the Copyright Clearance Center: Process, Efficiency, and Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holobar, J. Christopher; Marshall, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the process of requesting copyright permissions through the Copyright Clearance Center's (CCC) pay-per-use service for electronic course reserves at the Penn State University Libraries in 2008. The authors investigate the efficiency of this process as a function of the percentage of permission requests successfully mediated by…

  10. 12 CFR 211.4 - Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches of member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations § 211.4 Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches of member banks. 211.4 Section 211.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD...

  11. 12 CFR 211.4 - Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches of member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Operations of U.S. Banking Organizations § 211.4 Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches of member banks. 211.4 Section 211.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD...

  12. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements... CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.2 What are the permissible leasing arrangements? (a) You may engage in direct leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of...

  13. The Impact of the Shared Permissive Feeding Environment on Low-income Preschool Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into parental feeding problems and strategies, this study investigated the impact of permissive feeding styles (FS) on overweight status of low-income preschool children and described the shared permissive feeding environment by examining characteristics of the parent (emotional affe...

  14. 19 CFR 122.66 - Clearance or permission to depart denied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clearance or permission to depart denied. 122.66 Section 122.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Clearance or permission to depart denied. If advance electronic air cargo information is not received...

  15. 14 CFR 221.123 - Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when... Statutory Notice § 221.123 Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected. If a tariff... be used in a tariff issued in lieu of such rejected tariff provided that such re-use is not...

  16. 10 CFR 707.17 - Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance. 707.17 Section 707.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.17 Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance. Actions available to DOE...

  17. 42 CFR 433.68 - Permissible health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible health care-related taxes. 433.68... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.68 Permissible health care-related taxes. (a) General rule. A State may receive health care-related taxes, without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with...

  18. Permissive Parenting and Mental Health in College Students: Mediating Effects of Academic Entitlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…

  19. 42 CFR 433.68 - Permissible health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permissible health care-related taxes. 433.68 Section 433.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.68 Permissible health care-related taxes. (a) General rule....

  20. 42 CFR 433.68 - Permissible health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permissible health care-related taxes. 433.68 Section 433.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.68 Permissible health care-related taxes. (a) General rule....

  1. Building and evaluating an ontology-based tool for reasoning about consent permission

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Adela; Schwab, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Given the lack of mechanisms for specifying, sharing and checking the compliance of consent permissions, we focus on building and testing novel approaches to address this gap. In our previous work, we introduced a “permission ontology” to capture in a precise, machine-interpretable form informed consent permissions in research studies. Here we explain how we built and evaluated a framework for specifying subject’s permissions and checking researcher’s resource request in compliance with those permissions. The framework is proposed as an extension of an existing policy engine based on the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML), incorporating ontology-based reasoning. The framework is evaluated in the context of the UCSD Moores Cancer Center biorepository, modeling permissions from an informed consent and a HIPAA form. The resulting permission ontology and mechanisms to check subject’s permission are implementation and institution independent, and therefore offer the potential to be reusable in other biorepositories and data warehouses. PMID:24551354

  2. 10 CFR 707.17 - Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible actions in the event of contractor... Procedures § 707.17 Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance. Actions available to DOE in the event of contractor noncompliance with the provisions of this part or otherwise performing in...

  3. 10 CFR 707.17 - Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible actions in the event of contractor... Procedures § 707.17 Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance. Actions available to DOE in the event of contractor noncompliance with the provisions of this part or otherwise performing in...

  4. 10 CFR 707.17 - Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permissible actions in the event of contractor... Procedures § 707.17 Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance. Actions available to DOE in the event of contractor noncompliance with the provisions of this part or otherwise performing in...

  5. 10 CFR 707.17 - Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permissible actions in the event of contractor... Procedures § 707.17 Permissible actions in the event of contractor noncompliance. Actions available to DOE in the event of contractor noncompliance with the provisions of this part or otherwise performing in...

  6. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  7. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a...

  8. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  9. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  10. 30 CFR 75.506 - Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric face equipment; requirements for...-General § 75.506 Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility. (a) Electric-driven mine equipment and accessories manufactured on or after March 30, 1973, will be permissible electric...

  11. 30 CFR 75.506 - Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric face equipment; requirements for...-General § 75.506 Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility. (a) Electric-driven mine equipment and accessories manufactured on or after March 30, 1973, will be permissible electric...

  12. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other than equipment referred to in paragraph (b) of §...

  13. 30 CFR 75.506-1 - Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric face equipment; permissible condition... Equipment-General § 75.506-1 Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, electric face equipment which meets the...

  14. 30 CFR 75.506-1 - Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric face equipment; permissible condition... Equipment-General § 75.506-1 Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, electric face equipment which meets the...

  15. 30 CFR 75.506-1 - Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric face equipment; permissible condition... Equipment-General § 75.506-1 Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, electric face equipment which meets the...

  16. 30 CFR 75.506-1 - Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric face equipment; permissible condition... Equipment-General § 75.506-1 Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, electric face equipment which meets the...

  17. 30 CFR 75.506 - Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric face equipment; requirements for...-General § 75.506 Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility. (a) Electric-driven mine equipment and accessories manufactured on or after March 30, 1973, will be permissible electric...

  18. 30 CFR 75.506 - Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric face equipment; requirements for...-General § 75.506 Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility. (a) Electric-driven mine equipment and accessories manufactured on or after March 30, 1973, will be permissible electric...

  19. 30 CFR 75.506-1 - Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric face equipment; permissible condition... Equipment-General § 75.506-1 Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, electric face equipment which meets the...

  20. 30 CFR 75.506 - Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric face equipment; requirements for...-General § 75.506 Electric face equipment; requirements for permissibility. (a) Electric-driven mine equipment and accessories manufactured on or after March 30, 1973, will be permissible electric...

