Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Zoladz, Phillip R; Muñoz, Carmen; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M
Extensive research has shown that the antidepressant tianeptine blocks the adverse effects of chronic stress on hippocampal functioning. The current series of experiments extended this area of investigation by examining the influence of tianeptine on acute stress-induced impairments of spatial (hippocampus-dependent) memory. Tianeptine (10 mg/kg, ip) administered to adult male rats before, but not after, water maze training blocked the amnestic effects of predator stress (occurring between training and retrieval) on memory. The protective effects of tianeptine on memory occurred in rats which had extensive pre-stress training, as well as in rats which had only a single day of training. Tianeptine blocked stress effects on memory without altering the stress-induced increase in corticosterone levels. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip), in contrast, did not block stress-induced amnesia. These findings indicate that treatment with tianeptine, unlike propanolol, provides an effective means with which to block the adverse effects of stress on cognitive functions of the hippocampus.
Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Fortoul-van Der Goes, Teresa I; Santamaría, Abel
Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide exerts different toxic effects at a cellular level, including over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of NMDAr and alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Systemic administrations of both the immediate metabolic precursor of KYNA, L-kynurenine (L-KYN), and a proved inhibitor of KYNA's brain transport, probenecid (PROB), have shown to produce neuroprotective effects in a considerable number of experimental toxic conditions; however, this strategy has not been tested in the toxic model Abeta peptide so far. In this study we evaluated the effects of systemic administration of PROB (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days), L-KYN (75 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and their combination, on behavioural (locomotor activity and spatial memory) and morphological alterations induced by an intrahippocampal infusion of Abeta 25-35 to rats. An additional group was administered with the potent NMDAr antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801, 0.8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) for comparative purposes. A significant improvement of spatial memory was evident in Abeta-lesioned rats since post-lesion day 21 with all treatments tested and this effect was correlated with a reduction of cell damage and a decrease in reactive gliosis in hippocampal CA1 area. Neither L-KYN, nor PROB, or their combination, produced major alterations in motor function when given alone to rats. These results suggest that modulation of NMDAr activity by mean of therapeutic strategies designed to enhance KYNA in the brain may help to counteract neurodegenerative events coursing with Abeta toxicity and excitotoxic patterns.
Pisapia, John Ralph; Sells, Jack D.
Presents specific examples of provisions currently found in administrator-board collective bargaining agreements that protect administrators from the adverse effects of both bilateral decisions made by boards with teachers, and unilateral decisions made by boards concerning principals. (Author)
Ono, Yoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ishisaka, Mitsue; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in various diseases. Recently, some reports have suggested that the sigma-1 receptor may play a role in ER stress, and many antidepressants have a high affinity for the sigma-1 receptor. In the present study, we focused on imipramine, a widely used antidepressant, and investigated whether it might protect against the neuronal cell death induced by tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer. In mouse cultured hippocampal HT22 cells, imipramine inhibited cell death and caspase-3 activation induced by tunicamycin, although it did not alter the elevated expressions of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). Interestingly, in such cells application of imipramine normalized the expression of the sigma-1 receptor, which was decreased by treatment with tunicamycin alone. Additionally, NE-100, a selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist, abolished the protective effect of imipramine against such tunicamycin-induced cell death. Imipramine inhibited the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by tunicamycin, and NE-100 blocked this modulating effect of imipramine. Furthermore, in anesthetized mice intracerebroventricular administration of tunicamycin decreased the number of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, particularly in the CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) areas, and 7 days' imipramine treatment (10mg/kg/day; i.p.) significantly suppressed these reductions in CA1 and DG. These findings suggest that imipramine protects against ER stress-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Such protection may be partly due to the sigma-1 receptor.
Parisotto, Eduardo B; Vidal, Verónica; García-Cerro, Susana; Lantigua, Sara; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Sanchez-Barceló, Emilio J; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Rueda, Noemí
Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin administration improves spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in the adult Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, a model of Down syndrome (DS). This functional benefit of melatonin was accompanied by protection from cholinergic neurodegeneration and the attenuation of several hippocampal neuromorphological alterations in TS mice. Because oxidative stress contributes to the progression of cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in DS, this study evaluates the antioxidant effects of melatonin in the brains of TS mice. Melatonin was administered to TS and control mice from 6 to 12 months of age and its effects on the oxidative state and levels of cellular senescence were evaluated. Melatonin treatment induced antioxidant and antiaging effects in the hippocampus of adult TS mice. Although melatonin administration did not regulate the activities of the main antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase) in the cortex or hippocampus, melatonin decreased protein and lipid oxidative damage by reducing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PC) levels in the TS hippocampus due to its ability to act as a free radical scavenger. Consistent with this reduction in oxidative stress, melatonin also decreased hippocampal senescence in TS animals by normalizing the density of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells in the hippocampus. These results showed that this treatment attenuated the oxidative damage and cellular senescence in the brain of TS mice and support the use of melatonin as a potential therapeutic agent for age-related cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in adults with DS.
Ramos, Andrea C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Furlanetto, Camila B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Streck, Emilio L
Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene that encodes tyrosine aminotransferase, which leads to increased blood tyrosine levels. Considering that tyrosine levels are highly elevated in fluids of patients with tyrosinemia type II, and that previous studies demonstrated significant alterations in brain energy metabolism of young rats caused by l-tyrosine, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acute administration of l-tyrosine on the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, and IV in posterior cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of infant rats. Wistar rats (10 days old) were killed 1h after a single intraperitoneal injection of tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes were evaluated in brain of rats. Our results demonstrated that acute administration of l-tyrosine inhibited the activity of citrate synthase activity in striatum and increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in hippocampus. On the other hand, these enzymes were not affected in posterior cortex. The activities of complex I and complex II were inhibited by acute administration of l-tyrosine in striatum. On the other hand, the acute administration of l-tyrosine increased the activity of activity of complex II-III in hippocampus. Complex IV was not affected by acute administration of l-tyrosine in infant rats. Our results indicate an alteration in the energy metabolism in hippocampus and striatum of infant rats after acute administration of l-tyrosine. If the same effects occur in the brain of the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism impairment may be contribute to possible damage in memory and cognitive processes in patients with tyrosinemia type II. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Chun-Hai; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice. This study focused on the role of synaptophysin, growth-associated protein 43 and the action of the dopaminergic system in mechanisms associated with rutin protection and trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment. Cognitive learning and memory was measured by Morris Water Maze. The expression of synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 in hippocampus was analyzed by western blot. The concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and dihyroxyphenylacetic acid in hippocampus were detected using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Trimethyltin-induced spatial learning impairment showed a dose-dependent mode. Synaptophysin but not growth-associated protein 43 was decreased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. The concentration of dopamine decreased, while homovanillic acid increased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. Mice pretreated with 20 mg/kg of rutin for 7 consecutive days exhibited improved water maze performance. Moreover, rutin pretreatment reversed the decrease of synaptophysin expression and dopamine alteration. These results suggest that rutin may protect against spatial memory impairment induced by trimethyltin. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system may be involved in trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in hippocampus.
Sadeghi, Akram; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Alipour, Fatemeh; Fazel, Alireza; Haghir, Hossein
Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate ascorbic acid and garlic protective effects on lead-induced neurotoxicity during rat hippocampus development. Materials and Methods: 90 pregnant wistar rats were divided randomly into nine groups: 1- Animals received leaded water (L). 2- Rats received leaded water and ascorbic acid (L+AA). 3- Animals received leaded water and garlic juice (L+G). 4-Animals received leaded water, ascorbic acid and garlic juice (L+G+AA). 5- Rats treated with ascorbic acid (AA). 6- Rats treated with garlic juice (G). 7- Rats treated with ascorbic acid and garlic juice (AA+G). 8- Rats treated with tap water plus 0.4 ml/l normal hydrogen chloride (HCl) and 0.5 mg/l Glucose (Sham). 9- Normal group (N). Leaded water (1500 ppm), garlic juice (1 ml/100g/day, gavage) and ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg/day, IP) were used. Finally, blood lead levels (BLL) were measured in both rats and their offspring. The rat offspring brain sections were stained using Toluidine Blue and photographed. Dark neurons (DNs) were counted to compare all groups. Results: BLL significantly increased in L group compared to control and sham groups and decreased in L+G and L+AA groups in comparison to the L group (P<0.05). the number of DNs in the CA1, CA3, and DG of rat offspring hippocampus significantly increased in L group in comparison to control and sham groups (P<0.05) and decreased in L+G and L+AA groups compared to L group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Garlic juice and ascorbic acid administration during pregnancy and lactation may protect lead-induced neural damage in rat offspring hippocampus. PMID:24298384
Cohen, Ami; Soleiman, Matthew T.; Talia, Reneta; Koob, George F.; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D.
Rationale Limited access nicotine self-administration decreases hippocampal neurogenesis, providing a mechanism for the deleterious effects of nicotine on hippocampal neuronal plasticity. However, recent studies have shown that limited access nicotine self-administration does not exhibit key features of nicotine dependence such as motivational withdrawal and increased motivation for nicotine after deprivation. Objectives The present study used extended access nicotine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, 21h/day (d), 4d) with intermittent periods of deprivation (3d) for 14 weeks, to test the hypothesis that this model enhances nicotine seeking and produces distinct responses in hippocampal neurogenesis when compared with limited access (1h/day, 4d) intake. Animals in the extended access group were either perfused prior to or following their final deprivation period, whereas animals in the limited access group were perfused after their last session. Results Limited access nicotine self-administration and extended access nicotine self-administration with periodic deprivation did not affect proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Conversely, extended access nicotine self-administration with periodic deprivation enhanced proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal neural progenitors. Furthermore, in the hippocampus, the number of differentiating NeuroD-labeled cells strongly and positively correlated with enhanced nicotine seeking in rats that experienced extended access nicotine self-administration. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that extended access versus limited access to nicotine self-administration differentially affects the generation of new oligodendroglia and new neurons during adulthood. The increases in the number of differentiating cells in extended access nicotine self-administering rats may consequently contribute to aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis and may contribute to
Kim, Min-Soo; Bang, Ji Hye; Lee, Jun; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Sung, Sang Hyun; Han, Jung-Soo; Jeon, Won Kyung
Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), an herbal plant, is traditionally used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Asian countries. SM has multiple biological effects including anti-inflammatory activity. The present study is aimed at investigating the effects of SM extract in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced in male Wistar rats by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). The rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-control, BCCAo treated with vehicle, and BCCAo treated with SM extract. Vehicle or SM extract (200 mg/kg) were administered daily by oral gavage beginning on day 21 after BCCAo and continuing to day 42. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to measure Iba-1-positive microglia and myelin basic protein (MBP) in white matter and hippocampal tissue. In addition, the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway in the hippocampus, were analyzed by western blot. Administration of SM extract attenuated the activation of microglial cells in the white matter and hippocampus after BCCAo. SM extract also prevented neuroinflammation after BCCAo by reducing hippocampal levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and increasing the reduced levels of MBP in the white matter and hippocampus. Further, the administration of SM extract alleviated the up-regulation of hippocampal TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in rats with chronic BCCAo. Our findings suggest that SM may be a promising therapeutic candidate in vascular dementia because of its protective effects against damage to the white matter and hippocampus after BCCAo.
Joksimović, Jovana; Selaković, Dragica; Jakovljević, Vladimir; Mihailović, Vladimir; Katanić, Jelena; Boroja, Tatjana; Rosić, Gvozden
In a last few decades, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) abuse has become serious health concern especially among adolescents. AASs abuse has been reported to be involved in pathogenesis of various mood disorders, including depression. In order to evaluate the effects of chronic (6 weeks) testosterone enanthate (TE) treatment in supraphysiological dose and exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, 32 male rats were divided into four groups: control (C), testosterone enanthate (T, 20 mg/kg/w, s.c.), exercise (E, swimming for 1 h/day), and combined group-testosterone enanthate plus exercise (T + E). TE produced prodepressant effect in tail suspension test (TST) parameters compared to the control and exercise groups, while exercise induced the opposite effect. Simultaneous TE administration along with exercise attenuated the antidepressant effect of exercise reversing the parameters of TST to the control values. Oxidative stress markers in rat hippocampus were significantly altered following applied protocols. TE administration increased index of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and decreased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), while exercise induced the opposite effect, with no change in glutathione (GSH) levels. Our results indicate that TE chronic treatment resulted in clear depressive-like behavior, even abolishing beneficial antidepressant effects of exercise in TST that was accompanied with increased oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. The antidepressant effect of exercise correlated with the improvement of redox status in hippocampal tissue. Behavioral parameters obtained in TST significantly correlated with the levels of oxidative stress markers.
Mukda, Sujira; Panmanee, Jiraporn; Boontem, Parichart; Govitrapong, Piyarat
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interestingly, Aβ is normally synthesized in the brain of healthy people; however, during advanced aging, the level of Aβ peptides increases. As a result, the aggregation of Aβ peptides leads to trafficking problems, synaptic loss, inflammation, and cell death. Melatonin, the hormone primarily synthesized and secreted from the pineal gland, is decreased with progressing age, particularly in Alzheimer's disease patients. The loss of melatonin levels and the abnormal accumulation of some proteins, such as Aβ peptides in the brains of AD patients are considered important factors in the initiation of the cognitive symptoms of dementia. A previous study in mice reported that increased brain melatonin levels remarkably diminished the potentially toxic Aβ peptide levels. The present study showed that aged mice significantly impaired spatial memory in the Morris Water Maze task. We also showed that α-, β-, and γ-secretases, which are type-I membrane protein proteases responsible for Aβ production, showed alterations in both mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus of aged mice. The long-term administration of melatonin, mice had shorter escape latencies and remained in the target quadrant longer compared to the aged group. Melatonin attenuated the reduction of α-secretase and inhibited the increase of β- and γ-secretases. Moreover, melatonin attenuated the upregulation of pNFkB and the reduction of sirtuin1 in the hippocampus of aged mice. These results suggested that melatonin protected against Aβ peptide production in aged mice. Hence, melatonin loss in aging could be recompensed through dietary supplementation as a beneficial therapeutic strategy for AD prevention and progression.
