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  1. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  2. Automatically producing tailored web materials for public administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colineau, Nathalie; Paris, Cécile; Vander Linden, Keith

    2013-06-01

    Public administration organizations commonly produce citizen-focused, informational materials describing public programs and the conditions under which citizens or citizen groups are eligible for these programs. The organizations write these materials for generic audiences because of the excessive human resource costs that would be required to produce personalized materials for everyone. Unfortunately, generic materials tend to be longer and harder to understand than materials tailored for particular citizens. Our work explores the feasibility and effectiveness of automatically producing tailored materials. We have developed an adaptive hypermedia application system that automatically produces tailored informational materials and have evaluated it in a series of studies. The studies demonstrate that: (1) subjects prefer tailored materials over generic materials, even if the tailoring requires answering a set of demographic questions first; (2) tailored materials are more effective at supporting subjects in their task of learning about public programs; and (3) the time required to specify the demographic information on which the tailoring is based does not significantly slow down the subjects in their information seeking task.

  3. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file. 10.70 Section 10.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... appropriate employees, and show all persons to whom copies were sent; (4) Avoid defamatory...

  4. Agricultural Issues of Significance to Iowa Crop Producers and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licht, Melea A. R.; Martin, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the agricultural information preferences of crop producers in Iowa and the implications for agricultural extension education. The objective was to identify agricultural information issues producers perceive as significant to their businesses. The results will help agricultural extension educators and…

  5. Method of Administration of PROMIS Scales Did Not Significantly Impact Score Level, Reliability or Validity

    PubMed Central

    Bjorner, Jakob B.; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Study Design and Setting Two non-overlapping parallel forms each containing 8 items from each of three PROMIS item banks (Physical Function, Fatigue and Depression) were completed by 923 adults with COPD, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICC), and convergent/discriminant validity. Results In difference score analyses, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the pre-specified MID of 0.2 SD. Parallel forms reliabilities were very high (ICC=0.85-0.93). Only one across mode ICC was significantly lower than the same mode ICC. Tests of validity showed no differential effect by MOA. Participants preferred screen interface over PQ and IVR. Conclusion We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels or psychometric properties of IVR, PQ or PDA administration as compared to PC. PMID:24262772

  6. Combined administration of buprenorphine and naltrexone produces antidepressant-like effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Almatroudi, Abdulrahman; Husbands, Stephen M; Bailey, Christopher P; Bailey, Sarah J

    2015-07-01

    Opiates have been used historically for the treatment of depression. Renewed interest in the use of opiates as antidepressants has focused on the development of kappa opioid receptor (κ-receptor) antagonists. Buprenorphine acts as a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist and a κ-receptor antagonist. By combining buprenorphine with the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the activation of µ-opioid receptors will be reduced and the κ-antagonist properties enhanced. We have established that a combination dose of buprenorphine (1 mg/kg) with naltrexone (1 mg/kg) functions as a short-acting κ-antagonist in the mouse tail withdrawal test. Furthermore, this dose combination is neither rewarding nor aversive in the conditioned place preference paradigm, and is without significant locomotor effects. We have shown for the first time that systemic co-administration of buprenorphine (1 mg/kg) with naltrexone (1 mg/kg) in CD-1 mice produced an antidepressant-like response in behaviours in both the forced swim test and novelty induced hypophagia task. Behaviours in the elevated plus maze and light dark box were not significantly altered by treatment with buprenorphine alone, or in combination with naltrexone. We propose that the combination of buprenorphine with naltrexone represents a novel, and potentially a readily translatable approach, to the treatment of depression. PMID:26045511

  7. Diabetic cornea wounds produce significantly weaker electric signals that may contribute to impaired healing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunyun; Pfluger, Trisha; Ferreira, Fernando; Liang, Jiebing; Navedo, Manuel F; Zeng, Qunli; Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Wounds naturally produce electric signals which serve as powerful cues that stimulate and guide cell migration during wound healing. In diabetic patients, impaired wound healing is one of the most challenging complications in diabetes management. A fundamental gap in knowledge is whether diabetic wounds have abnormal electric signaling. Here we used a vibrating probe to demonstrate that diabetic corneas produced significantly weaker wound electric signals than the normal cornea. This was confirmed in three independent animal models of diabetes: db/db, streptozotocin-induced and mice fed a high-fat diet. Spatial measurements illustrated that diabetic cornea wound currents at the wound edge but not wound center were significantly weaker than normal. Time lapse measurements revealed that the electric currents at diabetic corneas lost the normal rising and plateau phases. The abnormal electric signals correlated significantly with impaired wound healing. Immunostaining suggested lower expression of chloride channel 2 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in diabetic corneal epithelium. Acute high glucose exposure significantly (albeit moderately) reduced electrotaxis of human corneal epithelial cells in vitro, but did not affect the electric currents at cornea wounds. These data suggest that weaker wound electric signals and impaired electrotaxis may contribute to the impaired wound healing in diabetes. PMID:27283241

  8. Diabetic cornea wounds produce significantly weaker electric signals that may contribute to impaired healing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yunyun; Pfluger, Trisha; Ferreira, Fernando; Liang, Jiebing; Navedo, Manuel F.; Zeng, Qunli; Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Wounds naturally produce electric signals which serve as powerful cues that stimulate and guide cell migration during wound healing. In diabetic patients, impaired wound healing is one of the most challenging complications in diabetes management. A fundamental gap in knowledge is whether diabetic wounds have abnormal electric signaling. Here we used a vibrating probe to demonstrate that diabetic corneas produced significantly weaker wound electric signals than the normal cornea. This was confirmed in three independent animal models of diabetes: db/db, streptozotocin-induced and mice fed a high-fat diet. Spatial measurements illustrated that diabetic cornea wound currents at the wound edge but not wound center were significantly weaker than normal. Time lapse measurements revealed that the electric currents at diabetic corneas lost the normal rising and plateau phases. The abnormal electric signals correlated significantly with impaired wound healing. Immunostaining suggested lower expression of chloride channel 2 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in diabetic corneal epithelium. Acute high glucose exposure significantly (albeit moderately) reduced electrotaxis of human corneal epithelial cells in vitro, but did not affect the electric currents at cornea wounds. These data suggest that weaker wound electric signals and impaired electrotaxis may contribute to the impaired wound healing in diabetes. PMID:27283241

  9. Cocaine self-administration produces a persistent increase in dopamine D2 High receptors.

    PubMed

    Briand, Lisa A; Flagel, Shelly B; Seeman, Philip; Robinson, Terry E

    2008-08-01

    Cocaine addicts are reported to have decreased numbers of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. However, in rodents, repeated cocaine administration consistently produces hypersensitivity to the psychomotor activating effects of both indirect dopamine agonists, such as cocaine itself, and importantly, to direct-acting D2 receptor agonists. The current study reports a possible resolution to this long-standing paradox. The dopamine D2 receptor exists in both a low and a high-affinity state, and dopamine exerts its effects via the more functionally relevant high-affinity D2 receptor (D2 High). We report here that cocaine self-administration experience produces a large (approximately 150%) increase in the proportion of D2 High receptors in the striatum with no change in the total number of D2 receptors, and this effect is evident both 3 and 30 days after the discontinuation of cocaine self-administration. Changes in D2 High receptors would not be evident with the probes used in human (and non-human primate) imaging studies. We suggest, therefore, that cocaine addicts and animals previously treated with cocaine may be hyper-responsive to dopaminergic drugs in part because an increase in D2 High receptors results in dopamine supersensitivity. This may also help explain why stimuli that increase dopamine neurotransmission, including drugs themselves, are so effective in producing relapse in individuals with a history of exposure to cocaine. PMID:18284941

  10. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1981: Water-Quality committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This review of 1981 developments is divided into four basic parts. The first covers legislative, judicial, and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA); the second covers judicial and administrative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); the third covers judicial developments respecting private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 109 references.

  11. The visualization of surgical smoke produced by energy delivery devices: significance and effectiveness of evacuation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Devices delivering energy to biological tissues (eg lasers, RF and ultrasound) can induce surgical smoke consisting of particles, vapor, gasses and aerosols. Besides interfering with the view of the surgeon, the smoke is a risk for the health of both the users and patients. In literature, it has been shown that surgical smoke can contain carcinogenic and harmful biological agents. However, the impact on health of the users and patients is widely debated. The use of smoke evacuation systems in the OR is usually governed by economical reason instead of safety issues. A special image enhancement technique is used to study the behavior of smoke and aerosols and the effectiveness of smoke evacuation systems. A back scatter illumination technique using 1 μs light flashes at video rate was applied to image the smoke production of various surgical devices without and with smoke evacuation while ablating biological tissues. The effectiveness of various smoke evacuation devices and strategies were compared. The ablative thermal devices produced smoke but also aerosols. If the thermal energy was delivered in high peak pulses, the presence of aerosols was more significant. Ultrasound based devices produce mainly aerosols. The distance to the target, the opening of the evacuation nozzle and the dimension of aerosols were leading for the effectiveness of the smoke evacuation. The smoke visualization technique has proven an effective tool for study the effectiveness of smoke and aerosols evacuation. The results can contribute to the necessity to use evacuation systems in the OR.

  12. Oral administration of inosine produces antidepressant-like effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Junko; Lee, Hosung; Lee, Hyunjin; Uwaya, Akemi; Park, Jonghyuk; Nakajima, Sanae; Nagata, Kazufumi; Ohno, Makoto; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Mikami, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Inosine, a breakdown product of adenosine, has recently been shown to exert immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. We show here that the oral administration of inosine has antidepressant-like effects in two animal models. Inosine significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth and viability of primary cultured neocortical neurons, which was suppressed by adenosine A1 and A2A receptor agonists. Oral administration of inosine to mice transiently increased its concentration in the brain and enhanced neuronal proliferation in the dentate gyrus, accompanied by phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and increase in transcript level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. In stress models, oral inosine prevented an increase in immobility time in forced swim test after chronically unexpected stress and mitigated a reduction in sucrose preference after chronic social defeat stress. These results indicate that oral administration of inosine has the potential to prevent depressive disorder via adenosine receptors. PMID:24569499

  13. Annual committee report on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1980: Water Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This review of 1980 developments is divided into three parts. The first covers judicial and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA) such as industrial guidelines and standards; the second covers judicial administrative and legislative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); and the third covers judicial developments in the areas of private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 320 references.

  14. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1982: Environmental Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Judicial developments during 1982 dominated activities involving the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rotenticide Act, and Marine Sanctuaries, with some changes in administrative procedures and no legislative developments. The Endangered Species Act was amended to expedite changes to the lists and to alter exemption and international trade requirements. Several lawsuits challenged review standards and litigation claims. 231 references. (DCK)

  15. Electrical stimulation of the lateral habenula produces an inhibitory effect on sucrose self-administration.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alexander; Lax, Elad; Dikshtein, Yahav; Abraham, Lital; Flaumenhaft, Yakov; Sudai, Einav; Ben-Tzion, Moshe; Yadid, Gal

    2011-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays a role in prediction of negative reinforcement, punishment and aversive responses. In the current study, we examined the role that the LHb plays in regulation of negative reward responses and aversion. First, we tested the effect of intervention in LHb activity on sucrose reinforcing behavior. An electrode was implanted into the LHb and rats were trained to self-administer sucrose (20%; 16 days) until at least three days of stable performance were achieved (as represented by the number of active lever presses in self-administration cages). Rats subsequently received deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the LHb, which significantly reduced sucrose self-administration levels. In contrast, lesion of the LHb increased sucrose-seeking behavior, as demonstrated by a delayed extinction response to substitution of sucrose with water. Furthermore, in a modified non-rewarding conditioned-place-preference paradigm, DBS of the LHb led to aversion to the context associated with stimulation of this brain region. We postulate that electrical stimulation of the LHb attenuates positive reward-associated reinforcement by natural substances. PMID:20955718

  16. Biomineralization of Schlumbergerella floresiana, a significant carbonate-producing benthic foraminifer.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, A; Bédouet, L; Marie, A; Bartolini, A; Landemarre, L; Weber, M X; Gusti Ngurah Kade Mahardika, I; Berland, S; Zito, F; Vénec-Peyré, M-T

    2014-07-01

    Most foraminifera that produce a shell are efficient biomineralizers. We analyzed the calcitic shell of the large tropical benthic foraminifer Schlumbergerella floresiana. We found a suite of macromolecules containing many charged and polar amino acids and glycine that are also abundant in biomineralization proteins of other phyla. As neither genomic nor transcriptomic data are available for foraminiferal biomineralization yet, de novo-generated sequences, obtained from organic matrices submitted to ms blast database search, led to the characterization of 156 peptides. Very few homologous proteins were matched in the proteomic database, implying that the peptides are derived from unknown proteins present in the foraminiferal organic matrices. The amino acid distribution of these peptides was queried against the uniprot database and the mollusk uniprot database for comparison. The mollusks compose a well-studied phylum that yield a large variety of biomineralization proteins. These results showed that proteins extracted from S. floresiana shells contained sequences enriched with glycine, alanine, and proline, making a set of residues that provided a signature unique to foraminifera. Three of the de novo peptides exhibited sequence similarities to peptides found in proteins such as pre-collagen-P and a group of P-type ATPases including a calcium-transporting ATPase. Surprisingly, the peptide that was most similar to the collagen-like protein was a glycine-rich peptide reported from the test and spine proteome of sea urchin. The molecules, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analyses, included acid-soluble N-glycoproteins with its sugar moieties represented by high-mannose-type glycans and carbohydrates. Describing the nature of the proteins, and associated molecules in the skeletal structure of living foraminifera, can elucidate the biomineralization mechanisms of these major carbonate producers in marine

  17. Biomineralization of Schlumbergerella floresiana, a significant carbonate-producing benthic foraminifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Anna; Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Bartolini, Annachiara; Landemarre, Ludovic; Weber, Michele; Ngurah Kade Mahardika, Gusti; Berland, Sophie; Zito, Francesca; Vénec-Peyré, Marie-Thérèse

    2016-04-01

    Most foraminifera that produce a shell are efficient biomineralizers. They contribute to the global carbon cycle, and thus influence ocean-climate regulation. Calcification in foraminifera is likely biologically controlled and is potentially similar to shell formation in metazoan taxa (e.g. mollusks, corals, sea urchins). However, foraminiferal biomineralization processes and the molecules involved are still poorly understood. We analyzed the calcitic shell of the large tropical benthic foraminifer Schlumbergerella floresiana. We found a suite of macromolecules containing many charged and polar amino acids and glycine that are also abundant in biomineralization proteins of other phyla. As neither genomic nor transcriptomic data are available for foraminiferal biomineralization yet, de novo-generated sequences, obtained from organic matrices submitted to MS BLAST database search, led to the characterization of 156 peptides. Very few homologous proteins were matched in the proteomic database, implying that the peptides are derived from unknown proteins present in the foraminiferal organic matrices. The amino acid distribution of these peptides was queried against the UNIPROT database and the mollusk UNIPROT database for comparison. The mollusks compose a well-studied phylum that yield a large variety of biomineralization proteins. These results showed that proteins extracted from S. floresiana shells contained sequences enriched with glycine, alanine, and proline, making a set of residues that provided a signature unique to foraminifera. Three of the de novo peptides exhibited sequence similarities to peptides found in proteins such as pre-collagen-P and a group of P-type ATPases including a calcium-transporting ATPase. Surprisingly, the peptide that was most similar to the collagen-like protein was a glycine-rich peptide reported from the test and spine proteome of sea urchin. The molecules, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight

  18. Significance of the distribution of bomb-produced radiocarbon in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The pattern of global water column inventories of bomb-produced radiocarbon suggests that a sizable portion of the bomb radiocarbon that entered the Antarctic, the northern Pacific, and the tropical oceans has been transported to the adjacent temperate regions. Models of lateral transport of surface water in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans are designed on the basis of this distribution pattern. Upwelling of bomb-radiocarbon-free water from below takes place in the Antarctic, the northern Pacific, and the tropical regions; and downwelling of surface water occurs in the temperate oceans and in the northern Atlantic. Uptake of excess CO/sub 2/ by these models is calculated using the observed Mauna Loa pCO/sub 2/ record as an input function. Results indicate that 35 percent of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/ is taken up by these model oceans during the period 1958-1980. Considering the observed airborne fraction of 0.55, it appears that about 10 percent of the global fossil fuel CO/sub 2/ is still missing. 24 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Can Lightning Produce Significant Levels of Mass-Independent Oxygen Isotopic Fractionation in Nebular Dust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Paquette, John A.; Farquhar, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Based on recent evidence that oxide grains condensed from a plasma will contain oxygen that is mass independently fractionated compared to the initial composition of the vapor, we present a first attempt to evaluate the potential magnitude of this effect on dust in the primitive solar nebula. This assessment relies on previous studies of nebular lightning to provide reasonable ranges of physical parameters to form a very simple model to evaluate the plausibility that lightning could affect a significant fraction of nebular dust and that such effects could cause a significant change in the oxygen isotopic composition of solids in the solar nebula over time. If only a small fraction of the accretion energy is dissipated as lightning over the volume of the inner solar nebula, then a large fraction of nebular dust will be exposed to lightning. If the temperature of such bolts is a few percent of the temperatures measured in terrestrial discharges, then dust will vaporize and recondense in an ionized environment. Finally, if only a small average decrease is assumed in the O-16 content of freshly condensed dust, then over the last 5 million years of nebular accretion the average delta O-17 of the dust could increase by more than 30 per mil. We conclude that it is possible that the measured " slope 1" oxygen isotope line measured in meteorites and their components represents a time-evolution sequence of nebular dust over the last several million years of nebular evolution O-16-rich materials formed first, then escaped further processing as the average isotopic composition of the dust graduaUy became increasingly depleted in O-16 .

  20. Rabbit tendon cells produce MMP-3 in response to fluid flow without significant calcium transients.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Joanne M; Elfervig-Wall, Michelle K; Tsuzaki, Mari; Herzog, Walter; Banes, Albert J

    2002-03-01

    Forces applied to tendon during movement cause cellular deformation, as well as fluid movement. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that rabbit tendon fibroblasts detect and respond to fluid-induced shear stress. Cells were isolated from the paratenon of the rabbit Achilles tendon and then subjected to fluid flow at 1 dyn/cm(2) for 6h in a specially designed multi-slide flow device. The application of fluid flow led to an increased expression of the collagenase-1 (MMP-1), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) genes. The release of proMMP-3 into the medium exhibited a dose-response with the level of fluid shear stress. However, not all cells aligned in the direction of flow. In other experiments, the same cells were incubated with the calcium-reactive dye FURA-2 AM, then subjected to laminar fluid flow in a parallel plate flow chamber. The cells did not significantly increase intracellular calcium concentration when exposed to fluid shear stress levels of up to 25 dyn/cm(2). These results show that gene expression in rabbit tendon cells is sensitive to fluid flow, but that signal transduction is not dependent on intracellular calcium transients. The upregulation of the MMP-1, MMP-3 and COX-2 genes shows that fluid flow could be an important mechanical stimulus for tendon remodelling or injury. PMID:11858805

  1. Maternal Intravenous Administration of Azithromycin Results in Significant Fetal Uptake in a Sheep Model of Second Trimester Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J.; Spiller, O. Brad; Ireland, Demelza J.; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  2. Maternal intravenous administration of azithromycin results in significant fetal uptake in a sheep model of second trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J; Spiller, O Brad; Ireland, Demelza J; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  3. Intranasal administration of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) rapidly and significantly increases whole-brain GDNF level in rats.

    PubMed

    Bender, T S; Migliore, M M; Campbell, R B; John Gatley, S; Waszczak, B L

    2015-09-10

    Previous studies have shown that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts significant neuroprotective effects on substantia nigra (SN) neurons in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine GDNF brain levels and distribution to target regions (i.e. striatum and SN) following intranasal administration of GDNF at different time points after administration. Brain levels increased significantly within 1h following a single 50-μg dose of GDNF in a liposomal formulation, returning to baseline by 24h. In a second study, different doses of GDNF (10-150 μg) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were studied at the 1-h time point. Dose-dependent increases in brain GDNF levels were observed with apparent saturation of uptake at doses above 100 μg. Liposomes delivered 10-fold more GDNF to brain than PBS despite yielding similar neuroprotective efficacy in the 6-OHDA model, suggesting incomplete release of GDNF from liposomes in tissue. In a third study, autoradiography was performed on brain sections taken 1h after intranasal (125)I-labeled GDNF. Radioactivity was detected throughout the brain along the rostral-to-caudal axis, indicating that nasally administered GDNF can reach target areas. Collectively, these results demonstrate that intranasal administration of GDNF in liposomes or PBS achieves significant increases in GDNF in target brain areas, supporting use of intranasal administration as a non-invasive means of delivering GDNF to the brain to protect dopamine neurons and arrest disease progression in PD. PMID:26166725

  4. Methylphenidate and cocaine self-administration produce distinct dopamine terminal alterations.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Melchior, James R; Bermejo, Kristel; Salahpour, Ali; Roberts, David C S; Jones, Sara R

    2014-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a commonly abused psychostimulant prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. MPH has a mechanism of action similar to cocaine (COC) and is commonly characterized as a dopamine transporter (DAT) blocker. While there has been extensive work aimed at understanding dopamine (DA) nerve terminal changes following COC self-administration, very little is known about the effects of MPH self-administration on the DA system. We used fast scan cyclic voltammetry in nucleus accumbens core slices from animals with a 5-day self-administration history of 40 injections/day of either MPH (0.56 mg/kg) or COC (1.5 mg/kg) to explore alterations in baseline DA release and uptake kinetics as well as alterations in the interaction of each compound with the DAT. Although MPH and COC have similar behavioral effects, the consequences of self-administration on DA system parameters were found to be divergent. We show that COC self-administration reduced DAT levels and maximal rates of DA uptake, as well as reducing electrically stimulated release, suggesting decreased DA terminal function. In contrast, MPH self-administration increased DAT levels, DA uptake rates and DA release, suggesting enhanced terminal function, which was supported by findings of increased metabolite/DA tissue content ratios. Tyrosine hydroxylase messenger RNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were also assessed in both groups. Additionally, COC self-administration reduced COC-induced DAT inhibition, while MPH self-administration increased MPH-induced DAT inhibition, suggesting opposite pharmacodynamic effects of these two drugs. These findings suggest that the factors governing DA system adaptations are more complicated than simple DA uptake blockade. PMID:22458761

  5. Karst Lands: The dissolution of carbonate rock produces unique landscapes and poses significant hydrological and environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.B.; Culver, D.C.; Herman, J.S.

    1995-09-01

    Karst lands are produced by the action of water on soluble rocks, a process among the most dynamic of all erosive forces that counterbalance the uplifting forces of tectonics. The dissolution of carbonate rock, primarily limestone and dolomite, produces unique landscapes and poses significant hydrological and environmental concerns. The major topic areas discussed in this article include the following: processes that form karst; karst drainage basins; discharge from karst aquifers; caves as paleoclimatic recorders; caves as ecosystems; water issues in karst regions; and sinkholes, soil piping and subsidence. 20 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Intermittent cocaine self-administration produces sensitization of stimulant effects at the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2014-05-01

    Previous literature investigating neurobiological adaptations following cocaine self-administration has shown that high, continuous levels of cocaine intake (long access; LgA) results in reduced potency of cocaine at the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas an intermittent pattern of cocaine administration (intermittent access; IntA) results in sensitization of cocaine potency at the DAT. Here, we aimed to determine whether these changes are specific to cocaine or translate to other psychostimulants. Psychostimulant potency was assessed by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens following IntA, short access, and LgA cocaine self-administration, as well as in brain slices from naive animals. We assessed the potency of amphetamine (a releaser), and methylphenidate (a DAT blocker, MPH). MPH was selected because it is functionally similar to cocaine and structurally related to amphetamine. We found that MPH and amphetamine potencies were increased following IntA, whereas neither was changed following LgA or short access cocaine self-administration. Therefore, whereas LgA-induced tolerance at the DAT is specific to cocaine as shown in previous work, the sensitizing effects of IntA apply to cocaine, MPH, and amphetamine. This demonstrates that the pattern with which cocaine is administered is important in determining the neurochemical consequences of not only cocaine effects but potential cross-sensitization/cross-tolerance effects of other psychostimulants as well. PMID:24566123

  7. The Student as Co-Producer: Learning from Public Administration about the Student-University Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    The dominant metaphor/model used to characterise the relationship of the student to the university, that is, the "student as consumer", is partial and not appropriate to the realities of contemporary higher education. This article suggests that co-production, a concept drawn from the public administration literature, offers a more appropriate…

  8. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  9. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    PubMed

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination. PMID:26038903

  10. Intrathecal administration of colistin for meningitis due to New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1(NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Oheda, Motoki; Nakae, Shunsuke; Hirose, Yuichi; Yoshida, Shunji

    2016-03-01

    Infection by bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is becoming a global health problem. We report a case of meningitis caused by NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, for which intrathecal administration of colistin was curative. A previously healthy 38-year-old Japanese man, who lived in Hyderabad, India, suddenly collapsed and was brought to a local hospital. He was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent emergency surgery which included partial skull removal. Approximately 1 month after surgery, he was repatriated to Japan and was admitted to our institution with information that he had been treated for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infection with colistin. A week after admission, he developed aspiration pneumonia due to NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae, which was successfully treated by intravenous (IV) administration of colistin. Subsequently, he underwent a surgical procedure to repair his skull defect. He developed high-grade fever and altered mental status on postoperative day 2. NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid, establishing the diagnosis of meningitis. Although IV colistin was only partially effective, intrathecal colistin (10 mg daily by lumbar puncture for 14 days) successfully eradicated the meningitis. Because of economic globalization, NDM-1-producing bacteria may be brought to Japan by those who are repatriated after sustaining critical illnesses and being treated in foreign countries. This report may provide useful information on the treatment of central nervous system infection by NDM-1-producing bacteria. PMID:26683242

  11. “All in the mind”? Brain-targeting chemical delivery system of 17β-estradiol (Estredox) produces significant uterotrophic side effect

    PubMed Central

    Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Szarka, Szabolcs; Nguyen, Vien; Sahyouni, Fatima; Walker, Cary; White, Shastazia; Talamantes, Tatjana; Prokai, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Here we revisit the peculiarly named redox chemical delivery system concept. This unique prodrug approach has long been claimed to be capable of targeting 17β-estradiol (E2), which has numerous beneficial central effects, into the brain without detrimental peripheral hormonal exposure. Using a well-established protocol to monitor E2’s antidepressant–like effect, we show that the administration of this chemical delivery system incorporated into hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (i.e., Estredox), indeed, triggers a transient antidepressant-like behavior in ovariectomized mice. At the same time, even an acute dose of the carefully purified chemical delivery system produces significant circulating E2 levels and uterotrophic side effects for several days after drug administration. For the first time, we also unequivocally show by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry that the uterus of the Estredox-treated animals contains a large quantity of E2 compared to that of the control group. These thus far unexposed yet consequential peripheral side effects brought about by Estredox call for a thorough and unbiased reassessment of the extent of brain-targeting of the hormone via the chemical delivery system approach. PMID:24380028

  12. Does Neostigmine Administration Produce a Clinically Important Increase in Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Rong; Sessler, Daniel I.; Apfel, Christian C.