  1. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 223.12 Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to... lands without advertisement when necessary for the occupancy of a right-of-way or other authorized...

  2. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85... Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Not Required § 35.204 Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. (a) A licensee may not administer to humans a...

  3. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85... Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Not Required § 35.204 Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. (a) A licensee may not administer to humans a...

  4. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85... Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Not Required § 35.204 Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. (a) A licensee may not administer to humans a...

  5. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85... Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Not Required § 35.204 Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. (a) A licensee may not administer to humans a...

  6. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85... Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Not Required § 35.204 Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations. (a) A licensee may not administer to humans a...

  7. Parental Permission to Date and Its Relationship to Drug Use and Suicidal Thoughts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Loyd S.

    1982-01-01

    Found early permission to date related to: feelings of being confident, independent, and tired; good relationship with mother; reported drinking and drug abuse problems; and frequent drug use. Found late permission related to feelings of being unsure, dependent, and refreshed; poor relationship with mother; maternal overstrictness; and serious…

  8. 18 CFR 35.4 - Permission to become effective is not approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to become effective is not approval. 35.4 Section 35.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Application § 35.4 Permission to become effective is not approval. The fact that...

  9. 18 CFR 35.4 - Permission to become effective is not approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permission to become effective is not approval. 35.4 Section 35.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Application § 35.4 Permission to become effective is not approval. The fact that...

  10. 47 CFR 74.831 - Scope of service and permissible transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope of service and permissible transmissions... Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.831 Scope of service and permissible transmissions. The license for a low power auxiliary station authorizes the transmission of cues and orders to production personnel...

  11. 47 CFR 74.831 - Scope of service and permissible transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope of service and permissible transmissions... Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.831 Scope of service and permissible transmissions. The license for a low power auxiliary station authorizes the transmission of cues and orders to production personnel...

  12. 12 CFR 238.54 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Board has promulgated pursuant to section 4(c) of the Bank Holding Company Act are permissible for... of satisfactory or above prior to January 1, 2008, or a composite rating of “1” or “2” thereafter, in... going concern; or (2) The activity is permissible under authority other than section 10(c)(2)(F)(i)...

  13. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements... CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.2 What are the permissible leasing arrangements? (a) You may engage in direct leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of...

  14. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and...

  15. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and...

  16. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and...

  17. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and...

  18. An evaluation of compliance with occupational exposure limits for crystalline silica (quartz) in ten Georgia granite sheds.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Arthur R; Middendorf, Paul J

    2002-06-01

    Since the 1920s, industrial hygiene studies have documented granite shed workers' exposures to crystalline silica, and the data from these studies have contributed to a better understanding of the relationship between silica exposures and adverse health effects, such as silicosis. The majority of these studies were conducted in the Barre, Vermont, granite sheds. However, a second major granite processing region is located in Elberton, Georgia, where approximately 1800 workers are employed in 150 granite sheds and 45 quarries. The current study reports the exposures of 40 workers in 10 granite sheds in Elberton, Georgia. The arithmetic mean exposure to silica for all monitored employees was 0.052 mg/m3. Employees were classified into one of seven job task groups. The job task group with the greatest exposure was the top polish group, which had a mean exposure of 0.085 mg/m3. Among the top polish workers, the greatest percentage of exposures above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit (OSHA PEL) occurred among the workers who used dry grinders. Wet methods were effective in reducing these exposures to below the OSHA PEL. The mean exposure of Elberton granite shed workers was less than the OSHA PEL, but was not below the threshold limit value of the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH TLV), which was lowered in the year 2000 to 0.05 mg/m3. The Elberton granite shed workers provide a valuable cohort for research on the effects of exposure to crystalline silica at levels between the ACGIH TLV and the OSHA PEL. They are a relatively permanent worker population, are concentrated geographically, and have a quantitatively documented exposure to crystalline silica over the past twenty years.

  19. Noise exposure and hearing conservation in U.S. coal mines - A surveillance report

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, G.J.; Middendorf, P.J.

    2007-01-15

    This study examines the patterns and trends in noise exposure documented in data collected by Mine Safety and Health Administration inspectors at U. S. coal mines from 1987 through 2004. During this period, MSHA issued a new regulation on occupational noise exposure that changed the regulatory requirements and enforcement policies. The data were examined to identify potential impacts from these changes. The overall annual median noise dose declined 67% for surface coal mining and 24% for underground coal mining, and the reduction in each group accelerated after promulgation of the new noise rule. However, not all mining occupations experienced a decrease. The exposure reduction was accompanied by an increase of shift length as represented by dosimeter sample duration. For coal miners exposed above the permissible exposure level, use of hearing protection devices increased from 61% to 89% during this period. Participation of miners exposed at or above the action level in hearing conservation programs rapidly reached 86% following the effective date of the noise rule. Based on inspection data, the occupational noise regulation appears to be having a strong positive impact on hearing conservation by reducing exposures and increasing the use of hearing protection devices and medical surveillance. However, the increase in shift duration and resulting reduction in recovery time may mitigate the gains somewhat.

  20. 30 CFR 77.1909 - Explosives and blasting; use of permissible explosives and shot-firing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1909 Explosives and... permissible explosives and permissible shot-firing units shall be used in sinking shafts and slopes....

  1. 30 CFR 77.1909 - Explosives and blasting; use of permissible explosives and shot-firing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1909 Explosives and... permissible explosives and permissible shot-firing units shall be used in sinking shafts and slopes....

  2. 40 CFR 26.406 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for permission by parents... Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children. (a) In addition to the... are made for soliciting the permission of each child's parents or guardian. Where parental...

  3. 40 CFR 26.406 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for permission by parents... Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children. (a) In addition to the... are made for soliciting the permission of each child's parents or guardian. Where parental...