Ataei, Maryam Lale; Ebrahimzadeh-bideskan, Ali Reza
Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nano-silver and garlic administration during pregnancy on neuron apoptosis in rat offspring hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Fifty pregnant wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1- nano-silver (N.S) group; 30 mg/kg of N.S treated via gavage. 2- Control (C) group, administrated with distilled water via gavage. 3- N.S and garlic (N.S+G) group; N.S (30 mg/kg) and garlic juice (1 ml/100 g) treated via gavage simultaneously. 4- Garlic group (G); garlic juice (1 ml/100 g) administrated via gavage, 5- normal (N) without any intervention. All the interventions were done during pregnancy (21 days). Finally, the brains of rat offspring were removed to use for nano-silver level measurement and TUNEL staining. The mean of TUNEL positive cell numbers per unit area (NA) in different regions of hippocampus were compared in all animal groups. Results: The results revealed a significant increase of hippocampus nano-silver level in N.S and N.S+G groups comparing to N group (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in nano-silver level in N.S+G group comparing to N.S group (P<0.01). The number of TUNEL positive cells in the CA1, CA3, and DG fields of rat offspring hippocampus increased in N.S and N.S+G groups comparing to other ones, and also reduced significantly in N.S+G group comparing to N.S group (¥ P< 0.01). Conclusion: Our results showed that co-administration of nano-silver and garlic during pregnancy may lead to reduce nano-silver induced apoptotic cells in their offspring hippocampus. PMID:25140202
Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Bavithra, Senthamilselvan; Suganthi, Muralidharan; Benson, Chellakan Selvanesan; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure produces neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress. Neuroprotective role of quercetin, on PCBs induced apoptosis in hippocampus has not yet been studied. The present study is focused to see whether quercetin supplementation precludes against PCBs induced oxidative stress and hippocampal apoptosis. The results have shown that quercetin at 50 mg/kg bwt/30 days has protected oxidative stress in hippocampus of adult male rats. Quercetin, a free radical scavenger decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus of simultaneous PCB+quercetin treated rats. The pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules such as Bad, Bid, Bax and Bcl2 were altered in the hippocampus of experimental animals. PCBs increased the DNA damage and induced neurodegeneration were assessed by histological studies. PCB induced ROS may be linked to increased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Quercetin supplementation decreased the neuronal damage and scavenged the free radicals induced by PCBs and protects PCBs induced apoptosis and oxidative stress.
Zhang, Y; Brownstein, A J; Buonora, M; Niikura, K; Ho, A; Correa da Rosa, J; Kreek, M J; Ott, J
Abuse and addiction to prescription opioids such as oxycodone (a short-acting Mu opioid receptor (MOP-r) agonist) in adolescence is a pressing public health issue. We have previously shown differences in oxycodone self-administration behaviors between adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice and expression of striatal neurotransmitter receptor genes, in areas involved in reward. In this study, we aimed to determine whether oxycodone self-administration differentially affects genes regulating synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of adolescent compared to adult mice, since the hippocampus may be involved in learning aspects associated with chronic drug self administration. Hippocampus was isolated for mRNA analysis from mice that had self administered oxycodone (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) 2h/day for 14 consecutive days or from yoked saline controls. Gene expression was analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a commercially available "synaptic plasticity" PCR array containing 84 genes. We found that adolescent and adult control mice significantly differed in the expression of several genes in the absence of oxycodone exposure, including those coding for mitogen-activated protein kinase, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma subunit, glutamate receptor, ionotropic AMPA2 and metabotropic 5. Chronic oxycodone self administration increased proviral integration site 1 (Pim1) and thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 mRNA levels compared to controls in both age groups. Both Pim1 and cadherin 2 mRNAs showed a significant combined effect of Drug Condition and Age × Drug Condition. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of both cadherin 2 and cAMP response element modulators showed an experiment-wise significant difference between oxycodone and saline control in adult but not in adolescent mice. Overall, this study demonstrates for the first time that chronic oxycodone self-administration differentially alters synaptic plasticity gene expression in the hippocampus
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... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective administrative measures. 764.6 Section 764.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.6 Protective administrative measures. (a) License Exception...
Cevik-Demirkan, A; Oztaşan, N; Oguzhan, E O; Cil, N; Coskun, S
The brain is highly sensitive to hypoxia; this is true particularly of parts that are crucial for cognitive function. The effects of hypoxia are especially dramatic in the hippocampus. We evaluated the potential protective effects of poppy seed oil on the number of hippocampus cells and the serum antioxidant/oxidant status after cerebral ischemia and re-perfusion (CIR). Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 served as the control group without CIR. Group 2 received poppy seed oil daily by oral gavage at a dose of 0.4 ml/kg, while group 3 was given 0.4 ml/kg saline solution by oral gavage per day; these treatments were continued for one month. Groups 2 and 3 were subjected to CIR induced by clamps on two points of both of the carotid arteries for 45 min followed by 45 min re-perfusion. There were significant decreases in the number of hippocampus cells between groups 1 and 2, and between groups 1 and 3. The mean cell number in group 2 was not significantly different from that of group 3. The serum nitric oxide levels in CIR groups were elevated significantly compared to controls, and were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 3. The glutathione levels were increased significantly in the poppy seed oil treated group compared to the saline CIR groups. The malondialdehyde levels were markedly increased in group 3 compared to both groups 1 and 2. Our study suggests that poppy seed oil can improve antioxidant defense capacity after CIR, although this treatment did not alter significantly the frequency of cell death.
Zarrindast, M-R; Nasehi, M; Rostami, P; Rezayof, A; Fazli-Tabaei, S
The aim of the present experiments was to investigate whether repeated intra-hippocampal CA1 (intra-CA1) administration of dopaminergic agents can affect morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Effects of repeated intra-CA1 injections of dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists on morphine-induced CPP in rats were investigated using an unbiased 3-day schedule of place conditioning. Animals receiving once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of morphine (1-9 mg/kg) or saline (1.0 ml/kg, s.c.) showed a significant place preference in a dose-dependent manner: the maximum response was observed with 3 mg/kg morphine. Three days' intra-CA1 injections of apomorphine (0.25-1 microg/rat) followed by 5 days free of the drug, significantly decreased morphine CPP (1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c.). Moreover, pre-treatment with the highest dose of apomorphine (1 microg/rat) altered the effect of morphine to an aversive response. The morphine (1 and 3 mg/kg) CPP was also significantly decreased in animals that previously received three intra-CA1 injections of SKF 38393 (2-9 microg/rat), quinpirole (1-3 microg/rat) or sulpiride (1-3 microg/rat), and significantly increased in animals that had previously received three intra-CA1 injections of SCH 23390 (0.02 microg/rat). The 3-day pre-treatment with apomorphine, SKF 38393 or quinpirole reduced locomotor activity in the test session, while SCH 23390 and sulpiride did not have any influence on locomotor activity. It is concluded that repeated injections of DA receptor agents in the dorsal hippocampus, followed by 5 days free of the drugs, can affect morphine reward.
Yang, Hai-Yu; Pu, Xiao-Ping
In recent studies, alterations in the activity and expression of metabolic enzymes, such as those involved in glycolysis, have been detected in morphine-dependent patients and animals. Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hippocampus is an important brain region associated with morphine dependence, but the molecular events occurring in the hippocampus following chronic exposure to morphine are poorly understood. Aldolase C is the brain-specific isoform of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase which is a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing reactions in the glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and fructose metabolic pathways. Using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays, we found the expression of aldolase C was markedly increased in the mouse hippocampus following chronic morphine treatment. Naloxone pretreatment before morphine administration suppressed withdrawal jumping, weight loss, and overexpression of aldolase C. CREB is a transcription factor regulated through phosphorylation on Ser133, which is known to play a key role in the mechanism of morphine dependence. When detecting the expression of phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the mouse hippocampus using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found CREB phosphorylation was clearly decreased following chronic morphine treatment. Interestingly, laser-confocal microscopy showed that overexpression of aldolase C in mouse hippocampal neurons was concomitant with the decreased immunoreactivity of p-CREB. The results suggest potential links between the morphine-induced alteration of aldolase C and the regulation of CREB phosphorylation, a possible mechanism of morphine dependence.
Nibuya, M; Nestler, E J; Duman, R S
The present study demonstrates that chronic, but not acute, adminstration of several different classes of antidepressants, including serotonin- and norepinephrine-selective reuptake inhibitors, increases the expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) mRNA in rat hippocampus. In contrast, chronic administration of several nonantidepressant psychotropic drugs did not influence expression of CREB mRNA, demonstrating the pharmacological specificity of this effect. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrates that antidepressant administration increases expression of CREB mRNA in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granule cell layers of the hippocampus. In addition, levels of CRE immunoreactivity and of CRE binding activity were increased by chronic antidepressant administration, which indicates that expression and function of CREB protein are increased along with its mRNA. Chronic administration of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors rolipram or papaverine also increased expression of CREB mRNA in hippocampus, demonstrating a role for the cAMP cascade. Moreover, coadministration of rolipram with imipramine resulted in a more rapid induction of CREB than with either treatment alone. Increased expression and function of CREB suggest that specific target genes may be regulated by these treatments. We have found that levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and trkB mRNA are also increased by administration of antidepressants or PDE inhibitors. These findings indicate that upregulation of CREB is a common action of chronic antidepressant treatments that may lead to regulation of specific target genes, such as BDNF and trkB, and to the long-term effects of these treatments on brain function.
Modulation of axonal sprouting along rostro-caudal axis of dorsal hippocampus and no neuronal survival in parahippocampal cortices by long-term post-lesion melatonin administration in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy
Ganjkhani, Mahin; Ali, Rostami; Iraj, Jafari Anarkooli
Feature outcome of hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortices was evaluated in melatonin treated lithium-pilocarpine epileptic rats during early and chronic phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). After status epilepticus (SE) induction, 5 and 20 mg/kg melatonin were administered for 14 days or 60 days. All animals were killed 60 days post SE induction and the histological features of the rosrto-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus, piriform and entorhinal cortices were evaluated utilizing Nissl, Timm, and synapsin I immunoflorescent staining. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) effect on CA1 and CA3 neurons showed a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. The number of counted granular cells by melatonin (20 mg/kg) treatment increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus in comparison to the untreated epileptic group. The density of Timm granules in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus decreased significantly in all melatonin treated groups in comparison to the untreated epileptic animals. The increased density of synapsin I immunoreactivity in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of untreated epileptic rats showed a profound decrease following melatonin treatment. There was no neuronal protection in the piriform and entorhinal cortices whatever the melatonin treatment. Long-term melatonin administration as a co-adjuvant probably could reduce the post-lesion histological consequences of TLE in a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:27051565
Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Hernández-García, Adelaida; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio
Our aim was to investigate if neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus would cause behavioral changes related to schizophrenia. A neonatal ventral-hippocampal lesion (nVH lesion) was made with lidocaine in Wistar male pups. Two groups were formed, the first received lidocaine (4 mug/0.3 muL) and the second an equal volume of vehicle. At day 35 and 56, both groups were tested for social contact, immobility caused by clamping the neck and dorsal immobility, locomotor activity in an open field, and tail flick (TF) latency after a painful heat stimulus. All animals were then killed. Coronal cuts (7 mum) of the brain were obtained and each brain section was stained with cresyl violet-eosin. The animals which received the nVH lesion with lidocaine had decreased social interaction at both ages. The rats with lesions, only at day 58 postnatal, increased their distance traveled and ambulatory time, with a decrease in their nonambulatory and reset time. The rats with lesions had a longer duration of immobility caused by clamping the neck and a longer dorsal immobility at both days 34 and 57 compared to control rats. The lidocaine-treated group spent less time to deflect the tail compared to the control group at postpubertal age. The neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus caused some alterations, such as chromatin condensation, nucleolus loss, and cell shrinkage, but glial proliferation was not seen. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes.
Marti, E; Blasi, J; Ferrer, I
The expression of secretogranin-II and its major proteolytic product secretoneurin (SN) is under the control of neuronal excitation, as demonstrated by treating rats with the excitotoxic kainic acid (KA). Differences in the structure and function of the hippocampus in rats and gerbils have been described; these suggest possible differential reactive responses to KA. In the present study, the SN immunostaining pattern in relation with cell damage is analyzed from 6 h to 4 days following KA administration in rats and gerbils. Dramatic differences in the expression of SN were found in the hippocampal complex following KA administration in gerbils and rats. A robust increase in SN immunoreactivity was detected in the pyramidal cell layer of the rat hippocampus, especially in the CA1 area. In the gerbil, however, a strong increase in SN immunostaining was detected in interneurons of the hippocampal formation, as shown by double-labeling immunohistochemistry to SN and the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin. In addition, no damage (in the hippocampal formation) or moderate damage (in the entorhinal cortex) was observed in the gerbil, in contrast to the rat. The administration of KA and the GABA-B receptor inhibitors (CGP56999A or CGP36742) to the gerbil resulted in a strong rise in SN immunoreactitivty in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, as in the rat. However, no increased cell damage was observed under these conditions. The present data provide evidence of a species-differential reactive response to KA that might be based, in part, on distinct inhibitory intrahippocampal circuitry.