    2005-01-01

    Neostigmine is used to antagonize neoromuscluar blocker-induced residual neuromuscular paralysis. Despite a previous meta-analysis, the effect of neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains unresolved. We reevaluated the effect of neostigmine on PONV while considering the different anticholinergics as potentially confounding factors. We performed a systematic literature search using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, reference listings, and hand searching with no language restriction through December 2004 and identified 10 clinical, randomized, controlled trials evaluating neostigmine's effect on PONV. Data on nausea or vomiting from 933 patients were extracted for the early (0-6 h), delayed (6-24 h), and overall postoperative periods (0-24 h) and analyzed with RevMan 4.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) and multiple logistic regression analysis. The combination of neostigmine with either atropine or glycopyrrolate did not significantly increase the incidence of overall (0-24 h) vomiting (relative risk (RR) 0.91 [0.70-1.18], P=0.48) or nausea (RR 1.24 [95% CI: 0.98-1.59], P=0.08). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that that there was not a significant increase in the risk of vomiting with large compared with small doses of neostigmine. In contrast to a previous analysis, we conclude that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that neostigmine increases the risk of PONV. PMID:16243993

  13. Busulfan administration produces sublethal effects on somatic tissues and inhibits gametogenesis in Senegalese sole juveniles.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarini, T; Olague, E; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E

    2014-05-01

    Busulfan, a cytotoxic alkylating agent used for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia has effects in mammalian germ cells. In fish species, the use of this compound is of special interest in intra and interspecies germ cell transplants. To determine the effects of busulfan in fish a previous range finding experiment was designed. Survival and growth rate of 150-days after hatching (150DAH) Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles was determined. In a second experiment, the effects of a sublethal busulfan dose in fish germ cell depletion and in somatic tissues were analysed. Sublethal effects of several busulfan treatments (B10-10 days after injection, B20-20 days after injection, B20÷-20 days after injection with double injection) were determined in somatic and gonadal tissues. Alterations were registered through histopathological techniques, TUNEL (cell apoptosis) and quantified at molecular level (Q-PCR analyses) using the vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 mRNAs) as molecular markers for germinal cells in Senegalese sole juveniles. Several sublethal effects were observed with 40 mg kg⁻¹ busulfan, a non-lethal dose, such as: pyknosis in liver, increase of melanomacrophage centres and blood stagnation in spleen and interruption of gonadal development. Females were more affected by busulfan treatments than males in terms of germ cell disruption, since a significant decrease in the expression of both Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 markers was found in the gonad of treated females rather than males. At 10 days post-treatment (B10), females already presented a decrease in germ cell proliferation, as confirmed by Q-PCR. Ssvasa expression proved to be a reliable tool for the direct evaluation of the effects of busulfan on Senegalese sole gonadal development, proving that busulfan can be a suitable treatment for causing transient sterility in recipient gonads for germ cell transplantation. PMID:24371034

  14. Cocaine but not natural reward self-administration nor passive cocaine infusion produces persistent LTP in the VTA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Billy T.; Bowers, M. Scott; Martin, Miquel; Hopf, F. Woodward; Gilroy, Anitra M.; Carelli, Regina M.; Chou, Jonathan K.; Bonci, Antonello

    2008-01-01

    Summary Persistent drug-seeking behavior is hypothesized to co-opt the brain's natural reward-motivational system. Although ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons represent a crucial component of this system, the synaptic adaptations underlying natural rewards and drug-related motivation have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that self-administration of cocaine, but not passive cocaine infusions, produced a persistent potentiation of VTA excitatory synapses, which was still present after 3 months abstinence. Further, enhanced synaptic function in VTA was evident even after 3 weeks of extinction training. Food or sucrose self-administration induced only a transient potentiation of VTA glutamatergic signaling. Our data show that synaptic function in VTA DA neurons is readily but reversibly enhanced by natural reward-seeking behavior, while voluntary cocaine self-administration induced a persistent synaptic enhancement that is resistant to behavioral extinction. Such persistent synaptic potentiation in VTA DA neurons may represent a fundamental cellular phenomenon driving pathological drug-seeking behavior. PMID:18667156

  15. Systemic and spinal administration of FAAH, MAGL inhibitors and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors produce antipruritic effect in mice.

    PubMed

    Yesilyurt, Ozgur; Cayirli, Mutlu; Sakin, Yusuf Serdar; Seyrek, Melik; Akar, Ahmet; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    The increase of endocannabinoid tonus by inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) represents a promising therapeutic approach in a variety of disease to overcome serious central side effects of exocannabinoids. Recent studies reported that systemic administration of FAAH and MAGL inhibitors produce antipruritic action. Dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors have also been described to get enhanced endocannabinoid therapeutic effect. In this study, we examined and compared dose-related antipruritic effects of systemic (intraperitoneal; ip) or intrathecal (it) administration of selective FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.; 1, 5, and 10 µg, i.t.), MAGL inhibitor JZL184 (4, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.; 1, 5, and 10 µg, i.t.) and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor JZL195 (2, 5, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.; 1, 5, and 10 µg, i.t.) on serotonin (5-HT)-induced scratching model. Serotonin (25 μg) was injected intradermally in a volume of 50 μl into the rostral part of skin on the back of male Balb-C mice. Both systemic or intrathecal administration of PF-3845, JZL184 or JZL195 produced similar dose-dependent antipruritic effects. Our results suggest that endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL are involved in pruritic process at spinal level. FAAH, MAGL or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors have promising antipruritic effects, at least, in part through spinal site of action. PMID:27126057

  16. Delayed Administration of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dreixler, John C.; Poston, Jacqueline N.; Balyasnikova, Irina; Shaikh, Afzhal R.; Tupper, Kelsey Y.; Conway, Sineadh; Boddapati, Venkat; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Roth, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed treatment after ischemia is often unsatisfactory. We hypothesized that injection of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) conditioned medium after ischemia could rescue ischemic retina, and in this study we characterized the functional and histological outcomes and mechanisms of this neuroprotection. Methods. Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure for 55 minutes. Conditioned medium (CM) from rat BMSCs or unconditioned medium (uCM) was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed 7 days after ischemia using electroretinography, at which time we euthanized the animals and then prepared 4-μm-thick paraffin-embedded retinal sections. TUNEL and Western blot were used to identify apoptotic cells and apoptosis-related gene expression 24 hours after injections; that is, 48 hours after ischemia. Protein content in CM versus uCM was studied using tandem mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics methods were used to model protein interactions. Results. Intravitreal injection of CM 24 hours after ischemia significantly improved retinal function and attenuated cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer. CM attenuated postischemic apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression. By spectral counting, 19 proteins that met stringent identification criteria were increased in the CM compared to uCM; the majority were extracellular matrix proteins that mapped into an interactional network together with other proteins involved in cell growth and adhesion. Conclusions. By restoring retinal function, attenuating apoptosis, and preventing retinal cell loss after ischemia, CM is a robust means of delayed postischemic intervention. We identified some potential candidate proteins for this effect. PMID:24699381

  17. Intraperitoneal Administration of Low Dose Aluminium in The Rat: How Good is It to Produce a Model for Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, H B; Sonmez, M F; Kilic, E; Caliskan, K; Karaca, B; Kara, M; Ercal, O; Gunduz, Y; Karabulut, D; Bitiktas, S; Tan, B; Kavraal, S; İnal, A; Suer, C

    2015-12-01

    Since neurotoxicity of aluminium (Al) resembles the progressive neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer Disease (AD), Al administration in several ways has been used to produce AD model. Intraperitoneal (ip) low dose (4.2 mg/ kg) Al injection in rats for long periods is the preferred method by some researchers. In this paper, the efficiency of this method for producing an AD model was evaluated. In this study, we looked at the neuropathology of Al and the characteristic lesions of AD by histological and immunohistochemical techniques and determined oxidative stress markers in the brains of Al-treated and control rats. We also made electrophysiological recordings at the hippocampus and evaluated possible behavioural changes by Morris water maze test. However, no pathologic changes occurred in the animals except for an impairment in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus (e.g. the LTPs of population spike (PS) amplitude at 15 min post-tetanus were measured as 217±27% in Al-treated rats and as 240±42% in sham-treated rats, of baseline PS amplitude). According to the findings of the present study, low dose of ip Al in rats is not sufficient to produce a good AD model. Higher doses (≥10 mg/kg) should be used. PMID:27168412

  18. Oral Administration of Silkworm-Produced GAD65 and Insulin Bi-Autoantigens against Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoping; Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Induction of mucosal tolerance by oral administration of protein antigens is a potential therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the requirement for a large dosage of protein limits clinical applications because of the low efficacy. In this study, we generated a fusion protein CTB-Ins-GAD composed of CTB (cholera toxin B subunit), insulin, and three copies of GAD65 peptide 531–545, which were efficiently produced in silkworm pupae, to evaluate its protective effect against T1D. We demonstrate that oral administration of CTB-Ins-GAD suppressed T1D by up to 78%, which is much more effective than GAD65 single-antigen treatment. Strikingly, CTB-Ins-GAD enhance insulin- and GAD65-specific Th2-like immune responses, which repairs the Th1/Th2 imbalance and increases the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell and suppresses insulin- and GAD65-reactive spleen T lymphocyte proliferation and migration. Our results strongly suggest that the combined dual antigens promote the induction of oral tolerance, thus providing an effective and economic immunotherapy against T1D in combination with a silkworm bioreactor. PMID:26783749

  19. Topical application of a novel oxycodone gel formulation (tocopheryl phosphate mixture) in a rat model of peripheral inflammatory pain produces localized pain relief without significant systemic exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maree T; Wyse, Bruce D; Edwards, Stephen R; El-Tamimy, Mahmoud; Gaetano, Giacinto; Gavin, Paul

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the analgesic efficacy and systemic exposure of oxycodone administered topically in a novel tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM) gel formulation, to the inflamed hindpaws in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Unilateral hindpaw inflammation was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Mechanical hyperalgesia and hindpaw inflammation were assessed by measuring paw pressure thresholds and hindpaw volume, respectively, just prior to i.pl. FCA and again 5-6 days later. The analgesic effects of oxycodone administered topically (1 mg in TPM gel) or by i.pl. injection (50 μg), were assessed. Systemic oxycodone exposure was assessed over an 8-h postdosing interval following topical application. Skin permeation of oxycodone from the gel formulation was assessed in vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Oxycodone administered topically or by i.pl. injection produced significant (p < 0.05) analgesia in the inflamed hindpaws. Systemic oxycodone exposure was insignificant after topical dosing. The in vitro cumulative skin permeation of oxycodone was linearly related to the amount applied. Topical TPM/oxycodone gel formulations have the potential to alleviate moderate to severe inflammatory pain conditions with minimal systemic exposure, thereby avoiding central nervous system (CNS)-mediated adverse effects associated with oral administration of opioid analgesics. PMID:25995048

  20. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Public Lands and Land-Use Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme Court made three major land-use decisions during 1983, two dealing with federalism and the third with federal jiduciary obligation. The US Forest Service Small Tracts Act added flexibility to the disposal of small tracts. Court cases relating to national forests dealt with title disputes, oil and gas leasing, Indian religious practices, dual permitting under the Wilderness Act, and licensing hydro projects on Indian lands. The committee reports uneven administrative progress by the Forests Service in managing the forests. Legislation relating to Department of Interior Management Lands focuses on Outer Continental Shelf and federal coal leases and wilderness areas. The Supreme Court made several decisions involving the classification of sand and gravel as minerals, trespass, nonimpairment standards, herbicides, and other issues. 132 references.

  1. The intra-nasal administration of insulin induces significant hypoglycaemia and classical counterregulatory hormonal responses in normal man.

    PubMed

    Paquot, N; Scheen, A J; Franchimont, P; Lefebvre, P J

    1988-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the metabolic and hormonal consequences of intra-nasal administration of insulin in normal man. Lyophylisated regular porcine insulin (Insuline Ordinaire Organon) diluted with a non ionic detergent (Laureth-9 0,25%) was administered intra-nasally in 8 overnight fasted healthy volunteers using a calibrated aerosol delivery device (90 microliters = 9 U of insulin/spray) up to a total insulin dose close to 1 U/kg body weight. After intra-nasal insulin administration, plasma insulin levels rose from 5 +/- 1 to 38 +/- 10 mU/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 15, blood glucose concentrations decreased from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 45, plasma C-peptide levels diminished from 327 +/- 31 to 174 +/- 28 mumol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 60 and plasma free fatty acids concentrations fell from 336 +/- 109 to 130 +/- 31 mumol/l (2p less than 0.05) at min 30. The fall in blood glucose resulted in a prompt increase in plasma glucagon levels (from 78 +/- 28 to 150 +/- 24 ng/l at min 45; 2p less than 0.05) and in later rises in plasma growth hormone and cortisol concentrations. There was a close relationship between the individual maximal decreases in blood glucose levels and the individual maximal increases in plasma insulin (r = 0.81), glucagon (r = 0.88), cortisol (r = 0.87) and growth hormone (r = 0.76) concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3292305

  2. Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies are present in intravenous immunoglobulin and are produced in mice following its administration.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, David A; Klaver, Andrea C; Coffey, Mary P

    2015-06-01

    The effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products were recently examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although encouraging results were obtained in pilot studies, later trials produced negative results. The rationale for these studies was that IVIG contains antibodies to amyloid-beta (Aβ). However, if Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies (antibodies which bind to anti-Aβ antibodies) are present in IVIG or induced by its administration, these antibodies could potentially reduce its neuroprotective effects in AD. The objective of this study was to determine if IVIG contained such antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) measured specific binding of IVIG Gamunex to purified human anti-Aβ IgG. The mean concentration of its Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies in four experiments was 1.85 μg/mL (18.5 μg/g IgG; range = 1.82-1.89 μg/mL [18.2-18.9 μg/g IgG]), and their mean percentage of specific binding was 72.2% (range = 68.3-75.3%). We then performed ELISAs to determine if antibodies to purified human anti-Aβ were produced in C57BL/6 mice injected with the IVIG product Gammagard in an earlier study. After subtracting the expected immune response to normal human immunoglobulins, the median concentrations of these antibodies were 15.6 ng/mL (range = 1.2-108.2 ng/mL) in pre-treatment sera and 2419.4 ng/mL (range = 327.4-8478.4 ng/mL) in post-treatment sera. These results indicate that specific Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies are detectable in IVIG and may be induced in mice by its administration. The presence of Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies in IVIG products might decrease neuroprotective effects of their anti-Aβ antibodies in AD. PMID:25392130

  3. Administrators' Perceptions of Factors Related to Student Retention at Colleges with a Significant Black Student Enrollment Affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wesley B.

    2013-01-01

    This study described and explored the factors perceived as relevant to student retention by administrators at colleges and universities with significant Black student populations. The sample was 31 institutions affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) that had Black student enrollment of 20% or more. The study sought to…

  4. From 9/11 to Recession: Historically Significant Events in America and Their Impact on Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnema, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Federally sponsored research funding sources are not stagnant programs. Many things influence the nature of research, not all of them purely scientific. Historically significant events draw public attention to causes, and in the age of immediate information those events can have a powerful and lasting impact on research funding. September 11, 2001…

  5. Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%

    PubMed Central

    Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

  6. Culturally-sensitive weight loss program produces significant reduction in weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol in eight weeks.

    PubMed Central

    Ard, J. D.; Rosati, R.; Oddone, E. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Dietary and behavioral needs of special populations are rarely considered in traditional weight loss programs. This study assessed the impact of culturally-sensitive modifications to the Duke University Rice Diet weight loss program for African-American dieters. The study was a randomized modified cross-over study in which volunteers received either early or delayed weight loss intervention. Final outcomes were measured at 8 weeks. At the onset of the study, there were 56 African American participants, however, only 44 (79%) completed the study. The eight-week intervention was a modified 1000-calorie/day version of the Rice Diet. Modifications to the program included decreased cost, culturally-sensitive recipes, addressing attitudes about exercise, and including family members in weight loss efforts. Average weight loss for subjects completing the program was 14.8 pounds (SD = 6.8 pounds). BMI decreased from 37.8 kg/m2 to 35.3 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). Total cholesterol levels decreased from 199.2 mg/dL to 185.4 mg/dL (p < 0.01); systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4.3 mmHg (p < 0.01) and 2.4 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. The control group showed no significant change in any outcome measures. We found that diet programs can be successfully tailored to incorporate the needs of African-Americans. Most importantly, these dietary program changes can lead to significant improvement in clinical parameters. Additional studies are necessary to determine the permanence of these short-term changes. PMID:11152083

  7. The incidence and significance of acute kidney injury following emergent contrast administration in patients with STEMI and stroke.

    PubMed

    Marchick, Michael Robert; Allen, Brandon Russell; Weeks, Emily Cassin; Shuster, Jonathan Jacob; Elie, Marie-Carmelle

    2016-09-01

    The authors have investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and short-term mortality following an activated STEMI and stroke alert at a tertiary referral and academic center. A single center, retrospective chart review of STEMI and stroke activation patients from January 2010 to March 2012. Data was collected and reviewed from an institutional database following IRB-approval. Inclusion criteria were STEMI patients taken for cardiac catheterization, excluding patients receiving hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Primary outcome measures were the incidence of AKI using the RIFLE criteria and short-term mortality. 745 patients were included (488 stroke, 257 STEMI). The median age was 65, and 39 % were female. Overall inpatient mortality was 7.0 %. 5.4 % (40/745) of patients experienced some degree of AKI (8.6 % of STEMI, 3.7 % of stroke patients). Overall, 30 % of patients with AKI died during their hospitalization. AKI was associated with a 7.1-fold (95 % CI 3.4-15.1) increase in mortality in the entire cohort. Among STEMI patients, AKI was associated with a 66.6-fold (95 % CI 12.9-343.4) increase in mortality. These findings follow similar trends published among critically ill patients with AKI. The risk of death with concomitant AKI in this hospital population is significant and deserves future study. Early recognition and awareness in the emergency department is paramount to the patient's survival. Future studies should focus on modalities to improve early recognition and preventative therapies. PMID:26910240

  8. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity. PMID:23315312

  9. Intragastric administration of a superoxide dismutase-producing recombinant Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain attenuates DSS colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Watterlot, Laurie; Rochat, Tatiana; Sokol, Harry; Cherbuy, Claire; Bouloufa, Ismael; Lefèvre, François; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Honvo-Hueto, Edith; Chilmonczyk, Stefan; Blugeon, Sébastien; Corthier, Gérard; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2010-11-15

    Human immune cells release large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide via respiratory burst. In inflammatory bowel diseases, a sustained and abnormal activation of the immune response results in oxidative stress of the digestive tract and in a loss of intestinal homeostasis. We previously reported that heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum manganese catalase (MnKat) enhances the survival of Lb. casei BL23 when exposed to oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory effects were observed after Lb. casei BL23 oral administrations in moderate murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, without added effects of the MnKat production. Here, we evaluated the protective effects obtained by an improved antioxidative strategy. The Lactococcus lactis sodA gene was expressed in Lb. casei BL23 which acquired an efficient manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity. The effects of Lb. casei MnSOD alone or in combination with Lb. casei MnKat were compared first in eukaryotic cell PMA-induced oxidative stress model and then in severe murine DSS-induced colitis. Based on ROS production assays as well as colonic histological scores, a significant reduction of both oxidative stress and inflammation was observed with Lb. casei MnSOD either alone or in combination with Lb. casei MnKat. No added effect of the presence of Lb. casei MnKat was observed. These results suggest that Lb. casei BL23 MnSOD could have anti-inflammatory effects on gut inflammation. PMID:20452077

  10. DNA ADDUCTS IN RAT LUNG, LIVER, AND PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES PRODUCED BY I.P. ADMINISTRATION OF BENZO(A)PYRENE METABOLITES AND DERIVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA adducts produced in vivo in rat lung, liver, and peripheral blood lymphocytes following the i.p. administration of several synthetic benzo[a],pyrene (B[a]P) metabolites and ring-substituted derivatives have been analyzed by the nuclease P1 version of the 32P-postlabeling assa...

  11. The technical aspects and clinical significance of detecting extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary-care hospital in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Mokaddas, E M; Abdulla, A A; Shati, S; Rotimi, V O

    2008-08-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production by Enterobacteriaceae is an emerging problem. This 3-year prospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of such enzymes among the clinically significant isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae family gathered from patients, and to evaluate the different techniques for their detection as well as their clinical significance. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from blood, inhibited by the third-generation cephalosporins with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of < or =2 microg/ml and MIC < or =8 microg/ml and isolates from other sources inhibited by MIC < or =8 microg/ml were also investigated for ESBL production by VITEK2 and E test. Their clinical significance in septicemic patients was analyzed. Out of 3,215 isolates, 1018 (31.7%) were ESBL-producers by both VITEK2 and E test. Of these, 428 (42%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae and 376 (37.0%) were Escherichia coli with overall prevalence rates of 13.3% and 11.7%, respectively. There were a total of 184 septicemic patients infected by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae out of which 134 (73%) needed modification of therapy; most (58%) of these patients were initially on third-generation cephalosporin therapy. A total of 58 (31.5%) patients were infected by ESBL-producing blood isolates which were inhibited by cefotaxime/ceftriaxone at MICs =8 microg/ml (within the susceptibility range). Resistance to both aminoglycosides and quinolones were significantly higher among ESBLproducing isolates compared to non-producers (P <0.05). This study highlights a high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a major tertiary teaching hospital in our country and demonstrates that almost a third of the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae blood isolates would have been released as susceptible by routine susceptibility testing; a finding inimical to optimal therapeutic success. PMID:18676224

  12. Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response: an IRT-based analysis from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function, fatigue, and depression) were completed by 923 adults (age 18–89) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized crossover design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. Results Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported equivalence of factor structure across MOA. Analyses by item response theory found no differences in item location parameters and strongly supported the equivalence of scores across MOA. Conclusions We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis. PMID:23877585

  13. Increased Risk for ESBL-Producing Bacteria from Co-administration of Loperamide and Antimicrobial Drugs for Travelers’ Diarrhea1

    PubMed Central

    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Lääveri, Tinja

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug treatment of travelers’ diarrhea is known to increase the risk for colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Among 288 travelers with travelers’ diarrhea, the colonization rate without medications was 21%. For treatment with loperamide only, the rate was 20%; with antimicrobial drugs alone, 40%; and with loperamide and antimicrobial drugs, 71%. PMID:26691898

  14. Increased Risk for ESBL-Producing Bacteria from Co-administration of Loperamide and Antimicrobial Drugs for Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Kantele, Anu; Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Lääveri, Tinja

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug treatment of travelers' diarrhea is known to increase the risk for colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Among 288 travelers with travelers' diarrhea, the colonization rate without medications was 21%. For treatment with loperamide only, the rate was 20%; with antimicrobial drugs alone, 40%; and with loperamide and antimicrobial drugs, 71%. PMID:26691898

  15. Bacteriophage administration significantly reduces Shigella colonization and shedding by Shigella-challenged mice without deleterious side effects and distortions in the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Volker; Ukhanova, Maria; Reinhard, Mary K; Li, Manrong; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We used a mouse model to establish safety and efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail, ShigActive™, in reducing fecal Shigella counts after oral challenge with a susceptible strain. Groups of inbred C57BL/6J mice challenged with Shigella sonnei strain S43-NalAcR were treated with a phage cocktail (ShigActive™) composed of 5 lytic Shigella bacteriophages and ampicillin. The treatments were administered (i) 1 h after, (ii) 3 h after, (iii) 1 h before and after, and (iv) 1 h before bacterial challenge. The treatment regimens elicited a 10- to 100-fold reduction in the CFU's of the challenge strain in fecal and cecum specimens compared to untreated control mice, (P < 0.05). ShigActiveTM treatment was at least as effective as treatment with ampicillin but had a significantly less impact on the gut microbiota. Long-term safety studies did not identify any side effects or distortions in overall gut microbiota associated with bacteriophage administration. Shigella phages may be therapeutically effective in a “classical phage therapy” approach, at least during the early stages after Shigella ingestion. Oral prophylactic “phagebiotic” administration of lytic bacteriophages may help to maintain a healthy gut microbiota by killing specifically targeted bacterial pathogens in the GI tract, without deleterious side effects and without altering the normal gut microbiota. PMID:26909243

  16. Repeated low-dose kainate administration in C57BL/6J mice produces temporal lobe epilepsy pathology but infrequent spontaneous seizures.

    PubMed

    Umpierre, Anthony D; Bennett, Isaiah V; Nebeker, Lismore D; Newell, Thomas G; Tian, Bruce B; Thomson, Kyle E; White, H Steve; White, John A; Wilcox, Karen S

    2016-05-01

    More efficient or translationally relevant approaches are needed to model acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in genetically tractable mice. The high costs associated with breeding and maintaining transgenic, knock-in, or knock-out lines place a high value on the efficiency of induction and animal survivability. Herein, we describe our approaches to model acquired epilepsy in C57BL/6J mice using repeated, low-dose kainate (KA) administration paradigms. Four paradigms (i.p.) were tested for their ability to induce status epilepticus (SE), temporal lobe pathology, and the development of epilepsy. All four paradigms reliably induce behavioral and/or electrographic SE without mortality over a 7d period. Two of the four paradigms investigated produce features indicative of TLE pathology, including hippocampal cell death, widespread astrogliosis, and astrocyte expression of mGluR5, a feature commonly reported in TLE models. Three of the investigated paradigms were able to produce aberrant electrographic features, such as interictal spiking in cortex. However, only one paradigm, previously published by others, produces spontaneous recurrent seizures over an eight week period. Presentation of spontaneous seizures is rare (N=2/14), with epilepsy preferentially developing in animals having a high number of seizures during SE. Overall, repeated, low-dose KA administration improves the efficiency and pathological relevance of a systemic KA insult, but does not produce a robust epilepsy phenotype under the experimental paradigms described herein. PMID:26896834

  17. Administration of D,L-fenfluramine to rats produces learning deficits in the Cincinnati water maze but not the Morris water maze: relationship to adrenal cortical output.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Morford, LaRonda L; McCrea, Anne E; Wood, Sandra L; Vorhees, Charles V

    2002-01-01

    Fenfluramine (FEN) is an amphetamine derivative with anorectic properties similar to amphetamine, but without the stimulatory or abuse potential. Administration of FEN produces an immediate release of serotonin as well as inhibits reuptake; ultimately FEN produces a decrease in serotonin stores in the central nervous system. We have previously shown that the administration of FEN to rats results in increased adrenal cortical hormones under resting conditions, without simultaneous elevations in adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that the adrenal output would be altered following stress and that the altered adrenal output would affect learning and memory, since the adrenal hormones influence learning and memory capability. In this series of experiments, we administered D,L-FEN (15 mg/kg) four times every 2 h on a single day to rats and investigated the effect on hormonal output following forced swim and the effect on sequential learning in the Cincinnati water maze and spatial learning in the Morris maze beginning 3 days after FEN administration. Animals that received FEN had increased corticosterone and aldosterone titers following forced swim relative to control animals, although no differences in ACTH or testosterone were noted. Animals exposed to FEN had lasting deficits in the Cincinnati water maze but not in the Morris water maze, regardless of testing order. These deficits in the Cincinnati water maze appear to be mediated by the elevation in adrenal output since adrenalectomy abolished the effect of FEN. Corticosterone levels were shown to be elevated during the behavioral testing period in animals exposed to FEN. PMID:12460661

  18. Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Laura A; Bassis, Christine M; Walacavage, Kim; Hashway, Sara; Leroueil, Pascale R; Morishita, Masako; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobials in a number of applications, including topical wound dressings and coatings for consumer products and biomedical devices. Ingestion is a relevant route of exposure for AgNPs, whether occurring unintentionally via Ag dissolution from consumer products, or intentionally from dietary supplements. AgNP have also been proposed as substitutes for antibiotics in animal feeds. While oral antibiotics are known to have significant effects on gut bacteria, the antimicrobial effects of ingested AgNPs on the indigenous microbiome or on gut pathogens are unknown. In addition, AgNP size and coating have been postulated as significantly influential towards their biochemical properties and the influence of these properties on antimicrobial efficacy is unknown. We evaluated murine gut microbial communities using culture-independent sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments following 28 days of repeated oral dosing of well-characterized AgNPs of two different sizes (20 and 110 nm) and coatings (PVP and Citrate). Irrespective of size or coating, oral administration of AgNPs at 10 mg/kg body weight/day did not alter the membership, structure or diversity of the murine gut microbiome. Thus, in contrast to effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeat dosing of AgNP, at doses equivalent to 2000 times the oral reference dose and 100-400 times the effective in vitro anti-microbial concentration, does not affect the indigenous murine gut microbiome. PMID:26525505

  19. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Bales, Karen L.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.; Havel, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (≈0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Moreover, the low dose of OT suppressed 12-h chow intake by 26 ± 7% (P < 0.05). The higher dose of OT reduced 12-h chow intake by 27 ± 5% (P < 0.05) and 8-h fructose-sweetened beverage intake by 18 ± 8% (P < 0.05). OT increased EE during the dark cycle by 14 ± 3% (P < 0.05) and was associated with elevations of free fatty acids and glycerol and reductions in triglycerides suggesting increased lipolysis. Together, these data suggest that OT reduces BW in DIO rhesus monkeys through decreased food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis. PMID:25540103

  20. Cocaine self-administration produces pharmacodynamic tolerance: differential effects on the potency of dopamine transporter blockers, releasers, and methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Mark J; Calipari, Erin S; Mateo, Yolanda; Melchior, James R; Roberts, David C S; Jones, Sara R

    2012-06-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the primary site of action for psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine, methylphenidate, and amphetamine. Our previous work demonstrated a reduced ability of cocaine to inhibit the DAT following high-dose cocaine self-administration (SA), corresponding to a reduced ability of cocaine to increase extracellular dopamine. However, this effect had only been demonstrated for cocaine. Thus, the current investigations sought to understand the extent to which cocaine SA (1.5 mg/kg/inf × 40 inf/day × 5 days) altered the ability of different dopamine uptake blockers and releasers to inhibit dopamine uptake, measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices. We demonstrated that, similar to cocaine, the DAT blockers nomifensine and bupropion were less effective at inhibiting dopamine uptake following cocaine SA. The potencies of amphetamine-like dopamine releasers such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, and phentermine, as well as a non-amphetamine releaser, 4-benzylpiperidine, were all unaffected. Finally, methylphenidate, which blocks dopamine uptake like cocaine while being structurally similar to amphetamine, shared characteristics of both, resembling an uptake blocker at low concentrations and a releaser at high concentrations. Combined, these experiments demonstrate that after high-dose cocaine SA, there is cross-tolerance of the DAT to other uptake blockers, but not releasers. The reduced ability of psychostimulants to inhibit dopamine uptake following cocaine SA appears to be contingent upon their functional interaction with the DAT as a pure blocker or releaser rather than their structural similarity to cocaine. Further, methylphenidate's interaction with the DAT is unique and concentration-dependent. PMID:22395730

  1. Immunotherapy of cancer using local administration of lymphoid cells transformed by IL-2 cDNA and constitutively producing IL-2.