  4. 45 CFR 46.408 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for permission by parents or... as Subjects in Research § 46.408 Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent... Subpart A, that adequate provisions are made for soliciting the permission of each child's parents...

  5. 21 CFR 50.55 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for permission by parents or... Children in Clinical Investigations § 50.55 Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for... determine that the permission of each child's parents or guardian is granted. (1) Where parental...

  6. Observational research with adolescents: a framework for the management of the parental permission

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Waiving parent permission can be an option in some epidemiological and social research with adolescents. However, exemptions have not been uniformly considered or applied. Our aim is to critically assess the different factors that could be taken into account when making decisions about waiving active parental permission in observational research with adolescents. Discussion In some cases alternatives to parental permission could be applied to protect the rights of both adolescents and parents and also to assure the benefits to adolescents as a group that can come from appropriately conducted studies. However, the criteria of ensuring minimal risk can be difficult to define and apply and a distinction between harm and discomfort is reviewed. Waiving active parental permission could be acceptable when the risk of harm is minimal; when the research questions are related to an activity for which adolescents are not legally considered to be children; when the risk of harm or discomfort may increase if parental permission is required; and when risk of discomfort is low because the questionnaire is not potentially offensive for some adolescents and/or for some parents. Summary Stringent rules concerning parental permission in some studies could be detrimental to adolescents. A framework and a decision tree guide are proposed to help researchers and Research Ethics Committees in their decisions on whether active parental permission must be obtained. PMID:23286743

  7. Pseudorabies virus infection inhibits autophagy in permissive cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingxia; Hou, Linlin; Tang, Yan-dong; Liu, Yonggang; Wang, Shujie; Wang, Jingfei; Shen, Nan; An, Tongqing; Tian, Zhijun; Cai, Xuehui

    2017-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the infection processes of different pathogens. Autophagy is now recognized as an essential component of innate and adaptive immunity. Several herpesviruses have developed various strategies to evade this antiviral mechanism. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a swine herpesvirus with a broad host range that causes devastating disease in infected pigs. In this study, we described the interaction between PRV and autophagy for the first time. PRV infection had a dual effect on the cell autophagy response; during the early period of infection, PRV virions induced autophagy without viral replication, and with viral protein expression, PRV reduced the basal level of autophagy in several permissive cells. We observed that inhibit the level of autophagy could increase the titer of infectious PRV. We also found that the conserved alphaherpesvirus US3 tegument protein may reduce the level of autophagy via activation of the AKT/mTOR pathways in PRV infected cells. These findings suggest that autophagy likely contributes to clearance of PRV, and that the virus has evolved strategies to antagonize this pathway. PMID:28059118

  8. Follicle Depletion Provides a Permissive Environment for Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Cai, Kathy Qi; Smith, Elizabeth R.; Yeasky, Toni M.; Moore, Robert; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hamilton, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the etiology of postmenopausal biology on ovarian cancer risk using germ cell-deficient white-spotting variant (Wv) mice, incorporating oncogenic mutations. Ovarian cancer incidence is highest in peri- and postmenopausal women, and epidemiological studies have established the impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk. Menopause as a result of ovarian follicle depletion is thought to contribute to higher cancer risk. As a consequence of follicle depletion, female Wv mice develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis frequently found in postmenopausal human ovaries. Lineage tracing using MISR2-Cre indicated that the tubular adenomas that developed in Wv mice were largely derived from the MISR2 lineage, which marked only a fraction of ovarian surface and oviduct epithelial cells in wild-type tissues. Deletion of p27, either heterozygous or homozygous, was able to convert the benign tubular adenomas into more proliferative tumors. Restricted deletion of p53 in Wv/Wv mice by either intrabursal injection of adenoviral Cre or inclusion of the MISR2-Cre transgene also resulted in augmented tumor growth. This finding suggests that follicle depletion provides a permissive ovarian environment for oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells, presenting a mechanism for the increased ovarian cancer risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:27354067

  9. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  10. Noise exposure, characterization, and comparison of three football stadiums.

    PubMed

    Engard, Derek J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W; Brazile, William J

    2010-11-01

    Personal noise exposure samples were collected from five workers at a large-sized college football stadium and five workers at a medium-sized college football stadium in northern Colorado during three home football games, for a total of 30 personal noise exposures. In addition, personal noise exposure samples were collected from five fans at a National Football League (NFL) stadium, and from two fans at each of the college stadiums during three home football games, for a total of 27 personal noise exposure samples. None of the workers' noise doses were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA. However, 11 of 28 (39%) workers' noise doses exceeded the OSHA action level of 85 dBA that would require enrollment in a hearing conservation program. Following ACGIH® recommendations for noise exposure limits, 27 of 28 (96%) workers would be considered overexposed. In addition, 24 of 25 fans (96%) were also overexposed according to ACGIH and World Health Organization recommendations. At the 95% confidence level, workers' and fans' noise exposures were not significantly different between the three stadiums. However, there was significant noise level variability between the games in each individual stadium (e.g., 82 dbA vs. 87 dbA mean worker OSHA noise exposure for two games at the large-sized college stadium, p=0.001). Given the personal sampling results for the stadium workers, the investigators believe that stadium management at these two universities should implement a hearing conservation program and provide hearing protection. Management should include a warning of possible loud-noise exposure during any sporting events held at the stadiums in fan guides, pamphlets, websites, or other appropriate communication tools. This information should include the health effects of loud noise exposure, namely, noise-induced hearing loss, the information should also be specifically targeted to parents of young children

  11. Recombinant pestivirus E2 glycoproteins prevent viral attachment to permissive and non permissive cells with different efficiency.