Liu, F; Jiang, H; Zhong, W; Wu, X; Luo, J
The hippocampus plays an important role in the formation of new memories and spatial navigation. Recently, growing evidence supports the view that it is also involved in addiction to opiates and other drugs. Theoretical and experimental studies suggest that hippocampal neural-network oscillations at specific frequencies and unit firing patterns reflect information of learning and memory encoding. Here, using multichannel recordings from the hippocampal CA1 area in behaving mice, we investigated the phase correlations between the theta (4-10 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) oscillations, and the timing of spikes modulated by these oscillations. Local field potentials and single unit recordings in the CA1 area of mice receiving chronic morphine treatment revealed that the power of the theta rhythm was strongly increased; at the same time, the theta frequency during different behavioral states shifted markedly, and the characteristic coupling of theta and gamma oscillations was altered. Surprisingly, though the gamma oscillation frequency changed, the power of gamma lacking theta did not. Moreover, the timing of pyramidal cell spikes relative to the theta rhythm and the timing of interneuron spikes relative to the gamma rhythm changed during chronic morphine administration. Furthermore, these responses were impaired by a selective D1/D5 receptor antagonist intra-hippocampus injection. These results indicate that chronic morphine administration induced the changes of ensemble activity in the CA1 area, and these changes were dependent on local dopamine receptor activation.
Dugich-Djordjevic, M M; Ohsawa, F; Okazaki, T; Mori, N; Day, J R; Beck, K D; Hefti, F
Ribonuclease protection analysis and quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry were used to investigate the coordination and regional expression of catalytic and non-catalytic trkB messenger RNAs in the adult rat hippocampus following systemic kainate-induced seizures. Changes in trkB expression were compared with the messenger RNA expression of its neurotrophic ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. TrkB messenger RNA expression was increased in the dentate granule cells at 1-4 h following the onset of seizures, and returned to control levels 16-24 h thereafter. In addition, seizures also induced expression of trkB messenger RNA in putative non-neuronal cells at four to seven days in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the CA1 region. Hybridization with probes specific for the non-catalytic trkB receptor and the catalytic trkB receptor revealed that the increases at four and seven days in the molecular layers of the hippocampus reflected an up-regulation of only the non-catalytic form of the receptor. Furthermore, the neuronal increases observed 1-4 h were due to an up-regulation of both trkB TK- and trkB TK+ messenger RNAs. It was established that systemic administration of kainate increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA levels in the pyramidal and granule cell regions of the hippocampus 1-4 h following the onset of behaviorally manifested seizure activity. Early changes in neuronal expression of trkB TK- and trkB TK+ messenger RNA paralleled changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA in the dentate granule cell and CA1 pyramidal cell layers, but not in the CA3 subregion. These data suggest that concomitant regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its cognate receptor may play a role in the selective vulnerability of hippocampal subregions to kainate-induced neuropathology. Furthermore, these data suggest a dual function for trkB receptor
Monserrat Hernández-Hernández, Elizabeth; Serrano-García, Carolina; Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Rubén; Díaz, Alfonso; Monroy, Elibeth; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Florán, Benjamin; Flores, Gonzalo
Resveratrol may induce its neuroprotective effects by reducing oxidative damage and chronic inflammation apart from improving vascular function and activating longevity genes, it also has the ability to promote the activity of neurotrophic factors. Morphological changes in dendrites of the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus have been reported in the brain of aging humans, or in humans with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. These changes are reflected particularly in the decrement of both the dendritic tree and spine density. Here we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on the dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the PFC (Layers 3 and 5), CA1- and CA3-dorsal hippocampus (DH) as well as CA1-ventral hippocampus, dentate gyrus (DG), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens of aged rats. 18-month-old rats were administered resveratrol (20 mg/kg, orally) daily for 60 days. Dendritic morphology was studied by the Golgi-Cox stain procedure, followed by Sholl analysis on 20-month-old rats. In all resveratrol-treated rats, a significant increase in dendritic length and spine density in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, CA1, and CA3 of DH was observed. Interestingly, the enhancement in dendritic length was close to the soma in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, whereas in neurons of the DH and DG, the increase in dendritic length was further from the soma. Our results suggest that resveratrol induces modifications of dendritic morphology in the PFC, DH, and DG. These changes may explain the therapeutic effect of resveratrol in aging and in Alzheimer's disease.
A pamphlet reviewing the employment rights of school administrators in each state, this report distinguishes between substantive and procedural rights for administrators threatened with demotion or dismissal. The author argues that principals should be aware of the kind and degree of statutory employment protection in their states, which differ in…
... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect and...
Steinert, Bruce W.
Discusses clinical trials in general, protecting human research subjects, and the role the research administrator can play in facilitating the process. The discussion is not intended to be a thorough treatise on clinical trials, but is an overview of new and lesser known human protection issues that are better handled prospectively. (EV)
... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect and...
... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect and...
Yang, Xuesen; Suo, Yulan; Zhang, Guangbin; Yu, Zhengping
To study the role of catecholamine(CA) in the mechanism of bio-effect of electromagnetic irradiation. The contents of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in serum and hippocampus of rats at 0, 8, 24, 48 hours after electromagnetic irradiation were measured by using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector(HPLC-ECD), and the influence of two kinds of shelter on CA was studied. The levels of CA in serum and hippocampus increased obviously in an instant, decreased at 8 h and increased significantly again at 24 h after irradiation without shielding irradiation. But at 48 h, the levels of NA, DA in hippocampus were still higher and the serum's NA, DA were not different from the control. After irradiation with whole body shielding, the levels of CA had no changes. The contents of CA increased significantly only at 24 h after irradiation by 65 W/cm2 electromagnetic wave with trunk shielding. After irradiation by 129 W/cm2 with trunk shielding, the change of CA were similar to that of no shielding. CA may take part in the injury to central nervous system and cardiovascular system after electromagnetic irradiation. And the injury to central nervous system may sustain longer than that of cardiovascular system. The protective effect of whole body shielding is the best, while trunk shielding may have some protective effect following lower and middle power electromagnetic wave. The most important protective measure is to shield the head.
Scaini, Giselli; Mello-Santos, Lis Mairá; Furlanetto, Camila B; Jeremias, Isabela C; Mina, Francielle; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme complex branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding branched-chain α-keto acids. In this study, we examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of BCAA on protein levels and mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) considering that patients with MSUD present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Considering previous observations, it is suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction of MSUD. We also investigated the influence of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine) in order to verify the influence of oxidative stress in the modulation of NGF levels. Our results demonstrated decreased protein levels of NGF in the hippocampus after acute and chronic administration of BCAA. In addition, we showed a significant decrease in the expression of ngf in the hippocampus only following acute administration in 10-day-old rats. Interestingly, antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the decrease in NGF levels by increasing ngf expression. In conclusion, the results suggest that BCAA is involved in the regulation of NGF in the developing rat. Thus, it is possible that alteration of neurotrophin levels during brain maturation could be of pivotal importance in the impairment of cognition provoked by BCAA. Moreover, the decrease in NGF levels was prevented by antioxidant treatment, reinforcing that the hypothesis of oxidative stress can be an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in MSUD.
Drakulić, Dunja; Stanojlović, Miloš; Nedeljković, Nadežda; Grković, Ivana; Veličković, Nataša; Guševac, Ivana; Mitrović, Nataša; Buzadžić, Ivana; Horvat, Anica
Although dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) analog with profound effects on energy metabolism, immune system, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is widely used therapeutically, its impact on the brain is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of repeated low-dose DEX administration on the activity and expression of the ectonucleotidase enzymes which hydrolyze and therefore control extracellular ATP and adenosine concentrations in the synaptic cleft. Ectonucleotidases tested were ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1-3 (NTPDase1-3) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN), whereas the effects were evaluated in two brain areas that show different sensitivity to glucocorticoid action, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. In the hippocampus, but not in cerebral cortex, modest level of neurodegenerative changes as well as increase in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis and upregulation of NTPDase1 and eN mRNA expression ensued under the influence of DEX. The observed pattern of ectonucleotidase activation, which creates tissue volume with enhanced capacity for adenosine formation, is the hallmark of the response after different insults to the brain.
Alijan-pour, J; Abrari, K; Bluki, T Lashkar; Ghorbanian, M T; Goudarzi, I; Salmani, M Elahdadi; Mirshekar, M
This study is an attempt to examine whether administration of ethanol after memory reactivation will modulate expression of memory in rats or not. We further examined whether this administration alters the number of tunnel positive cells in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning system using two 1s , 0.6 mA shock with an interval of 180 s. 24 h later the rats were returned to the chamber for reactivation, and then they were injected with ethanol (0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/kg) or saline, ip. Again, one, seven and fourteen days after reactivation, the rats were returned to the context for 5 min. The freezing time (absence of all movements except respiration) was scored in seconds. In the second experiment, after test 1, the animals were anesthetized and a transcardial perfuse with phosphate buffer and paraformaldehyde 4% was conducted. After post-fixation of brains 5-μm sections were stained with cresyl violet. Finally, paraffin-embedded sections of 10 μm were cut out throughout the tissue and each sample was processed with TUNEL. The number of apoptotic cells in a 130 μm-long segment of the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 fields and dentate gyrus was counted. The data demonstrate that ethanol exposure impairs post retrieval processes. Rats receiving ethanol (1.5 mg/kg) showed lower freezing levels during the first test. Moreover, ethanol decreases the density of CA1, CA3 and DG cells and increases the density of apoptotic cells in all regions of hippocampus. Therefore, ethanol exposure impairs reconsolidation of contextual fear conditioning probably via decreasing the density of CA1, CA3 and DG cells.
Miguéns, Miguel; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Coria, Santiago M; Selvas, Abraham; Ballesteros-Yañez, Inmaculada; DeFelipe, Javier; Ambrosio, Emilio
Chronic exposure to cocaine induces modifications to neurons in the brain regions involved in addiction. Hence, we evaluated cocaine-induced changes in the hippocampal CA1 field in Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats, 2 strains that have been widely used to study genetic predisposition to drug addiction, by combining intracellular Lucifer yellow injection with confocal microscopy reconstruction of labeled neurons. Specifically, we examined the effects of cocaine self-administration on the structure, size, and branching complexity of the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. In addition, we quantified spine density in the collaterals of the apical dendritic arbors of these neurons. We found differences between these strains in several morphological parameters. For example, CA1 apical dendrites were more branched and complex in LEW than in F344 rats, while the spine density in the collateral dendrites of the apical dendritic arbors was greater in F344 rats. Interestingly, cocaine self-administration in LEW rats augmented the spine density, an effect that was not observed in the F344 strain. These results reveal significant structural differences in CA1 pyramidal cells between these strains and indicate that cocaine self-administration has a distinct effect on neuron morphology in the hippocampus of rats with different genetic backgrounds. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Dong, Hongxin; Csernansky, Cynthia A; Chu, Yunxiang; Csernansky, John G
The effects of neonatal exposure to excitotoxins on the development of interneurons have not been well characterized, but may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, the excitotoxin, kainic acid (KA) was administered to rats at postnatal day 7 (P7) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion. At P14, P25, P40 and P60, Nissl staining and immunohistochemical studies with the interneuron markers, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), calbindin-D28k (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) were performed in the hippocampus. In control animals, the total number of interneurons, as well as the number of interneurons stained with GAD-67, CB and PV, was nearly constant from P14 through P60. In KA-treated rats, Nissl staining, GAD-67 staining, and CB staining revealed a progressive decline in the overall number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields from P14 to P60. In contrast, PV staining in KA-treated rats showed initial decreases in the number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields at P14 followed by increases that approached control levels by P60. These results suggest that, in general, early exposure to the excitotoxin KA decreases the number of hippocampal interneurons, but has a more variable effect on the specific population of interneurons labeled by PV. The functional impact of these changes may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.
Corvino, Valentina; Di Maria, Valentina; Marchese, Elisa; Lattanzi, Wanda; Biamonte, Filippo; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta
Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields, associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0.2 mg/kg intra-peritoneal) or vehicle, and were sacrificed 48 h or 7 days after TMT-treatment. Our results indicate that in TMT-treated animals E2 administration induces the early (48 h) upregulation of genes involved in neuroprotection and synaptogenesis, namely Bcl2, trkB, cadherin 2 and cyclin-dependent-kinase-5. Increased expression levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) 67, neuropeptide Y (Npy), parvalbumin, Pgc-1α and Sirtuin 1 genes, the latter involved in parvalbumin (PV) synthesis, were also evident. Unbiased stereology performed on rats sacrificed 7 days after TMT treatment showed that although E2 does not significantly influence the extent of TMT-induced neuronal death, significantly enhances the TMT-induced modulation of GABAergic interneuron population size in selected hippocampal subfields. In particular, E2 administration causes, in TMT-treated rats, a significant increase in the number of GAD67-expressing interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens, CA3 pyramidal layer, hilus and dentate gyrus, accompanied by a parallel increase in NPY-expressing cells, essentially in the same regions, and of PV-positive cells in CA1 pyramidal layer. The present results add information concerning the role of in vivo E2 administration on mechanisms involved in cellular plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:26594149
Chen, Wen-Jin; Du, Jian-Kui; Hu, Xing; Yu, Qing; Li, Dong-Xia; Wang, Chang-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Yu-Jian
Growing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes may be involved in depressive disorders. Inflammation is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in the nervous system. However, whether mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the occurrence of inflammation-induced depressive-like behavior remains to be investigated. The present study aims to firstly, clarify whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice and secondly, determine whether the anti-oxidant resveratrol alleviates inflammation-induced depressive-like behavior through the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus. We found that the administration of LPS led to mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction as evidenced by increased mitochondrial superoxide production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in the hippocampus. These effects were attenuated by intracerebroventricular (ICV) Injection of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO. LPS-treated mice displayed depressive-like behaviors as evidenced by reduced sucrose preference, increased immobility time and decreased struggling time in the forced swimming test. Both Mito-TEMPO and resveratrol could significantly improve the LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors. In contrast, ICV Injection of rotenone, the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in the hippocampus, and resulted in depressive-like behaviors. Moreover, resveratrol alleviated the LPS-induced apoptosis of hippocampal cells. The antidepressant action of resveratrol was accomplished through the interruption of mitochondrial oxidative stress and the prevention of cell apoptosis in the hippocampus. These findings support the potential for resveratrol as a possible pharmacological agent for depression treatment in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to...
... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to...
Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder in human characterized by progressive loss of movement and cognitive disturbances. 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; a mitochondrial toxin) produces age-dependent oxidative linked striatal damage, responsible for HD like symptoms. In the present study protective effect of sertraline in 3-NP induced HD like symptoms was evaluated in rats. Systemic administration of 3-NP (10 mg/kg for 14 days) resulted in impairment of memory as assessed in Morris water maze and elevated plus paradigm tasks. Biochemical analysis revealed that systemic 3-NP administration significantly impaired reduced glutathione, total glutathione, oxidized glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase levels, whereas the level of acetylcholinesterase enzyme increased in striatum, cortex and hippocampus regions of rat brain. Sertraline (5 and 10 mg/kg po) treatment once daily for 14 days significantly improved cognitive performance tasks and glutathione levels in 3-NP treated group. However, combination of yohimbine (2 mg/kg) (non selective serotonin receptors antagonist) with the higher dose of sertraline (10 mg/kg) did not influence the protective action of sertraline. Result shows that neuroprotective and antioxidant like effect of sertraline is independent of its conventional action on 5-HT receptor.
Muller, Alexandre P; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Moreira, Julia D; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Haas, Clarissa B; Lulhier, Francisco; Perry, Marcos L S; Souza, Diogo O; Torres-Aleman, Ignácio; Portela, Luis V
Increasing evidence indicates that physical exercise induces adaptations at the cellular, molecular, and systemic levels that positively affect the brain. Insulin plays important functional roles within the brain that are mediated by insulin-receptor (IR) signaling. In the hippocampus, insulin improves synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and learning via direct modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors. Separately, physical exercise and central insulin administration exert relevant roles in cognitive function. We here use CF1 mice to investigate (i) the effects of voluntary exercise on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory performance and (ii) whether central insulin administration alters the effects of exercise on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory performance. Adult mice performed 30 days of voluntary exercise on running wheel and afterward both, sedentary and exercised groups, received intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of saline or insulin (0.5-5 mU). Memory performance was assessed using the inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks. Hippocampal tissue was measured for [U-(14)C] glucose oxidation and the immunocontent of insulin receptor/signaling (IR, pTyr, pAktser473). Additionally, the phosphorylation of the glutamate NMDA receptor NR2B subunit and the capacity of glutamate uptake were measured, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine glial reactivity. Exercise significantly increased insulin peripheral sensitivity, spatial learning, and hippocampal IR/pTyrIR/pAktser473 immunocontent. Glucose oxidation, glutamate uptake, and astrocyte number also increased relative to the sedentary group. In both memory tasks, 5 mU icv insulin produced amnesia but only in exercised animals. This amnesia was associated a rapid (15 min) and persistent (24 h) increase in hippocampal pNR2B immunocontent that paralleled the increase in glial reactivity. In conclusion, physical exercise thus increased hippocampal insulin signaling and improved
Cagetti, Elisabetta; Pinna, Graziano; Guidotti, Alessandro; Baicy, Kate; Olsen, Richard W
The administration of ethanol on a chronic intermittent regimen (CIE) involving multiple withdrawal episodes is a model for ethanol dependence. After CIE, rats exhibited reduced seizure threshold, increased anxiety, tolerance to GABAergic sedative-hypnotic drugs, and changes in GABA(A) receptor function and subunit composition in hippocampus. Previous studies have shown that acute and chronic ethanol may induce changes in the levels of the neurosteroid 3alpha-hydroxysteroid-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha, 5alpha-THP) in the brain. Therefore, the current study analyses the correlation between chronic intermittent ethanol effects on the level of 3alpha, 5alpha-THP in hippocampus of CIE rats and the behavioral changes in sensitivity to neurosteroids. After CIE, the levels for 3alpha, 5alpha-THP were significantly reduced in hippocampus of rats. The mRNA levels for the enzymes 5alpha-reductase and 3alpha-HSD in hippocampus were also reduced. In vivo, (in contrast to a tolerance to the hypnotic effect of steroids), CIE rats showed increased sensitivity to the anticonvulsant and to the anxiolytic effect of the steroid alphaxalone. Perhaps, this is a response to lowered levels of endogenous neuroactive steroids. CIE rats also showed impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory function. These results suggest that changes in neurosteroids level and in vivo sensitivity to these compounds are involved in the development of ethanol dependence in the CIE model.
Chen, Hao-Hao; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wei-Yun; Fang, Ma-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Yuan-Shu; Ding, Ming-Xing; Fu, Xiao-Yan
Post-stroke depression is associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this study, we evaluated whether BDNF overexpression affects depression-like behavior in a rat model of post-stroke depression. The middle cerebral artery was occluded to produce a model of focal cerebral ischemia. These rats were then subjected to isolation-housing combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to generate a model of post-stroke depression. A BDNF gene lentiviral vector was injected into the hippocampus. At 7 days after injection, western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that BDNF expression in the hippocampus was increased in depressive rats injected with BDNF lentivirus compared with depressive rats injected with control vector. Furthermore, sucrose solution consumption was higher, and horizontal and vertical movement scores were increased in the open field test in these rats as well. These findings suggest that BDNF overexpression in the hippocampus of post-stroke depressive rats alleviates depression-like behaviors.
Leão, Luana K R; Herculano, Anderson M; Maximino, Caio; Brasil Costa, Alódia; Gouveia, Amauri; Batista, Evander O; Rocha, Fernando F; Crespo-Lopez, Maria Elena; Borges, Rosivaldo; Oliveira, Karen
Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most toxic form of mercury that can affect humans through the food chain by bioaccumulation. Human organism is capable of triggering visual and cognitive disorders, neurodegeneration, as well as increased production of reactive species of O2 and depletion of natural anti-oxidant agents. In this context, Mauritia flexuosa L., a fruit rich in compounds with anti-oxidant properties, emerged as an important strategy to prevent the MeHg damages. So, this work has aimed to elucidate the protective effect of Mauritia flexuosa L. on the damage caused by the exposure of rats to MeHg. In order to evaluate the effect of MeHg on rat aversive memory acquisition and panic-like behavior, we have used elevated T-maze apparatus and after behavioral test, the hippocampus was removed to perfom lipid peroxidation. Our results demonstrated that the exposure to MeHg caused deficits in inhibitory avoidance acquisition (aversive conditioning) and in the learning process, and increased levels of lipid peroxidation in hippocampus tissue. However, the pretreatment with feed enriched with Mauritia flexuosa L. showed a protective effect against cognitive deficits caused by MeHg and also prevented the occurrence of cytoplasmic membrane damage induced by lipid peroxidation in the hippocampal region. Therefore, this study suggests that Mauritia flexuosa L. represents an important strategy to prevent neurocytotoxics and behavioral effects of MeHg.
Alcantara-Gonzalez, Faviola; Juarez, Ismael; Solis, Oscar; Martinez-Tellez, Isaura; Camacho-Abrego, Israel; Masliah, Eliezer; Mena, Raul; Flores, Gonzalo
In Alzheimer's disease brains morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus have been observed. These changes are particularly reflected in the decrement of both the dendritic tree and spine number. Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We have studied the effect of oral administration of this drug on the morphology of neuronal cells from the brain of aged rats. We examined dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the PFC, dorsal or ventral hippocampus and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Donepezil (1 mg/Kg, vo) was administrated every day for 60 days to rats aged 10 and 18 months. Dendritic morphology was studied by the Golgi-Cox stain procedure followed by Sholl analysis at 12 and 20 months ages, respectively. In all Donepezil treated-rats a significant increment of the dendritic spines number in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, dorsal hippocampus was observed. However, pyramidal neurons of the ventral hippocampus and medium spiny cells of the NAcc only showed an increase in the number of their spines in 12 months old-rats. Our results suggest that Donepezil prevents the alterations of the neuronal dendrite morphology caused by aging. PMID:20336627
Shen, Cong; Sun, Fang-ling; Zhang, Ru-yi; Zhang, Li; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Lan; Li, Lin
To investigate the effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) on the memory and movement functions and its mechanisms related to synapses and α-synuclein in aged mice. The memory ability of mice was detected by step-through passive avoidance task. The movement function was measured by the pole test and rotarod test. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the synaptic ultrastructure. Western blotting was applied to measure the expression of synapse-related proteins and α-synuclein. Intragastrical administration of TSG for 3 months significantly improved the memory and movement functions in aged mice. TSG treatment obviously protected the synaptic ultrastructure and increased the number of synaptic connections in the hippocampal CA1 region and striatum; enhanced the expression of synaptophysin, phosphorylated synapsin I and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), elevated phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (p-CaMKII) expression, and inhibited the overexpression and aggregation of α-synuclein in the hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex of aged mice. TSG improved the memory and movement functions in aged mice through protecting synapses and inhibiting α-synuclein overexpression and aggregation in multiple brain regions. The results suggest that TSG may be beneficial to the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases.
Brennan, Gary P.; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M.; McKiernan, Ross C.; Engel, Tobias; Tzivion, Guri; Henshall, David C.
14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ) isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress. PMID:23359526
Nagato, Shinpei; Sugahara, Kazuma; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Takemoto, Yousuke; Hashimoto, Makoto; Fujii, Hironori; Yamashita, Hiroshi
We recently reported that the heat shock response played a major role in the protection of hair cells against stress. Oral administration of the heat shock inducer, geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) protected hair cells against intense noise. In our present study, we investigated the effect of GGA on vestibular hair cell death induced by an aminoglycoside. We used CBA/N mice aged 4-6 weeks. The mice were divided into two groups, GGA and control. Mice in the GGA group were fed a diet containing GGA (0.5%) for 4 weeks, and those in the control group were fed a standard diet. Immunohistochemical analyses for Hsp70 were performed in four animals. The utricles of the remaining animals were cultured in medium for 24h with neomycin to induce hair cell death. After fixation, the vestibular hair cells were immunohistochemically stained against calmodulin, and hair cell survival was evaluated. The vestibular hair cells of mice in the GGA group expressed Hsp70. In addition, after exposure to neomycin, vestibular hair cell survival was higher in the GGA group than in the control group. Our results demonstrated the oral administration of GGA induced the heat shock response in the vestibule and could protect sensory cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rimbau, V; Camins, A; Romay, C; González, R; Pallàs, M
The neuroprotective role of C-phycocyanin was examined in kainate-injured brains of rats. The effect of three different treatments with C-phycocyanin was studied. The incidence of neurobehavioral changes was significantly lower in animals receiving C-phycocyanin. These animals also gained significantly more weight than the animals only receiving kainic acid, whereas their weight gain did not differed significantly from controls. Equivalent results were found when the neuronal damage in the hippocampus was evaluated through changes in peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (microglial marker) and heat shock protein 27 kD expression (astroglial marker). Our results are consistent with the oxygen radical scavenging properties of C-phycocyanin described elsewhere. Our findings and the virtual lack of toxicity of C-phycocyanin suggest this drug could be used to treat oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
Cortez, R. H.
NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.
Wang, Qun; Tompkins, Kenneth D; Simonyi, Agnes; Korthuis, Ronald J; Sun, Albert Y; Sun, Grace Y
Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is an important underlying cause for neuronal injury leading to delayed neuronal death (DND). In this study, apocynin, a specific inhibitor for NADPH oxidase, was used to test whether suppression of ROS by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor can protect against ischemia-induced ROS generation and decrease DND. Global cerebral ischemia was induced in gerbils by a 5-min occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Using measurement of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) as a marker for lipid peroxidation, apocynin (5 mg/kg body weight) injected i.p. 30 min prior to ischemia significantly attenuated the early increase in HNE in hippocampus measured at 3 h after I/R. Apocynin also protected against I/R-induced neuronal degeneration and DND, oxidative DNA damage, and glial cell activation. Taken together, the neuroprotective effects of apocynin against ROS production during early phase of I/R and subsequent I/R-induced neuronal damage provide strong evidence that inhibition of NADPH oxidase could be a promising therapeutic mechanism to protect against stroke damage in the brain.
Vayer, P.; Gobaille, S.; Mandel, P.; Maitre, M.
An increase (123%) of cyclic GMP (cGMP) was observed in the hippocampus of the rat killed by microwave irradiation 45 min after administration of 500 mg/kg el-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) IP. This increase is time and dose dependent. No modification in cyclic nucleotide content was observed in striatum and in cerebellum. As the role of GHB has been implicated in neurotransmission, the fact that this compound increases cyclic GMP accumulation in hippocampus in vivo may represent a mechanism by which the actions of GHB are mediated at the cellular level. Valproate (400 mg/kg) or naloxone (10 mg/kg) pretreatment completely abolish the cGMP increase due to GHB. A GABAergic and/or opiate phenomenon may be involved in the mechanism of GHB induced increase of cGMP. 34 references, 4 figures.
Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.
Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F
Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation
Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F.
Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. PMID:25451612
Zhao, H F; Li, N; Wang, Q; Cheng, X J; Li, X M; Liu, T T
Our previous studies demonstrated resveratrol (Res) administration protected Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats from developing memory decline by anti-oxidation. Beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42) is not only the primary protein component of senile plaques in AD but also is believed to play an important part in its pathology. Increasing evidence has shown neuroinflammation and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is closely related to the pathogenesis of AD. The aim of the present study is to further elucidate whether Res prevents AD rats from inflammation induced by Aβ1-42 and protects the integrity of BBB. Rats were divided into six groups: (1) ovariectomized (OVX)+D-galactose (D-gal) 100mg/kg group (OVX+D-gal); (2-4) OVX, D-gal and Res 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg treated groups; and (5) OVX, D-gal and estradiol valerate 0.8 mg/kg treated group (ET); (6) Sham control group. 12 weeks later, Res 40 and 80 mg/kg treatment exhibited a significant decrease of Aβ1-42 compared with the OVX+D-gal rats of hippocampus, which was accompanied by decreased expression of advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and the increase of Claudin-5. These results suggest that Res is useful not only in protecting OVX+D-gal rats from neuroinflammation mediated by Aβ1-42 by decreasing the expression of NF-κB but also the integrity of BBB by increasing Claudin-5 and decreasing RAGE, MMP-9.