    PubMed

    Bubeník, J; Símová, J; Jandlová, T

    1990-02-01

    Peritumoral administration of X63-m-IL-2 cells transformed by IL-2 cDNA and constitutively producing large quantities of recombinant IL-2 mediated regression of X63-Ag8.653 plasmocytoma and MC14 sarcoma transplanted in syngeneic mice. Injections of the IL-2-producing cells containing an inserted, modified IL-2 gene effectively inhibited tumour growth also in allogeneic recipients. Activation of murine spleen cells in vitro by co-cultivation with X63-m-IL-2 cells gave rise to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell populations cytotoxic for the X63-Ag8.653 plasmocytoma and MC14 sarcoma. The results suggest that peritumoral administration of lymphoid cells transformed with IL-2 cDNA and constitutively producing IL-2 in the immediate tumour vicinity is sufficient for the effective activation of local IL-2-dependent tumour defence mechanisms and, therefore, can be considered a novel, genetic approach to the immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:2347603

  2. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  3. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Alia; Sanders, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  4. Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality of Life Measured by EPIC Score

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Nicole L.; Menard, Cynthia; Soule, Benjamin P.; Albert, Paul S.; Guion, Peter; Smith, Sharon; Godette, Denise; Crouse, Nancy S.; Sciuto, Linda C.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Singh, Anurag K. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether intrarectal amifostine limits symptoms of radiation proctitis, measured by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer received amifostine as a rectal suspension 30-45 minutes before daily three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. Toxicity was assessed at baseline, during treatment, and at follow-up visits by using RTOG grading and the EPIC Quality of Life (QoL) 50-item questionnaire. The Bowel Function subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BF), which targets symptom severity, and the Bowel Bother subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BB), which assesses QoL, were evaluated and compared with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Results: Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 18-36 months). Overall, EPIC-BF and EPIC-BB scores both tracked closely with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of RTOG Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18 patients) compared with 0% (0/12 patients) in the 2-g group and trended toward statistical significance (p = 0.06). A significant difference between amifostine groups was observed using the EPIC-BF score at 7 weeks (p = 0.04). A difference in EPIC-BB scores between dose groups was evident at 7 weeks (p = 0.07) and was significant at 12 months (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher doses of amifostine produced significant improvements in acute and late bowel QoL (up to 1 year after therapy), measured using the EPIC score.

  5. Early increase in dopamine release in the ipsilateral striatum after unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin produces spontaneous contralateral rotations in rats.

    PubMed

    Konieczny, J; Lenda, T; Czarnecka, A

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, UPS inhibitors, such as lactacystin have been used to investigate the relationship between UPS impairment and degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, mostly long-term neurotoxic effects of lactacystin have been studied in animal models. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate behavioral and biochemical changes related to the DA system during the first week following unilateral intranigral injection of lactacystin to rats. We found that lactacystin produced early spontaneous contralateral rotations which were inhibited by combined administration of DA D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. Simultaneously, an increase in the extracellular level of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) was found in the ipsilateral striatum. In contrast, one week after lesion, when turning behavior was no longer visible, a decrease in the extracellular level of DA, DOPAC and HVA was demonstrated. It was accompanied by a substantial reduction in the tissue levels of DA and its metabolites in the lesioned substantia nigra and striatum. We concluded that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin produces an early increase in DA neurotransmission which precedes a decrease in the striatal and nigral tissue DA content. It is manifested by the appearance of spontaneous contralateral rotations and an elevation of the extracellular DA level in the ipsilateral striatum. Since similar behavior was previously observed after intranigral administration of rotenone and MPP(+) but not 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), it may indicate a common mechanism of action shared by these neurotoxins. PMID:26964686

  6. The macrocyclic tetrapeptide [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 produces short-acting κ opioid receptor antagonism in the CNS after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Reilley, Kate J; Patkar, Kshitij A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cyclic peptides are resistant to proteolytic cleavage, therefore potentially exhibiting activity after systemic administration. We hypothesized that the macrocyclic κ opioid receptor (KOR)-selective antagonist [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 would demonstrate antagonist activity after systemic, that is, s.c. and oral (per os, p. o.), administration. Experimental Approach C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 s.c. or p.o. before administration of the KOR-selective agonist U50,488 and the determination of antinociception in the warm-water tail-withdrawal assay. The locomotor activity of mice treated with [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 was determined by rotorod testing. Additional mice demonstrating cocaine conditioned place preference and subsequent extinction were pretreated daily with vehicle or [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 and then exposed to repeated forced swim stress or a single additional session of cocaine place conditioning before redetermining place preference. Key Results Pretreatment with [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 administered s.c. or p.o. dose-dependently antagonized the antinociception induced by i.p. administration of U50,488 in mice tested in the warm-water tail-withdrawal assay for less than 12 and 6 h respectively. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 also produced limited (<25%), short-duration antinociception mediated through KOR agonism. Orally administered [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 dose-dependently antagonized centrally administered U50,488-induced antinociception, and prevented stress-, but not cocaine-induced, reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behaviour, consistent with its KOR antagonist activity, without affecting locomotor activity. Conclusions and Implications The macrocyclic tetrapeptide [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 is a short-duration KOR antagonist with weak KOR agonist activity that is active after oral administration and demonstrates blood–brain barrier permeability. These data validate the use of systemically active peptides such as [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 as potentially useful

  7. Assessment of the significance of direct and indirect pollution inputs to a major salmon-producing river using polyethylene membrane devices.

    PubMed

    Moles, Adam; Holland, Larry; Andersson, Ole

    2006-08-01

    Conventional passive sampling devices for monitoring pollution input often prove to be cost-prohibitive when assessing large spatial and temporal scales. The Kenai River, a major salmon-producing river in Alaska (USA), served as the perfect laboratory to test the utility of polyethylene membrane devices for assessing chronic nonpoint-source inputs to a large riverine watershed. Comparison of the relative levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a large number of locations over time allowed us to assess the significance and potential source of these compounds in the river. Concentrations of PAH were greatest near urban areas and peaked during the late winter, when streams flows and dilution were low. Vessel activity and PAH levels peaked in July and were heaviest in the lower 16 km of the river, where fishing activity was concentrated. Nearly one-third of the vessels observed on the river were powered by two-stroke engines, which release a higher proportion of unburned fuel into the water than the cleaner burning four-stroke engines. The low concentrations of hydrocarbons upriver of the boat traffic suggest very little remote delivery of these contaminants to the watershed. Polyethylene strips proved to be an excellent, low-cost tool for determining the PAH patterns in a large watershed. PMID:16916019

  8. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF) for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be helpful for

  9. Inhibition of Vaginal Lactobacilli by a Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitor Produced by Enterococcus faecium 62-6: Potential Significance for Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Maureen C.; Mequio, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a shift in vaginal tract ecology, which includes a decrease in the concentration and/or prevalence of facultative lactobacilli. Currently, mechanisms which could account for the disappearance of lactobacilli are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether vaginal streptococci/enterococci can produce bacteriocin-like inhibitors antagonistic to vaginal lactobacilli. Methods: Seventy strains of vaginal streptococci or enterococci were tested for antagonistic activities against vaginal lactobacilli using the deferred antagonism technique. Results: One strain, Enterococcus faecium 62-6, which strongly inhibited growth of lactobacilli was selected for further characterization. The spectrum of inhibitory activity of strain 62-6 included Gram-positive organisms from the vaginal environment, although native lactobacilli from the same host were resistant to inhibitor action. Following growth inMRSbroth the strain 62-6 inhibitor was shown to be heat- (100℃, 30 minutes), cold- (4℃, less than 114 days) and pH- (4–7) stable. The sensitivity of inhibitor-containing supernatants to pepsin and α-chymotrypsin suggested an essential proteinaceous component. The inhibitor was sensitive to lipase but resistant to lysozyme. Dialysis of inhibitor-containing culture supernatants suggested a molecular mass greater than 12 000 Da. All physicochemical properties were consistent with its classification as a bacteriocin-like inhibitor. Kinetic assays demonstrated a sharp onset of inhibitor production coinciding with a concentration of 62-6 of 107 cfu/ml, suggesting that production may be regulated by quorum sensing. Conclusions: These results may have clinical significance as a novel mechanism to account for the decline of vaginal Lactobacillus populations and contribute to both the establishment and recurrence of BV. PMID:15022875

  10. Co-administration of memantine with epinephrine produces a marked peripheral action in intensifying and prolonging analgesia in response to local skin pinprick in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Pan, He-Jia; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Chung; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2014-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of epinephrine as adjuvant for memantine or lidocaine as an infiltrative anesthetic. Using a rat model of cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR), we evaluated the effects of adding epinephrine to memantine or lidocaine on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Lidocaine, a known local anesthetic, was used as control. We found that epinephrine, memantine, and lidocaine produced a dose-dependent local anesthetic effect as infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. On a 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the relative potencies were epinephrine [0.012 (0.006-0.020)μmol]>memantine [4.010 (3.311-4.988)μmol]>lidocaine [6.177 (5.333-7.218)μmol] (P<0.05 for each comparison). Mixtures of epinephrine (2.7nmol or 13.7nmol) with drugs (memantine or lidocaine) at ED50 or ED95, respectively, enhanced the potency and prolonged the duration of action on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Intraperitoneal injection of co-administration of drugs (memantine or lidocaine) at ED95 with epinephrine (13.7nmol) produced no cutaneous analgesia (data not shown). Epinephrine, memantine, and lidocaine were shown to have local anesthetic effects as infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Epinephrine increased the duration and potency of memantine and lidocaine as an infiltrative anesthetic. PMID:24861513

  11. Intravenous administration of lidocaine directly acts on spinal dorsal horn and produces analgesic effect: An in vivo patch-clamp analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurabe, Miyuki; Furue, Hidemasa; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous lidocaine administration produces an analgesic effect in various pain states, such as neuropathic and acute pain, although the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that intravenous lidocaine acts on spinal cord neurons and induces analgesia in acute pain. We therefore examined the action of intravenous lidocaine in the spinal cord using the in vivo patch-clamp technique. We first investigated the effects of intravenous lidocaine using behavioural measures in rats. We then performed in vivo patch-clamp recording from spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. Intravenous lidocaine had a dose-dependent analgesic effect on the withdrawal response to noxious mechanical stimuli. In the electrophysiological experiments, intravenous lidocaine inhibited the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by noxious pinch stimuli. Intravenous lidocaine also decreased the frequency, but did not change the amplitude, of both spontaneous and miniature EPSCs. However, it did not affect inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Furthermore, intravenous lidocaine induced outward currents in SG neurons. Intravenous lidocaine inhibits glutamate release from presynaptic terminals in spinal SG neurons. Concomitantly, it hyperpolarizes postsynaptic neurons by shifting the membrane potential. This decrease in the excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons may be a possible mechanism for the analgesic action of intravenous lidocaine in acute pain. PMID:27188335

  12. Intravenous administration of lidocaine directly acts on spinal dorsal horn and produces analgesic effect: An in vivo patch-clamp analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kurabe, Miyuki; Furue, Hidemasa; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous lidocaine administration produces an analgesic effect in various pain states, such as neuropathic and acute pain, although the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that intravenous lidocaine acts on spinal cord neurons and induces analgesia in acute pain. We therefore examined the action of intravenous lidocaine in the spinal cord using the in vivo patch-clamp technique. We first investigated the effects of intravenous lidocaine using behavioural measures in rats. We then performed in vivo patch-clamp recording from spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. Intravenous lidocaine had a dose-dependent analgesic effect on the withdrawal response to noxious mechanical stimuli. In the electrophysiological experiments, intravenous lidocaine inhibited the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by noxious pinch stimuli. Intravenous lidocaine also decreased the frequency, but did not change the amplitude, of both spontaneous and miniature EPSCs. However, it did not affect inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Furthermore, intravenous lidocaine induced outward currents in SG neurons. Intravenous lidocaine inhibits glutamate release from presynaptic terminals in spinal SG neurons. Concomitantly, it hyperpolarizes postsynaptic neurons by shifting the membrane potential. This decrease in the excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons may be a possible mechanism for the analgesic action of intravenous lidocaine in acute pain. PMID:27188335

  13. Trap types vs productivity of significant Wilcox gas fields in the south Texas, listric growth fault trend, and the divergent origin of its two largest producers

    SciTech Connect

    Stricklin, F.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    Detailed mapping and analysis of 23 Wilcox fields in the subject trend indicates that gas production is related to trap type. Of total cumulative production of 3.4 TCFG, 65% is from upthrown fault blocks implying very effective fault seals due to differential pressure and/or shale smears. NE Thompsonville and Bob West fields have produced 650 and 200 BCFG, respectively, with 400 BCFG remaining reserves in the latter. The field structures are not attributed to listric growth faulting, as is suggested by their trend location. NE Thompsonville is a 9-mile-long turtle structure that originated through depositional loading of an upper slope basin, followed by tilting, and then eventual collapse of a sediment squeeze-up mound due to gravitational instability. These events provide an excellent example of basin evolution through sediment loading accompanied by withdrawal of a salt-shale substrate; the basin flanks are defined by basin-dipping listric faulting that accommodated subsidence and merge beneath its floor. Bob West Field lies along the edge of the Laramide fold belt. The 1-1/2 x 4 mile field anticline adjoins a deep-seated fault that slices over and across a buried structural ridge of probable Cretaceous age. Uplift of the latter, immediately following deposition of 20+ stacked, shelf-bar producing sands, upwarped the fault and resulted in rollover growth of the Wilcox anticline. The fault shows no downward decrease in dip typical of listric faults. NE Thompsonville and Bob West fields both produce upthrown along crestal faults. This analysis indicates that {open_quotes}high-side{close_quotes} closures, irrespective of diverse origins, have achieved head-of-the-class stature as Wilcox gas producers.

  14. Significant School Law Cases Pending Before the U.S. Supreme Court. What Do They Portend for the Governance and Administration of the Public Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    Civil rights is the central theme of the cases affecting public school governance that the U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear this term. This paper discusses those cases in detail. It also notes that the cases the court refuses to hear have as significant an impact on school district governance as those cases it actually hears. School law cases…

  15. A codon change in beta-tubulin which drastically affects microtubule structure in Drosophila melanogaster fails to produce a significant phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Praitis, V; Katz, W S; Solomon, F

    1991-09-01

    The relative uniformity of microtubule ultrastructure in almost all eukaryotic cells is thought to be a consequence of the conserved elements of tubulin sequence. In support of this idea, a mutation in a beta-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster, occurring at a highly conserved position, produces U-shaped microtubules, suggesting a defect in either nucleation or packing during assembly (M. T. Fuller, J. H. Caulton, J. A. Hutchens, T. C. Kaufman, and E. C. Raff, J. Cell Biol. 104:385-394, 1987, and J. E. Rudolph, M. Kimble, H. D. Hoyle, M. A. Subler, and E. C. Raff, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:2231-2242, 1987). Surprisingly, we find that introducing the same mutation into the sole beta-tubulin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has virtually no consequences for microtubule structure or function in that organism. PMID:1908555

  16. Oral administration of live exopolysaccharide-producing Pediococcus parvulus, but not purified exopolysaccharide, suppressed Enterobacteriaceae without affecting bacterial diversity in ceca of mice.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Cecilia; Xu, Jie; Oste, Rickard; Holst, Olle; Molin, Göran

    2013-08-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota could have an important role in the development of diet- and lifestyle-induced diseases. It has been shown that modulation of the gut microbiota by means of probiotics and prebiotics could improve host health. An oat-based product fermented by the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing organism Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 has been reported to have a bifidogenic effect. To find out whether the effect could be attributed to the EPS or the bacterium, mice were fed a diet supplemented with 2% purified EPS or 10(8) CFU/g of live P. parvulus 2.6 for 6 weeks. Both supplementations altered the gut microbiota composition but in different directions. Purified EPS not only significantly lowered the microbial diversity (P < 0.001) but decreased the bifidobacterial population (P = 0.01). In contrast, the live EPS-producing bacterium P. parvulus 2.6 antagonized Enterobacteriaceae without disturbing the homeostasis of the cecal microbiota. PMID:23770909

  17. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    PubMed

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements. PMID:27150429

  18. Intra-cornu ammonis 1 administration of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transcription factor Tat exacerbates the ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rodents and activates N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors to produce persisting spatial learning deficits

    PubMed Central

    Self, Rachel L.; Smith, Katherine J.; Butler, Tracy R.; Pauly, James R.; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection may produce neurological deficits, such as cognitive decline, that may be worsened by concurrent ethanol (EtOH) abuse. Among the many biochemical cascades likely mediating HIV-1 associated neuronal injury is enhancement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function and progression to excitotoxicity, an effect that may be directly or indirectly related to accumulation in brain of the HIV-1 transcription factor Tat. The present studies were designed to examine the hypothesis that binge-like EtOH pre-exposure would enhance effects of Tat on NMDA receptor function. These studies employed a modified in vivo binge EtOH exposure regimen designed to produce peak blood EtOH levels (B.E.L.) of <200 mg/dl in adult male rats and were designed to examine effects of intra-hippocampal injection of Tat (0.5 µl/500 pM/2 min) on EtOH withdrawal-related behavior, spatial learning, and histological measures. Unilateral cannulae were implanted into the cornu ammonus 1 (CA1) pyramidal cell layer of animals prior to beginning a 4-day binge EtOH regimen. EtOH was administered via intragastric intubation (~3.0–5.0g/kg) with dose determined by behavioral ratings of intoxication daily for four days (at 0800, 1600, and 2400 hrs). EtOH withdrawal behaviors were monitored 12 hr after the last administration of EtOH. Morris water maze learning was assessed during the following 4 days, at which times brains were harvested for autoradiographic measurement of NMDA receptor density and neuroinflammation. Maximal B.E.L.s of 187.69 mg/dl were observed 60 min after EtOH administration on Day 2 of the regimen. In contrast, peak B.E.L.s of approximately 100 mg/dl were observed 60 min after EtOH administration on Day 4 of the regimen, suggesting development of metabolic tolerance. Significant behavioral abnormalities were observed in EtOH withdrawn animals, including tremor and seizures. Intra-CA1 region injection of Tat significantly potentiated Et

  19. State University of New York: Further Standardization of Administrative Computing Systems at the Campuses Could Produce Substantial Savings. Report 92-S-57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John T.; And Others

    This study examined the status of a State University of New York (SUNY) plan to standardize administrative computer systems and the success of the implementation in light of the intention to proceed using cooperative leadership rather than an executive order or policy mandate. The Comprehensive Computer Upgrade Program (CCUP) aimed to modernize…

  20. Effects of the NOP agonist SCH221510 on producing and attenuating reinforcing effects as measured by drug self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sukhtankar, Devki D.; Lagorio, Carla H.; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor agonists attenuate morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rodents. However, it is not known whether NOP agonists have reinforcing properties or can inhibit mu opioid receptor (MOP)-mediated reinforcement as measured by drug self-administration in rodents. Further understanding the behavioral effects of NOP agonists could suggest them as having potential in attenuating reinforcing effects of opioids. In the first part of the study, reinforcing properties of selective NOP agonist SCH221510 were determined and compared with the full MOP agonist remifentanil under fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of drug self-administration. In the second part, effects of systemic and intracisternal pretreatment of SCH221510 were determined and compared with MOP antagonist naltrexone in attenuating reinforcing effects of remifentanil and a non-drug reinforcer (sucrose pellets). Remifentanil self-administration (0.3-10 μg/kg/infusion) generated a biphasic dose-response curve, characteristic of drugs with reinforcing properties. SCH221510 (3-300 μg/kg/infusion) self-administration resulted in flat dose-response curves and early break-points under the PR, indicative of drugs lacking reinforcing value. Intracisternally, but not systemically, administered SCH221510 (0.3-3 μg) attenuated remifentanil self-administration, comparable with systemic naltrexone (0.03-0.3 mg/kg). SCH221510 (1-3 μg), unlike naltrexone (0.03-1 mg/kg), attenuated responding for sucrose pellets. Both effects of SCH221510 were reversed by the NOP antagonist J-113397 (0.3-3 μg). These results suggest that SCH221510 does not function as a reinforcer in rats, and that it can attenuate the reinforcing value of MOP agonists; therefore, the potential utility of NOP agonists for the treatment of drug addiction warrants further evaluation. PMID:25446568

  1. Repeated administration of LiCl produces an unconditioned stimulus preexposure effect in backward excitatory CTA but not habituation of the unconditioned increment in neophobia.

    PubMed

    De Brugada, Isabel; González, Felisa; Cándido, Antonio

    2003-01-31

    In one experiment using conditioned taste aversion and the unconditioned stimulus (US) preexposure procedure, one group of rats was given LiCl exposure for 3 days, whereas two other groups received saline. Following this phase, all groups were given a novel flavour (saccharine) to drink following either LiCl (group preexposed and one of the control groups) or saline injections (the remaining control group) and the consumption of the flavour was assessed. After this neophobia test, the acquired saccharine aversion was evaluated. The results show that three LiCl injections are enough to produce a US preexposure effect on backward excitatory taste aversion conditioning, whereas this number of injections procedure does not produce habituation of the increment in neophobia, an unconditioned response to the LiCl. The results are discussed taking into account different mechanisms involved in US preexposure effect. PMID:12505176

  2. Administration of somatostatin analog octreotide in the ventrolateral orbital cortex produces sex-related antinociceptive effects on acute and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chao-Ling; Dang, Yong-Hui; Tang, Jing-Shi

    2015-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether somatostatin analog octreotide (OCT) was involved in antinociception in the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) and determine whether this effect had a sex difference between male and female rats. The radiant heat-evoked tail flick (TF) reflex was used as an index of acute nociceptive response in lightly anesthetized rats. The number of flinches evoked by formalin injection into the hindpaw was used to evaluate inflammatory persistent pain in conscious rats. Administration of OCT (2.0, 5.0 10.0 ng in 0.5 µl) into the VLO depressed the TF reflex in a dose-dependent manner only in female rats, but not male rats. Pretreatment with a nonselective somatostatin receptor antagonist cyclo-somatostatin (c-SOM) (25.0 µg in 0.5 µl) into the VLO antagonized 10.0 ng OCT-induced inhibition of the TF reflex in female rats. Similarly, application of high dose of OCT (10.0 ng in 0.5 µl) into the VLO depressed formalin-induced flinching response in the early and late phases only in female rats, and had no any effects in male rats. Pretreatment with c-SOM (25.0 µg in 0.5 µl) into the VLO totally antagonized the 10 ng OCT-induced inhibition of the flinches in both phases in female rats. Additionally, single administration of c-SOM into the VLO failed to alter tail reflex latencies and formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in female rats. The results provide the first valuable evidence that somatostatin and its receptors are involved in antinociception in acute heat-evoked nociception and inflammatory persistent pain only in female rats, not male rats, in the VLO. PMID:26055971

  3. Positron emission reconstruction tomography for the assessment of regional myocardial metabolism by the administration of substrates labeled with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ter-Pogossian, M. M.; Hoffman, E. J.; Weiss, E. S.; Coleman, R. E.; Phelps, M. E.; Welch, M. J.; Sobel, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    A positron emission transverse tomograph device was developed which provides transaxial sectional images of the distribution of positron-emitting radionuclides in the heart. The images provide a quantitative three-dimensional map of the distribution of activity unencumbered by the superimposition of activity originating from regions overlying and underlying the plane of interest. PETT is used primarily with the cyclotron-produced radionuclides oxygen-15, nitrogen-13 and carbon-11. Because of the participation of these atoms in metabolism, they can be used to label metabolic substrates and intermediary molecules incorporated in myocardial metabolism.