    PubMed

    Asfor, A S; Wakeley, P R; Drew, T W; Paton, D J

    2014-08-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen, which like other pestiviruses has similar molecular biological features to hepaciviruses, including human Hepatitis C virus. The pestivirus E2 glycoproteins are the major target for virus-neutralising antibodies, as well as playing a role in receptor binding and host range restriction. In this study, recombinant E2 glycoproteins (rE2) derived from three different pestivirus species were examined for their inhibitory effects on pestivirus infectivity in cell culture. Histidine-tagged rE2 glycoproteins of BVDV type 2 strain 178003, BVDV type 1 strain Oregon C24V and CSFV strain Alfort 187 were produced in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells and purified under native conditions. The ability of rE2 glycoprotein to inhibit the infection of permissive cells by both homologous and heterologous virus was compared, revealing that the inhibitory effects of rE2 glycoproteins correlated with the predicted similarity of the E2 structures in the recombinant protein and the test virus. This result suggests that the sequence and structure of E2 are likely to be involved in the host specificity of pestiviruses at their point of uptake into cells.

  12. Administration of Education in the Asia Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raja Roy; Guruge, A. W. P.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzed are inadequacies of the educational administrative structures of Asian countries. Recommendations are made for improvement in administrator education, on-the-job training, and exposure to management problems in a variety of related fields. (Author/DB)

  13. Stromal down-regulation of macrophage CD4/CCR5 expression and NF-κB activation mediates HIV-1 non-permissiveness in intestinal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ruizhong; Meng, Gang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Clapham, Paul R; Grams, Jayleen; Novak, Lea; Kappes, John C; Smythies, Lesley E; Smith, Phillip D

    2011-05-01

    Tissue macrophages are derived exclusively from blood monocytes, which as monocyte-derived macrophages support HIV-1 replication. However, among human tissue macrophages only intestinal macrophages are non-permissive to HIV-1, suggesting that the unique microenvironment in human intestinal mucosa renders lamina propria macrophages non-permissive to HIV-1. We investigated this hypothesis using blood monocytes and intestinal extracellular matrix (stroma)-conditioned media (S-CM) to model the exposure of newly recruited monocytes and resident macrophages to lamina propria stroma, where the cells take up residence in the intestinal mucosa. Exposure of monocytes to S-CM blocked up-regulation of CD4 and CCR5 expression during monocyte differentiation into macrophages and inhibited productive HIV-1 infection in differentiated macrophages. Importantly, exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages simultaneously to S-CM and HIV-1 also inhibited viral replication, and sorted CD4+ intestinal macrophages, a proportion of which expressed CCR5+, did not support HIV-1 replication, indicating that the non-permissiveness to HIV-1 was not due to reduced receptor expression alone. Consistent with this conclusion, S-CM also potently inhibited replication of HIV-1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein, which provides CD4/CCR5-independent entry. Neutralization of TGF-β in S-CM and recombinant TGF-β studies showed that stromal TGF-β inhibited macrophage nuclear translocation of NF-κB and HIV-1 replication. Thus, the profound inability of intestinal macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is likely the consequence of microenvironmental down-regulation of macrophage HIV-1 receptor/coreceptor expression and NF-κB activation.

  14. Analysis of workplace compliance measurements of asbestos by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1984-2011).

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Cheng, Thales J; Ground, Matthew; Sahmel, Jennifer; Varughese, Allysha; Madl, Amy K

    2015-08-01

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) maintains the Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD) and the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) databases, which contain quantitative and qualitative data resulting from compliance inspections conducted from 1984 to 2011. This analysis aimed to evaluate trends in workplace asbestos concentrations over time and across industries by combining the samples from these two databases. From 1984 to 2011, personal air samples ranged from 0.001 to 175 f/cc. Asbestos compliance sampling data associated with the construction, automotive repair, manufacturing, and chemical/petroleum/rubber industries included measurements in excess of 10 f/cc, and were above the permissible exposure limit from 2001 to 2011. The utility of combining the databases was limited by the completeness and accuracy of the data recorded. In this analysis, 40% of the data overlapped between the two databases. Other limitations included sampling bias associated with compliance sampling and errors occurring from user-entered data. A clear decreasing trend in both airborne fiber concentrations and the numbers of asbestos samples collected parallels historically decreasing trends in the consumption of asbestos, and declining mesothelioma incidence rates. Although air sampling data indicated that airborne fiber exposure potential was high (>10 f/cc for short and long-term samples) in some industries (e.g., construction, manufacturing), airborne concentrations have significantly declined over the past 30 years. Recommendations for improving the existing exposure OSHA databases are provided.

  15. Airborne exposure and soil levels associated with lead abatement of a steel tank.

    PubMed

    Lange, John H

    2002-02-01

    This study reports on airborne exposure levels and soil concentrations of lead in regard to abatement of a steel structure (water tank). The tank was de-leaded by abrasive sand blasting. The ball of the tank had a lead surface level that exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definition of lead-based paint (LBP) (0.5% lead), but paint on stem and base was below this criterion. Personal and area airborne samples were collected during different activities of lead abatement of the tank. Summary results suggest during abrasive blasting of ball and stem/base personal exposure levels, as reported with arithmetic and geometric means, exceed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (50 microg/m3). Highest personal exposure (occupational exposure) was associated with blasting of ball. Distribution of airborne and soil samples suggest non-normality and is best represented by a logarithmic form. Geometric standard deviations for air and soil lead support a non-normal distribution. Outlying values were found for personal and area air samples. Exposure levels associated with blasting stem/base section of tank support OSHA's policy requiring air monitoring of work at levels below the criterion established by EPA in identifying LBP. Area samples were statistically lower than personal samples associated with blasting ball and stem/base of tank. Exposure data suggest that workers performing abatement on steel structures have elevated lead exposure from surface lead. Respirator protection requirements are discussed. Soil lead concentration was suggested to decrease as distance increased from tank. Soil lead is suggested to be a result of deposition from LBP on tank surface. Minimal efforts were required to reduce average lead soil levels below EPA's upper acceptable criterion (1200 ppm Pb).