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Jaako, Külli; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Kalda, Anti; Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Shastin, Dmitri; Zharkovsky, Alexander
Systemic or intracerebral administration of kainic acid in rodents induces neuronal death followed by a cascade of neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. Kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity is evidenced by alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, dispersion of the granule cell layer and re-organisation of mossy fibres. Similar abnormalities are observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and, therefore, kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuroplasticity might mimic pathological mechanisms leading to the formation of 'epileptic brain' in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants might reduce the severity of seizures in epileptic patients and reduce neuronal death in laboratory animal models of kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated whether kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity in mice is modulated by the repeated administration of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We found that at the histopathological level, repeated citalopram treatment counteracted the kainic acid-induced neuronal loss and dispersion of young granule neurons expressing the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule within the granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Citalopram also counteracted the downregulation of reelin on both mRNA and protein levels induced by kainic acid administration. Our findings indicate that repeated administration of citalopram is able to prevent kainic acid-induced abnormal brain plasticity and thereby prevent the formation of an epileptic phenotype.
Kwatra, Mohit; Jangra, Ashok; Mishra, Murli; Sharma, Yogita; Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Ghosh, Pinaki; Kumar, Vikas; Vohora, Divya; Khanam, Razia
The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of naringin (NR) alone as well as its combination with sertraline (SRT) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies. DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.) administration caused behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and monoamines alteration in male Wistar rats. NR (50 and 100 mg/kg; i.p.) and SRT (5 mg/kg; i.p.) treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as evident from elevated plus maze (EPM) and modified forced swimming test (mFST), respectively. NR treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced raised plasma corticosterone (CORT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the hippocampus (HC). Furthermore, we found that combination of NR and SRT regimen ameliorated DOX-induced behavioral anomalies through modulation of the 5-HT level and mitochondrial complexes protection pathway along with alleviation of oxidative stress in the HC region. Therefore, NR treatment alone or in combination with SRT could be beneficial against DOX-induced neurotoxicity.
Li, Yanning; Shen, Ruipeng; Wen, Gehua; Ding, Runtao; Du, Ao; Zhou, Jichuan; Dong, Zhibin; Ren, Xinghua; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua; Lu, Yan; Wu, Xu
Ketamine is an injectable anesthetic and recreational drug of abuse commonly used worldwide. Many experimental studies have shown that ketamine can impair cognitive function and induce psychotic states. Neuroinflammation has been suggested to play an important role in neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, ketamine has been shown to modulate the levels of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that the effects of ketamine on the central nervous system are associated with inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we set out to establish acute and chronic ketamine administration models in C57BL/6 mice, to evaluate spatial recognition memory and emotional response, to analyze the changes in the levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the mouse hippocampus, employing behavioral tests, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that ketamine at the dose of 60 mg/kg induced spatial recognition memory deficit and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice after chronic administration. Moreover, we found that ketamine increased the hippocampal levels of IL-6 and IL-1β after single, multiple and long-term administration in a dose-dependent manner. However, the expression level of TNF-α differed in the mouse hippocampus under different conditions. Single administration of ketamine increased the level of TNF-α, whereas multiple and long-term administration decreased it significantly. We considered that TNF-α expression could be controlled by a bi-directional regulatory pathway, which was associated with the dose and duration of ketamine administration. Our results suggest that the alterations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α may be involved in the neurotoxicity of ketamine. PMID:28373844
Li, Yanning; Shen, Ruipeng; Wen, Gehua; Ding, Runtao; Du, Ao; Zhou, Jichuan; Dong, Zhibin; Ren, Xinghua; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua; Lu, Yan; Wu, Xu
Ketamine is an injectable anesthetic and recreational drug of abuse commonly used worldwide. Many experimental studies have shown that ketamine can impair cognitive function and induce psychotic states. Neuroinflammation has been suggested to play an important role in neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, ketamine has been shown to modulate the levels of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that the effects of ketamine on the central nervous system are associated with inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we set out to establish acute and chronic ketamine administration models in C57BL/6 mice, to evaluate spatial recognition memory and emotional response, to analyze the changes in the levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the mouse hippocampus, employing behavioral tests, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that ketamine at the dose of 60 mg/kg induced spatial recognition memory deficit and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice after chronic administration. Moreover, we found that ketamine increased the hippocampal levels of IL-6 and IL-1β after single, multiple and long-term administration in a dose-dependent manner. However, the expression level of TNF-α differed in the mouse hippocampus under different conditions. Single administration of ketamine increased the level of TNF-α, whereas multiple and long-term administration decreased it significantly. We considered that TNF-α expression could be controlled by a bi-directional regulatory pathway, which was associated with the dose and duration of ketamine administration. Our results suggest that the alterations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α may be involved in the neurotoxicity of ketamine.
Chiu, Kuan Ming; Wu, Chia Chan; Wang, Ming Jiuh; Lee, Ming Yi; Wang, Su Jane
The excessive release of glutamate is a critical element in the neuropathology of epilepsy, and bupivacaine, a local anesthetic agent, has been shown to inhibit the release of glutamate in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals. This study investigated whether bupivacaine produces antiseizure and antiexcitotoxic effects using a kainic acid (KA) rat model, an animal model used for temporal lobe epilepsy, and excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments. The results showed that administering bupivacaine (0.4 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to rats 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of KA (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and reduced the seizure score. In addition, bupivacaine attenuated KA-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the inhibition of microglial activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, bupivacaine shortened the latency of escaping onto the platform in the Morris water maze learning performance test. Collectively, these data suggest that bupivacaine has therapeutic potential for treating epilepsy.
Onody, Peter; Aranyi, Peter; Turoczi, Zsolt; Stangl, Rita; Fulop, Andras; Dudas, Emese; Lotz, Gabor; Szijarto, Attila
Aims and Objectives Acute renal failure is a severe complication of lower extremity major arterial reconstructions, which could even be fatal. Levosimendan is a dual-acting positive inotropic and vasodilatory agent, which is suspected to have protective effects against cardiac ischemia. However, there is no data available on lower limb or remote organ ischemic injuries therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on lower limb ischemia-reperfusion injury and the corollary renal dysfunction. Methods Male Wistar rats underwent 180 min bilateral lower limb ischemia followed by 4 or 24 hours of reperfusion. Intravenous Levosimendan was administered continuously (0.2μg/bwkg/min) throughout the whole course of ischemia and the first 3h of reperfusion. Results were compared with sham-operated and ischemia-reperfusion groups. Hemodynamic monitoring was performed by invasive arterial blood pressure measurement. Kidney and lower limb muscle microcirculation was registered by a laser Doppler flowmeter. After 4h and 24h of reperfusion, serum, urine and histological samples were collected. Results Systemic hemodynamic parameters and microcirculation of kidney and the lower limb significantly improved in the Levosimendan treated group. Muscle viability was significantly preserved 4 and 24 hours after reperfusion. At the same time, renal functional laboratory tests and kidney histology demonstrated significantly less expressive kidney injury in Levosimendan groups. TNF-α levels were significantly less elevated in the Levosimendan group 4 hours after reperfusion. Conclusion The results claim a protective role for Levosimendan administration during major vascular surgeries to prevent renal complications. PMID:27684548
Franco-Enzástiga, Úrzula; Santana-Martínez, Ricardo A; Silva-Islas, Carlos A; Barrera-Oviedo, Diana; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena; Maldonado, Perla D
Oxidative stress plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The cellular defense mechanisms to deal with oxidative damage involve the activation of transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf2), which enhances the transcription of antioxidant and phase II enzyme genes. S-allylcysteine (SAC) is an antioxidant with neuroprotective properties, and the main organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract. The ability of SAC to activate the Nrf2 factor has been previously reported in hepatic cells; however this effect has not been studied in normal brain. In order to determine if the chronic administration of SAC is able to activate Nrf2 factor and enhance antioxidant defense in the brain, male Wistar rats were administered with SAC (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg-body weight each 24 h, i.g.) for 90 days. The activation of Nrf2, the levels of p65 and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as well as the activities of the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were evaluated in the hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex. Results showed that SAC activated Nrf2 factor in the hippocampus (25-200 mg/kg) and striatum (100 mg/kg) and significantly decreased p65 levels in the frontal cortex (25-200 mg/kg). On the other hand, SAC increased GPx, GR, CAT and SOD activities mainly in the hippocampus and striatum, but it did not change GST activity. Finally, no changes were observed in 8-OHdG levels mediated by SAC in any brain region, but the hippocampus showed a major level of 8-OHdG compared with the striatum and frontal cortex. All these results suggest that in the hippocampus, the observed increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes could be associated with the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor; however, a different mechanism could be involved in the striatum and frontal cortex, since no changes were found in Nrf2 activation and p65 levels.
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Scope and Definitions § 351.103 Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records...
El Mansari, Mostafa; Lecours, Maurice; Blier, Pierre
Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that is a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, an inhibitor of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, and a 5-HT1D, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist in vitro. In vivo studies have shown that vortioxetine enhances levels of 5-HT and desensitizes 5-HT1A autoreceptors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and long-term administration of vortioxetine on the terminal 5-HT1B receptor and the tonic activation of 5-HT1A receptor in the rat hippocampus. These receptors were assessed following vortioxetine administration acutely or subcutaneously using minipumps for 14 days. These studies were carried out using in vivo electrophysiological recording, microiontophoresis, and stimulation of the ascending 5-HT fibers. Vortioxetine enhanced the inhibitory effect of the stimulation of the 5-HT bundle at a high, but not low frequency and reversed the inhibitory effect of the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 94253. These results indicate that this compound acted as a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist. Vortioxetine inhibited 5-HT reuptake but did not dampen the sensitivity of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors on pyramidal neurons. Long-term administration of vortioxetine and escitalopram (both at 5 mg/kg/day) induced an increase of tonic activation of the 5-HT1A receptors in CA3 pyramidal neurons, resulting in an increase in 5-HT transmission. In addition, vortioxetine decreased the function of terminal 5-HT1B autoreceptor following its sustained administration. Desensitization of 5-HT1B autoreceptor and an increase of tonic activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus may contribute to the antidepressant effect of vortioxetine.
Chaisawang, Pornthip; Sirichoat, Apiwat; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Wigmore, Peter
The chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has been reported to cause cognitive impairments in cancer patients. The drug also reduces cell proliferation and survival in the brain. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpene compound found in Centella asiatica that can protect against reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus and memory deficits induced by valproic acid (VPA). In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of AA on the deficits in spatial working memory and cell proliferation and survival caused by 5-FU chemotherapy in a rat model. Male Sprague Dawley rats received 5-FU (5 i.v. injections, 25 mg/kg) on day 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 of the study. This was co-administered with AA (30 mg/kg, oral gavage tube) either 20 days before receiving 5-FU (preventive), after receiving 5-FU (recovery), or for the entire period of the experiment (throughout). Spatial working memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL) test and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival of dividing cells were quantified using immunohistochemistry. Rats in the 5-FU alone and recovery groups showed memory deficits in the NOL test and reductions in cell proliferation and cell survival in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Rats in the control, AA alone, and both preventive and throughout co-administration groups, however, did not exhibit these characteristics. The results showed that 5-FU chemotherapy impaired memory and reduced cell proliferation and cell survival in the SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, these impairments in the animals receiving 5-FU chemotherapy were restored to control levels when AA was co-administered before and during 5-FU treatment. These data demonstrate that AA can prevent the spatial working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis impairments caused by 5-FU chemotherapy. PMID:28700628
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Yang, Weina; Shi, Lili; Chen, Lianji; Zhang, Bingyi; Ma, Kaige; Liu, Yong; Qian, Yihua
Perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, has been reported to improve learning and memory in a mouse or rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced by injection of beta-amyloid protein. However, the exact mechanism of perindopril on the cognitive deficits is not fully understood. Our previous data have indicated that perindopril improves learning and memory in a mouse model of AD induced by D-galactose (D-gal) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl₃) via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress. Whether perindopril also inhibit apoptosis to prevent cognitive decline remains unknown in mice. Therefore, the present study explored the protective effects of perindopril in the hippocampus of mice further. Perindopril (0.5 mg/kg/day) was administered intragastrically for 60 days after the mice were given a D-gal (150 mg/kg/day) and AlCl₃ (10 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 90 days. Then the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Fas, FasL, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting in the hippocampus. Perindopril significantly decreased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, and elevated Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the hippocampus. However, the expression of Fas, FasL and caspase-8 did not change in the hippocampus whether treatment with d-gal and AlCl₃ or perindopril. Taken together, the above findings indicated that perindopril inhibited apoptosis in the hippocampus may be another mechanism by which perindopril improves learning and memory functions in d-gal and AlCl₃ treated mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zarebkohan, Amir; Javan, Mohammad; Satarian, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhasan
Chronic morphine leads to dependence, tolerance, and neural apoptosis. Vitamin C inhibits the withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent subjects and prevents apoptosis in experimental models. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) type-2 is the main transporter for carrying vitamin C into the brain and neural cells. The mechanism(s) by which vitamin C inhibits morphine dependence in not understood. SVCT activity determines the vitamin C availably within the nervous system. We have examined the alterations in the expression of SVCT1, SVCT2, and its splice variants in morphine-tolerant rats. Morphine (20 mg/kg) was injected twice/day to male rats for either 7 or 14 days. The development of analgesic tolerance was assessed using tail-flick test. Lumbar spinal cord and the hippocampus were isolated for RNA extraction. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method was used to assess the levels of gene expression. Administration of morphine for 7 or 14 days reduced the expression level of SVCT2 in both hippocampus and dorsal lumbar spinal cord of rats. SVCT2 expression was reduced in vitamin C-, and vitamin C combined with morphine-treated animals. Results did not show SVCT2 splice variation. SVCT1 did not express in control or morphine-treated rats. It seems that reduced expression level of SVCT2 might be involved in the development of morphine side effects such as tolerance and dependency.