  4. Loss of Object Recognition Memory Produced by Extended Access to Methamphetamine Self-Administration is Reversed by Positive Allosteric Modulation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Carmela M; Schwendt, Marek; McGinty, Jacqueline F; Olive, M Foster; See, Ronald E

    2011-01-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (meth) abuse can lead to persisting cognitive deficits. Here, we utilized a long-access meth self-administration (SA) protocol to assess recognition memory and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) expression, and the possible reversal of cognitive impairments with the mGluR5 allosteric modulator, 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl) benzamide (CDPPB). Male, Long-Evans rats self-administered i.v. meth (0.02 mg/infusion) on an FR1 schedule of reinforcement or received yoked-saline infusions. After seven daily 1-h sessions, rats were switched to 6-h daily sessions for 14 days, and then underwent drug abstinence. Rats were tested for object recognition memory at 1 week after meth SA at 90 min and 24 h retention intervals. In a separate experiment, rats underwent the same protocol, but received either vehicle or CDPPB (30 mg/kg) after familiarization. Rats were killed on day 8 or 14 post-SA and brain tissue was obtained. Meth intake escalated over the extended access period. Additionally, meth-experienced rats showed deficits in both short- and long-term recognition memory, demonstrated by a lack of novel object exploration. The deficit at 90 min was reversed by CDPPB treatment. On day 8, meth intake during SA negatively correlated with mGluR expression in the perirhinal and prefrontal cortex, and mGluR5 receptor expression was decreased 14 days after discontinuation of meth. This effect was specific to mGluR5 levels in the perirhinal cortex, as no differences were identified in the hippocampus or in mGluR2/3 receptors. These results from a clinically-relevant animal model of addiction suggest that mGluR5 receptor modulation may be a potential treatment of cognitive dysfunction in meth addiction. PMID:21150906

  5. Intracolonical administration of protease-activated receptor-2 agonists produced visceral hyperalgesia by up-regulating serotonin in the colon of rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Hong-xi; Sung, Joseph J Y; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2009-03-15

    This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) agonist-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were submitted to colonic injection of PAR-2 agonist for 6 consecutive days. The visceral sensitivity to colorectal distention was evaluated by electromyography. The enterochromaffin (EC) cell number, 5-HT content and tryrptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein expression were detected with immunohistochemistry, fluorescent measurement and Western blot analysis. PAR-2 agonist induced a significant increase of visceral nociceptive response to colorectal distention and a series of neurochemical changes in rat colon, including proliferation of EC cells, increased 5-HT content and enhanced TPH expression. Expression of PAR-2 in EC cells was reported for the first time. Further, selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist alosteron significantly inhibited PAR-2-induced visceral hyperalgesia. The enhanced 5-HT signaling is likely responsible for the visceral hyperalgesia induced by PAR-2 agonist. Interruption of this pathway is a possible target for the treatment of visceral hyperalgesia in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:19374846

  6. Effect of oral and parenteral administration of B6 vitamers on the lymphopenia produced by feeding ammonia caramel or 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy)butylimidazole to rats.

    PubMed

    Gobin, S J; Paine, A J

    1989-10-01

    The ability of B6 vitamers to prevent the lymphopenic effects of ammonia caramel fed to rats has been evaluated. Diets containing 10 ppm pyridoxine or pyridoxal prevented the lymphopenia produced in rats consuming an 8% (w/v) solution of ammonia caramel, whereas the dietary content of pyridoxamine needed to be increased to 20 ppm to have the same effect. In contrast to the results of the enteral administration of the individual B6 vitamers, pyridoxamine was found to be the most effective vitamer in preventing the ammonia caramel-induced lymphopenia when administered parenterally. However, all the nutritionally active forms of vitamin B6 were able to prevent the depression of the peripheral blood lymphocyte count, which resulted from ingestion of ammonia caramel by rats. The proposal that oral administration of pyridoxine may prevent the intestinal absorption of the lymphopenic constituent of ammonia caramel, 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy)butylimidazole (THI), is discredited, since THI was found to reduce the lymphocyte count after parenteral administration in rats fed 0.04 ppm pyridoxone in the diet and that increased amounts of dietary pyridoxine (10 ppm) could still prevent this effect. These findings further emphasise the important relationship between dietary vitamin B6 content and the lymphopenic effects of ammonia caramel/THI in the rat. PMID:2606399

  7. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  8. AGN-2979, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase activation, does not affect serotonin synthesis in Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a rat model of depression, but produces a significant effect in Flinders Resistant Line rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, is involved in several brain functions, including both normal, physiological functions, and pathophysiological functions. Alterations in any of the normal parameters of serotonergic neurotransmission can produce several different psychiatric disorders, including major depression. In many instances, brain neurochemical variables are not able to be studied properly in humans, thus making the use of good animal models extremely valuable. One of these animal models is the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) of rats, which has face, predictive and constructive validities in relation to human depression. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activation inhibitor, AGN-2979, on the FSL rats (rats with depression-like behaviour), and compare it to the effect on the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) of rats used as the control rats. The effect was evaluated by measuring changes in regional serotonin synthesis in the vehicle treated rats (FSL-VEH and FRL-VEH) relative to those measured in the AGN-2979 treated rats (FSL-AGN and FRL-AGN). Regional serotonin synthesis was measured autoradiographically in more than thirty brain regions. The measurements were performed using α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan as the tracer. The results indicate that AGN-2979 did not produce a significant reduction of TPH activity in the AGN-2979 group relative to the vehicle group (a reduction would have been observed if there had been an activation of TPH by the experimental set up) in the FSL rats. On the other hand, there was a highly significant reduction of synthesis in the FRL rats treated by AGN-2979, relative to the vehicle group. Together, the results demonstrate that in the FSL rats, AGN-2979 does not affect serotonin synthesis. This suggests that there was no activation of TPH in the FSL rats during the experimental procedure, but such activation did occur in the FRL rats. Because of this finding, it could be

  9. Treatment of progressive or recurrent glioblastoma multiforme in adults with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene vector-producer cells followed by intravenous ganciclovir administration: a phase I/II multi-institutional trial.

    PubMed

    Prados, Michael D; McDermott, Michael; Chang, Susan M; Wilson, Charles B; Fick, James; Culver, Kenneth W; Van Gilder, John; Keles, G Evren; Spence, Alex; Berger, Mitchel

    2003-12-01

    To determine the safety and evaluate the efficacy of repeated administration of virus-producing cells (GLI 328) containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine-kinase gene followed by ganciclovir treatment in adults with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, we conducted a phase I/II multi-institutional trial. Eligible patients underwent surgical resection of tumor, followed by injections of vector producing cells (VPC) into the brain adjacent to the cavity. An Ommaya reservoir placed after surgery was used to inject a further dose of VPC seven days after surgery, followed seven days later by ganciclovir. Further gene therapy was given at 28-day intervals for up to a total of five cycles. Toxicity and anti-tumor effect were assessed. Of 30 patients who enrolled in the study, 16 experienced serious adverse events possibly related to the experimental therapy. Laboratory testing, including polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect replication-competent retrovirus in peripheral blood lymphocytes and tissues, as well as co-cultivation bioassays, were negative. Before receiving ganciclovir, 37% of the patients showed evidence of transduced peripheral blood leukocytes, but only 12% showed a persistence of transduced cells at the end of the first cycle of ganciclovir. Median survival was 8.4 months. Twenty percent of the patients (n = 6) survived more than 12 months from the date of study entry. This treatment modality is feasible and appears to have some evidence of efficacy. Toxicity may be related in part to the method of gene delivery. PMID:14682377

  10. The Significance of National Association for the Education of Young Children Accreditation in Elevating Quality of Early Childhood Education: Administrators', Teachers', and Parents' Beliefs about Accreditation and Its Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardanyan, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    The following is a doctoral dissertation that studied administrators', teachers', and parents' perceptions and attitudes related to an early childhood center/preschool accreditation experience. A qualitative case study of one preschool center focused on the influence that the decision to pursue accreditation and implement the National Association…

  11. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  12. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  13. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  14. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  15. Increased acetylcholine esterase activity produced by the administration of an aqueous extract of the seed kernel of Thevetia peruviana and its role on acute and subchronic intoxication in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marroquín-Segura, Rubén; Calvillo-Esparza, Ricardo; Mora-Guevara, José Luis Alfredo; Tovalín-Ahumada, José Horacio; Aguilar-Contreras, Abigail; Hernández-Abad, Vicente Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Background: The real mechanism for Thevetia peruviana poisoning remains unclear. Cholinergic activity is important for cardiac function regulation, however, the effect of T. peruviana on cholinergic activity is not well-known. Objective: To study the effect of the acute administration of an aqueous extract of the seed kernel of T. peruviana on the acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in CD1 mice as well its implications in the sub-chronic toxicity of the extract. Materials and Methods: A dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract was administered to CD1 mice and after 7 days, serum was obtained for ceruloplasmin (CP) quantitation and liver function tests. Another group of mice received a 50 mg/kg dose of the extract 3 times within 1 h time interval and AChE activity was determined for those animals. Heart tissue histological preparation was obtained from a group of mice that received a daily 50 mg/kg dose of the extract by a 30-days period. Results: CP levels for the treated group were higher than those for the control group (Student's t-test, P ≤ 0.001). AChE activity in the treated group was significantly higher than the control group (Tukey test, control vs. T. peruviana, P ≤ 0.001). Heart tissue histological preparations showed leukocyte infiltrates and necrotic areas, consistent with infarcts. Conclusion: The increased levels of AChE and the hearth tissue infiltrative lesions induced by the aqueous seed kernel extract of T. peruviana explains in part the poisoning caused by this plant, which can be related to an inflammatory process. PMID:24914300

  16. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-12-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 {mu}g/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 {mu}g/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration.

  17. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  18. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  19. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  20. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  1. 7 CFR 29.9231 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration. 29.9231 Section 29.9231 Agriculture... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Administration § 29.9231 Administration. The Director... the administration of the act. The conduct of all services and the licensing or employment...

  2. 7 CFR 29.9231 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.9231 Section 29.9231 Agriculture... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Administration § 29.9231 Administration. The Director... the administration of the act. The conduct of all services and the licensing or employment...

  3. A Change of Administration: A Significant Organizational Life Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Deborah E.

    The case study presented in this paper illustrates how the succession process for principals is similar to that described by Gabarro in his study of corporate succession. Leader succession involves five major stages: (1) taking hold; (2) immersion; (3) reshaping; (4) consolidation; and (5) refinement. Success most frequently occurs in conjunction…

  4. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  5. Oral Administration of a Fusion Protein between the Cholera Toxin B Subunit and the 42-Amino Acid Isoform of Amyloid-β Peptide Produced in Silkworm Pupae Protects against Alzheimer's Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si; Wei, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Chen, Yanhong; Lv, Zhengbing; Yu, Wei; Meng, Qiaohong; Jin, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42), which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-Aβ42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-Aβ42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-Aβ42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased Aβ deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-Aβ42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD. PMID:25469702

  6. Oral administration of a fusion protein between the cholera toxin B subunit and the 42-amino acid isoform of amyloid-β peptide produced in silkworm pupae protects against Alzheimer's disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Wei, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Chen, Yanhong; Lv, Zhengbing; Yu, Wei; Meng, Qiaohong; Jin, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42), which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-Aβ42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-Aβ42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-Aβ42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased Aβ deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-Aβ42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD. PMID:25469702

  7. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  8. 7 CFR 4284.903 - Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Value-Added Producer Grants § 4284.903 Program administration. The Value-Added Producer Grant program is administered by Cooperative Services within the Agency....

  9. 7 CFR 4284.903 - Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Value-Added Producer Grants § 4284.903 Program administration. The Value-Added Producer Grant program is administered by Cooperative Services within the Agency....

  10. Intranasal midazolam administration enhances amnesic effect in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Takao; Kawano, Takashi; Yamanaka, Daiki; Tateiwa, Hiroki; Urakawa, Manami; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2016-06-01

    Intranasal (i.n.) administration of midazolam has been shown to be effective and safe for its sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, there has been no investigation on the influence of i.n. administration on midazolam-induced anterograde amnesia. In addition, although the potential of direct drug delivery from the nose to the central nervous system (CNS) has recently become a topic of great interest, it remains unclear whether this pathway is also involved after i.n. midazolam. In this study, we examined the efficacy and the underlying mechanism of i.n. administration compared with intramuscular (i.m.) administration on midazolam-induced amnesia in rats. Equivalent doses of 0.6 mg/kg midazolam were administered via either the i.m or the i.n. route. Anterograde amnesia was assessed by a contextual/cued fear conditioning test. Each animal was conditioned 20 min after drug administration and then tested for a freezing response 24 h later. Midazolam administration by either route produced a similar level of light sedation (minimum spontaneous activity). However, i.n. administration of midazolam induced significantly less freezing behavior compared with i.m. midazolam. Furthermore, in rats with disrupted electrical input from the olfactory epithelium after an olfactotoxicant 3-methylindole administration, the i.n.-mediated enhanced amnesic effect of midazolam was not observed. Our findings indicate that i.n midazolam could probably generate olfactory signals to the brain via benzodiazepine receptors and, compared with i.m. administration, can produce a more significant amnesic effect without alteration in sedative levels. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:26943484

  11. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  12. The Library Administrator's Automation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    One of the most significant decisions in a library administrator's career is the decision to automate one or more of a library's operations. This book describes the present state of local library automation; the planning, selection, and implementation process; and the library administrator's role in the process. The bulk of the text provides a…

  13. Health Reform and the Obama Administration: Reflections in Mid-2010

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, Theodore R.

    2010-01-01

    The reforms that finally emerged from the Obama administration's initiative were the result of a year of nasty, demagogic and misleading claims in the US public forum, coupled with the complexities of crafting legislation that stood a chance of passing both the House of Representatives and the Senate. The resulting “hybrid” approach to healthcare reform produced a conservative strategy that ignores the experience of other wealthy democracies. More significantly, its long period of implementation, given a possible change of administration in 2012, increases uncertainty regarding whether and how reforms will be rolled out by 2014 and after. PMID:21804835

  14. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  15. Software Solutions for Better Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Edward

    1997-01-01

    The CO/OP (founded in 1973 as the Massachusetts Association of School Business Officials Cooperative Corporation) has created and produced administrative software for schools. Describes two areas in which software can increase revenue and provide protection for personnel: (1) invoice/accounts receivable for the rental of school space; and (2) an…

  16. DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION REGISTRATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), as part of its efforts to control the abuse and misuse of controlled substances and chemicals used in producing some over-the-counter drugs, maintains databases of individuals registered to handle these substances. These databases are av...

  17. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what…

  18. 7 CFR 701.4 - Producer eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer eligibility. 701.4 Section 701.4 Agriculture... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.4 Producer eligibility. (a) To be eligible to participate in the ECP the Deputy Administrator must determine that a person is an agricultural producer with an interest in...

  19. Organization/Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  20. [Effects of neonatal fluvoxamine administration to white rats and their correction by semax treatment].

    PubMed

    Volodina, M A; Merchieva, S A; Sebentsova, E A; Glazova, N Iu; Manchenko, D M; Andreeva, L A; Levickaia, N G; Kamenskiĭ, A A; Miasoedov, N F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the delayed effects of chronic neonatal administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine (FA) to white rat pups and to estimate the possibility to correct these effects by treatment with semax. Fluvoxamine was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg from postnatal days 1 to 14, and semax was injected intranasally at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg from postnatal days 15 to 28. It was shown that neonatal FA administration produced a significant delay in animal somatic growth. A loss in body weight was detected both during FA administration and 4-6 weeks after the last injection. Furthermore, FA administration increased the anxiety level and disturbed the learning ability of animals. The negative consequences of neonatal FA administration were largely compensated by Semax. PMID:25735182

  1. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  2. 7 CFR 989.122 - Districts for independent and small cooperative producer representation on the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.122 Districts for independent and...

  3. 7 CFR 989.122 - Districts for independent and small cooperative producer representation on the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.122 Districts for independent and...

  4. 7 CFR 989.122 - Districts for independent and small cooperative producer representation on the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.122 Districts for independent and...

  5. 7 CFR 989.122 - Districts for independent and small cooperative producer representation on the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.122 Districts for independent and...

  6. 7 CFR 989.122 - Districts for independent and small cooperative producer representation on the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.122 Districts for independent and...

  7. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  8. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  9. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging and ACL Administrator Edwin Walker at the HCBS Conference (08/29/ ... Remarks by Assistant Secretary on Aging and ACL Administrator Kathy Greenlee at the n4a Answers on Aging ...

  11. The New Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen dramatic changes in administrative computing, including more systems, more applications, a new group of computer users, and new opportunities for computer use in campus administration. (Author/MSE)

  12. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  13. Coenzyme Q10 Administration Increases Brain Mitochondrial Concentrations and Exerts Neuroprotective Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Russell T.; Yang, Lichuan; Browne, Susan; Baik, Myong; Flint Beal, M.

    1998-07-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain as well as a potent free radical scavenger in lipid and mitochondrial membranes. Feeding with coenzyme Q10 increased cerebral cortex concentrations in 12- and 24-month-old rats. In 12-month-old rats administration of coenzyme Q10 resulted in significant increases in cerebral cortex mitochondrial concentrations of coenzyme Q10. Oral administration of coenzyme Q10 markedly attenuated striatal lesions produced by systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid and significantly increased life span in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These results show that oral administration of coenzyme Q10 increases both brain and brain mitochondrial concentrations. They provide further evidence that coenzyme Q10 can exert neuroprotective effects that might be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  15. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  16. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  17. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  18. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development. PMID:27139354

  19. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  20. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  1. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  2. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Significant terms. 1351.1 Section 1351.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS...

  3. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  4. Assessment of the morphology and significance of the lymph nodal and hepatic lesions produced in rats by the feeding of certain mineral oils and waxes. Proceedings of a pathology workshop held at the Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Aerosol Research Hannover, Germany, May 7-9, 2001.

    PubMed

    Carlton, W W; Boitnott, J K; Dungworth, D L; Ernst, H; Hayashi, Y; Mohr, U; Parodi, A L; Pattengale, P K; Rittinghausen, S; Ward, J M

    2001-09-01

    A Panel of medical and veterinary pathologists reviewed published and unpublished reports dealing with studies of various white mineral oils and waxes in F344 and Sprague-Dawley rats. They also had available and studied histologic slides from both subchronic and chronic studies of certain mineral hydrocarbons (90-day oral study of low melting point wax (LMPW) in female Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats; 90-day studies of P15H* and P70H white oil and high melting point wax (HMPW) in male and female F344 rats and 24 month study of P70H white oil in male and female F344 rats. The Panel also reviewed mineral oil-induced alterations in tissues of human patients (liver, hepatic lymph node and spleen). The Panel agreed that certain of the mineral hydrocarbons produced lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver of the F344 rat and these lesions were best described as microgranulomas/granulomas. The lesions were fundamentally similar in both organs, although varying in severity with dose and type of mineral hydrocarbons. The Panel agreed that hepatic lesions with inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis were produced only by feeding of LMPW and the lesions were confined to F344 rats and not found in Sprague-Dawley rats. The most severe granulomatous lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes were found in high dose LMPW-fed F344 rats. The microgranulomas were similar in subchronic and chronic studies. Also, little difference existed between controls and treated F344 rats in the incidence and severity of the lesions after 2 years of feeding P70H white oil. The Panel agreed that some slight reversibility existed for these lesions, but also agreed that complete resolution was unlikely as regression of the lesions in the rat would likely be slow. The Panel agreed that a minimal severity infiltrate of mononuclear inflammatory cells occurred in the base of the mitral valve in a slightly increased incidence in F344 rats fed LMPW. The Panel concluded that these

  5. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  6. Stress and the Administrator of Rural Schools Being Rebuilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.; Lesisko, Lee J.

    2010-01-01

    School construction or renovation projects can have a profound affect on students, faculty and administration. The negative impact on the ongoing educational programs is a stressor for many administrators. The possibility that rural school administrators would experience more stress producing problems than would suburban and urban school leaders…

  7. Preparing College Administrators: Fact and Fancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalcup, Robert J.; Wilson, Jerry L.

    The universality of administrative functions and tasks is sufficiently established to make special preparation programs for any one group of higher education administrators unjustifiable. This thesis is based on research undertaken to determine if significant differences existed in the functions or tasks performed by presidents, vice-presidents of…

  8. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  9. Vocational Education Administration Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, Karen, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This handbook for vocational administrators presents an overview of vocational education programs, services, and administrative structures in Alaska. The manual contains three parts. The first, brief section introduces secondary vocational education and lists its enabling legislation. The second part presents a detailed overview of vocational…

  10. Reframing Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sharon Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform administrators and organizational leaders that a change in the support offered to faculty and the environment of research administration is desirable. This recommendation is supported by the results of a Delphi study that was undertaken to gather expert opinions and recommendations from research faculty…

  11. Justifying Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin; Lakomski, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    The traditional conceptions of science dominating educational administration are mistaken. Unacceptable epistemologies, like those implicit in logical positivism, justify knowledge solely in terms of empirical adequacy. An improved science of educational administration embraces a coherent global theory accounting for all the phenomena of human…

  12. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  13. DIMENSIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMPHILL, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES WERE TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION, TO DEFINE THE NATURE OF THE JOB, AND TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE SELECTION OF ADMINISTRATORS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPAL WAS CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY BECAUSE OF THE HOST OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE CONDUCT OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, INCLUDING THE…

  14. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  15. Networked Administration Streamlines Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    An Iowa school district has retooled its computer systems for more standardized administration. In addition to administration, the district is doing inhouse databasing of financial accounting, and doing inhouse scheduling and grade reporting. A partnership with the Chamber of Commerce contributed $500,000 for the network system. (MLF)

  16. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  17. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  18. Administration for Student Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, J. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…

  19. Administration of Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Gene F.

    Computing at Stanford University has, until recently, been performed at one of five facilities. The Stanford hospital operates an IBM 370/135 mainly for administrative use. The university business office has an IBM 370/145 for its administrative needs and support of the medical clinic. Under the supervision of the Stanford Computation Center are…

  20. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in rural…

  1. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; Webb, L. Dean

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the societal and organizational changes affecting school business administration, describes major activities encompassed in the practice of school business administration, and reviews current literature specifically related to such activities as electronic data processing, fiscal planning and budgeting, purchasing and property management,…

  2. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  3. Handbook for Alumni Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles H., Ed.

    A definitive look at the field of alumni administration is presented, noting that the subject has until now received little attention. The 34 chapters are divided into nine sections: an overview of alumni administration; alumni as an essential resource; people management; budget and records; programming; communications; alumni education programs…

  4. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  5. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  6. 26 CFR 301.7269-1 - Failure to produce records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to produce records. 301.7269-1 Section 301.7269-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7269-1 Failure to produce...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7269-1 - Failure to produce records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to produce records. 301.7269-1 Section 301.7269-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7269-1 Failure to produce...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7269-1 - Failure to produce records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to produce records. 301.7269-1 Section 301.7269-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7269-1 Failure to produce...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7269-1 - Failure to produce records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Failure to produce records. 301.7269-1 Section 301.7269-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7269-1 Failure to produce...

  10. Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose and scope of the position: The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance. As a member of the ESO Management the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of the personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. ESO employs in total approximately 650 staff members and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago (Chile). The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members.

  11. Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fulei

    The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students' professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

  12. Serotonergic mechanism underlying tranylcypromine enhancement of nicotine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Villégier, Anne-Sophie; Belluzzi, James D.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Although nicotine is generally considered to be the main psychoactive component of tobacco, growing evidence highlights the importance of non-nicotine compounds in smoking reinforcement. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition is a major consequence of smoking and MAO inhibitors, such as tranylcypromine, increase nicotine reinforcement. Tranylcypromine has multiple pharmacological effects, increasing monoamine release for a few hours immediately after its administration and blocking MAO activity for several days. To assess the relative role of these two actions, adult male rats were tested in consecutive daily 3-hr sessions for self-administration of nicotine (3μg/kg/inj, i.v.) either 20 hr or 1hr following administration of tranylcypromine (3 mg/kg). Both paradigms were shown to produce highly significant inhibition of MAO activity. However, whereas animals readily acquired self-administration when pretreated with tranylcypromine 1hr prior to testing, they did not with the longer pretreatment interval. Such animals did immediately acquire nicotine self-administration when the tranylcypromine pretreatment interval was switched to 1hr prior to testing on day 4, indicating that an acute effect of the MAO inhibitor was responsible for enhanced nicotine reinforcement. Several lines of evidence implicate serotonin (5-HT) as the mediator of this enhancement: (1) Tranyclypromine-enhanced nicotine reinforcement was blocked by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, ritanserin and ketanserin; (2) parachloroamphetamine (PCA), a 5-HT releaser, also enhanced nicotine self-administration in animals in which MAO activity was inhibited; (3) pretreatment with tranylcypromine increased PCA-induced 5-HT overflow in the nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that MAO inhibition enhances serotonergic transmission, which serves a critical role in the reinforcing effects of nicotine. PMID:20936688

  13. An accelerometric measure of the gait pattern in horses after the administration of sublingual detomidine.

    PubMed

    López-Sanromán, F J; de la Riva Andrés, S; Holmbak-Petersen, R; Pérez-Nogués, M; Forés Jackson, P; Santos González, M

    2014-10-01

    The locomotor pattern alterations produced after the administration of a sublingual detomidine gel was measured by an accelerometric method in horses. Using a randomized two-way crossover design, all animals (n = 6) randomly received either detomidine gel or a placebo administered sublingually. A triaxial accelerometric device was used for gait assessment 15 minutes before (baseline) and every 10 minutes after each treatment for a period of 180 minutes. Eight different parameters were calculated, including speed, stride frequency, stride length, regularity, dorsoventral, propulsion, mediolateral, and total power. Force of acceleration and the three components of power were also calculated. Significant statistical differences were observed between groups in all the parameters but stride length. The majority of significant changes started between 30 and 70 minutes after drug administration and lasted for 160 minutes. This route of administration is definitely useful in horses in which a prolonged sedation is required, with stability being a major concern. PMID:25241391

  14. Serving the Space Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jack E.; Thompson, Arthur W.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to establish an upward mobility program that afforded employees an opportunity to improve their credibility in job opportunity selection under the directives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Author/RK)

  15. Copyright Implications for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol Mann

    1994-01-01

    Discusses copyright compliance policies for school administrators and the librarian's role in policy implementation. Topics addressed include fines; court litigation; monitoring compliance; training sessions for teachers and staff; computer software audits; and sources for more information. (LRW)

  16. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  17. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  18. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  19. The Purchasing Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joyce E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the professional purchasing administrator's most common areas of responsibility: (1) staffing the department, (2) maintaining professional objectivity in vendor relationships, (3) following bidding policies, (4) receiving user input and feedback, and (5) seeking local equipment service and maintenance. (MLF)

  20. Introducing Public Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jay W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of documents and the analysis of definitions are recommended as a means for adding zest to an introduction to public administration course to obtain student interest and motivation. (Author/ND)

  1. Thermal antinociception after dexmedetomidine administration in cats: a comparison between intramuscular and oral transmucosal administration.