  16. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1178 Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible...

  17. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  18. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  19. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  20. Lead exposure in a petroleum refinery during maintenance and repair activities

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, L.E.; Zampello, F.C.

    1994-02-01

    Exposure to inorganic lead (Pb) may result in a petroleum refinery when paints that contain Pb are disturbed. Frequently performed activities that disturb paint include welding, burning, cutting, abrasive blasting, sanding, grinding, and needle gun chipping. The purpose of the study reported in this article was: to determine the Pb content of paint on metal surfaces in a petroleum refinery; to measure air Pb concentrations during abrasive blasting, torch cutting and burning, and power disk sanding/grinding on surfaces coated with Pb paint; and to evaluate the effectiveness of worker exposure controls by monitoring worker blood Pb (PbB) levels. Pb levels on representative metal surfaces were measured, and most painted surfaces were found to contain significant amounts of Pb. Personal air samples collected indicated that abrasive blasting and torch burning/cutting resulted in elevated air Pb levels, while short duration power disk sanding (less than 30 minutes duration) did not result in elevated air Pb levels as compared to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit. Despite these elevated air Pb levels, exposure controls including personal protective equipment, housekeeping, showering, work area isolation, and training effectively prevented elevated worker PbB levels. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Drug evaluation and the permissive principle: continuities and contradictions between standards and practices in antidepressant regulation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Davis, Courtney

    2009-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are not permitted on to the market unless they are granted regulatory approval. The regulatory process is, therefore, crucial in whether or not a drug is widely prescribed. Regulatory agencies have developed standards of performance that pharmaceuticals are supposed to meet before entering the market. Regulation of technologies is often discussed by reference to the precautionary principle. In contrast, this paper develops the concept of the 'permissive principle' as a way of understanding the departure of regulators' practices from standards of drug efficacy to which regulatory agencies themselves subscribe. By taking a case study of antidepressant regulation in the UK and the USA, the mechanisms of permissive regulatory practices are examined. An STS methodology of both spatial (international) and temporal comparisons of regulatory practices with regulatory standards is employed to identify the nature and extent of the permissive regulation. It is found that the permissive principle was adopted by drug regulators in the UK and the USA, but more so by the former than the latter. Evidently, permissive regulation, which favours the commercial interests of the drug manufacturer, but is contrary to the interests of patients, may penetrate to the heart of regulatory science. On the other hand, permissive regulation of specific drugs should not be regarded as an inevitable result of marketing strategies and concomitant networks deployed by powerful pharmaceutical companies, because the extent of permissive regulation may vary according to the intra-institutional normative commitments of regulators to uphold their technical standards against the commercial interests of the manufacturer. Likely sociological factors that can account for such permissive regulatory practices are 'corporate bias', secrecy and excessive regulatory trust in the pharmaceutical industry in the UK, political expediency and ideological capture in the USA, combined in both countries

  2. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  3. Assessment of noise exposure in a hospital kitchen.

    PubMed

    Achutan, Chandran

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was asked to evaluate the noise exposure of employees in the Nutrition and Food Services Department of a large hospital, because of noise concerns raised after the installation of the PowerSoak dishwashing system. Eleven employees (two cooks, eight food service workers, and a materials handler) contributed 13 full-shift and two task-based personal noise dosimetry measures over two days. The noise levels for two food service workers assigned to the pots and pans room (85.1 and 85.2dBA), a cook working in the food preparation area (85.9 dBA), and a food service worker assigned to the dishwashing room (89.5 dBA) exceeded the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL); however, none of the measures exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The noise level from the PowerSoak dishwashing system alone was not excessive, but additional noise from the food preparation area (primarily from blenders and utensils), and from metal-to-metal contact between stainless steel pots and pans and metal racks, may explain exposures above the NIOSH REL for employees in the pots and pans room. The cooks were exposed to many intermittent impact noise sources, such as, metal-to-metal contact between utensils and the use of industrial-size blenders. We recommended that metal-to-metal contact be reduced as much as possible throughout the Nutrition and Food Services Department, and hearing protectors be provided to employees in the dishwashing room until engineering controls were in place.

  4. Exposure levels of anti-LINGO-1 Li81 antibody in the central nervous system and dose-efficacy relationships in rat spinal cord remyelination models after systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Pepinsky, R Blake; Shao, Zhaohui; Ji, Benxiu; Wang, Qin; Meng, Gym; Walus, Lee; Lee, Xinhua; Hu, Yinghui; Graff, Christilyn; Garber, Ellen; Meier, Werner; Mi, Sha

    2011-11-01

    LINGO-1 (leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein-1) is a negative regulator of myelination and repair of damaged axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Blocking LINGO-1 function leads to robust remyelination. The anti-LINGO-1 Li81 antibody is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for multiple sclerosis (MS) and is the first MS therapy that directly targets myelin repair. LINGO-1 is selectively expressed in brain and spinal cord but not in peripheral tissues. Perhaps the greatest concern for Li81 therapy is the limited access of the drug to the CNS. Here, we measured Li81 concentrations in brain, spinal cord, and cerebral spinal fluid in rats after systemic administration and correlated them with dose-efficacy responses in rat lysolecithin and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis spinal cord models of remyelination. Remyelination was dose-dependent, and levels of Li81 in spinal cord that promoted myelination correlated well with affinity measurements for the binding of Li81 to LINGO-1. Observed Li81 concentrations in the CNS of 0.1 to 0.4% of blood levels are consistent with values reported for other antibodies. To understand the features of the antibody that affect CNS penetration, we also evaluated the pharmacokinetics of Li81 Fab2, Fab, and poly(ethylene glycol)-modified Fab. The reagents all showed similar CNS exposure despite large differences in their sizes, serum half-lives, and volumes of distribution, and area under the curve (AUC) measurements in the CNS directly correlated with AUC measurements in serum. These studies demonstrate that exposure levels achieved by passive diffusion of the Li81 monoclonal antibody into the CNS are sufficient and lead to robust remyelination.