Allen, Antiño R.; Eilertson, Kirsten; Sharma, Sourabh; Baure, Jennifer; Allen, Barrett; Leu, David; Rosi, Susanna; Raber, Jacob; Huang, Ting-Ting; Fike, John R.
Radiation exposure due to radiological terrorism and military circumstances are a continuing threat for the civilian population. In an uncontrolled radiation event, it is likely that there will be other types of injury involved, including trauma. While radiation combined injury is recognized as an area of great significance, overall there is a paucity of information regarding the mechanisms underlying the interactions between irradiation and other forms of injury, or what countermeasures might be effective in ameliorating such changes. The objective of this study was to determine if difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) could reduce the adverse effects of single or combined injury if administered beginning 24 h after exposure. Eight-week-old C57BL/J6 young-adult male mice received whole-body cesium-137 (137Cs) irradiation with 4 Gy. Immediately after irradiation, unilateral traumatic brain injury was induced using a controlled cortical impact system. Forty-four days postirradiation, animals were tested for hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance in the Morris water maze. After cognitive testing, animals were euthanized and their brains snap frozen for immunohisto-chemical assessment of neuroinflammation (activated microglia) and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Our data show that single and combined injuries induced variable degrees of hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, and when given 24 h post trauma, DFMO treatment ameliorated those effects. Cellular changes including neuro-genesis and numbers of activated microglia were generally not associated with the cognitive changes. Further analyses also revealed that DFMO increased hippocampal protein levels of the antioxidants thioredoxin 1 and peroxiredoxin 3 compared to vehicle treated animals. While the mechanisms responsible for the improvement in cognition after DFMO treatment are not yet clear, these results constitute a basis for further development of DFMO as a countermeasure for ameliorating
Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis; Carey, Amanda; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James
Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56 Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals. Behaviors affected by radiation include deficits in motor performance, spatial learning and memory behavior, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, conditioned place preference, and operant conditioning. Berry fruit diets are high in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, and prevent the occurrence of the neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur in aging and by exposure to 56 Fe particles. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, is affected by exposure to 56 Fe particles 36 hours post-irradiation. We also evaluated whether the blueberry (BB) and strawberry (SB) diets could ameliorate irradiation-induced deficits in gene expression by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to radiation. Therefore, to measure gene expression, 4 rats/group were euthanized 36 hours post whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy or 2.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles. Alterations in gene expression profile induced by radiation were analyzed by pathway-focused microarrays on the inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in NF-κB signal transduction pathways. For the diet studies, 3 rats/group were irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 56 Fe following 8 weeks supplementation with either the 2% BB or the 2% SB diet. We found that genes that directly or indirectly interact in the regulation of growth and differentiation of neurons were changed following irradiation. Genes that regulate apoptosis were up-regulated whereas genes that modulate cellular proliferation were down-regulated, possibly to eliminate damaged cells and to stop cell proliferation to prevent
Espinosa-García, Claudia; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César; Aguilar-Hernández, Alejandra; Monfil, Tomas; Cervantes, Miguel; Moralí, Gabriela
Delayed death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion may be mediated, in part, by caspase-3 activation resulting in DNA fragmentation. Progesterone (P4) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in several models of brain injury. This study was designed to assess the effect of P4 on caspase-3 levels and activation, and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to global ischemia by the four-vessel occlusion model. P4 (8 mg/kg), or its vehicle were administered i.v. at 15 min, 2, 6, 24, 48 and 70 h of reperfusion. Remaining pyramidal neurons were assesed by the Nissl staining technique, caspase-3 levels and activation by immunohistochemistry and an in situ activity assay, and DNA fragmentation by the TUNEL method. Post-ischemic progesterone treatment significantly reduced the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in caspase-3 levels and activation at 72 h, and DNA fragmentation and CA1 neuronal loss at 7 days. Present results suggest the reduction of caspase-3 levels/activation, and DNA fragmentation, as a part of the neuroprotective effects of progesterone against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection case-placement in Administrative Detention status. 541.27 Section 541.27 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541...
Sun, Dayu; Chen, Junhua; Bao, Xiaohang; Cai, Yulong; Zhao, Jinghui; Huang, Jing; Huang, Wei; Fan, Xiaotang; Xu, Haiwei
The failure of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is closely correlated with memory decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Radial glial-like cells (RGLs) localized to the adult DG generate intermediate progenitor cells and immature neurons and thus contribute to adult hippocampus neurogenesis. Memantine (MEM) has been indicated to dramatically increase hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting the proliferation of RGLs. In this study, we examined the effect of MEM on the capacity for hippocampal cell proliferation and the amount of RGLs in APPswe/PS1∆E9 transgenic (APP/PS1) mice between 9 and 13 months of age. MEM could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and increase the number of RGLs in the DG subgranular zone (DG-SGZ) of APP/PS1 mice of both ages. Moreover, MEM decreased amyloidogenesis in 13-month-old APP/PS1 mice and protected cultured radial glia cells (RGCs, L2.3 cells) from apoptosis induced by the β amyloid peptide (Aβ). Additionally, MEM inhibited microglial activation in a vertical process in DG-SGZ of APP/PS1 mice and decreased interacting with RGL processes. Reelin is involved in the proliferation of RGLs in the hippocampus, which was typically upregulated in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice by MEM and thought to be an active signaling pathway associated with the MEM-induced increase in RGLs. Our data suggest a previously uncharacterized role for MEM in treating AD.
Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts behavior, including spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the b...
Rivera, Patricia; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Crespillo, Ana; Cifuentes, Manuel; López-Ávalos, María-Dolores; Grondona, Jesús M; Vida, Margarita; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan
Soy extracts have been claimed to be neuroprotective against brain insults, an effect related to the estrogenic properties of isoflavones. However, the effects of individual isoflavones on obesity-induced disruption of adult neurogenesis have not yet been analyzed. In the present study we explore the effects of pharmacological administration of daidzein, a main soy isoflavone, in cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and gliosis in the adult hippocampus of animals exposed to a very high-fat diet. Rats made obese after 12-week exposure to a standard or high-fat (HFD, 60%) diets were treated with daidzein (50 mg kg(-1)) for 13 days. Then, plasma levels of metabolites and metabolic hormones, cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ), and immunohistochemical markers of hippocampal cell apoptosis (caspase-3), gliosis (GFAP and Iba-1), food reward factor FosB and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were analyzed. Treatment with daidzein reduced food/caloric intake and body weight gain in obese rats. This was associated with glucose tolerance, low levels of HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and testosterone, and high levels of leptin and 17β-estradiol. Daidzein increased the number of phospho-histone H3 and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-ir cells detected in the SGZ of standard diet and HFD-fed rats. Daidzein reversed the HFD-associated enhanced immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3, FosB, GFAP, Iba-1 and ERα in the hippocampus, being more prominent in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pharmacological treatment with isoflavones regulates metabolic alterations associated with enhancement of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis and gliosis in response to high-fat diet.
Rivera, Patricia; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Crespillo, Ana; Cifuentes, Manuel; López-Ávalos, María-Dolores; Grondona, Jesús M.; Vida, Margarita; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan
Soy extracts have been claimed to be neuroprotective against brain insults, an effect related to the estrogenic properties of isoflavones. However, the effects of individual isoflavones on obesity-induced disruption of adult neurogenesis have not yet been analyzed. In the present study we explore the effects of pharmacological administration of daidzein, a main soy isoflavone, in cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and gliosis in the adult hippocampus of animals exposed to a very high-fat diet. Rats made obese after 12-week exposure to a standard or high-fat (HFD, 60%) diets were treated with daidzein (50 mg kg−1) for 13 days. Then, plasma levels of metabolites and metabolic hormones, cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ), and immunohistochemical markers of hippocampal cell apoptosis (caspase-3), gliosis (GFAP and Iba-1), food reward factor FosB and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were analyzed. Treatment with daidzein reduced food/caloric intake and body weight gain in obese rats. This was associated with glucose tolerance, low levels of HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and testosterone, and high levels of leptin and 17β-estradiol. Daidzein increased the number of phospho-histone H3 and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-ir cells detected in the SGZ of standard diet and HFD-fed rats. Daidzein reversed the HFD-associated enhanced immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3, FosB, GFAP, Iba-1 and ERα in the hippocampus, being more prominent in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pharmacological treatment with isoflavones regulates metabolic alterations associated with enhancement of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis and gliosis in response to high-fat diet. PMID:23741384
Selvas, Abraham; Coria, Santiago M; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Ambrosio, Emilio; Miguéns, Miguel
We previously showed that cocaine self-administration increases spine density in CA1 hippocampal neurons in Lewis (LEW) but not in Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Dendritic spine morphology is intimately related to its function. Thus, we conducted a 3D morphological analysis of CA1 dendrites and dendritic spines in these two strains of rats. Strain-specific differences were observed prior to cocaine self-administration: LEW rats had significantly larger dendritic diameters but lower spine density than the F344 strain. After cocaine self-administration, proximal dendritic volume, dendritic surface area and spine density were increased in LEW rats, where a higher percentage of larger spines were also observed. In addition, we found a strong positive correlation between dendritic volume and spine morphology, and a moderate correlation between dendritic volume and spine density in cocaine self-administered LEW rats, an effect that was not evident in any other condition. By contrast, after cocaine self-administration, F334 rats showed decreased spine head volumes. Our findings suggest that genetic differences could play a key role in the structural plasticity induced by cocaine in CA1 pyramidal neurons. These cocaine-induced alterations could be related to differences in the memory processing of drug reward cues that could potentially explain differential individual vulnerability to cocaine addiction. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Zhang, L; Dhillon, H S; Barron, S; Hicks1, R R; Prasad, R M; Seroogy, K B
Previous evidence indicates that both chronic alcohol treatment and traumatic brain injury modulate expression of certain neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in cortical tissue. However, the combined effects of chronic alcohol and brain trauma on expression of neurotrophins and their receptors have not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of 6 weeks of chronic ethanol administration on lateral fluid percussion (FP) brain injury-induced alterations in expression of mRNAs for the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high affinity receptor, trkB, in rat hippocampus. In both the control- (pair-fed isocaloric sucrose) diet and the chronic ethanol-diet groups, unilateral FP brain injury induced a bilateral increase in levels of both BDNF and trkB mRNAs in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer, and of BDNF mRNA in hippocampal region CA3. However, no significant differences in expression were found between the control-diet and ethanol-diet groups, in either the sham-injured or FP-injured animals. These findings suggest that 6 weeks of chronic ethanol administration does not alter the plasticity of hippocampal BDNF/trkB expression in response to experimental brain injury.
Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1’s effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430
Morales, T; Lorenson, M; Walker, A M; Ramos, E
Prolactin (PRL) has many functions in the CNS, including neuroprotection. During lactation, the dorsal hippocampus is protected from excitotoxic kainic acid (KA)-induced cellular damage. We have previously reported that systemic pre-treatment with ovine PRL had similar protective effects in female rats. Here, we asked (1) whether intracerebral human PRL (hPRL) would have the same action, (2) because phosphorylated PRL is high in lactation, whether a mimic of phosphorylated hPRL, human prolactin in which the normally phosphorylated serine at position 179 is replaced with an aspartate (S179D-PRL), had similar activity, and (3) what signaling pathways mediated the protective effect. Female ovariectomized (OVX, 1 month) rats were implanted with micro-osmotic pumps connected to unilateral icv cannulae directed at the right lateral ventricle. The pumps delivered 0.10 ng/h of hPRL, S179D-PRL, a combination of hPRL+S179D-PRL, or saline vehicle for 7 days prior to a systemic dose of 7.5mg/kg of KA. Rats were sacrificed 48 h after KA injection. Immunostaining for neuronal nuclei (Neu-N) revealed a significant KA-induced decrease in cell number in the CA1, CA3, and CA4 hippocampal areas of rats (∼55% of control). Treatment with either hPRL or S179D-PRL or the combination prevented the damaging effect of KA in these hippocampal regions (∼95% of corresponding control), but was not completely effective at preventing early seizure-related behaviors such as staring and wet dog shakes. Analysis of signals generated by hPRL and S179D-PRL showed no activation of signal transducer and activation of transcription 5 (Stat5) or other signaling molecules in the hippocampus, but activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the amygdala. These results support a central protective effect of both PRL forms and suggest that PRL could be exerting its protective action by indirectly modulating input signals to the hippocampus and thus regulating excitability.
(New York, N.Y.) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Judith A. Enck today joined Mitchell J. Silver, FAICP, the Commissioner for NYC Parks, Heather Leibowitz, Director of Environment New York, and Irene Scheid, the Executive Directo
..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...
..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...
..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...
... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Personal Protective Equipment, Shelters, and Related Items the... controlled on the CCL and by the EAR. This proposed rule is being published in conjunction with a proposed... Control List (CCL) in Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR)....