    PubMed

    Slingsby, Louisa S; Taylor, Polly M; Monroe, Taylor

    2009-10-01

    Dexmedetomidine 40microg/kg was administered either intramuscularly (IM) or oral transmucosally (OTM) to 12 cats in a randomised cross-over study. Thermal nociceptive thresholds and visual analogue scale (VAS) sedation scores were obtained before and at regular intervals up to 24h after test drug administration. The summary measures of overall mean threshold, overall mean VAS sedation plus onset, offset and duration of analgesia were investigated using a univariate general linear model. There were no significant differences between treatment groups. Data are presented as mean+/-standard deviation: delta T mean increase over time (IM 6 degrees C+/-3 degrees C, OTM 6 degrees C+/-2 degrees C); overall mean VAS (IM 43+/-9 OTM 39+/-1); onset (IM 35+/-32 and OTM 30+/-40min); offset (IM 96+/-56 and OTM 138+/-135min); duration (IM 61+/-47 OTM 99+/-124min). Dexmedetomidine is well absorbed through the oral mucosa in cats since OTM and IM administration of dexmedetomidine 40microg/kg produced similar overall sedative and antinociceptive effects. PMID:19577498

  2. Effects of Repeated Oral Administration of Pazufloxacin Mesylate and Meloxicam on the Antioxidant Status in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Adil Mehraj; Rampal, Satyavan

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged antibiotic and antiinflammatory therapy for complicated infections exposes the body to xenobiotics that can produce several adverse effects for which oxidative damage is the proposed underlying mechanism. In this context, we evaluated the effect of pazufloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial, and meloxicam, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, on antioxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation in rabbits after oral administration for 21 d. Reduced glutathione levels were significantly decreased in rabbits (n = 4 per group) given pazufloxacin, meloxicam, or their combination. In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity was induced in the rabbits treated with pazufloxacin only. Administration of pazufloxacin and meloxicam, as single agents as well as in combination, produced significant lipid peroxidation compared with levels in untreated controls. In conclusion, both pazufloxacin and meloxicam potentially can induce oxidative damage in rabbits. PMID:25199097

  3. Blockade of spinal glutamate recycling produces paradoxical antinociception in rats with orofacial inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kui Y; Mun, Jun H; Park, Ki D; Kim, Min J; Ju, Jin S; Kim, Seong T; Bae, Yong C; Ahn, Dong K

    2015-03-01

    In our current study, we investigated the role of spinal glutamate recycling in the development of orofacial inflammatory pain. DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) or methionine sulfoximine (MSO) was administered intracisternally to block spinal glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase activity in astroglia. Intracisternal administration of high dose TBOA (10 μg) produced thermal hyperalgesia in naïve rats but significantly attenuated the thermal hyperalgesia in rats that had been pretreated with interleukin (IL)-1β or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). In contrast, intracisternal injection of MSO produced anti-hyperalgesic effects against thermal stimuli in CFA-treated rats only. To confirm the paradoxical antinociceptive effects of TBOA and MSO, we examined changes in c-Fos expression in the medullary dorsal horn produced by thermal stimulation in naïve, IL-1β-, or CFA-treated rats, after intracisternal injections of TBOA and MSO. Intracisternal administration of TBOA significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in naïve rats. In contrast, intracisternal administration of TBOA significantly decreased the up-regulation of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medullary dorsal horn of IL-1β- and CFA-treated rats. However, intracisternal injection of MSO blocked the up-regulation of c-Fos immunoreactivity in CFA-treated rats only. We also investigated the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on TBOA-induced paradoxical antinociception in CFA-treated rats, as BoNT-A inhibits the release of neurotransmitters, including glutamate. BoNT-A treatment reversed behavioral responses produced by intracisternal administration of TBOA in CFA-treated rats. These results suggest that the paradoxical responses produced by blocking glutamate transporters under inflammatory pain conditions are mediated by the modulation of glutamate release from presynaptic terminals. Moreover, blockade of glutamate reuptake could represent a new therapeutic target for the treatment of

  4. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic administration of reserpine and SKF-38393 in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Neisewander, J.L.; Lucki, I.; McGonigle, P. )

    1991-05-01

    Alterations in the density of dopamine receptor subtypes and behaviors mediated by the D1-selective agonist SKF-38393 were examined in rats treated chronically with reserpine, SKF-38393 or the combination of these drugs. Animals received either vehicle or reserpine (1 mg/kg s.c.) on days 1 to 28 and, in addition, half of each of these groups were treated with vehicle and half were treated with SKF-38393 (5-10 mg/kg s.c.) on days 15 to 29. Quantitative autoradiographic measurement of D1 receptors labeled with ({sup 3}H)SCH-23390 and D2 receptors labeled with ({sup 3}H)spiroperidol revealed that chronic administration of reserpine increased the density of both receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen, but not in the substantia nigra. Chronic administration of SKF-38393 alone did not alter D1 receptor density in any of these regions. However, chronic administration of the agonist in reserpinized animals decreased D1 receptor density in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate-putamen or substantia nigra, demonstrating that this partial agonist can selectively down-regulate D1 receptors when endogenous dopaminergic tone is removed. The chronic drug treatments also altered behavioral responses. Chronic administration of SKF-38393 alone produced sensitization of the oral dyskinesia response elicited by a challenge injection of the agonist, but no significant change in the grooming response. Acute administration of SKF-38393 in rats treated with reserpine for 14 days produced stereotypy which was not altered after chronic administration of the agonist. Surprisingly, chronic administration of reserpine alone produced a spontaneous oral dyskinesia, which was blocked dose-dependently by the D2-selective antagonist spiroperidol. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia.

  5. Utilizing Instructional Media for Teaching Infrastructure Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajriah, Ulfah Nur; Churiyah, Madziatul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to produce instructional media Corel VideoStudio Pro X7-based on teaching infrastructure administration at class XI of APK in SMKN 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia. This study uses Research and Development research design (R & D) through 10 steps, namely: (1) the potential and problems, (2) data collection, (3) the design of the…

  6. 7 CFR 760.1200 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1200 Administration. FSA will administer a limited 2005-2007 CGP to provide assistance to catfish producers in eligible counties that suffered catfish feed and related losses between January 1, 2005, and February 28, 2007, that...

  7. 7 CFR 760.1200 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1200 Administration. FSA will administer a limited 2005-2007 CGP to provide assistance to catfish producers in eligible counties that suffered catfish feed and related losses between January 1, 2005, and February 28, 2007, that...

  8. 7 CFR 760.1200 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1200 Administration. FSA will administer a limited 2005-2007 CGP to provide assistance to catfish producers in eligible counties that suffered catfish feed and related losses between January 1, 2005, and February 28, 2007, that...

  9. 7 CFR 760.1200 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1200 Administration. FSA will administer a limited 2005-2007 CGP to provide assistance to catfish producers in eligible counties that suffered catfish feed and related losses between January 1, 2005, and February 28, 2007, that...

  10. 7 CFR 760.1200 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Catfish Grant Program § 760.1200 Administration. FSA will administer a limited 2005-2007 CGP to provide assistance to catfish producers in eligible counties that suffered catfish feed and related losses between January 1, 2005, and February 28, 2007, that...

  11. A Database System for Course Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbasat, Izak; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted testing system which produces multiple-choice examinations for a college course in business administration. The system uses SPIRES (Stanford Public Information REtrieval System) to manage a database of questions and related data, mark-sense cards for machine grading tests, and ACL (6) (Audit Command Language) to…

  12. 7 CFR 1467.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.2 Administration. (a) The... historically underserved producers as authorized by 16 U.S.C. 3844; special pilot programs for wetland management and monitoring; acquisition of wetland easements with emergency funding; cooperative...

  13. 9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION OF OUTPATIENT CLINIC ADDITION - U.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 600 South Seventieth Street, Lincoln, Lancaster County, NE

  14. Astronaut Administrator Richard Truly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, pilot of the Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-2 and Commander of Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-8, became NASA's eighth Administrator on July 1, 1989. One day earlier he concluded a 30 year Naval career retiring as a Vice Admiral. He was the first astronaut to head the nation's civilian space agency. Truly became Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Flight on February 20, 1986. In this position, he led the painstaking rebuilding of the Space Shuttle program less than one month after the Challenger disaster. This was highlighted by the much heralded 'Return to Flight' on September 29, 1988 with the launch of Shuttle Discovery, 32 months after Challenger's final flight. On February 12th, 1992 Richard Truly resigned as NASA Administrator at the request of President George Bush.

  15. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  16. The Earth's Gravity and Its Geological Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the earth's gravity and its geological significance. Variations of gravity around the earth can be produced by a great variety of possible distributions of density within the earth. Topics discussed include isostasy, local structures, geological exploration, change of gravity in time, and gravity on the moon and planets. (DS)

  17. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  18. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  19. MCS Systems Administration Toolkit

    2001-09-30

    This package contains a number of systems administration utilities to assist a team of system administrators in managing a computer environment by automating routine tasks and centralizing information. Included are utilities to help install software on a network of computers and programs to make an image of a disk drive, to manage and distribute configuration files for a number of systems, and to run self-testss on systems, as well as an example of using amore » database to manage host information and various utilities.« less

  20. 7 CFR 985.155 - Identification of oil by producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of oil by producer. 985.155 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.155 Identification of oil by producer. Following the distillation of oil and prior...

  1. 7 CFR 985.155 - Identification of oil by producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of oil by producer. 985.155 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.155 Identification of oil by producer. Following the distillation of oil and prior...

  2. 7 CFR 985.155 - Identification of oil by producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of oil by producer. 985.155 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.155 Identification of oil by producer. Following the distillation of oil and prior...

  3. 7 CFR 985.155 - Identification of oil by producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of oil by producer. 985.155 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.155 Identification of oil by producer. Following the distillation of oil and prior...

  4. 7 CFR 985.155 - Identification of oil by producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of oil by producer. 985.155 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.155 Identification of oil by producer. Following the distillation of oil and prior...

  5. 23 CFR 635.417 - Convict produced materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Convict produced materials. 635.417 Section 635.417 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE General Material Requirements § 635.417 Convict produced materials. (a) Materials produced after July 1, 1991,...

  6. Disinfection practices in intravenous drug administration.

    PubMed

    Helder, Onno K; Kornelisse, René F; Reiss, Irwin K M; Ista, Erwin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a feedback intervention on adherence to disinfection procedures during intravenous medication preparation and administration. We found that full adherence to the protocols significantly improved from 7.3% to 21.5% (P < .001) regarding medication preparation and from 7.9% to 15.5% (P = .012) regarding medication administration. However, disinfection practices still need improvement. PMID:26899528

  7. Telecommunications administration standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gustwiller, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  8. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  9. Central Administration. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Because the configuration of the central administration of Duke University has recently been modified, this report was prepared: (1) to describe the changes and rearrangements thus far introduced; (2) to propose desirable clarifications not yet provided; (3) to recommend certain additional changes where these may already appear to be needed; and…

  10. Guidebook for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Fritz, Ed.

    To provide guidance and advice regarding day-to-day responsibilities of new and experienced school administrators and superintendents in New York State, this compendium of knowledge and advice submitted by practitioners is presented with emphasis on all major aspects of superintendency. The section on general aspects of superintendency includes…

  11. Redis database administration tool

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  12. Female Administrator Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlitschek, Elizabeth Ann

    The number of women in educational administration is declining, despite official efforts to end sex discrimination. Women are hampered on the way to obtaining an adequate education, finding roadblocks from sex bias in elementary readers to discrimination in graduate programs; are considered responsible for home and children even when working full…

  13. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  14. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  15. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of successful…

  16. Information for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowitz, Gerald T.; And Others

    Modern management theory, based on the reduction of uncertainties, demands the collection and manipulation of large amounts of information. School Administrators choke in the process of trying to digest a proliferation of data, only some of which are useful. The aims of the study were to explore the extent to which large amounts of data could be…

  17. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  18. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  19. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  20. Hispanic Administrators in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Hispanic administrators in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The data was obtained from Kentucky school Superintendents or their designees in 175 public school districts. The Hispanic survey contained six questions. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on April 21, 2008. A follow-up survey…

  1. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  2. "Complicating" Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Colleen S.

    Administrators desiring to lead organizations that will adapt and survive in a complex environment like today's public schools need to develop what Karl Weick calls "complicated" understanding of "requisite variety." The law of requisite variety states that a diverse and complicated environment demands similar diversity from its inhabitants if…

  3. A Treatise on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  4. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  5. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  6. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  7. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  9. Using Administrative Data. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLeonardi, Joan W.; Yuan, Ying-Ying T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of administrative data to child welfare researchers. Considers issues in using client records--confidentiality, selection of data, historical data, sampling reliability, replication of findings, and access to data--that can be resolved in standardized ways. Notes other problematic issues, such as greater distance from subject,…

  10. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  11. Administrative Effectiveness in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.; Cameron, Kim S.

    1985-01-01

    Determinants of organizational and administrative effectiveness in higher education are discussed, and eight administrator characteristics associated with maintaining and enhancing institutional effectiveness are identified. (MSE)

  12. Leadership Behaviors of Vocational Education Administrators in the Midwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shirley L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Leadership behaviors of vocational education administrators in 15 midwestern states were studied. The administrators, representing four institutional types, responded to Part LB of the Boss' Management Styles Survey and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The MANOVA procedure revealed statistically significant differences among administrative roles with…

  13. Producing miniature threads. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.; Robb, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    Miniature precision actuators, timers, and switches typically utilize miniature threads to provide convenient assembly, disassembly and adjustment. Thread rolling provides high-quality external threads with greater strength and lower cost than other thread-producing techniques. Tap breakage is a significant problem when 0.5 and 0.6 Unified National Miniature (UNM) threads must be produced in hard materials such as SAE K95100 high-permeability magnetic steel. Aluminum parts can be tapped with no difficulty in these sizes. Stainless steel 0.5 UNM screws break at loads of 21 lb (53 N). Thread failure occurs at thread heights of 62% full thread or lower.

  14. Subchronic administration of (R,S)-ketamine induces ketamine ring hydroxylation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moaddel, R; Sanghvi, M; Ramamoorthy, A; Jozwiak, K; Singh, N; Green, C; O'Loughlin, K; Torjman, M; Wainer, I W

    2016-08-01

    Subchronic administration of (R,S)-ketamine, (R,S)-Ket, is used in the treatment of neuropathic pain, in particular Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but the effect of this protocol on the metabolism of (R,S)-Ket is unknown. In this study, daily administration of a low dose of (R,S)-Ket for 14-days to Wistar rats was conducted to determine the impact of sub-chronic dosing on the pharmacokinetics of (R,S)-Ket and its major metabolites. The data indicate that, relative to a single administration of (R,S)-Ket, subchronic administration resulted in increased clearance of (R,S)-Ket and the N-demethylated metabolite norketamine measured as elimination half-life (t1/2) and decreased plasma concentrations of these compounds. Subchronic administration produced a slight decrease in t1/2 and an increase in plasma concentration of the major metabolite, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine, and produced significant increases in the plasma concentrations of the (2S,6R;2R,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4R;2R,4S)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites. The metabolism of (R,S)-Ket predominately occurs via two microsomal enzyme-mediated pathways: (R,S)-Ket⇒(R,S)-norketamine⇒(2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4R;2R,4S)-hydroxynorketamine and the (R,S)-Ket⇒(2S,6R;2R,6S)-hydroxyketamine⇒(2S,6R;2R,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine. The results indicate that the activity of both metabolic pathways are increased by subchronic administration of (R,S)-Ket producing new metabolite patterns and potential differences in clinical effects. PMID:27017097

  15. Intrathecal Veratridine Administration Increases MAC in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Sharma, Manohar; Eger, Edmond I; Laster, Michael J.; Hemmings, Hugh C.; Harris, R. Adron

    2008-01-01

    Background Results from several studies point to sodium channels as potential mediators of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. We hypothesized that the intrathecal administration of veratridine, a drug that enhances the activity or effect of sodium channels, should increase MAC. Methods We measured the change in isoflurane MAC caused by intrathecal infusion of various concentrations of veratridine into the lumbothoracic subarachnoid space of rats. We compared these result to those obtained from intracerebroventricular infusion. Results As predicted, intrathecal infusion of veratridine increased MAC. The greatest infused concentration (25 μM) also produced neuronal injury in the hind limbs of two rats and decreased the peak effect on MAC. A concentration of 1.6 μM produced the greatest (21%) increase in MAC. Intraventricular infusion of 1.6 and 6.4 μM veratridine did not alter MAC. Rats given 25 μM died. Conclusion Intrathecal administration of veratradine increases MAC of isoflurane, a finding consistent with a role for sodium channels as potential mediators of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. Implications Intrathecal administration of veratridine can increase MAC, presumably by an effect on sodium channels. PMID:18713899

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  17. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  18. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  19. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  20. 7. Administrative structures.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research. PMID:24785804

  1. Involvement of spinal glutamate in nociceptive behavior induced by intrathecal administration of hemokinin-1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Chizuko; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2016-03-23

    The most recently identified tachykinin, hemokinin-1, was cloned from mouse bone marrow. While several studies indicated that hemokinin-1 is involved in pain and inflammation, the physiological functions of hemokinin-1 are not fully understood. Our previous research demonstrated that the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of hemokinin-1 (0.00625-1.6 nmol) dose-dependently induced nociceptive behaviors, consisting of scratching, biting and licking in mice, which are very similar with the nociceptive behaviors induced by the i.t. administration of substance P. Low-dose (0.0125 nmol) hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behavior was inhibited by a specific NK1 receptor antagonist; however, high-dose (0.1 nmol) hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behavior was not affected. In the present study, we found that the nociceptive behaviors induced by hemokinin-1 (0.1 nmol) were inhibited by the i.t. co-administration of MK-801 or D-APV, which are NMDA receptor antagonists. Moreover, we measured glutamate in the extracellular fluid of the mouse spinal cord using microdialysis. The i.t. administration of hemokinin-1 produced a significant increase in glutamate in the spinal cord, which was significantly reduced by co-administration with NMDA receptor antagonists. These results suggest that hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behaviors may be mediated by the NMDA receptor in the spinal cord. PMID:26899156

  2. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-folinic acid after oral and intravenous administration of the racemate.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, P O; Zittoun, J; Marquet, J; Cheron, J M

    1989-01-01

    1. A pharmacokinetic study of the natural (-)-isomer of folinic acid ((-)-5 CHOTHF) and of total (-)-folates was performed in 12 healthy subjects after i.v. and oral administration of the racemic form of folinic acid. 2. After a 25 mg i.v. injection, (-)-5 CHOTHF kinetics were described by a biexponential function. The mean steady state volume of distribution (Vss) was 161; systemic and renal clearances averaged 335 and 53 ml min-1, respectively. After the same oral dose, (-)-5 CHOTHF was rapidly absorbed. Plasma concentrations of unchanged drug were much lower than those achieved after i.v. administration but in nine subjects, the disposition kinetics were also biexponential. Absolute bioavailability was only 4% as a consequence of a significant intestinal first pass effect. 3. AUC and t1/2Z values for total (-)-folates were similar after both routes of administration, indicating that the drug was fully absorbed. However the AUC of the active metabolite after i.v. dosage was only half that after oral dosage. 4. The amounts of total (-)-folates excreted in urine after both routes of administration were not significantly different and averaged one third of the dose after 24 h, whereas excretion of (-)-5 CHOTHF was three times less after oral treatment than after parenteral treatment. 5. Oral administration is a more suitable route for folinic acid therapy because more of the active metabolite is produced than after parenteral injection. PMID:2789922

  3. Administrative Uses of Computers in the Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolley, Martha

    Frequently administrators must spend time producing documents and reports, though theoretically they are supposed to use information to create better educational environments and experiences for students. By using the personal computer as a tool for tasks and analyses that, before the computer, used to take days, administrators will have time to…

  4. 40 CFR 75.66 - Petitions to the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produces data acceptable for use in the Acid Rain Program, including accuracy and precision statements... specified by the Administrator. (e) Parametric monitoring procedure petitions. The designated representative... information specified in § 75.58(b) for the use of a parametric monitoring method. The Administrator...

  5. 40 CFR 75.66 - Petitions to the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produces data acceptable for use in the Acid Rain Program, including accuracy and precision statements... specified by the Administrator. (e) Parametric monitoring procedure petitions. The designated representative... information specified in § 75.58(b) for the use of a parametric monitoring method. The Administrator...

  6. 40 CFR 75.66 - Petitions to the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produces data acceptable for use in the Acid Rain Program, including accuracy and precision statements... specified by the Administrator. (e) Parametric monitoring procedure petitions. The designated representative... information specified in § 75.58(b) for the use of a parametric monitoring method. The Administrator...

  7. 40 CFR 75.66 - Petitions to the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... produces data acceptable for use in the Acid Rain Program, including accuracy and precision statements... specified by the Administrator. (e) Parametric monitoring procedure petitions. The designated representative... information specified in § 75.58(b) for the use of a parametric monitoring method. The Administrator...

  8. 7 CFR 400.683 - Administration and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration and maintenance. 400.683 Section 400.683 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE... Federal Crop Insurance Act § 400.683 Administration and maintenance. (a) Ineligible producer data will...

  9. Modulation of cocaine-induced activity by intracerebral administration of CXCL12.

    PubMed

    Trecki, J; Unterwald, E M

    2009-06-16

    The role of chemokines in immune function is clearly established. Recent evidence suggests that these molecules also play an important role in the central nervous system as modulators of neuronal activity. The chemokine CXCL12 has been identified in several regions of the adult rat brain including the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and caudate putamen. CXCR4, a receptor activated by CXCL12, is expressed by dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The present study tested the effects of intracranial injections of CXCL12 on cocaine-induced locomotion and stereotypic activity in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results demonstrate that intracerebral ventricular administration of CXCL12 (25 ng/4 microl) 15 min prior to cocaine (20 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)) produced a significant potentiation of both ambulatory and stereotypic activity as compared to cocaine alone. The effects of CXCL12 were blocked by administration of the selective CXCR4 antagonist, AMD 3100. Administration of CXCL12 into specific brain regions was performed to further understand the site of action of CXCL12. Bilateral administration of CXCL12 (25 ng/0.5 microl) into the ventral tegmental area 15 min prior to cocaine (20 mg/kg i.p.) significantly potentiated cocaine-induced ambulatory activity, whereas microinjections of CXCL12 into the caudate putamen selectively increased stereotypy. Conversely, administration of CXCL12 into the lateral shell of the nucleus accumbens resulted in an inhibition of cocaine-stimulated ambulatory activity. No alterations in ambulatory or stereotypic activity were observed following CXCL12 administration into the core of the nucleus accumbens. These results demonstrate that CXCL12 can modulate the behavioral effects produced by cocaine in a brain region-specific manner. PMID:19303923

  10. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  11. ADMINISTRATION OF POTENTIALLY ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDES (PROCYMIDONE, LINURON, IPRODIONE, CHLOZOLINATE, P,P'-DDE AND KETOCONAZOLE) AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES (DIBUTYL-AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, PCB 169, AND ETHANE DIMETHANE SULPHONATE) DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCES DIVERSE PROFILES OF REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antiandrogenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and as a consequence, they induce different profiles of effects. For example, in utero treatment with the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide, produces ventral prostate agenesis and testicu...

  12. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  13. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  14. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  15. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  16. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  17. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  18. Producer quality assurance programs.

    PubMed

    Kla, J; Tollefson, L

    1999-03-01

    Essentially all animal commodity organizations have established quality assurance programs designed to ensure food safety and quality. Most of these programs were originally implemented to address problems with veterinary drug residues. Many of the current programs have or plan to include food safety critical control points with specific guidelines on how to control or reduce pathogen load. The continued focus placed on food safety by today's consumer demands that American producers ensure that their commodities are wholesome, safe, and of high quality in order to remain competitive in the global marketplace. Veterinarians should recognize that it is important to encourage food animal producers to participate in quality assurance programs for their clients' economic health and for food safety and protection of public health. Commodities certified as being produced under good production practices or by producers certified as following a recognized and validated quality assurance program often bring a premium price. Also, some slaughter establishments are beginning to require producers to be certified as practicing under a recognized quality assurance program before animals are accepted for processing. This practice is being driven partially by the demands placed on slaughter establishments by the US Department of Agriculture's implementation of the Pathogen Reduction, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Systems regulation. Regardless of why producer trade association quality assurance programs have come into existence, veterinarians should promote the programs as an excellent mechanism to help ensure everyone's goal of a safe, wholesome food supply. PMID:10088219

  19. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  20. Induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Kito, Naoko; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (Pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces Pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated. Tributyrin or 4-PBA treatment significantly decreased body weight and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and Pex11a. In addition, 4-PBA treatment increased peroxisome abundance and the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 and hydroxysteroid [17-beta] dehydrogenase 4). CBM and inulin administration reduced adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, induced Pex11a, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, and hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 genes, and increased peroxisome abundance in mice fed standard chow or an HFD. In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism. These results may provide a new therapeutic strategy against hyperlipidemia and obesity. PMID:25659146

  1. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M. J.; Pitts, T. E.; Mortensen, A.; Corrie, L. W.; Davenport, P. W.; Bolser, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphragm, abdominal muscle, and laryngeal muscles EMGs; and several temporal characteristics of cough were analyzed after administration of nicotine and compared with those during control and recovery period. (−)Nicotine (ia) reduced cough number, cough expiratory efforts, blood pressure, and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. (−)Nicotine did not alter temporal characteristics of the cough motor pattern. Pretreatment with mecamylamine prevented the effect of (−)nicotine on blood pressure and heart rate, but did not block the antitussive action of this drug. (+)Nicotine was less potent than (−)nicotine for inhibition of cough. Microinjections of (−)nicotine into the caudal ventral respiratory column produced similar inhibitory effects on cough as administration of this isomer by the ia route. Mecamylamine microinjected in the region just before nicotine did not significantly reduce the cough suppressant effect of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors significantly modulate functions of brain stem and in particular caudal ventral respiratory column neurons involved in expression of the tracheobronchial cough reflex by a mecamylamine-insensitive mechanism. PMID:25477349

  2. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Poliacek, I; Rose, M J; Pitts, T E; Mortensen, A; Corrie, L W; Davenport, P W; Bolser, D C

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphragm, abdominal muscle, and laryngeal muscles EMGs; and several temporal characteristics of cough were analyzed after administration of nicotine and compared with those during control and recovery period. (-)Nicotine (ia) reduced cough number, cough expiratory efforts, blood pressure, and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. (-)Nicotine did not alter temporal characteristics of the cough motor pattern. Pretreatment with mecamylamine prevented the effect of (-)nicotine on blood pressure and heart rate, but did not block the antitussive action of this drug. (+)Nicotine was less potent than (-)nicotine for inhibition of cough. Microinjections of (-)nicotine into the caudal ventral respiratory column produced similar inhibitory effects on cough as administration of this isomer by the ia route. Mecamylamine microinjected in the region just before nicotine did not significantly reduce the cough suppressant effect of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors significantly modulate functions of brain stem and in particular caudal ventral respiratory column neurons involved in expression of the tracheobronchial cough reflex by a mecamylamine-insensitive mechanism. PMID:25477349

  3. Domino System Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, R.

    Need a concise, practical explanation about the new features of Domino, and how to make some of the advanced stuff really work? You need answers and solutions from someone who's been in the trenches. You want information from someone like you, who has worked with the product for years, and understands what it is you need to know. Domino System Administration from New Riders is the answer-the first book on Domino that attacks the technology at the professional level, with practical, hands-on assistance to get Domino 5 running in your organization.

  4. Attenuation of cocaine self-administration in squirrel monkeys following repeated administration of the MGluR5 antagonist MPEP: Comparison with dizocilpine

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Donna M.; Rowlett, James K.; Spealman, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP has effects that suggest potential as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. MPEP can attenuate self-administration of cocaine in animals; however, studies usually involved only acute treatment with MPEP and a single dose of self-administered cocaine. Cocaine addicts use varied amounts of cocaine over long periods of time, and an effective pharmacotherapy would almost certainly require more chronic treatment. Objectives The present study: 1) compared the effects of repeated treatment with MPEP or the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine on the reinforcing effects of a range of doses of cocaine and 2) determined the pharmacological specificity of the effects of the drugs in attenuating cocaine self-administration compared to food-reinforced behavior. An effective pharmacotherapy should selectively reduce cocaine self-administration. Methods Groups of monkeys responded under a fixed-ratio schedule of i.v. cocaine self-administration or food-pellet delivery. The effects of daily treatment with MPEP and dizocilpine were determined under both the schedule of i.v. cocaine injection and food delivery. Results Treatment with MPEP and dizocilpine significantly reduced cocaine self-administration, producing rightward and downward shifts in the ascending limb of the cocaine dose-response function. MPEP and dizocilpine selectively and significantly attenuated self-administration of a low reinforcing dose of cocaine compared to food without evidence of tolerance. Conclusions Both MPEP and dizocilpine functioned as partially surmountable antagonists of the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The similar effects of the two drugs raises the possibility that MPEP attenuated the reinforcing effects of cocaine, at least in part, via mGluR5-mediated inhibition of NMDA receptor activity. PMID:18509621

  5. 21 CFR 201.18 - Drugs; significance of control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; significance of control numbers. 201.18 Section 201.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.18 Drugs; significance of control numbers. The lot number on the label of a...