  5. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  6. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town

    PubMed Central

    Green, Deirdre R.; Anthony, T. Renée

    2016-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69–90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p < 0.001) and for cooks (p = 0.003), regardless of restaurant type. The fall semester (p = 0.003) and weekend (p = 0.048) exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p < 0.001) in this college town. While evening/night shift exposures, where noise

  7. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town.

    PubMed

    Green, Deirdre R; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69-90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p < 0.001) and for cooks (p = 0.003), regardless of restaurant type. The fall semester (p = 0.003) and weekend (p = 0.048) exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p < 0.001) in this college town. While evening/night shift exposures

  8. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal credit union may trade securities, including engaging in when-issued trading and pair-off... Section 703.13 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... delivery versus payment basis. A Federal credit union may only contract for the purchase or sale of...

  9. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal credit union may trade securities, including engaging in when-issued trading and pair-off... Section 703.13 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... delivery versus payment basis. A Federal credit union may only contract for the purchase or sale of...

  10. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 75.501-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501... in coal seams which are located at elevations above the water table: (1) All junction or...

  11. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 75.501-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501... in coal seams which are located at elevations above the water table: (1) All junction or...

  12. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 75.501-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501... in coal seams which are located at elevations above the water table: (1) All junction or...

  13. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 75.501-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501... in coal seams which are located at elevations above the water table: (1) All junction or...

  14. 30 CFR 75.501-2 - Permissible electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.501-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501... in coal seams which are located at elevations above the water table: (1) All junction or...

  15. 30 CFR 75.500 - Permissible electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 75.500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.500... electric drills, blower and exhaust fans, electric pumps, and such other low horsepower electric...

  16. Porphyromonas gingivalis induces CCR5-dependent transfer of infectious HIV-1 from oral keratinocytes to permissive cells

    PubMed Central

    Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Asrani, Anil C; Gebhard, Kristin H; Dietrich, Elizabeth A; Vacharaksa, Anjalee; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2008-01-01

    Background Systemic infection with HIV occurs infrequently through the oral route. The frequency of occurrence may be increased by concomitant bacterial infection of the oral tissues, since co-infection and inflammation of some cell types increases HIV-1 replication. A putative periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis selectively up-regulates expression of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 on oral keratinocytes. We, therefore, hypothesized that P. gingivalis modulates the outcome of HIV infection in oral epithelial cells. Results Oral and tonsil epithelial cells were pre-incubated with P. gingivalis, and inoculated with either an X4- or R5-type HIV-1. Between 6 and 48 hours post-inoculation, P. gingivalis selectively increased the infectivity of R5-tropic HIV-1 from oral and tonsil keratinocytes; infectivity of X4-tropic HIV-1 remained unchanged. Oral keratinocytes appeared to harbor infectious HIV-1, with no evidence of productive infection. HIV-1 was harbored at highest levels during the first 6 hours after HIV exposure and decreased to barely detectable levels at 48 hours. HIV did not appear to co-localize with P. gingivalis, which increased selective R5-tropic HIV-1 trans infection from keratinocytes to permissive cells. When CCR5 was selectively blocked, HIV-1 trans infection was reduced. Conclusion P. gingivalis up-regulation of CCR5 increases trans infection of harbored R5-tropic HIV-1 from oral keratinocytes to permissive cells. Oral infections such as periodontitis may, therefore, increase risk for oral infection and dissemination of R5-tropic HIV-1. PMID:18371227

  17. Liability Implications of Forensics Program Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Philip A.; Ward, Courtney E.

    Forensics program administration raises a number of troubling liability concerns. The potential liability exposure of forensics administrators may vastly exceed the litigation risks that arise as a result of ordinary teaching duties. Potential liability exposure may result from the failure of program directors to act in accordance with college or…

  18. Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Care Association, Atlanta, GA.

    This sample exposure control plan is a guide to assist child care providers in complying with the blood-borne pathogens standard issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The standard requires employers to establish a written exposure control plan by May 5, 1992 (for exposure to microorganisms in human blood that cause…

  19. Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: I. Noise surveys.

    PubMed

    Van Campen, Luann E; Morata, Thais; Kardous, Chucri A; Gwin, Kristin; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Dallaire, Jacques; Alvarez, Frank J

    2005-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed noise exposure for a professional stock car team at their race shop and during two races at one racetrack. At the team's shop, area sound pressure levels (SPLs) were measured for various work tasks. Equivalent levels (Leqs) ranged from 58 to 104 decibels, A-weighted (dBA). Personal noise dosimetry was conducted for at least one employee for each job description in race car assembly (n = 9). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 90 dBA for an 8-hour, 5-dB exchange rate time-weighted average (TWA) was never exceeded, but in two instances values exceeded OSHA's action level of 85 dBA for hearing conservation implementation. The NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 85 dBA for a 3-dB exchange rate Leq was exceeded for five of the measured jobs. During the races, SPLs averaged above 100 dBA in the pit area where cars undergo adjustments/refueling, both before and during the race. Peak levels reached 140 dB SPL. NIOSH REL was exceeded for every personal noise dosimetry measurement. Recommendations for hearing protection and communication are presented.

  20. [Criteria for evaluating exposure to chemical substances in Poland: procedures for suppression and applications].