  6. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  7. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  8. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  9. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  10. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  11. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  12. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  13. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial transaction. 561.404 Section 561.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  14. Social Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Site Map Website Policies Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov Healthcare.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...

  15. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Loram, Lisa C; Strand, Keith A; Taylor, Frederick R; Sloane, Evan; Van Dam, Anne-Marie; Rieger, Jayson; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-05-01

    A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in two different models of neuropathic pain in addition to downregulating glial activation markers in the spinal cord. We aimed to determine whether a single intrathecal administration of an A2AR agonist was able to attenuate motor symptoms induced by experimental autoimmune encephalopathy. Two A2AR agonists (CGS21680 and ATL313) significantly attenuated progression of motor symptoms following a single intrathecal administration at the onset of motor symptoms. OX-42, a marker of microglial activation, was significantly attenuated in the lumbar spinal cord following A2AR administration compared to vehicle. Therefore, A2AR agonists attenuate motor symptoms of EAE by acting on A2AR in the spinal cord. PMID:25653191

  16. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  17. Manufacturing and producibility technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing/producibility working group within the Advanced High-Pressure O2/H2 Technology Program are summarized. The objectives of the M/P working group are: to develop and evaluate process and manufacturing techniques for advanced propulsion hardware design and selected materials; and to optimize the producibility of (SSME) components and assemblies by improved performance, increased life, greater reliability, and/or reduced cost. The technologies being developed include: plasma arc, laser, and inertia welding; combustion chamber and turbine blade coatings; coating processes; high performance alloy electroforming; and process control technology.

  18. Mapping the literature of nursing administration

    PubMed Central

    Galganski, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: As part of Phase I of a project to map the literature of nursing, sponsored by the Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association, this study identifies the core literature cited in nursing administration and the indexing services that provide access to the core journals. The results of this study will assist librarians and end users searching for information related to this nursing discipline, as well as database producers who might consider adding specific titles to their indexing services. Methods: Using the common methodology described in the overview article, five source journals for nursing administration were identified and selected for citation analysis over a three-year period, 1996 to 1998, to identify the most frequently cited titles according to Bradford's Law of Scattering. From this core of most productive journal titles, the bibliographic databases that provide the best access to these titles were identified. Results: Results reveal that nursing administration literature relies most heavily on journal articles and on those titles identified as core nursing administrative titles. When the indexing coverage of nine services is compared, PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL provide the most comprehensive coverage of this nursing discipline. Conclusions: No one indexing service adequately covers this nursing discipline. Researchers needing comprehensive coverage in this area must search more than one database to effectively research their projects. While PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL provide more coverage for this discipline than the other indexing services, none is sufficiently broad in scope to provide indexing of nursing, health care management, and medical literature in a single file. Nurse administrators using the literature to research current work issues need to review not only the nursing titles covered by CINAHL but should also include the major weekly medical titles, core titles in health care administration, and

  19. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  20. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  1. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  2. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  3. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  4. Operations Research and Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, T. C . E.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the uses of operations research (OR) in higher education administration by reviewing the higher education system's most significant operational problems: resource allocation, financial planning, budgeting, formation of student project groups, scheduling and classroom allocation, student registration, tuition and fee structure…

  5. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  6. 76 FR 72328 - Miscellaneous Administrative Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... amends the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to make miscellaneous non-substantive administrative changes to be... NASA. DATES: This direct final rule is effective January 23, 2012 unless Agency receives significant..., NASA will publish a timely withdrawal of the rule in the Federal Register. If no adverse comments...

  7. The Challenge of Creating Ethical Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey; Fisher, Alice

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of administrator ethics in the quality of students' education. Points out that research shows a significant shortcoming in ethical awareness among educational leadership students. Argues that the study of ethics should be an essential component of any educational leadership preparation program. (Contains 13 references.)…

  8. Naturally produced citral can significantly inhibit normal physiology and induce cytotoxicity on Magnaporthe grisea.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Mao; Yin, Xian-Hui; Long, You-Hua; Li, Ming

    2015-02-01

    Given the importance of finding alternatives to synthetic fungicides, the antifungal effects of natural product citral on six plant pathogenic fungi (Magnaporthe grisea, Gibberella zeae, Fusarium oxysporum, Valsa mali, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizoctonia solani) were determined. Mycelial growth rate results showed that citral possessed high antifungal activities on those test fungi with EC50 values ranging from 39.52 to 193.00 µg/mL, which had the highest inhibition rates against M. grisea. Further action mechanism of citral on M. grisea was carried out. Citral treatment was found to alter the morphology of M. grisea hyphae by causing a loss of cytoplasm and distortion of mycelia. Moreover, citral was able to induce an increase in chitinase activity in M. grisea, indicating disruption of the cell wall. These results indicate that citral may act by disrupting cell wall integrity and membrane permeability, thus resulting in physiology changes and causing cytotoxicity. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of citral on M. grisea appears to be associated with its effects on mycelia reducing sugar, soluble protein, chitinase activity, pyruvate content, and malondialdehyde content. PMID:25752425

  9. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  10. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  11. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office ACF Help Center (help-center) Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) ... Global Populations Hispanic Outreach Homelessness Human Trafficking LGBT Native Americans/Tribes Unaccompanied Children Grants & Funding Expand How to ...

  12. Selecting the Administrative Computing Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielec, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Important steps in the computing administrator selection process are outlined, including: reviewing the administrative computing organization, determining a search methodology, selecting a search or screening committee, narrowing the candidate pool, scheduling interviews and evaluating candidates, and conducting negotiations. (MSE)

  13. Administrative Implications of Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.

    1970-01-01

    The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)

  14. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  15. Producing CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  16. Producer/Consumer Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Meryl E.; Marsh, John

    1977-01-01

    The work ethic and the success of a system based increasingly upon consumerism has created an image of man in which the quality of life is measured in terms of quantity and ownership of goods; in ethics and attitude, our system of education is creating an ideally receptive population for the producer-consumer society. (JD)

  17. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  18. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  19. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. PMID:26854839

  20. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yohei; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) were almost nonexistent up to the 1990s, but are today encountered routinely in hospitals and other healthcare facilities in many countries including the United States. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was the first to emerge and spread globally and is endemic in the United States, Israel, Greece, and Italy. Recently, NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae and OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae appear to be disseminating from South Asia and Northern Africa, respectively. They are almost always resistant to all β-lactams including carbapenems and many other classes. Mortality from invasive CPE infections reaches up to 40%. To obtain the maximal benefit from the limited options available, dosing of antimicrobial agents should be optimized based on pharmacokinetic data, especially for colistin and carbapenems. In addition, multiple observational studies have associated combination antimicrobial therapy with lower mortality compared with monotherapy for these infections. The outcomes appear to be especially favorable when patients are treated with a carbapenem and a second agent such as colistin, tigecycline, and gentamicin, but the best approach is yet to be defined. PMID:25643272

  1. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  2. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  3. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  4. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) education 1993--2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Christine M.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993 -- 2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that time period. Constant changes in education leadership at NASA resulted in changes in direction in the education program and the documents produced by each administration reflected both small and some significant changes in program direction. The result of the analysis of documents and interview data was the identification of several trends in the NASA education program. This study identified three significant trends in NASA education. First, the approach that NASA took in both its EPO efforts and in the efforts directed by the Office of Education is disjointed and seems to reflect individual preferences in education approaches designed to reach populations that are of interest to the individuals in decision-making positions rather than reflect a systematic approach designed to meet identified goals and outcomes. Second, this disjointed and person-driven approach led to a lack of consistent evaluation data available for review and planning purposes. Third, there was an ongoing assumption made by the education community that NASA education efforts were tied to larger education reports, concerns, needs, initiatives and evidence collected and presented in Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) education-related studies over the past twenty years. In fact, there is no evidence that the programs and projects initiated were a response to these identified needs or initiatives. That does not mean that NASA's efforts did not contribute to STEM education initiatives in the United States. This study, however, indicates that contributions to those initiatives occurred as a byproduct of the effort and not because of specific

  6. Three Generations of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, F. G.

    This paper compares two Australian educational administration texts published in 1963 to reflect critically on the radical changes that have occurred in educational administration in Australia since then. The books are "Headmasters for Better Schools," by Bassett, Crane, and Walker; and "Training the Administrator," by Cunningham and Radford. The…

  7. Special Education Administration Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watherman, Richard F.; Hollingsworth, Sue Ann

    Presented are course materials from a competency based education program in special education administration. It is explained that the Special Education Administration Training Program (SEATP) is designed for continuing education of administrators. Materials are divided into three self contained curriculum areas: fiscal management, personnel…

  8. The Future of Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    Past approaches to public administration, the diminishing distinctions between foreign and domestic policy, the role of the public administrator, and leadership qualities are discussed. As a relatively young discipline, public administration first focused on scientific management (1920's). It then shifted to the art and science of getting things…

  9. Administrative Uses of the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Dennis W.; Atkinson, Gene

    1983-01-01

    An outline of microcomputer applications for administrative computing in education is followed by discussions of aspects of office automation, database management systems, management information systems, administrative computer systems, and software. Several potential problems relating to administrative computing in education are identified.…

  10. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  11. Straight Talk about School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    In this report, the Association of California School Administrators examined some of the myths and misrepresentations about administration in California's public schools. Specifically, it examined the following five myths: (1) A lot of money that could be better spent in the classroom is being wasted on administration. (2) There are too many…

  12. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  13. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  14. Significance determination: A rational reconstruction of decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kjellerup, U.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with some screening environmental impact assessments (EIAs) that have been reviewed and decided by an administrative board, the Appeal Board for Nature Protection. The practices developed by the Appeal Board show that the handling of significance in screening lacks focus, which leads to a mix of problems; namely, inconsistent argumentation and the development of practices not compliant with the usual understanding of EIA. The problems are found in project-related screening cases as well as in general screening cases. The article argues that structural barriers in Danish EIA regulations hinder the function of the EIA system in general. The article also touches upon the problems of implementing EIA into existing legal frameworks and present the view that a Board composed mainly of politicians cannot be the right body to enforce the procedural rules of the EIA-system.

  15. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  16. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  17. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine premises. 24.86 Section 24.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine...

  18. Plasma atropine concentrations via intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration.

    PubMed

    Prete, M R; Hannan, C J; Burkle, F M

    1987-03-01

    To date, there have been limited studies on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous atropine and no pharmacokinetic studies on the endotracheal or intraosseous administration of atropine. This study examines the time to peak plasma concentration of atropine following intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration in anesthetized monkeys using a triple crossover design. Plasma atropine was assayed by a radioreceptor method. The time to peak plasma concentration of atropine was shortest with intravenous administration; and longest with endotracheal administration. The mean plasma concentration of atropine was significantly higher in intravenous administrations than in endotracheal administrations at 0.75 and 2 minutes; compared to that noted in intraosseous administrations, the concentration was significantly higher only at 0.75 minutes. The mean plasma concentration of atropine administered intraosseously was significantly higher than that of endotracheal administrations at 5 minutes and was greater than that of intravenous and endotracheal administrations for the samples collected from 5 to 30 minutes. The endotracheal and intraosseous routes provide alternatives to the intravenous administration of atropine when intravenous access is limited or not available. PMID:3828010

  19. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  20. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Carleton, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  1. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  2. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  3. Systemic exposure to parabens: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion balance and plasma metabolites of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben in rats after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Nicolas; Ameller, Thibault; Legrand, Jean-Jacques

    2012-03-01

    Parabens (PB) are preservatives used in food, drugs and personal care products preventing microbial and fungal contamination. We investigated ADME profiles of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben (MP, PP, BP) following single oral, dermal or subcutaneous (BP) doses at 100 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma Cmax and AUC values after oral or subcutaneous doses were 4- to 10-fold higher relative to respective values after dermal administration. tmax ranged from 0.5, 2 or 8 h after oral, subcutaneous or dermal administration, respectively. MP produced higher blood Cmax and AUC levels relative to those after PP or BP. Following oral or subcutaneous administration, urinary excretion was predominant (>70%, mainly during the first 24 h), less than 4% were eliminated in the feces, 2% were retained in the tissues and carcasses. Following dermal application, >50% of the dose was unabsorbed, 14-27% or <2% were respectively excreted in the urine or feces, respectively. Overall, parabens were well absorbed after oral and subcutaneous, and partially absorbed after dermal administration. All administration routes produced a single peak in the plasma, corresponding to that of para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) suggesting that PB produce no significant systemic exposure of mammalian organisms after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration. PMID:22265941

  4. Effect of Ceftriaxone on the Outcome of Murine Pyelonephritis Caused by Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tratselas, A.; Simitsopoulou, M.; Giannakopoulou, A.; Dori, I.; Saoulidis, S.; Kollios, K.; Papaioannidou, P.; Pournaras, S.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children are becoming more frequent, and they are commonly treated initially with a second- or third-generation cephalosporin. We developed a murine model of ascending UTI caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. Using this model, we investigated the renal bacterial burden, interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression, and histopathological alterations caused by ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing bacteria after 1, 2, or 6 days with or without ceftriaxone therapy. The renal bacterial burden, IL-6 concentration, and histological inflammatory lesions were not significantly different between mice infected with ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing bacteria without treatment at any of the time points examined. Following ceftriaxone administration, the bacterial burden was eliminated in the kidneys of mice infected with ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing bacteria on the 6th postinfection day. The histological analysis demonstrated that among mice treated with ceftriaxone, those infected with ESBL-producing bacteria had more profound renal alterations than those infected with non-ESBL-producing bacteria on the 6th day (P < 0.001). In comparison, microbiological outcomes did not differ significantly between mice infected with ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing bacteria at any of the time points examined. The effectiveness of ceftriaxone in mice with UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli may have therapeutic implications; it is, however, hampered by limited activity on the histopathological lesions, a finding that needs further investigation. PMID:25224003

  5. Lipo-endomorphin-1 derivatives with systemic activity against neuropathic pain without producing constipation.

    PubMed

    Varamini, Pegah; Mansfeld, Friederike M; Blanchfield, Joanne T; Wyse, Bruce D; Smith, Maree T; Toth, Istvan

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the drug-like properties of the endogenous opioid peptide endomorphin-1 (1 = Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH(2)), the N-terminus of the peptide was modified with 2-aminodecanoic acid, resulting in compound 3. Tyr in compound 1 was replaced with 2,6-dimethyltyrosine yielding compound 2. Derivative 2 was also substituted with 2-aminodecanoic acid producing compound, 4. Lipoamino acid-modified derivatives showed improved metabolic stability and membrane permeability while maintaining high μ-opioid (MOP) receptor binding affinity and acting as a potent agonist. In vivo studies showed dose-dependent antinociceptive activity following intravenous (i.v.) administration of compounds 3 and 4 in a chronic constriction injury (CCI)-rat model of neuropathic pain with ED(50) values of 1.22 (± 0.93) and 0.99 (± 0.89) µmol/kg, respectively. Pre-treatment of animals with naloxone hydrochloride significantly attenuated the anti-neuropathic effects of compound 3, confirming the key role of opioid receptors in mediating antinociception. In contrast to morphine, no significant constipation was produced following i.v. administration of compound 3 at 16 µmol/kg. Furthermore, following chronic administration of equi-potent doses of compound 3 and morphine to rats, there was less antinociceptive tolerance for compound 3 compared with morphine. PMID:22912681

  6. Significant results: statistical or clinical?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The null hypothesis significance test method is popular in biological and medical research. Many researchers have used this method for their research without exact knowledge, though it has both merits and shortcomings. Readers will know its shortcomings, as well as several complementary or alternative methods, as such the estimated effect size and the confidence interval. PMID:27066201

  7. The Most Significant Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    1972-01-01

    A reexamination of the significant research done in the decade from 1956-1966 and a revision of this list to include work up to 1971. Human characteristics, equality of educational opportunity, development of the individual, nature of intelligence, methodology of educational research, and principles of learning are some of the areas covered. (RB)

  8. Double-blind versus deceptive administration of a placebo.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, I; Weixel, L J

    1988-04-01

    Subjects were given varying doses of a placebo, consisting of decaffeinated coffee, with double-blind or deceptive instructions. Deceptive administration simulated clinical situations in that subjects were led to believe that they were receiving an active drug. In contrast, subjects in double-blind conditions were aware that they might receive a placebo. Double-blind and deceptive administration of the placebo produced different, and in some instances, opposite effects on pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, and subjective mood. Deceptive administration produced an increase in pulse rate, whereas double-blind administration did not. A theoretically predicted curvilinear effect on systolic blood pressure, alertness, tension, and certainty of having consumed caffeine was confirmed with deceptive administration, but not with double-blind administration. Double-blind administration produced curves in the opposite direction on each of these variables. The effects of the placebo on motor performance varied as a function of subject's beliefs about the effects of caffeine. These data challenge the validity of double-blind experimental designs and suggest that this common method of drug assessment may lead to spurious conclusions. PMID:3365327

  9. Nursing home administrators' level of job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Job satisfaction has been shown to have a direct relationship to the quality of work. Are nursing home administrators satisfied with their work? How do they compare with their counterparts in other industries? The results of this survey, using the Job Description Index (JDI) and the Job in General (JIG) scale as published by Bowling Green State University, indicate that nursing home administrators have a more compressed rate of job satisfaction than their counterparts in other industries. They focus their dissatisfaction on their coworkers and pay. They demonstrate dissatisfaction by rotating their positions at a rate of every 31 months. This suggests some significant problems in the development and maintenance of quality care and some areas that could be addressed to raise the level of satisfaction among nursing home administrators. PMID:15499807

  10. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  11. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  13. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  14. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  15. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-09-16

    Improvements are presented in calutron devices and, more specifically, dealswith an improved mounting arrangement fer the ion source of the calutron. An important feature of the invention resides in a pluraiity of insulators so mounted as to be accessible from the exterior of the calutron tank and supporting at their inner ends the ion source. These insutators are arranged in mutually parallel relation and also parallel to the flux of the nmgnetic field, whereby the strain of the supporting elements is reduced to a minimum. In addition the support assembly is secured to a removable wall portion of the task to facilitate withdrawal and examination of the ion producing mechanism.

  16. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and particularly describes a novel ion source. The unique feature of this source lies in the shaping of the ionizing electron stream to conform to the arc plasma boundary at the exit slit of the ionization chamber, thereby increasing the ion density produced at the plasma boundary. The particular structure consists of an electron source disposed at onc end of an elongated ionization chambcr and a coilimating electrode positioned to trim the electron stream to a crescent shape before entering the ionization chamber.

  17. Producing Hydrogen With Sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1987-01-01

    Costs high but reduced by further research. Producing hydrogen fuel on large scale from water by solar energy practical if plant costs reduced, according to study. Sunlight attractive energy source because it is free and because photon energy converts directly to chemical energy when it breaks water molecules into diatomic hydrogen and oxygen. Conversion process low in efficiency and photochemical reactor must be spread over large area, requiring large investment in plant. Economic analysis pertains to generic photochemical processes. Does not delve into details of photochemical reactor design because detailed reactor designs do not exist at this early stage of development.

  18. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  19. Comparison of intranasal administration of xylazine, diazepam, and midazolam in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Amin Bigham

    2013-06-01

    Effective sedation methods are important to facilitate safe handling for diagnostic and clinical procedures for small and often delicate birds such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The aim of this study was to directly compare the time of onset and duration of sedation produced by intranasal administration of xylazine, diazepam, or midazolam in budgerigars. Fifteen (seven male, eight female) clinically healthy mature budgerigars weighing 28.9 +/- 6.1 g were involved in the study Each bird was used three times in a randomized crossover study design with 7 days between treatments. Birds received xylazine (25.6 +/- 2.2 mg/kg), diazepam (13.6 +/- 1.1 mg/kg), or midazolam (13.2 +/- 1.3 mg/kg) intranasally (i.n.) using a micropipette. The onset time and dorsal recumbency duration time were measured and recorded. Sedation was produced in all birds after i.n. administration of xylazine, diazepam, and midazolam. Time to onset of sedation was significantly shorter after midazolam (1.3 +/- 0.44 min) compared with that after xylazine (2.6 +/- 0.89 min) and diazepam (2.8 +/- 0.88 min). Xylazine produced significantly longer duration of sedation (286.0 +/- 28.8 min) than that produced by diazepam (165.40 +/- 19.2 min) and midazolam (71.60 +/- 8.9 min). This study demonstrated that i.n. drug administration could provide fast and reliable sedation in budgerigars. Although i.n. midazolam or diazepam can provide adequate sedation for diagnostic and minor therapeutic procedures, xylazine at the dose used in this study is not recommended because the quality of sedation may be insufficient to perform a clinical procedure. PMID:23805540

  20. Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Stephen; McKitrick, Ross

    2005-02-01

    The ``hockey stick'' shaped temperature reconstruction of Mann et al. (1998, 1999) has been widely applied. However it has not been previously noted in print that, prior to their principal components (PCs) analysis on tree ring networks, they carried out an unusual data transformation which strongly affects the resulting PCs. Their method, when tested on persistent red noise, nearly always produces a hockey stick shaped first principal component (PC1) and overstates the first eigenvalue. In the controversial 15th century period, the MBH98 method effectively selects only one species (bristlecone pine) into the critical North American PC1, making it implausible to describe it as the ``dominant pattern of variance''. Through Monte Carlo analysis, we show that MBH98 benchmarks for significance of the Reduction of Error (RE) statistic are substantially under-stated and, using a range of cross-validation statistics, we show that the MBH98 15th century reconstruction lacks statistical significance.

  1. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  2. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  3. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  4. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  5. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  6. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity between the foreign financial institution... (b)(3) of that section. For example, a transaction or financial service in which a foreign financial... significance than a transaction or financial service a foreign financial institution conducts for or...

  7. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... part of a pattern of conduct or the result of a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity... service in which a foreign financial institution provides brokerage or clearing services to, or maintains... generally would be of greater significance than a transaction or financial service a foreign...

  8. Rostral-caudal differences in the effects of intra-VTA muscimol on cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David Y.; Guttilla, Matthew; Fung, Kinsun D.; McFeron, Stacey; Yan, Jerry; Ranaldi, Robert

    2007-01-01

    We have found that dopamine (DA) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an important role in cocaine self-administration. DA in the VTA acts at D1-type receptors on the terminals of GABA afferents causing release of this neurotransmitter. Thus, the neurochemical pathways whereby VTA DA might be involved in cocaine self-administration may include GABA neurotransmission. In the present study, we investigated this possibility. Rats were prepared with intravenous catheters and bilateral guide cannulae positioned to allow microinjections directly into the VTA or a site 1 mm dorsal to it. The rats were then trained to self-administer cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/injection) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement and tested with microinjections of muscimol (0, 0.05 and 0.1 μg/0.25 μl) or picrotoxin (0, 0.025 and 0.05 μg/0.25 μl) or trained under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule and tested with vehicle and 0.05 μg/0.25 μl muscimol. Muscimol in the VTA, but not immediately dorsal to it, significantly reduced cocaine intake under the FR1 schedule. Furthermore, when analyzed by rostral/caudal site of injection, it was found that rostral injections of muscimol significantly reduced cocaine self-administration whereas caudal injections produced non-significant decreases in self-administration. Inspection of individual records revealed no signs of non-specific behavioral effects of the muscimol treatments. Muscimol in the rostral VTA also significantly increased break points in responding under the PR schedule. Intra-VTA picrotoxin did not significantly affect cocaine self-administration. These data suggest that stimulation of GABA-A receptors in the VTA is involved in cocaine self-administration and reward and that this involvement is more pronounced in the rostral than in the caudal VTA. PMID:17291573

  9. Where boosted significances come from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

  10. Nursing academic administration: who will take on the challenge?

    PubMed

    Adams, Lavonne

    2007-01-01

    To address the shortage of qualified candidates interested in nursing academic administration, this study explored factors that influence nursing faculty to pursue administrative positions. Nursing academic administrators and full-time faculty from randomly selected accredited nursing programs in private colleges and universities in the United States participated in this study. Administrators completed the Leadership Practices Inventory-Self and a recruitment questionnaire, whereas faculty completed the Leadership Practices Inventory-Observer and a career aspiration questionnaire. Most faculty respondents (63%) indicated that they would not consider a position with greater administrative responsibility. Respondents identified workload and conflict-related issues as factors likely to discourage their pursuit of administration. Respondents identified additional challenge/variety of work, opportunity to influence organizational climate for change, opportunity to facilitate faculty growth and development, and mix of administration with teaching as likely to encourage their pursuit of administration. Faculty interest in a position with greater administrative responsibility was significantly increased for those who had completed additional course work beyond their highest degree. Practice recommendations included making leadership development opportunities available for faculty interested in administration, exploring methods to manage workload and conflict, and exploring methods to maximize factors identified as likely to encourage the pursuit of academic administration. PMID:17903790

  11. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  12. Consuming Research, Producing Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.; Stoddart, Greg L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors’ 1990 article “Producing Health, Consuming Health Care” presented a conceptual framework for synthesizing a rapidly growing body of findings on the nonmedical determinants of health. The article received a very positive response, and here the authors reflect on what lessons might be learned from that response about the style or content of effective interdisciplinary communication. Much substantive knowledge has been accumulated since 1990, and a number of different frameworks have been developed before and since. The authors situate theirs within this literature and consider how they might have modified it if they “knew then what they know now.” They ask what impact this article, and the much broader stream of research on the determinants of health, has had on public policy? PMID:12604475

  13. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  14. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  15. 21 CFR 201.18 - Drugs; significance of control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; significance of control numbers. 201.18 Section 201.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... history of the package. An incorrect lot number may be regarded as causing the article to be misbranded....

  16. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporating the other agency's FONSI. If environmental issues have not been adequately identified and assessed... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents....

  17. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporating the other agency's FONSI. If environmental issues have not been adequately identified and assessed... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents....

  18. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporating the other agency's FONSI. If environmental issues have not been adequately identified and assessed... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents....

  19. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... incorporating the other agency's FONSI. If environmental issues have not been adequately identified and assessed... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.121 Findings of no significant impact. (a) The Administration... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents....

  20. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.203 Section 1580.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger...

  1. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.203 Section 1580.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger...

  2. Effects of the CRF1 antagonist antalarmin on cocaine self-administration and discrimination in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K; Negus, S Stevens; Rice, Kenner C; Mendelson, Jack H

    2006-12-01

    Cocaine stimulates the rapid release of ACTH, and by inference, CRF in several species, suggesting that the HPA "stress" axis may contribute to the abuse-related effects of cocaine. The effects of a systemically-active CRF(1) receptor antagonist, antalarmin, on cocaine self-administration and cocaine discrimination were examined in rhesus monkeys. Antalarmin's acute (1-10 mg/kg, IV) and chronic (3.2 mg/kg IV) effects on IV cocaine self-administration were studied. The acute effects of 3.2 mg/kg IV antalarmin on the cocaine self-administration dose-effect curve (0.001-0.10 mg/kg/inj) were also examined. The acute effects of antalarmin (5 and 10 mg/kg, IM) on the cocaine discrimination dose-effect curve (0.013-1.3 mg/kg) were examined. Antalarmin did not significantly decrease the reinforcing or the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. Acute antalarmin administration produced a dose-dependent but non-significant decrease in self-administration of 0.01 mg/kg/inj cocaine but did not alter the cocaine dose-effect curve. Chronic daily antalarmin treatment did not significantly decrease cocaine-maintained responding. Antalarmin did not significantly alter either the cocaine discrimination dose-effect curve or the time course of the cocaine-training dose. Antalarmin (10 mg/kg) produced sedation, suggesting that it was centrally active, however, it did not attenuate cocaine's abuse-related effects in rhesus monkeys. PMID:17182090

  3. School Business Administration: A Planning Approach. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candoli, I. Carl; And Others

    The school business administration function in the operation of American schools has undergone dramatic changes during the past several years. Changing demographics, high technology, the movement to professionalize school administration, and changes by the legislative and judicial systems have all had significant impact on the character of school…

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  6. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  7. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  8. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  9. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  10. 48 CFR 30.607 - Subcontract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.607 Subcontract administration. When a negotiated CAS price adjustment or a determination of noncompliance is required at...

  11. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  12. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  13. Yawning and its physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  14. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  15. The functional significance of stereopsis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anna R; Birch, Eileen E; Anderson, Susan; Draper, Hayley

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Development or restoration of binocular vision is one of the key goals of strabismus management; however, the functional impact of stereoacuity has largely been neglected. Methods. Subjects aged 10 to 30 years with normal, reduced, or nil stereoacuity performed three tasks: Purdue pegboard (measured how many pegs placed in 30 seconds), bead threading (with two sizes of bead, to increase the difficulty; measured time taken to thread a number of beads), and water pouring (measured both accuracy and time). All tests were undertaken both with and without occlusion of one eye. Results. One hundred forty-three subjects were recruited, 32.9% (n = 47) with a manifest deviation. Performances on the pegboard and bead tasks were significantly worse in the nil stereoacuity group when compared with that of the normal stereoacuity group. On the large and small bead tasks, those with reduced stereoacuity were better than those with nil stereoacuity (when the Preschool Randot Stereoacuity Test [Stereo Optical Co, Inc., Chicago, IL] results were used to determine stereoacuity levels). Comparison of the short-term monocular conditions (those with normal stereoacuity but occluded) with nil stereoacuity showed that, on all measures, the performance was best in the nil stereoacuity group and was statistically significant for the large and small beads task, irrespective of which test result was used to define the stereoacuity levels. Conclusions. Performance on motor skills tasks was related to stereoacuity, with subjects with normal stereoacuity performing best on all tests. This quantifiable degradation in performance on some motor skill tasks supports the need to implement management strategies to maximize development of high-grade stereoacuity. PMID:19933184

  16. Augmentation of Intercoronary Anastomosis by Long-Term Administration of a Vasodilator Drug, Dipyridamole (Persantin)

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Wadie M.; Ragheb, Samir; Hoeschen, Robert J.

    1964-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the ability of dipyridamole to promote intercoronary anastomotic channels in the dog. Nineteen normal dogs received 150-300 mg. dipyridamole daily for 73 to 162 days and were compared with 18 control animals. Employing pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) anesthesia and positive pressure ventilation, the chest was opened and the circumflex coronary artery was tied and cannulated distal to the tie. The average retrograde flow in the treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.02). Acute administration of dipyridamole intravenously produced comparable reduction of blood pressure and retrograde flow in both groups of animals. Thus the long-term administration of dipyridamole appears capable of promoting the growth of intercoronary anastomotic pathways in some animals even in the absence of any known ischemic stimulus. This would appear to be the result of sustained vasodilator action. PMID:14139998

  17. Issues of accountability in mental health administration.

    PubMed

    Sneed, R J; Lee, J R

    1984-01-01

    The issue of accountability in state hospitals and state schools-hospitals can be expected to remain paramount in the future. Almost all areas of mental health services are being scrutinized by consumers who are demanding more for their money. From the Perspective of the mental administrator consumers will have to become a more meaningful part of the decision making process to produce productive changes in these human service fields. Thus, to this end, human service institutions must have the ability to function as open systems and must develop a sense of responsiveness to their consumers' needs. PMID:10269100

  18. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopička, K.; Fišer, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanč, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides/compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed.

  19. Child Nutrition Programs. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective program administration for the success of Utah's Child Nutrition Programs, the State Office of Education developed a manual to assist local program administrators in using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) programs. This document contains Part 1 of the manual's four interrelated…

  20. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  1. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  2. Administrative Style and Leadership Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Vernadine; Ogletree, Earl J.

    Trends over the past 25 years in research on evaluation of school administrative leadership are analyzed in this summary report. Administrator evaluation became a concern as the principal's influence on the performance and attitudes of faculty and staff was realized. Research on organizational psychology demonstrated the relationship between…

  3. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  4. Coaches Guide to Sport Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, Larry M.

    This guide for athletic coaches offers a practical approach to the administrative functions of organizing, planning, leading, and controlling. Included are chapters on coaching administration, fund raising, organizing competitions, and designing effective budgets and controls. The guide addresses the following topics: (1) the categories of…

  5. In Praise of Fewer Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald D.; Stuart, William H.

    In response to increasing financial pressures, Oakland Community College instituted a policy in the 1970s to reduce the number of college administrators as a means of saving staff costs. While student enrollments increased from 11,700 in 1970 to 24,000 in 1980, the number of administrators fell from 84 to 32. This reduction was realized through…

  6. Canadian and Comparative Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H., Ed.; Housego, Ian E., Ed.

    Most of the articles in this book evolved from papers presented during the Fourth Quadrennial International Intervisitation Program in Educational Administration held in Canada in 1978. Its purposes were to inform educational leaders from around the world about educational administration, organization, and policy in Canada and to provide a forum…

  7. The Dissimilarity of Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, John

    1970-01-01

    The responsibilities of educational administrators do not extend to the products of the educational institutions. Rather, they end at the point where they maintain satisfactory conditions for leisure activities. In this respect, educational administration may serve as a model for the governance of an increasing number of organizations, both public…

  8. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  9. Status of Practice Administration Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manski, Richard J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A national survey of 51 dental schools gathered information about curricula in dental practice administration, focusing on curriculum format, course content, course hours, and faculty in seven major content areas. Results are summarized, and it is concluded that practice administration curricula are mature and secure, but in some cases inadequate.…

  10. Administrative Support for Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the need of administrative support for board members. An effective board services office can help a lot in attracting and retaining community leaders. Board members need administrative support to help them manage events, records, communications, scheduling, correspondence and constituent service. In small to…

  11. Preparing Administrators for Connected Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tweed W.

    New technology, in the form of electronic connectivity, has opened up vast new arenas for educational development. Many administrators, however, have not been prepared for the sudden change brought about by such technology. The problem for school administrators is how to lead effectively without being overcome by the new information technologies.…

  12. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  13. The Enigma of Administrative Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchler, Merv

    1981-01-01

    Writers attempting to describe administration have approached the subject from a number of perspectives. Researchers such as Gulick (1937) identified planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting as functional elements of administration. Hemphill, Griffiths, and Fredericksen (1962), using simulated job settings,…

  14. Cardinal Virtues of Academic Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to articulate the basic elements of a comprehensive ethic of academic administration, organized around a set of three cardinal virtues: "commitment" to the good of the institution; good administrative "judgment"; and "conscientiousness" in discharging the duties of the office. In addition to explaining this framework and…

  15. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

  16. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  17. Reforming Educational Administration: Ethical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that serious ethical questions regarding the preparation of prospective school administrators have arisen out of the American reform movement. Discusses university-sponsored educational administration programs in the context of the social contract between the university and its various shareholders. Argues that such programs have a major…

  18. The Evaluation of Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, G. Lester

    Certain principles, assumptions, and caveats are considered in this conference paper that are relevant to the formal evaluation of academic administrators. Academic administration is defined as "leadership and managerial activity associated with teaching, research, educational services such as counseling or placement, and extension activities…

  19. College Administration: Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltner, Bill D., Ed.

    Ten colleges participated in a project to: (1) help organize and strengthen administrative teams in developing two-year and four-year colleges throughout the Southeast; (2) to assist administrative teams in identifying specific roles for each team member and in developing an understanding of team responsibilities; and (3) to assist administrative…

  20. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction following ioversol administration.

    PubMed

    Jansman, Frank Ga; Kieft, Hans; Harting, Johannes W

    2007-12-01

    We report a fatal intravenous ioversol administration in a 60-year old male patient. Although the introduction of new low-osmolar non-ionogenic contrast media with a more favourable efficacy-toxicity balance has diminished the side-effects significantly, everyone involved in radiodiagnostic procedures should be aware of the potential life-threatening effects. Especially patients with risk factors for side-effects should be monitored carefully. PMID:17557212

  1. A comparison between comprehensive system and an early version of the rorschach performance assessment system administration with outpatient children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Jennifer B; Viglione, Donald J; Giromini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the effects of variability in the length of Rorschach records has been debated, and a new administration procedure aimed at reducing the proportion of short and long records has recently been introduced. Using an outpatient sample of children and adolescents, this study explored the impact of an early version of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) administration, on the central tendencies of Rorschach variables. Specifically, the mean values of 51 variables in 142 Comprehensive System versus 99 R-PAS collected records were compared with each other. Results found comparable mean values across CS and R-PAS administration methods for the variables that guide interpretation with children and adolescents. Both methods produced a comparable number of long (> 27 responses) records. The only relevant difference that emerged is that the early R-PAS administration version yielded significantly fewer short (14-16 responses) records and lower variability in the number of responses. PMID:24624977

  2. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  3. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement. PMID:26357049

  4. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  5. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  6. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  7. Clinical significance of monocyte heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Brian K; Ingram, David A

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are primitive hematopoietic cells that primarily arise from the bone marrow, circulate in the peripheral blood and give rise to differentiated macrophages. Over the past two decades, considerable attention to monocyte diversity and macrophage polarization has provided contextual clues into the role of myelomonocytic derivatives in human disease. Until recently, human monocytes were subdivided based on expression of the surface marker CD16. "Classical" monocytes express surface markers denoted as CD14(++)CD16(-) and account for greater than 70% of total monocyte count, while "non-classical" monocytes express the CD16 antigen with low CD14 expression (CD14(+)CD16(++)). However, recognition of an intermediate population identified as CD14(++)CD16(+) supports the new paradigm that monocytes are a true heterogeneous population and careful identification of specific subpopulations is necessary for understanding monocyte function in human disease. Comparative studies of monocytes in mice have yielded more dichotomous results based on expression of the Ly6C antigen. In this review, we will discuss the use of monocyte subpopulations as biomarkers of human disease and summarize correlative studies in mice that may yield significant insight into the contribution of each subset to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25852821

  8. [The significance of antiphospholipid antibodies].

    PubMed

    Fojtík, Z

    2004-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) present very heterogeneous groups of antibodies which can significantly influence processes on different levels of coagulation cascade depending on effects of phospholipid surfaces on blood coagulation. This usually leads to a particular level of thrombophylia. Clinical syndrome accompanying positive APLA, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, was defined by clinical and laboratory symptoms. This clinical syndrome can be a primary syndrome, if other disorders with ability to induce generation of antibodies can be excluded, or a secondary syndrome. The most often in cases of systemic tissue disease. APLA can be divided according to the presence of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. According to a definition lupus anticoagulants are antibodies able to inhibit and prolong in vitro one or more blood clotting processes dependent on phospholipid surfaces. Anticardiolipin antibodies are antibodies measured by ELISA method with cardiolipin used as an antibody. Findings show that some APLA are directed against proteins bound to phospholipid surfaces. Main cofactor proteins include beta 2-GPI and prothrombin. Because of their heterogeneous specificity, APLA are directed against negative phospholipids or proteins bound to phospholipid surfaces and have important pathophysiology role in development of antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:15214303

  9. Evidence of thyroxine formation following iodine administration in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, K. D.; Sauer, R. L.; Bull, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine (I2) has been proposed to be used as a water disinfectant on the manned space station. Previous work has shown that subchronic administration of I2 to Sprague-Dawley rats in drinking water significantly increases plasma thyroxine/triiodothyronine (T4/T3) levels. This is not observed with iodide (I-) treatment. The present study addresses the possibility that I2 reacts with deiodinated T4 metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract to resynthesize T4. Incubation of diiodothyronine (T2), T3, or reverse T3 with I2 in phosphate-buffered saline resulted in the formation of T4 as measured by radioimmunoassay. Washes from the initial segments of the small intestine of the rat show that substrates are present that react with I2 to produce T4. Single oral doses of I2 to rats produced significant dose-related increases in serum T4 and decreases in T3 concentrations after 2 h. Administration of an equivalent dose of I- did not alter significantly plasma T4 concentrations. Higher concentrations of a radioactive substance that bound a T4-specific antibody are present in plasma of animals treated with 125I2 compared to 125I-. These data support the hypothesis that I2 reacts with metabolites of thyroid hormone in the gastrointestinal tract to resynthesize T4 and elevate its levels in blood.

  10. General administrative activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1982-07-01

    Significant safety-related activities reported during March and April, which are not covered elsewhere in this issue, are summarized here. The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) issued several reports on a variety of topics of current concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A recent NRC draft report identifies preliminary ranking of safety issues. The NRC is establishing a new Office of Investigations. The NRC also released a list of plants now under construction which it suspects will be canceled or indefinitely deferred. Four speeches by NRC Commissioners are summarized, as is the only Research Information Letter issued during the report period. Last is a listing of a variety of safety-related topics.

  11. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  12. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  13. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  14. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  15. Fluid administration and morbidity in transhiatal esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Oliver S.; Arlow, Renee L.; Moore, Dirk; Chen, Chunxia; Langenfeld, John E.; August, David A.; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity. Optimizing perioperative fluid administration is one potential strategy to mitigate morbidity. We sought to investigate the relationship of intraoperative fluid (IOF) administration to outcomes in patients undergoing transhiatal esophagectomy with particular attention to malnourished patients, who may be more susceptible to the effects of fluid overload. Material and methods Patients who underwent transhiatal esophagectomy from 2000–2013 were identified from a retrospective database. IOF rates (mL/kg/hr) were determined and their relationship to outcomes compared. To examine the impact of malnutrition, we stratified patients based on median preoperative serum albumin and compared outcomes. Results and discussion 211 patients comprised the cohort. 74% of patients underwent esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Linear regression analyses were performed comparing independent perioperative variables to four outcomes variables: length of stay, complications per patient, major complications, and Clavien-Dindo classification. IOF rate was significantly associated with three of four outcomes on univariate analysis. Significantly more patients with a preoperative albumin level ≤3.7 g/dL who received more than the median IOF rate experienced more severe complications. Conclusions Increased intraoperative fluid administration is associated with perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing transhiatal esophagectomy. Patients with lower preoperative albumin levels may be particularly sensitive to the effects of volume overload. PMID:26319974

  16. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  18. 48 CFR 242.302 - Contract administration functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... report identifying significant accounting system or related internal control deficiencies. (9) For...) Contractor estimating systems (see FAR 15.407-5); and (B) Contractor material management and accounting... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES...

  19. IV Nicotine Self-Administration in Rats Using a Consummatory Operant Licking Response: Sensitivity to Serotonergic, Glutaminergic and Histaminergic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Vanessa; Rose, Jed E.; Levin, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is characterized by repeated self-administration of nicotine by placing the cigarette in the mouth. The repeated hand-to-mouth self-administration is essentially a consummatory act. We recently developed a paradigm in which rats lick one of two spouts to trigger intravenous (IV) delivery of nicotine, which combines a consummatory act with rapid delivery of nicotine to model the act of tobacco smoking. We have found that rats will lick hundreds of times per nicotine infusion. In the current study, using the operant licking nicotine self-administration model with young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (0.03 mg/kg/infusion of nicotine), we tested the effect of antagonists of H1 histamine receptors pyrilamine, serotonin (5HT) type 2 receptors ketanserin and lorcaserin and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors with D-cycloserine in dose ranges that we have found in previous studies to significantly reduce IV nicotine self-administration with the operant lever press operand. The H1 antagonist pyrilamine significantly reduced operant licking for nicotine self-administration. Pyrilamine caused significant reductions in the operant licking paradigm at lower doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) than those we previously observed to affect responding in the operant lever press paradigm. In contrast, the 5HT2A and C antagonist ketanserin did not show an effect of reducing nicotine self-administration in the same dose range we had found in a previous study to significantly reduce operant lever press nicotine self-administration. The 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin significantly decreased nicotine self-administration in the licking paradigm at the same dose threshold as with lever press responding. The NMDA glutamate partial agonist D-cycloserine did not produce any change in nicotine self-administration with the licking operand, in contrast to its effect on the classic lever-pressing task. The rat model incorporating consummatory aspects of tobacco addiction can provide distinct

  20. IV nicotine self-administration in rats using a consummatory operant licking response: sensitivity to serotonergic, glutaminergic and histaminergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Vanessa; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    2014-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is characterized by repeated self-administration of nicotine by placing the cigarette in the mouth. The repeated hand-to-mouth self-administration is essentially a consummatory act. We recently developed a paradigm in which rats lick one of two spouts to trigger intravenous (IV) delivery of nicotine, which combines a consummatory act with rapid delivery of nicotine to model the act of tobacco smoking. We have found that rats will lick hundreds of times per nicotine infusion. In the current study, using the operant licking nicotine self-administration model with young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (0.03mg/kg/infusion of nicotine), we tested the effect of antagonists of H1 histamine receptors pyrilamine, serotonin (5HT) type 2 receptors ketanserin and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors with d-cycloserine as well as an agonist of 5HT2c receptors lorcaserin, in dose ranges that we have found in previous studies to significantly reduce IV nicotine self-administration with the operant lever press operand. The H1 antagonist pyrilamine significantly reduced operant licking for nicotine self-administration. Pyrilamine caused significant reductions in the operant licking paradigm at lower doses (10 and 20mg/kg) than those we previously observed to affect responding in the operant lever press paradigm. In contrast, the 5HT2A and C antagonist ketanserin did not show an effect of reducing nicotine self-administration in the same dose range we had found in a previous study to significantly reduce operant lever press nicotine self-administration. The 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin significantly decreased nicotine self-administration in the licking paradigm at the same dose threshold as with lever press responding. The NMDA glutamate partial agonist d-cycloserine did not produce any change in nicotine self-administration with the licking operand, in contrast to its effect on the classic lever-pressing task. The rat model incorporating consummatory aspects of

  1. Oral administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 is effective for preventing influenza in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yosuke; Moriya, Tomohiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Ikeda, Noriko; Shiozaki, Takuya; Hosoya, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Hisako; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    The Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium with properties such as bile tolerance and ability to improve the intestinal environment. In this study, we established that the oral administration of LG2055 exhibits efficacy to protect mice infected with the influenza virus A/PR8. The body weight losses were lower with the LG2055 administration after the PR8 virus infection. At 5 days after the infection, the virus titer was significantly decreased as was the amount of produced IL-6 in the lung tissue, the number of total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was reduced by the LG2055 administration. The expression of the Mx1 and Oas1a genes, critical for the viral clearance in the lung tissues was increased by the pre-treatment with LG2055. These findings suggest that the LG2055 administration is effective for the protection against influenza A virus infection by the down-regulation of viral replication through the induction of antiviral genes expression. PMID:24717726

  2. Mass drug administration for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Poirot, Eugenie; Skarbinski, Jacek; Sinclair, David; Kachur, S Patrick; Slutsker, Laurence; Hwang, Jimee

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA), defined as the empiric administration of a therapeutic antimalarial regimen to an entire population at the same time, has been a historic component of many malaria control and elimination programmes, but is not currently recommended. With renewed interest in MDA and its role in malaria elimination, this review aims to summarize the findings from existing research studies and program experiences of MDA strategies for reducing malaria burden and transmission. Objectives To assess the impact of antimalarial MDA on population asexual parasitaemia prevalence, parasitaemia incidence, gametocytaemia prevalence, anaemia prevalence, mortality and MDA-associated adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE+, EMBASE, to February 2013. We also searched CABS Abstracts, LILACS, reference lists, and recent conference proceedings. Selection criteria Cluster-randomized trials and non-randomized controlled studies comparing therapeutic MDA versus placebo or no MDA, and uncontrolled before-and-after studies comparing post-MDA to baseline data were selected. Studies administering intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) to sub-populations (for example, pregnant women, children or infants) were excluded. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies were stratified by study design and then subgrouped by endemicity, by co-administration of 8-aminoquinoline plus schizonticide drugs and by plasmodium species. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Two cluster-randomized trials, eight non-randomized controlled studies and 22 uncontrolled before-and-after studies are included in this review. Twenty-two studies (29 comparisons) compared MDA to placebo or no intervention of which two comparisons were

  3. Repeated ketamine administration redeems the time lag for citalopram's antidepressant-like effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-F; Liu, W-X; Qiu, L-L; Guo, J; Wang, X-M; Sun, H-L; Yang, J-J; Zhou, Z-Q

    2015-06-01

    Current available antidepressants exhibit low remission rate with a long response lag time. Growing evidence has demonstrated acute sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant effects. However, a long term use of ketamine tends to elicit its adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of intermittent and consecutive administrations of ketamine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, and to determine whether ketamine can redeem the time lag for treatment response of classic antidepressants. The behavioral responses were assessed by the sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, and open field test. In the first stage of experiments, all the four treatment regimens of ketamine (10mg/kg ip, once daily for 3 or 7 consecutive days, or once every 7 or 3 days, in a total 21 days) showed robust antidepressant-like effects, with no significant influence on locomotor activity and stereotype behavior in the CUMS rats. The intermittent administration regimens produced longer antidepressant-like effects than the consecutive administration regimens and the administration every 7 days presented similar antidepressant-like effects with less administration times compared with the administration every 3 days. In the second stage of experiments, the combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg ip, once every 7 days) and citalopram (20 mg/kg po, once daily) for 21 days caused more rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects than citalopram administered alone. In summary, repeated sub-anesthestic doses of ketamine can redeem the time lag for the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram, suggesting the combination of ketamine and classic antidepressants is a promising regimen for depression with quick onset time and stable and lasting effects. PMID:25795441

  4. Stretched arc discharge in produced water.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  5. Stretched arc discharge in produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Wright, K. C.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, D. J.; Rabinovich, A.; Fridman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost.

  6. Method for producing capsular polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  7. Devices for insulin administration.

    PubMed

    Selam, J L; Charles, M A

    1990-09-01

    There is a significant need for revised, safe, and more effective insulin-delivery methods than subcutaneous injections in the treatment of both type I (insulin-dependent) and type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. The aim of this review is to describe the rationale and methods for better use of injection and infusion devices for intensive insulin therapy and to describe results of animal and human research that will lead to an implantable artificial pancreas. Injection devices, e.g., jet injectors, insulin pens, and access ports, cannot be considered as a major breakthrough in the quest for improved control, although they may improve the patient's comfort. External pumps have benefits over multiple injections and conventional insulin therapy only in specific subgroups of patients, e.g., those with recurrent severe hypoglycemia, but only when used by experienced personnel. The external artificial pancreas (Biostator) is also to be used by experienced personnel for limited clinical and research applications, e.g., surgery of the diabetic patient. The development of an implantable version of the artificial pancreas is linked to progress in the field of reliable long-duration glucose sensors. Finally, programmable implantable insulin pumps, used as an open-loop delivery system, are the most promising alternative to intensive subcutaneous insulin strategies in the short term, although clear evidence of improved safety and efficacy remains to be documented. PMID:2226111

  8. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  9. Effect of endotoxin administration in pregnant camels

    PubMed Central

    AL-Dughaym, A.M.; Homeida, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin at a dose of 0.05 μg/kg bodyweight to pregnant camels resulted in abortion. The injection of endotoxin caused significant increases in the plasma concentration of 13,14-dihydro-15-prostaglandin F2α, the metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG F2α) and cortisol and a significant decrease in the concentration of progesterone. It is suggested that endotoxin caused abortion in camels was a consequence of endotoxin induced PG F2α secretion resulting in luteal regression and decreased progesterone concentration. PMID:23961064

  10. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  11. Acute hemodynamic effects and blood pool kinetics of polystyrene microspheres following intravenous administration

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, J.D.; Kanke, M.; Simmons, G.H.; DeLuca, P.P.