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan P; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2002-01-01

    The major objective of setting values of chemical concentrations in the work environment is to reduce the risk of occupation-related exposure to levels regarded as safe to humans. In the standard setting process, a critical assessment of the available literature data on toxicity of a given chemical and related health effects in the population exposed, depending on concentrations and exposure duration, is essential. Such an assessment performed by a group of experts is a difficult and responsible task since the available data are frequently incomplete and extrapolation of the results of animal experiments aimed at setting limits of concentrations safe to humans raises multiple doubts. The aim of this paper was to compare the procedures of setting permissible values for chemical factors in Poland and throughout the world and to highlight differences in their interpretation. In addition, a brief history of setting admissible limits, as well as definitions of hygiene standards used in Poland, the USA, Germany, the UK and in the former Soviet Union together with the ways of their formulation are presented. The country-to-country variations of attitudes towards setting admissible levels of exposure to carcinogenic agents are worthy of special mention. Maximum admissible concentrations of chemicals in the work environment suggested by experts and adopted by the state administration should not be regarded as constant and completely safe to the human health, thus the existing systems should take account of the need to verify these values with an inflow of updated information on chemical toxicity.

  1. Limited sampling strategies for tacrolimus exposure (AUC0-24) prediction after Prograf(®) and Advagraf(®) administration in children and adolescents with liver or kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, Gonzalo N; Lubomirov, Rubin; Alonso-Sanchez, Nazareth Laura; Espinosa-Román, Laura; Fernández Camblor, Carlota; Díaz, Carmen; Muñoz Bartola, Gema; Carcas-Sansuán, Antonio J

    2014-09-01

    To develop limited sampling strategies (LSSs) to predict total tacrolimus exposure (AUC0-24 ) after the administration of Advagraf(®) and Prograf(®) (Astellas Pharma S.A, Madrid, Spain) to pediatric patients with stable liver or kidney transplants. Forty-one pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained after Prograf(®) and Advagraf(®) administration. LSSs predicting AUC0-24 were developed by linear regression using three extraction time points. Selection of the most accurate LSS was made based on the r(2) , mean error, and mean absolute error. All selected LSSs had higher correlation with AUC0-24 than the correlation found between C0 and AUC0-24 . Best LSS for Prograf(®) in liver transplants was C0_1.5_4 (r(2)  = 0.939) and for kidney transplants C0_1_3 (r(2)  = 0.925). For Advagraf(®) , the best LSS in liver transplants was C0_1_2.5 (r(2)  = 0.938) and for kidney transplants was C0_0.5_4 (r(2)  = 0.931). Excluding transplant type variable, the best LSS for Prograf(®) is C0-1-3 (r(2)  = 0.920) and the best LSS for Advagraf(®) was C0_0.5_4 (r(2)  = 0.926). Considering transplant type irrespective of the formulation used, the best LSS for liver transplants was C0_2_3 (r(2)  = 0.913) and for kidney transplants was C0_0.5_4 (r(2)  = 0.898). Best LSS, considering all data together, was C0_1_4 (r(2)  = 0.898). We developed several LSSs to predict AUC0-24 for tacrolimus in children and adolescents with kidney or liver transplants after Prograf(®) and/or Advagraf(®) treatment.

  2. Occupational exposures to air contaminants at the World Trade Center disaster site--New York, September-October, 2001.

    PubMed

    2002-05-31

    Amid concerns about the fires and suspected presence of toxic materials in the rubble pile following the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) buildings on September 11, 2001, the New York City Department of Health (NYCDOH) asked CDC for assistance in evaluating occupational exposures at the site. CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected general area (GA) and personal breathing zone (PBZ) air samples for numerous potential air contaminants. This report summarizes the results of the assessment, which indicate that most exposures, including asbestos, did not exceed NIOSH recommended exposure limits (RELs) or Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PELs). One torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium; another worker was overexposed to carbon monoxide (CO) while cutting metal beams with an oxyacetylene torch or a gasoline-powered saw, and two more were possibly overexposed to CO. NIOSH recommended that workers ensure adequate on-site ventilation when using gas-powered equipment and use rechargeable, battery-powered equipment when possible.

  3. The role of outcome expectancies for a training program consisting of meditation, breathing exercises, and cold exposure on the response to endotoxin administration: a proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    van Middendorp, Henriët; Kox, Matthijs; Pickkers, Peter; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-04-01

    Expectancies play a major role for the treatment outcome of a broad variety of immune-mediated conditions and may strengthen or mimic the effects of regular long-term therapies. This study adds to a recently published study of Kox et al. (PNAS 111:7379-7384, 2014) on the ability to voluntarily influence the physiological stress response in healthy men after a training program consisting of meditation, breathing techniques, and exposure to cold, which found highly promising results on the clinical, autonomic, and immune response to experimentally induced inflammation (using the experimental human endotoxemia model). Within this project, a number of variables were included to assess the role of generalized (optimism, neuroticism) and specific outcome expectancies (related to the effects of the training on health) on the response to endotoxin administration after training. Indications were found that especially the generalized outcome expectancy optimism is a potential determinant of the autonomic (epinephrine: rho = 0.76, p < .01) and immune response (interleukin-10: rho = 0.60, p < .05) to induced inflammation after training, whereas more specific expectations with regard to the effects of the training could be especially relevant for the clinical symptom report (flu-like symptoms: rho = -0.71, p < .01). This proof-of-principle study provides first indications for potential innovative treatments to change immune-modulating responses by means of psychological mechanisms. If replicated, these findings may be used for predicting training responses and potentiate their effects by means of optimism-inducing interventions in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic conditions.