    1981-06-01

    The acute hemodynamic effect of intravenous administration of polystyrene microspheres was investigated and correlated with their distribution pattern and kinetics. Microspheres of three diameters (3.4, 7.4, and 11.6 micrometer) were administered. The 7.4- and 11.6-micrometer diameter microspheres were filtered by the pulmonary capillary network following intravenous administration, the majority during the first pass. There was no significant hemodynamic effect following administrations of the 7.4- and 11.6-micrometer diameter microspheres in doses as high as 3.0 X 10(9) and 6.1 X 10(8) respectively (total cross-sectional area of 1.3 X 10(11) and 6.4 X 10(10) micrometer2, respectively). Intravenous administration of 3.4-micrometer diameter microspheres produced significant dose-dependent systemic hypotension and depression of myocardial performance at dosages as slow as 1.0 X 10(10) (cross-sectional area of 9.1 X 10(10) micrometer2). These differences in acute hemodynamic effect from the 7.4- and 11.6-micrometer diameter microspheres may be due to the differences in distribution kinetics and fate of the 3.4-micrometer diameter microspheres, which readily pass through the lungs to the spleen. Although elimination of the smaller spheres from the blood during the first 6-8 min was rapid, i.e., t 1/2 . 1.62 and 1.72 min from the venous and arterial blood circulation, respectively, levels of 10(3) spheres/g of blood were present in the circulation for greater than 1 hr. These findings must be considered in the planning of intravenous administration of microspheres as a drug delivery system to target organs.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and alkylating activity in man after intravenous and oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Juma, F. D.; Rogers, H. J.; Trounce, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    1 Plasma cyclophosphamide levels were estimated by gas-chromatography in seven patients following intravenous and oral cyclophosphamide administration. Plasma alkylating activity was determined by the nitrobenzyl pyridine (NBP) reaction. 2 The plasma T½ after intravenous administration ranged from 5.97 to 12.37 h but after oral administration was shorter, 1.32-6.8 h. The mean total body clearance was 66.6 ml kg-1 h-1 after intravenous dosing and 93.1 ml kg-1 h-1 following oral dosing. Vdβ was 0.71 (0.10 s.d.) 1 kg-1 suggesting that cyclophosphamide is distributed largely in body water. 3 The mean hepatic extraction ratio was 0.25, indicating a modest first pass metabolism. The metabolic clearance was 3.72 1 kg-1 and the intrinsic hepatic clearance 5.17 1 kg-1. 4 The mean renal clearance was 4.8 ml kg-1 h-1 with 6.5% of the administered dose excreted unchanged in the urine suggesting tubular reabsorption of cyclophosphamide. 5 The mean T½ of plasma alkylating activity was 8.82 h, there being no significant difference following oral and intravenous administration. On average, 3.5 times the alkylating activity was produced by an oral dose of cyclophosphamide as compared to an intravenous dose. It is possible that this may reflect production of a different pattern of alkylating metabolites following cyclophosphamide administration by different routes. The clinical significance of these observations is unknown. PMID:497087

  13. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  14. Pyrolysis of wastewater biosolids significantly reduces estrogenicity.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, T C; Zitomer, D H; McNamara, P J

    2016-11-01

    Most wastewater treatment processes are not specifically designed to remove micropollutants. Many micropollutants are hydrophobic so they remain in the biosolids and are discharged to the environment through land-application of biosolids. Micropollutants encompass a broad range of organic chemicals, including estrogenic compounds (natural and synthetic) that reside in the environment, a.k.a. environmental estrogens. Public concern over land application of biosolids stemming from the occurrence of micropollutants hampers the value of biosolids which are important to wastewater treatment plants as a valuable by-product. This research evaluated pyrolysis, the partial decomposition of organic material in an oxygen-deprived system under high temperatures, as a biosolids treatment process that could remove estrogenic compounds from solids while producing a less hormonally active biochar for soil amendment. The estrogenicity, measured in estradiol equivalents (EEQ) by the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, of pyrolyzed biosolids was compared to primary and anaerobically digested biosolids. The estrogenic responses from primary solids and anaerobically digested solids were not statistically significantly different, but pyrolysis of anaerobically digested solids resulted in a significant reduction in EEQ; increasing pyrolysis temperature from 100°C to 500°C increased the removal of EEQ with greater than 95% removal occurring at or above 400°C. This research demonstrates that biosolids treatment with pyrolysis would substantially decrease (removal>95%) the estrogens associated with this biosolids product. Thus, pyrolysis of biosolids can be used to produce a valuable soil amendment product, biochar, that minimizes discharge of estrogens to the environment. PMID:27344259

  15. Effects of restriction of sodium or administration of fludrocortisone on parotid salivary kallikrein in man.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, D; Proud, D; Lawton, W J; Yates, K N; Highet, P; Pisano, J J; Keiser, H R

    1982-07-01

    Urinary kallikrein is increased by restriction of dietary sodium and by administration of fludrocortisone, a sodium-retaining steroid. In order to determine whether salivary kallikrein responds similarly, we studied 16 normal volunteers after 1-week periods of daily intake of 9, 109, and 259 mEQ of sodium; 10 subjects were studied after addition of 0.6 mg/day fludrocortisone for a week to a regimen of 109 mEq/day sodium. During sodium restriction, parotid saliva had a significantly higher mean concentration of kallikrein ad potassium and a significantly lower concentration of sodium than during periods of intake of 109 or 259 mEq/day sodium. Sodium restriction also caused significantly higher urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone. Salivary amylase remained unchanged during the three sodium periods. Administration of fludrocortisone significantly increased the mean concentration of parotid kallikrein and excretion of urinary kallikrein in comparison with control levels, however the concentrations of parotid sodium and potassium did not change significantly. Four patients studied before and after removal of aldosterone-producing adenomas each showed decreased concentrations of parotid kallikrein and potassium and increased concentrations of parotid sodium after surgery. It is concluded that both salivary and urinary kallikrein increased in response to restriction of sodium and that these increases were mediated by levels of sodium-retaining steroid. Increased output of kallikrein in response to increased levels of sodium-retaining steroid may be a generalized response of organs that contain glandular kallikrein and can conserve sodium. PMID:6919568

  16. Alterations in energy balance following exenatide administration.

    PubMed

    Bradley, David P; Kulstad, Roger; Racine, Natalie; Shenker, Yoram; Meredith, Melissa; Schoeller, Dale A

    2012-10-01

    Exenatide is a medication similar in structure and effect to native glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone with glucose-lowering properties. The aim of the study was to measure the change in total energy expenditure (TEE) and body composition during exenatide administration and by deduction the relative contributions of energy expenditure and energy intake to exenatide-induced weight loss. Forty-five obese (body mass index, 30-40 kg·m⁻²) subjects were identified. After exclusion criteria application, 28 subjects entered into the study and 18 subjects (12 female, 6 male) completed the study, which consisted of 6 visits over 14 weeks and injection of exenatide for an average of 84 ± 5 days. Respiratory gas analysis and doubly labeled water measurements were performed before initiation of exenatide and after approximately 3 months of exenatide administration. The average weight loss from the beginning of injection period to the end of the study in completed subjects was 2.0 ± 2.8 kg (p = 0.01). Fat mass declined by 1.3 ± 1.8 kg (p = 0.01) while the fat-free mass trended downward but was not significant (0.8 ± 2.2 kg, p = 0.14). There was no change in weight-adjusted TEE (p = 0.20), resting metabolic rate (p = 0.51), or physical activity energy expenditure (p = 0.38) and no change in the unadjusted thermic effect of a meal (p = 0.37). The significant weight loss because of exenatide administration was thus the result of decreasing energy intake. In obese nondiabetic subjects, exenatide administration did not increase TEE and by deduction the significant weight loss and loss of fat mass was due to decreased energy intake. PMID:22735035

  17. [Changes in the relative levels of fatty acids in blood and myocardium in the Prague breed of rats with hereditary hypercholesteremia after administration of slow calcium channel blockers].

    PubMed

    Edelsteinová, S; Bukovská, A; Svec, P; Vozár, I; Kuzelová, M

    1992-07-01

    The present paper describes the effect of six-week oral administration of verapamil and diltiazem (1 mg.kg-1 of weight two times daily in 12 hour intervals) on the content of fatty acids of the serum and myocardium of PHHC rats. A cholesterol diet changes the content of fatty acids of the serum and myocardium of PHHC rats in comparison with control rats without the cholesterol diet. A significant decrease in the content of palmitic acid, a decrease in the content of stearic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and a significant increase in the content of oleic acid were observed in the serum. Long-term administration of the slow calcium channel blockers produces another decrease in the content of the bound form of arachidonic acid. Changes in the representation of other fatty acids are not marked. Long-term administration of a cholesterol diet produces an increase in the content of palmitic acid and stearic acid and a decrease in the content of oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid in the myocardium. Administration of verapamil results in a modification of the above-mentioned changes in all parameters excepting the content of arachidonic acid, the content of which was decreased in an even more marked manner. Administration of diltiazem produced an accumulation of both saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic and oleic acids) and produced a significant decrease in the content of linoleic acid and mainly the bound form of arachidonic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1451191

  18. Transcultural perspectives in nursing administration.

    PubMed

    Andrews, M M

    1998-11-01

    Population demographics are reshaping the healthcare work force with respect to race, ethnicity, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, age, handicap, disability, and related factors as national sensitivity to various forms of diversity grows. Given the demographic trends, it is inevitable that nurse administrators will need skill in transcultural administration as they manage diversity and identify the cultural origins of conflict in the multicultural workplace. Culture influences the manner in which administrators, staff and patients perceive, identify, define and solve problems. In this article, the complex and interrelated factors that influence workplace diversity are examined. PMID:9824983

  19. 77 FR 57037 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...This rule invites comments on proposed revisions to the administrative rules prescribed under the marketing order regulating the handling of spearmint oil produced in the Far West. The marketing order is administered locally by the Spearmint Oil Administrative Committee (Committee). This rule would change the date by which a producer must transfer excess spearmint oil to another producer or......

  20. 78 FR 9575 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...This rule revises the administrative rules prescribed under the marketing order regulating the handling of spearmint oil produced in the Far West. The marketing order is administered locally by the Spearmint Oil Administrative Committee (Committee). This rule changes the date by which a producer must transfer excess spearmint oil to another producer, or deliver such oil to the Committee or its......

  1. N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) inhibits intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-enhanced brain-stimulation reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Kiyatkin, Michael; Li, Xia; Peng, Xiao-Qing; Wiggins, Armina; Spiller, Krista; Li, Jie; Gardner, Eliot L

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological activation of group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2 and mGlu3) receptors inhibits reward-seeking behavior and/or rewarding efficacy induced by drugs (cocaine, nicotine) or natural rewards (food, sucrose). In the present study, we investigated whether elevation of brain N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), an endogenous group II mGlu receptor agonist, by the NAAG peptidase inhibitor 2-PMPA attenuates cocaine's rewarding effects, as assessed by intravenous cocaine self-administration and intracranial electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR) in rats. Systemic administration of 2-PMPA (10, 30, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or intranasal administration of NAAG (100, 300 microg/10 microl/nostril) significantly inhibited intravenous cocaine self-administration under progressive-ratio (PR), but not under fixed-ratio 2 (FR2), reinforcement conditions. In addition, 2-PMPA (1, 10, 30 mg/kg, i.p) or NAAG (50, 100 microg/10 microl/nostril) significantly inhibited cocaine-enhanced BSR, but not basal BSR. Pretreatment with LY341495 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effects produced by 2-PMPA or NAAG in both the self-administration and BSR paradigms. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated that 2-PMPA (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated cocaine-enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). 2-PMPA alone inhibited basal NAc DA release, an effect that was prevented by LY341495. These findings suggest that systemic administration of 2-PMPA or intranasal administration of NAAG inhibits cocaine's rewarding efficacy and cocaine-enhanced NAc DA - likely by activation of presynaptic mGlu2/3 receptors in the NAc. These data suggest a potential utility for 2-PMPA or NAAG in the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:19559037

  2. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stanley J; Kearns, David N; Cohn, Scott I; Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V

    2003-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that set the occasion wherein drugs are acquired can "trigger" drug-related behavior. Investigating the stimulus control of drug self-administration in laboratory animals should help us better understand this aspect of human drug abuse. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration was generated here for the first time using multiple and chained schedules with short, frequently-alternating components--like those typically used to study food-maintained responding. The procedures and results are presented along with case histories to illustrate the strategies used to produce this stimulus control. All these multicomponent schedules contained variable-interval (VI) components as well as differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) or extinction components. Schedule parameters and unit dose were adjusted for each rat to produce stable, moderate rates in VI components, with minimal postreinforcement (infusion) pausing, and response cessation in extinction and DRO components. Whole-body drug levels on terminal baselines calculated retrospectively revealed that all rats maintained fairly stable drug levels (mean, 2.3 to 3.4 mg/kg) and molar rates of intake (approximately 6.0 mg/kg/hr). Within this range, no relation between local VI response rates and drug level was found. The stimulus control revealed in cumulative records was indistinguishable from that achieved with food under these schedules, suggesting that common mechanisms may underlie the control of cocaine- and food-maintained behavior. PMID:12696744

  3. Changes in Behavior and Blood Corticosterone Level in Male and Female Rats after Single Administration of Obestatin Fragment 1-4.

    PubMed

    Motorykina, E S; Khirazova, E A; Maslova, M V; Graf, A V; Maklakova, A S; Bayzhumanov, A A; Kurko, O D; Andreeva, L A; Sokolova, N A; Myasoedov, N F; Kamenskii, A A

    2016-06-01

    Single administration of the obestatin fragment 1-4 (300 nmol/kg) to male Wistar rats produced a significant weight loss in male rats on observation days 5-8, while in female rats only on day 8. In addition, males demonstrated decreased risk factor in the elevated plus-maze test, but no effect of the preparation on behavior of female rats was revealed. Obestatin fragment 1-4 had no effect on corticosterone level 1 week after single administration in both females and male rats. PMID:27383154

  4. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  5. Managerial Techniques in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Management techniques developed during the past 20 years assume the rational bureaucratic model. School administration requires contingent techniques. Quality Circle, Theory Z, and the McKenzie 7-Framework are discussed as techniques to increase school productivity. (MD)

  6. Administrative Computing: Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lawrence S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes administrative computer use in the Concord (NH) School District. Applications discussed include procurement, cash flow and investment, accounting and control, and teacher contracts, all performed with in-house programs. (MCG)

  7. Rehabilitation and the Veterans' Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, F.

    1974-01-01

    The Veteran's Administration health care system provides prosthetic and sensory aids for the rehabilitation of neurologically handicapped veterans. Research and development centers include prosthetic clinic teams, orthopedic shops, restoration clinics, bioengineering services, orthotics, etc.

  8. Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

    2013-08-01

    Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

  9. [COMPARATIVE CEREBROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PREVENTIVE ADMINISTRATION OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXYBUTYRATE VERSUS MAGNESIUM SULFATE AND CAVINTON IN RATS WITH COMMON CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION].

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Litvinov, A A; Kurkin, D V; Volotova, E V; Darmanyan, A P; Ozerov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Dose-dependent cerebroprotective effect of magnesium hydroxybutyrate (MHB) on common carotid artery occlusion model in rats was established. Administration of 150 mg/kg MHB led to significant decrease in animal mortality (up to 9.3 times) in comparison to control (p < 0.05). This MHB dose also produced significant decrease of neurological deficit on the McGraw scale in comparison to control and magnesium sulfate (50% and 20%, respectively). The MHB treated animals also showed improved locomotor and exploratory performance in the open-field test and retained memory performance in the passive avoidance test and extrapolation escape task test. The administration of 150 mg/kg MHB produced three-fold (p < 0.05) decrease of brain edema in animals with cerebral blood flow impairment in comparison to animals treated with magnesium sulfate and cavinton. PMID:27455571

  10. NOAA administrator reviews agency progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The approach of the new year is a traditional time to tally up successes, failures, and the path ahead. Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), examined some agency advances and significant challenges during the 7 December Union Agency Lecture at the AGU Fall Meeting, during a press briefing, and in an interview with Eos. Lubchenco focused on several key areas including the concern about monitoring, mitigating, and managing extreme events; budgetary pressures the agency faces in current fiscal year (FY) 2012 and in FY 2013, with President Barack Obama on 18 November having signed into law a bill, HR 2112, following congressional agreement on a budget legislation conference report; and NOAA's newly released scientific integrity policy (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011).

  11. Effects of chronic administration of (+)-amphetamine on maze performance of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Breda, J. B.; Carlini, E. A.; Sader, N. F. A.

    1969-01-01

    1. The influence of (+)-amphetamine, given 1 min after each training session, on the performance of 124 rats in a Lashley III maze was measured every 48 hr. 2. The first three injections of the drug significantly improved the learning ability of naive rats. 3. With prolonged treatment, (+)-amphetamine strongly impaired the maze performance of these rats. 4. The chronic administration of (+)-amphetamine to previously trained rats produced the same adverse effect. 5. Amylobarbitone sodium given to previously trained rats 30 min before the training sessions completely blocked the adverse effect of (+)-amphetamine. 6. (+)-Amphetamine did not produce impairment of performance when given chronically 30 min before training sessions, to previously trained rats. PMID:5343359

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Education 1993-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993-2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that…

  13. A Bibliography of Sources for Intensive English Program Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawienowski, Mary F.

    The bibliography presents over 100 citations of papers, articles, and reports on diverse aspects of the administration of intensive English language programs. The works are produced by both individuals and organizations. Citations include basic bibliographic information and a brief annotation. Topics addressed include: specific program profiles…

  14. Causes and Consequences of Role Stress among Higher Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christine A.; And Others

    The presence of conflict-producing situations for higher education administrators is examined. Basic theory and constructs from organizational behavior research are integrated into a causal model to offer a more comprehensive understanding of role stress and commitment to the university. Research shows direct relationships between degree of role…

  15. Users Speak Out: A Look at Six Administrative Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Isabelle

    1988-01-01

    Reviews six microcomputer-based administrative software programs that handle scheduling, grade reporting, and attendance tasks: (1) Alpha II, (2) Harts III, (3) Mount Castor, (4) The Osiris System, (5) The School System, and (6) STARS (Student Academic Records System). Companies producing the programs, systems they run on, and price information…

  16. Mechanisms involved in the antinociception induced by systemic administration of guanosine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, AP; Böhmer, AE; Schallenberger, C; Antunes, C; Tavares, RG; Wofchuk, ST; Elisabetsky, E; Souza, DO

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: It is well known that adenine-based purines exert multiple effects on pain transmission. However, less attention has been given to the potential effects of guanine-based purines on pain transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (p.o.) administration of guanosine on mice pain models. Additionally, investigation into the mechanisms of action of guanosine, its potential toxicity and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) purine levels were also assessed. Experimental approach: Mice received an i.p. or p.o. administration of vehicle (0.1 mM NaOH) or guanosine (up to 240 mg·kg−1) and were evaluated in several pain models. Key results: Guanosine produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the hot-plate, glutamate, capsaicin, formalin and acetic acid models, but it was ineffective in the tail-flick test. Additionally, guanosine produced a significant inhibition of biting behaviour induced by i.t. injection of glutamate, AMPA, kainate and trans-ACPD, but not against NMDA, substance P or capsaicin. The antinociceptive effects of guanosine were prevented by selective and non-selective adenosine receptor antagonists. Systemic administration of guanosine (120 mg·kg−1) induced an approximately sevenfold increase on CSF guanosine levels. Guanosine prevented the increase on spinal cord glutamate uptake induced by intraplantar capsaicin. Conclusions and implications: This study provides new evidence on the mechanism of action of the antinociceptive effects after systemic administration of guanosine. These effects seem to be related to the modulation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. PMID:20132210

  17. Administrative Actions for Noncompliance; Lesser Administrative Actions. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation describing lesser administrative actions that may be imposed on an Institutional Review Board (IRB) that has failed to comply with FDA's IRB regulations. We are clarifying that FDA may require the IRB to withhold approval of new FDA-regulated studies, stop the enrollment of new subjects in ongoing studies, and terminate ongoing studies, or any combination of these actions until the noncompliance with FDA's IRB regulations is corrected. We are taking this action to ensure clarity and improve the accuracy of the regulations. PMID:27044118

  18. Clinically significant drug interactions with newer antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Spina, Edoardo; Trifirò, Gianluca; Caraci, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    After the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), other newer antidepressants with different mechanisms of action have been introduced in clinical practice. Because antidepressants are commonly prescribed in combination with other medications used to treat co-morbid psychiatric or somatic disorders, they are likely to be involved in clinically significant drug interactions. This review examines the drug interaction profiles of the following newer antidepressants: escitalopram, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, mirtazapine, reboxetine, bupropion, agomelatine and vilazodone. In general, by virtue of a more selective mechanism of action and receptor profile, newer antidepressants carry a relatively low risk for pharmacodynamic drug interactions, at least as compared with first-generation antidepressants, i.e. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). On the other hand, they are susceptible to pharmacokinetic drug interactions. All new antidepressants are extensively metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, and therefore may be the target of metabolically based drug interactions. Concomitant administration of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isoenzymes involved in the biotransformation of specific antidepressants may cause changes in their plasma concentrations. However, due to their relatively wide margin of safety, the consequences of such kinetic modifications are usually not clinically relevant. Conversely, some newer antidepressants may cause pharmacokinetic interactions through their ability to inhibit specific CYPs. With regard to this, duloxetine and bupropion are moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6. Therefore, potentially harmful drug interactions may occur when they are coadministered with substrates of these isoforms, especially compounds with a narrow therapeutic index. The other new antidepressants are only weak inhibitors or are not inhibitors of CYP isoforms at

  19. 48 CFR 702.170-2 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrator. 702.170-2... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-2 Administrator. Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development....

  20. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  1. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Administrator. 1700.26 Section 1700.26... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.26 Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction...

  2. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Administrator. 1700.26 Section 1700.26... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.26 Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction...

  3. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Administrator. 1700.26 Section 1700.26... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.26 Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction...

  4. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deputy Administrator. 1700.26 Section 1700.26... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.26 Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction...

  5. 48 CFR 702.170-2 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administrator. 702.170-2... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-2 Administrator. Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development....

  6. 48 CFR 702.170-2 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administrator. 702.170-2... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-2 Administrator. Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development....

  7. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deputy Administrator. 1700.26 Section 1700.26... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.26 Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction...

  8. 48 CFR 702.170-2 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administrator. 702.170-2... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-2 Administrator. Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development....

  9. 12 CFR 1075.102 - Fund administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fund administrator. 1075.102 Section 1075.102... § 1075.102 Fund administrator. (a) In general. There is established the position of Civil Penalty Fund Administrator (Fund Administrator). The Fund Administrator will report to the Chief Financial Officer. The...

  10. 48 CFR 702.170-2 - Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrator. 702.170-2... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-2 Administrator. Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development....

  11. 5 CFR 534.604 - Pay administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay administration. 534.604 Section 534.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.604 Pay administration. (a) The head of each agency must fix the rate of basic pay...

  12. 5 CFR 534.604 - Pay administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay administration. 534.604 Section 534.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.604 Pay administration. (a) The head of each agency must fix the rate of basic pay...

  13. 5 CFR 534.604 - Pay administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay administration. 534.604 Section 534.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.604 Pay administration. (a) The head of each agency must fix the rate of basic pay...

  14. 5 CFR 831.101 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration. 831.101 Section 831.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.101 Administration. (a) OPM has charge of...

  15. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  16. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  17. 5 CFR 831.101 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration. 831.101 Section 831.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.101 Administration. (a) OPM has charge of...

  18. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  19. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  20. 5 CFR 831.101 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 831.101 Section 831.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.101 Administration. (a) OPM has charge of...

  1. Administration of Occupational Education: A Suggested Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Ivan E.

    Designed to provide administrators of occupation programs at the secondary and post-secondary level with a systems approach to administration, this administrators' guide brings together administrative and leadership tasks and responsibilities that must be considered by administrators when developing programs. The system presented in the guide is…

  2. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  3. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  4. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  5. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  6. 45 CFR 74.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration. 74.47 Section 74.47 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... administration. A system for contract administration shall be maintained to ensure contractor conformance...

  7. Combined administration of N-acetylcysteine and monoisoamyl DMSA on tissue oxidative stress during arsenic chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Gurusamy M; Flora, Swaran J S

    2006-04-01

    The present study deals with the therapeutic potential of combined administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) along with monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) against chronic arsenic poisoning in guinea pigs. Animal were exposed to 50 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 8 mo and subsequently treated for 5 consecutive days with 100 mg/kg NAC (orally) and MiADMSA (intraperitoneally), individually or in combination (50 mg/kg each). Arsenic exposure produced a significant depletion of blood delta- aminolevulinic acid dehydrate (ALAD) activity, increased the blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level, and reduced blood and liver glutathione (GSH) levels in guinea pigs. Hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels showed a marked increase, whereas hepatic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity decreased and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity increased on arsenic exposure. Significant depletion of liver transaminase activities on arsenic exposure suggests organ injury. Administration of MiADMSA, alone and in combination with NAC after arsenic exposure, was able to significantly enhance hepatic GSH and to reduce GSSG and TBARS levels compared to the arsenic control. Biochemical variables indicative of liver injury generally remained insensitive to any of these treatments. The recoveries in parameters indicative of oxidative stress were more marked in guinea pigs treated with combined administration of NAC and MiADMSA than monotherapy. Interestingly, there was a more pronounced depletion of arsenic from blood and tissues after combined treatment with NAC plus MiADMSA than MiADMSA. Blood and tissues copper, zinc, iron, and calcium concentrations showed a significant increase after arsenic exposure, which showed improvement, particularly after combined administration of MiADMSA and NAC. Based on these data, a proposal can be made that greater effectiveness in chelation treatment against chronic arsenic poisoning (i.e., turnover in the oxidative stress

  8. Novel glycosylated endomorphin-2 analog produces potent centrally-mediated antinociception in mice after peripheral administration.

    PubMed

    Fichna, Jakub; Mazur, Marzena; Grzywacz, Daria; Kamysz, Wojciech; Perlikowska, Renata; Piekielna, Justyna; Sobczak, Marta; Sałaga, Maciej; Toth, Geza; Janecka, Anna; Chen, Chunqiu; Olczak, Jacek

    2013-12-15

    We report the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a novel glycosylated analog of a potent and selective endogenous μ-opioid receptor (MOP) agonist, endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2, EM-2), obtained by the introduction in position 3 of the tyrosine residue possessing the glucose moiety attached to the phenolic function via a β-glycosidic bond. The improved blood-brain barrier permeability and enhanced antinociceptive effect of the novel glycosylated analog suggest that it may be a promising template for design of potent analgesics. Furthermore, the described methodology may be useful for increasing the bioavailability and delivery of opioid peptides to the CNS. PMID:24220171

  9. [Alternative routes for insulin administration].

    PubMed

    Lassmann-Vague, V

    1994-01-01

    Ideally, insulin administration should be done through portal route, with a precise kinetic. It should also lead to a reproducible biologic effect, with minimal side-effects and be acceptable for the majority of diabetic patients. Many alternative routes of insulin administration try to fulfill one or more of these criteria. Intraperitoneal route is already used with implantable pumps. It has proven safety and metabolic efficacy, particularly upon the reduction of severe hypoglycaemia. Nasal route could provide a rapid kinetic, but its long-term utilisation depends on improvement of bioavailability and studies of local toxicity. Results concerning intrabronchic insulin seem promising, but are still preliminary. In the future, the choice among these alternative routes of insulin administration will be guided by the development of a closed-loop system. PMID:8001707

  10. Administrative Evaluation. Administrator's Update. Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winschel, Carolyn

    Literature relevant to administrative evaluation in higher education was surveyed. Reasons for the increasing importance of this type of evaluation, approaches to and components of an evaluation plan, some of the problems involved in the evaluation process, and use of results are discussed. The current literature indicates that increased presure…

  11. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  12. Leadership with Administration: Securing Administrative Support for Transforming Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saginak, Kelli A.; Dollarhide, Colette T.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides school counselors with a plan for securing administrative support for implementing of comprehensive school counseling programs. Systems and systems theory is introduced to explain systemic change in the context of leadership. Leadership theory is presented to assist school counselors in leading systemic change and securing…

  13. Significant food interactions observed with a nifedipine modified-release formulation marketed in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Wonnemann, M; Schug, B; Schmücker, K; Brendel, E; van Zwieten, P A; Blume, H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of nifedipine bioavailability after single dose administration of Adalat OROS 30 (Reference) and Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30 tablets (Test). Both modified release formulations are marketed in Member States of the European Union. Prior to the clinical study the in vitro dissolution characteristics were investigated. There was a significant pH dependency observed with the Test product but drug release with the Reference product was almost independent of the experimental conditions used. In the subsequent open, randomized, controlled, 4-way crossover study both pharmaceutical products were administered to 28 healthy male volunteers, either after fasting overnight or immediately after a high-fat American breakfast. Blood sampling was performed over 48 hours post-dose for the determination of pharmacokinetic profiles of nifedipine. Considerable differences were observed between the two formulations when administered to fasted subjects where maximum nifedipine plasma concentration (C(max)) were higher in the case of the Test formulation. Differences were even more pronounced after a high-fat American breakfast. Under these conditions a significant food interaction was detected in the case of Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30 with a three-fold increase in the mean C(max) when compared to values obtained in fasting subjects. In contrast, food intake had no clinically relevant effect on bioavailability of nifedipine (rate and extent) in the case of Adalat OROS 30. The pharmacokinetic findings in this study were reflected in the adverse event pattern which indicated a potential tolerability problem in the case of Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30. The results confirm the relationship between the in vitro dissolution profile results and the effects of the drug in vivo. Dose dumping after intake of a high-fat meal could be shown. Nifedipine Sandoz retard 30 is not bioequivalent to Adalat OROS 30 and produced highly variable

  14. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176

  15. Tanning May Limit Skin's Ability to Produce Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... Produce Vitamin D: Study Even those with significant sun exposure can have low levels of this essential vitamin, ... and 82 years old. All had significant daily sun exposure and none routinely used sunscreen or took vitamin ...

  16. Engineering and Innovation for Enhanced Fresh Produce Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh produce in the U.S. is generally safe, yet several produce related food-borne illness outbreaks in recent years have had severe consequences including large numbers of illnesses, several deaths and significant economic losses for the produce industry. The 2006 outbreaks of Escherichia coli O15...

  17. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  18. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  19. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports Development Office,...

  20. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...