  4. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  5. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  6. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  7. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act and Permissive Disclosure: What Information Are Post-Secondary Institutions Disclosing and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Christine Glah

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the response of universities to the permissive disclosure clauses of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). FERPA has been amended nine times; some of these amendments permit universities to disclose personally identifiable information without the permission of students. The purpose of this study is to…

  8. 42 CFR 1007.20 - Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circumstances in which data mining is permissible... CONTROL UNITS § 1007.20 Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General. (a) Notwithstanding § 1007.19(e)(2), a MFCU may engage in data mining as defined in...

  9. 42 CFR 1007.20 - Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circumstances in which data mining is permissible... CONTROL UNITS § 1007.20 Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General. (a) Notwithstanding § 1007.19(e)(2), a MFCU may engage in data mining as defined in...

  10. 11 CFR 114.15 - Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications. 114.15 Section 114.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.15 Permissible use of...

  11. 76 FR 22899 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or T to Acquire Companies That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or Tto Acquire Companies That Are Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking Activities The companies listed in this notice have given notice under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act (12...

  12. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility

    PubMed Central

    Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption—public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement—is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities—that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor’s valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs. PMID:26650395

  13. Obtaining Permission to Copy or Perform a Work, Part III, Revised 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rebecca P.

    2007-01-01

    If school library media specialists are unable to find the owner of a work, how do they contact them for permission to use or copy their work? They can go to the publisher of the work for contact information. They can also go to an organization, such as an agency or royalty house, company, or clearinghouse that specializes in helping users obtain…

  14. 32 CFR 220.4 - Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible. 220.4 Section 220.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR...

  15. 32 CFR 220.4 - Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible. 220.4 Section 220.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR...

  16. 32 CFR 220.4 - Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible. 220.4 Section 220.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR...

  17. 32 CFR 220.4 - Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible. 220.4 Section 220.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR...

  18. 32 CFR 220.4 - Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable terms and conditions of health plan permissible. 220.4 Section 220.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR...

  19. 40 CFR 60.694 - Permission to use alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.694 Permission to use... emission limitation will achieve a reduction in VOC emissions at least equivalent to the reduction in VOC... emission limitation. 60.694 Section 60.694 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  20. 40 CFR 60.694 - Permission to use alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.694 Permission to use... emission limitation will achieve a reduction in VOC emissions at least equivalent to the reduction in VOC... emission limitation. 60.694 Section 60.694 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. 40 CFR 60.694 - Permission to use alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.694 Permission to use... emission limitation will achieve a reduction in VOC emissions at least equivalent to the reduction in VOC... emission limitation. 60.694 Section 60.694 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  2. 40 CFR 60.694 - Permission to use alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.694 Permission to use... emission limitation will achieve a reduction in VOC emissions at least equivalent to the reduction in VOC... emission limitation. 60.694 Section 60.694 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  3. 40 CFR 60.694 - Permission to use alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.694 Permission to use... emission limitation will achieve a reduction in VOC emissions at least equivalent to the reduction in VOC... emission limitation. 60.694 Section 60.694 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. Alumni Relationships in the Electronic Age: An Assessment of a Permission Based E-Mail Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert S.; McLaughlin, Caragh E.

    2007-01-01

    E-mail is seen as an inexpensive, fast way to communicate with university constituencies, especially alumni. The next logical stage for the use of this Internet technology is the development and evaluation of permission based e-mail (PBE) campaigns. In this paper, we directly examine recipient evaluation of PBE in the context of a university…

  5. 19 CFR 123.1 - Report of arrival from Canada or Mexico and permission to proceed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of arrival from Canada or Mexico and... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.1 Report of arrival from Canada or Mexico and permission to proceed. (a) Individuals....

  6. 15 CFR 270.322 - Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to the building failure are located, and...

  7. 15 CFR 270.322 - Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to the building failure are located, and...

  8. 15 CFR 270.322 - Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to the building failure are located, and...

  9. 15 CFR 270.322 - Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to the building failure are located, and...

  10. 15 CFR 270.322 - Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to the building failure are located, and...

  11. 47 CFR 74.831 - Scope of service and permissible transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.831 Scope of service and permissible transmissions. The license for a low power auxiliary station authorizes the transmission of cues and orders to production personnel and... therefor, the transmission of program material by means of a wireless microphone worn by a performer...

  12. 47 CFR 74.831 - Scope of service and permissible transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.831 Scope of service and permissible transmissions. The license for a low power auxiliary station authorizes the transmission of cues and orders to production personnel and... program material by means of a wireless microphone worn by a performer and other participants in a...

  13. 17 CFR 230.433 - Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information on, or hyperlinked from, an issuer's Web site. (1) An offer of an issuer's securities that is... Web site is a written offer of such securities by the issuer and, unless otherwise exempt or excluded... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions to permissible...

  14. 17 CFR 230.433 - Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information on, or hyperlinked from, an issuer's Web site. (1) An offer of an issuer's securities that is... Web site is a written offer of such securities by the issuer and, unless otherwise exempt or excluded... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conditions to permissible...

  15. 34 CFR 682.202 - Permissible charges by lenders to borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permissible charges by lenders to borrowers. 682.202 Section 682.202 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL)...

  16. 34 CFR 682.202 - Permissible charges by lenders to borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permissible charges by lenders to borrowers. 682.202 Section 682.202 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL)...

  17. 34 CFR 682.202 - Permissible charges by lenders to borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permissible charges by lenders to borrowers. 682.202 Section 682.202 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL)...

  18. 34 CFR 682.202 - Permissible charges by lenders to borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permissible charges by lenders to borrowers. 682.202 Section 682.202 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL)...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  20. 43 CFR 30.216 - How do I obtain permission to take depositions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How do I obtain permission to take depositions? 30.216 Section 30.216 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Depositions, Discovery, and Prehearing...