Perez-Alvarez, Maria Jose; Mateos, Laura; Alonso, Alvaro; Wandosell, Francisco
Epidemiological studies have suggested a differential response, males versus female, in stroke incidence and prognosis. These divergences in brain response after damage are based mostly on hormonal differences. To date, estradiol and progesterone administered independently have demonstrated neuroprotection after ischemia in animal models. Nonetheless, contradictory results were revealed using a combined administration. In order to evaluate the effects of combinatorial treatment administered after ischemia induction, we used two different approaches: in vivo and in vitro models. Male rats which underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with a combination of estradiol/progesterone at 6, 24 and 48 h after injury and sacrificed at 54 h post-ischemia. The rat brains were evaluated for reactive gliosis, NeuN-positive neurons, levels of synapse-associated proteins and activity levels of PI3K/Akt/GSK3/β-catenin survival pathway. Also, primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation for 17 h and returned to a normal environment in the presence of estradiol or estradiol/progesterone. Cell viability was evaluated, and activity levels of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3/β-catenin pathway. Our results indicate that some beneficial effects of estradiol were abolished in the presence of progesterone, particularly in the cerebral cortex (core). However, the combinatorial treatment showed positive effects in the hippocampus.
Rombolà, Laura; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Tassorelli, Cristina; Sakurada, Shinobu; Bagetta, G; Morrone, Luigi Antonio
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) is a citrus fruit growing almost exclusively in the South of Italy. Its essential oil is obtained by cold pressing of the epicarp and, partly, of the mesocarp of the fresh fruit. Although this phytocomplex has been used for centuries, reputedly effectively, as a traditional medicine, there is very little verified scientific evidence to support this use. This paper reports original data on the systemic effects of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG activity recorded from the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the rat. The Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was used to analyse and quantify the energy in single frequency bands of the EEG spectrum. The results obtained indicate that systemic administration of increasing volumes of BEO produces dose-dependent increases in locomotor and exploratory activity that correlate with a predominant increase in the energy in the faster frequency bands of the EEG spectrum. These data contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological profile of BEO.
Pałasz, Artur; Bandyszewska, Magdalena; Rojczyk, Ewa; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard
Neuropeptides play an important role in various neural pathways, being able to control a wide spectrum of physiological responses. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) functions are quite well studied, however little is known about their action at the level of limbic structures. The present work was focused on the expression of the aforementioned peptides in this brain structure of rats treated with olanzapine, a second generation neuroleptic drug. The detailed purpose of this experiment was the evaluation of potential relationships between chronic olanzapine administration and NPY and POMC mRNA expression in the amygdala and hippocampal formation. The studies were carried out on adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats that were divided into 2 groups: control and experimental animals treated with olanzapine (28 day-long intraperitoneal injection). All individuals were sacrificed under anaesthesia, then the amygdaloid complexes and hippocampi were excised. Total mRNA was isolated from homogenized samples of both structures and the RT-PCR method was used for estimation of NPY and POMC gene relative expression. Prolonged olanzapine administration is reflected in qualitatively different changes in expression of NPY and POMC mRNA in the rat amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly enough, olanzapine did not affect NPY expression, but significantly increased the POMC level in both examined regions. Olanzapine can affect amygdalar and hippocampal neuronal populations by the modulation of neuropeptide activity. Importantly, it may suggest the existence of an alternative mode of its action. Undoubtedly this hypothetic regulatory mechanism requires further pharmacological and neurostructural study. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Blank, Martina; Petry, Fernanda S; Lichtenfels, Martina; Valiati, Fernanda E; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Roesler, Rafael
Relatively little is known about the requirement of signaling initiated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), in the early phases of memory consolidation, as well as about its possible functional interactions with epigenetic mechanisms. Here we show that blocking TrkB in the dorsal hippocampus after learning or retrieval impairs retention of memory for inhibitory avoidance (IA). More importantly, the impairing effect of TrkB antagonism on consolidation was completely prevented by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB). Male Wistar rats were given an intrahippocampal infusion of saline (SAL) or NaB before training, followed by an infusion of either vehicle (VEH) or the selective TrkB antagonist ANA-12 immediately after training. In a second experiment, the infusions were administered before and after retrieval. ANA-12 after either training or retrieval produced a significant impairment in a subsequent memory retention test. Pretraining administration of NaB prevented the effect of ANA-12, although NaB given before retrieval did not alter the impairment resulting from TrkB blockade. The results indicate that inhibition of BDNF/TrkB in the hippocampus can hinder consolidation and reconsolidation of IA memory. However, TrkB activity is not required for consolidation in the presence of NaB, suggesting that a dysfunction in BDNF/TrkB signaling can be fully compensated by HDAC inhibition to allow hippocampal memory formation.
Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng
Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions.
Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng
Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:25317156
Motomura, Kazuya; Ogura, Masatoshi; Natsume, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko
It has been elucidated that cognitive dysfunction following cranial radiotherapy might be linked to the oxidative stress-induced impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis that is mediated by proliferating neural stem or progenitor cells. The novel free-radical scavenger edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) has been clinically used to reduce neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. Previously, we reported that the free-radical scavenger, edaravone, which is currently used to treat patients with brain ischemia, protected cultured human neural stem cells (NSCs) from radiation-induced cell death; the protective effect was observed more significantly in NSCs than in brain tumor cells. Here, in animal models, we demonstrate that edaravone protects neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus from cell death after irradiation. Moreover, edaravone protected spatial memory retention deficits as determined by Morris water maze tests. Our study may shed some light on the beneficial effects of free-radical scavengers in impaired neurogenesis following cranial radiation therapy.
Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D
Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended access) on
Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D
Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended
Nicoletti, J N; Shah, S K; McCloskey, D P; Goodman, J H; Elkady, A; Atassi, H; Hylton, D; Rudge, J S; Scharfman, H E; Croll, S D
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a protein factor which has been found to play a significant role in both normal and pathological states. Its role as an angiogenic factor is well-established. More recently, VEGF has been shown to protect neurons from cell death both in vivo and in vitro. While VEGF's potential as a protective factor has been demonstrated in hypoxia-ischemia, in vitro excitotoxicity, and motor neuron degeneration, its role in seizure-induced cell loss has received little attention. A potential role in seizures is suggested by Newton et al.'s [Newton SS, Collier EF, Hunsberger J, Adams D, Terwilliger R, Selvanayagam E, Duman RS (2003) Gene profile of electroconvulsive seizures: Induction of neurotrophic and angiogenic factors. J Neurosci 23:10841-10851] finding that VEGF mRNA increases in areas of the brain that are susceptible to cell loss after electroconvulsive-shock induced seizures. Because a linear relationship does not always exist between expression of mRNA and protein, we investigated whether VEGF protein expression increased after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. In addition, we administered exogenous VEGF in one experiment and blocked endogenous VEGF in another to determine whether VEGF exerts a neuroprotective effect against status epilepticus-induced cell loss in one vulnerable brain region, the rat hippocampus. Our data revealed that VEGF is dramatically up-regulated in neurons and glia in hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, and neocortex 24 h after status epilepticus. VEGF induced significant preservation of hippocampal neurons, suggesting that VEGF may play a neuroprotective role following status epilepticus.
Han, Fang; Xiao, Bing; Wen, Lili; Shi, Yuxiu
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed -1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabolite changes in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. SPS increased the N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline moieties (Cho)/Cr ratios in the bilateral amygdala on day 4, decreased the NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus on day 1, and increased both ratios in the right hippocampus on day 14. But no significant change was found in the thalamus. Fluoxetine treatment corrected the SPS increases in the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr levels in the amygdala on day 4 and in the hippocampus on day 14, but it failed to normalise SPS-associated decreases in NAA/Cr levels in the left hippocampus on day 1. These results suggested that metabolic abnormalities in the amygdala and the hippocampus were involved in SPS, and different effects of fluoxetine in correcting SPS-induced neurometabolite changes among the three areas. These findings have implications for fluoxetine treatment in PTSD.
Jackson, Stewart J; Hussey, Rosalind; Jansen, Maurits A; Merrifield, Gavin D; Marshall, Ian; MacLullich, Alasdair; Yau, Joyce L W; Bast, Tobias
Manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MEMRI) in rodents offers unique opportunities for the longitudinal study of hippocampal structure and function in parallel with cognitive testing. However, Mn(2+) is a potent toxin and there is evidence that it can interfere with neuronal function. Thus, apart from causing adverse peripheral side effects, Mn(2+) may disrupt the function of brain areas where it accumulates to produce signal enhancement and, thereby, Mn(2+) administration may confound cognitive testing. Here, we examined in male adult Lister hooded rats if a moderate systemic dose of MnCl₂ (200 μmol/kg; two intraperitoneal injections of 100 μmol/kg separated by 1 h) that produces hippocampal MR signal enhancement would disrupt hippocampal function. To this end, we used a delayed-matching-to-place (DMP) watermaze task, which requires rapid allocentric place learning and is highly sensitive to interference with hippocampal function. Tested on the DMP task 1 h and 24 h after MnCl₂ injection, rats did not show any impairment in indices of memory performance (latencies, search preference) or any sensorimotor effects. However, MnCl₂ injection caused acute peripheral effects (severe ataxia and erythema, i.e. redness of paws, ears, and nose) which subsided over 30 min. Additionally, rats injected with MnCl₂ showed reduced weight 1 day after injection and failed to reach the normal weight-growth curve of control rats within the 16 days monitored. Our results indicate that 200 μmol/kg MnCl₂ produces hippocampal MR signal enhancement without disrupting hippocampus-dependent behavior on a rapid place learning task, even though attention must be paid to peripheral side effects.
Cervantes, Martha Catalina Rivera; Basulto, José Jaime Jarero; Velasco, Alfredo Ignacio Feria; Zárate, Carlos Beas; Meza, Mónica Navarro; López, Mariana Berenice González; Cabrera, Graciela Gudiño; Rodríguez, Julio Cesar García
Excessive Glutamate (Glu) release may trigger excitotoxic cellular death by the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that transduce extracellular signals to the cell nucleus, which determines the onset of a death program. One such signaling pathway is the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), which is involved in both survival and cell death. Experimental evidences from the use of specific inhibitors supports the participation of some MAPK pathway components in the excitotoxicity mechanism, but the complete process of this activation, which terminates in cell damage and death, is not clearly understood. In the present work, we investigated the changes in the expression level of some MAPK-pathway components in hippocampal excitotoxic cell death in the neonatal rats using an experimental model of subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration on postnatal days (PD) 1, 3, 5 and 7. Data were collected at different ages through PD 14. Cell viability was evaluated using fluorescein diacetate mixed with propidium iodide (FDA-PI), and the Nissl-staining technique was used to evaluate histological damage. Transcriptional changes were also investigated in 98 components of the MAPK pathway that are associated with cell damage. These results are an evidence of that repetitive use of MSG, in neonatal rats, induces cell damage-associated transcriptional changes of MAPK components, that might reflect a differential stage of both biochemical and molecular brain maturation. This work also suggests that some of the proteins evaluated such as phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) protein, which was up-regulated, could regulate the response to excitotoxic through modulation of the process of re-entry into the cell cycle in the hippocampus of rats treated with MSG. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Bingchang; Gao, Min; Wang, Kangkai; Jiang, Yu; Peng, Yue; Zhang, Huali; Yang, Mingshi; Xiao, Xianzhong
Intravenous administration of ulinastatin (UTI), a broad spectral protease inhibitor, has been used on an experimental basis with severe sepsis patients in Asia. However, the effects of intraintestinal administration of UTI on intestinal and multiple organ damage in sepsis have not been reported. In this study, we established a sepsis model in rats using cecal ligation and puncture and compared the effects of intraintestinal administration of UTI through an artificial fistula of duodenum and intraperitoneal administration of UTI on the pathophysiological changes of sepsis. It was found that intraintestinal administration of UTI (1) significantly improved the survival of septic rats, (2) significantly reduced the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 as well as intestinal injury biomarkers diamine oxidase, D-lactic acid, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4, and (3) significantly reduced intestinal microscopic and ultrastructural damage of septic rats. In addition, the protective effects of intraintestinal administration of UTI were significantly better than those of intraperitoneal administration of UTI. Overall, the present study for the first time revealed that intraintestinal administration of protease inhibitor UTI could reduce systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organ dysfunction in rats with sepsis by inhibiting autodigestion of intestinal wall due to proteases and provided new research ideas and experimental evidences for treatment of sepsis by intraintestinal administration of UTI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
WASHINGTON - Tomorrow, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy is hitting the road to focus on the important need to protect the critical streams and wetlands that provide 1 in 3 Americans their drinking water and that are currently vulnerable to pollution
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL...
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL...
Youn, Ha-Na; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Yu-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Yang, Si-Yong; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Woo, Seo-Hyung; Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon
Influenza virus infections continue to be a significant public health problem. For improved therapies and preventive measures against influenza, there has been an increased tendency in modern medicine involving the use of probiotics. In this study, we compared the protective efficacy of various live and dead Lactobacillus species against challenge with influenza virus in mice according to the administration route and dose. In addition, to understand the underlying mechanism behind this clinical protective effect, we performed immunologic assays including examination of IgA levels and cytokine profiles in the lung. The survival rate of mice receiving intranasal administration of Lactobacillus was higher than after oral administration, and administration of live bacteria was more protective than of dead bacteria. The lung levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IgA were significantly increased (P<0.05). Conversely, the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6 were decreased. Interestingly, there were huge differences in protective effects of various Lactobacillus strains on influenza virus infection. Therefore, for clinical applications, selection of effective strains could be critical and individually optimized application regimens of the selected strains are required.
Lembo, Annalisa; Pelletier, Mark; Iyer, Ravi; Timko, Michele; Dudda, Jan C.; West, T. Eoin; Wilson, Christopher B.; Hajjar, Adeline M.; Skerrett, Shawn J.
Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonosis tularemia. Because F. tularensis LPS causes weak TLR4 activation, we hypothesized that administration of a synthetic TLR4 agonist, aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphate (AGP), would boost the innate immune system and compensate for reduced TLR4 stimulation. Intranasal administration of AGPs induced intrapulmonary production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mice treated with AGPs before and after inhalation of Francisella novicida exhibited augmented cytokine and inflammatory responses to infection; reduced bacterial replication in lung, liver, and spleen; and increased survival, whereas all PBS-treated control mice died within 4 days of infection, all AGP-treated mice showed prolonged time-to-death, and 30–60% of AGP-treated mice survived. The protective effect of AGP was lost in mice lacking IFN-γ. Long-term survivors developed specific Th1 splenocyte responses and specific Abs dominated by IgG2 isotypes. Survivors were fully protected from rechallenge with aerosolized F. novicida. Thus, preventive administration of AGP successfully modulated innate immune responses to aerosolized F. novicida, leading to protective immunity to pneumonic tularemia. This is the first report of the protective effect of a TLR ligand on resistance to F. novicida-induced pneumonic tularemia. PMID:18490759
Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Thangarajeswari, Mohan; Usha, Ramakrishnan
L-Theanine is an amino acid derivative primarily found in tea. It has been reported to promote relaxation and have neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress and the status of antioxidant system in the management of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced brain toxicity in various rat brain regions and further to elucidate the potential role of L-Theanine in alleviating such negative effects. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of reduced glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation and the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with L-Theanine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane bound enzymes and also decreased the level of LPO and the activities of marker enzymes, when compared with aluminium induced rats. Aluminium induction also caused histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rat brain which was reverted by pretreatment with L-Theanine. The present study clearly indicates the potential of L-Theanine in counteracting the damage inflicted by aluminium on rat brain regions.
Velíšková, Jana; Velíšek, Libor
There are controversial data regarding estrogen effects on neuronal excitability. We investigated whether β-estradiol (EB) administration to ovariectomized (OVX) or gonadally intact female rats alters epileptiform activity within the dentate gyrus network induced in vitro by removing [Mg2+]o in combined hippocampus-entorhinal cortex slices. In vivo EB administration significantly influenced the epileptiform activity in gonadal status-dependent manner. The onset of epileptiform discharges was modestly delayed in slices from OVX rats replaced with physiologically relevant doses of EB but the number of discharges was not affected. In contrast, EB administration to gonadally intact rats had robust effects such that: EB delayed the onset of discharges but significantly increased their number within the dentate gyrus network. Our data suggest that EB in physiologically relevant concentrations does not seem to negatively affect hippocampal neuronal excitability, nevertheless supraphysiological EB levels may enhance seizure severity.
Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, I; Swiątkiewicz, M; Zaremba, M; Cudna, A; Piechal, A; Pyrzanowska, J; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, E; Członkowska, A
Cognitive dysfunction is relatively frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and it happens from the early stages of the disease. There is increasing evidence that the grey matter may be involved in autoimmune inflammation during relapses of MS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a single transfer of encephalitogenic T cells, mimicking a relapse of MS, may cause hippocampal damage and memory disturbances in rats. Lewis rats were injected with anti-MBP CD4+ T cells, that induced one-phase autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with full recovery from motor impairments at 10-15 days. The spatial learning and memory were tested by the Morris water maze test in control and EAE animals, 30 and 90 days post-induction (dpi). The neural injury and inflammation was investigated in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analyses. There was a marked decrease in the number of CA1 and CA4 pyramidal neurons 5 dpi. The loss of neurons then aggravated till the 90 dpi. An increase in microglial and astroglial activation and in pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in the hippocampus, were present 30 and 90 dpi. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels were also significantly elevated. The water maze test, however, did not reveal memory deficits. The present data indicate that a single transfer of autoimmune T cells results in preserved inflammation and probable on-going neuronal injury in the hippocampus, long after recovery from motor disturbances. These findings suggest that any relapse of the MS may start the neurodegenerative process in the hippocampus, which is not necessarily connected with memory deficits.
Costa, Nilson do Rosário
This article analyzes the organization of Brazil's social protection system after the Federal Constitution of 1998 (CF 1988). It also demonstrates that 1988 Federal Constitution favored the institutionalization of universalist public policies. This institutionalization took place amidst conflict with the stabilization goals of the Real Plan. The paper argues that such an institutionalization protected public spending in the social area of the macroeconomic management's minimalist project. It also identifies the implementation of social programs targeting the poor during the 1980's decade. Targeting is an innovation directly associated with the adjustment agenda. It reveals that under the FHC and Lula administrations there was an identical adoption of targeted social programs. The targeting of social protection did not possess power of veto over the universalist proposals arising from the democratization in the 1980's. It demonstrates that the Bolsa Família Program (Family Grant Program - PBF), the main mark of the Lula administration, is a large scale adaptation of the targeted programs of direct transfer of income in the FHC administration. The combination of universalism and targeting expanded the scope of social policy. However, the significant growth in social public spending has not been producing broad social results, although the poor in Brazil have benefited from the PBF's targeting.
Esmailidehaj, Mansour; Mirhosseini, Seyed-Jalil; Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Rasoulian, Bahram; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Haghshenas, Damoon
In this study, it was surveyed to know whether an oral single dose of oleuropein could mimic the cardiac preconditioning in rats’ hearts or whether its prolonged oral administration could protect the heart against the aconitine-induced arrhythmia in rats. Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into two series (n = 8 in each group). In the first series, all groups (except the control (Con) group) were given a single oral dose of oleuropein (20 mg/Kg) 1, 3, 24 and 48 h before the infusion of aconitine. In the second series, except the Con group, the other four groups were given oral oleuropein (20 mg/Kg/day) for 3, 7, 14 and 28 days, before the infusion of aconitine. Electrocardiogram was recorded to monitor arrhythmia. Data of the first series showed that the initiation time of arrhythmia, the initiation of ventricular tachycardia (VT), the numbers of reversible ventricular fibrillation (VF) and the death time had no significant difference compared with Con group. In the second series, a significant protection was occurred only in the 28 days group that was evident with increased initiation time of arrhythmia, increased initiation time of VT, and increased the number of reversible VF and death time in compared to the Con group. The findings of this study show that the oral administration of a single dose of oleuropein could not mimic the preconditioning effects in rat hearts, but the prolonged administration of oleuropein for about four weeks could protect the heart against aconitine-induced arrhythmia. PMID:24250560
Suma, Takeshi; Koshinaga, Morimichi; Fukushima, Masamichi; Kano, Tsuneo; Katayama, Yoichi
Both microglia and astrocytes respond immediately to traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study was undertaken to examine whether or not excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonists could attenuate such glial responses. EAA antagonists, including the broad spectrum EAA antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYN), specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5), and AMPA-KA receptor blocker, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), as well as the voltage-dependent ion channel blocker, tetrodotoxin (TTX), were administered into the unilateral hippocampus of rats through a dialysis probe for 30 minutes before the induction of unilateral controlled cortical impact injury. The rats were killed 10 minutes after injury and their brains were processed immunohistochemically for OX42 (marker for microglia) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; marker for astrocytes). Ten minutes after injury, microglial activation with increased OX42 immuno-reactivity was evident in the entire hemisphere including the hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury side. Similarly, swollen astrocytes with increased GFAP expression could be detected exclusively on the injury side. When KYN was administered in situ before injury, both the rapid microglial and astroglial responses in the hippocampus were significantly attenuated. However, AP-5, DNQX and TTX, the voltage-dependent ion channel blocker, at doses which can inhibit each channel activation, failed to attenuate these glial reactions. These findings indicate that massive ionic fluxes and/or concomitantly occurring EAA release may be closely related to the initiation of microglial and astroglial responses following TBI.
Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Lin, Xin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao
Ototoxicity is one of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. As a common treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, systemic administration of steroids was demonstrated ineffective against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) in published studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated in polyethyleneglycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss following systemic administration. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using emulsion and evaporation technique as previously reported. DEX or DEX-NPs was administered intraperitoneally to guinea pigs 1h before cisplatin administration. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were measured at four frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24kHz) 1 day before and three days after cisplatin injection. Cochlear morphology was examined to evaluate inner ear injury induced by cisplatin exposure. A single dose of DEX-NPs 1h before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea, which was equivalent to the effect of multidose (3 days) DEX injection. In contrast, no significant protective effect was observed by single dose injection of DEX. The results of histological examination of the cochleae were consistent with the functional measurements. In conclusion, a single dose DEX-NPs significantly attenuated cisplatin ototoxicity in guinea pigs after systemic administration at both histological and functional levels indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of these nanoparticles for enhancing the delivery of DEX in acute sensorineural hearing loss.
Tong, Chao; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Lianlian; Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiaotao; Xu, Ping; Li, Jinjin; Delplancke, Thibaut; Zhang, Hua; Qi, Hongbo
Background: Oral uptake of lycopene has been shown to be beneficial for preventing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the strong first-pass metabolism of lycopene influences its bioavailability and impedes its clinic application. In this study, we determined an intravenous (IV) administration dose of lycopene protects against myocardial infarction (MI) in a mouse model, and investigated the effects of acute lycopene administration on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and related signaling pathways during myocardial I/R. Methods: In this study, we established both in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cell model and in vivo regional myocardial I/R mouse model by ligating left anterior artery descending. TTC dual staining was used to assess I/R induced MI in the absence and presence of acute lycopene administration via tail vein injection. Results: Lycopene treatment (1 μM) before reoxygenation significantly reduced cardiomyocyte death induced by H/R. Intravenous administration of lycopene to achieve 1 μM concentration in circulating blood significantly suppressed MI, ROS production, and JNK phosphorylation in the cardiac tissue of mice during in vivo regional I/R. Conclusion: Elevating circulating lycopene to 1 μM via IV injection protects against myocardial I/R injury through inhibition of ROS accumulation and consequent inflammation in mice. PMID:26950150
Arya, A; Meena, R; Sethy, N K; Das, M; Sharma, M; Bhargava, K
Hypoxia is a well-known threat to neuronal cells and triggers the pathophysiological syndromes in extreme environments such as high altitudes and traumatic conditions such as stroke. Among several prophylactic molecules proven suitable for ameliorating free radical damage, NAP (an octapeptide with initial amino acids: asparagine/N, alanine/A, and proline/P) can be considered superlative, primarily due to its high permeability into brain through blood-brain barrier and observed activity at femtomolar concentrations. Several mechanisms of action of NAP have been hypothesized for its protective role during hypoxia, yet any distinct mechanism is unknown. Oxidative stress is advocated as the leading event in hypoxia; we, therefore, investigated the regulation of key antioxidant genes to understand the regulatory role of NAP in providing neuroprotection. Primary neuronal culture of rat was subjected to cellular hypoxia by limiting the oxygen concentration to 0.5% for 72 h and observing the prophylactic efficacies of 15fM NAP by conventional cell death assays using flow cytometry. We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to comprehend the regulatory mechanism. Further, we validated the significantly regulated candidates by enzyme assays and immunoblotting. In the present study, we report that NAP regulates a major clad of cellular antioxidants and there is an involvement of more than one route of action in neuroprotection during hypoxia.
Prasanthi, Jaya R P; Dasari, Bhanu; Marwarha, Gurdeep; Larson, Tyler; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D; Ghribi, Othman
Cholesterol has been linked to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a risk factor increasing beta-amyloid (Abeta) and oxidative stress levels. Caffeine has antioxidant properties and has been demonstrated to reduce Abeta levels in transgenic mouse models of familial AD. However, the effects of caffeine on cholesterol-induced sporadic AD pathology have not been determined. In this study, we determined the effects of caffeine on Abeta levels, tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress generation, and caffeine-target receptors in rabbits fed a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet, a model system for sporadic AD. Our results showed that the cholesterol-enriched diet increased levels of Abeta, tau phosphorylation, and oxidative stress measured as increased levels of reactive oxygen species and isoprostanes, glutathione depletion, and increased levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress marker proteins. Additionally, the cholesterol-enriched diet reduced the levels of adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) but not ryanodine or adenosine A(2A) receptors. Caffeine, administered at 0.5 and 30mg/day in the drinking water, reduced the cholesterol-induced increase in Abeta, phosphorylated tau, and oxidative stress levels and reversed the cholesterol-induced decrease in A(1)R levels. Our results suggest that even very low doses of caffeine might protect against sporadic AD-like pathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haeberlein, Simone; Chevalley-Maurel, Séverine; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Arifa; Koppejan, Hester; Winkel, Beatrice M F; Ramesar, Jai; Khan, Shahid M; Sauerwein, Robert W; Roestenberg, Meta; Janse, Chris J; Smits, Hermelijn H; Franke-Fayard, Blandine
In humans and murine models of malaria, intradermal immunization (ID-I) with genetically attenuated sporozoites that arrest in liver induces lower protective immunity than intravenous immunization (IV-I). It is unclear whether this difference is caused by fewer sporozoites migrating into the liver or by suboptimal hepatic and injection site-dependent immune responses. We therefore developed a Plasmodium yoelii immunization/boost/challenge model to examine parasite liver loads as well as hepatic and lymph node immune responses in protected and unprotected ID-I and IV-I animals. Despite introducing the same numbers of genetically attenuated parasites in the liver, ID-I resulted in lower sterile protection (53-68%) than IV-I (93-95%). Unprotected mice developed less sporozoite-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) effector T-cell responses than protected mice. After immunization, ID-I mice showed more interleukin-10-producing B and T cells in livers and skin-draining lymph nodes, but fewer hepatic CD8 memory T cells and CD8(+) dendritic cells compared to IV-I mice. Our results indicate that the lower protection efficacy obtained by intradermal sporozoite administration is not linked to low hepatic parasite numbers as presumed before, but correlates with a shift towards regulatory immune responses. Overcoming these immune suppressive responses is important not only for live-attenuated malaria vaccines but also for other live vaccines administered in the skin.
Clarke, Rachael M; O'Connell, Florence; Lyons, Anthony; Lynch, Marina A
One response of the brain to stressors is to increase microglial activation with the consequent production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), which has been shown to exert an inhibitory effect on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. It has been consistently shown, particularly in vitro, that amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides increase activation of microglia, while its inhibitory effect on LTP is well documented, and associated with the Abeta-induced increase in IL-1beta. Here we set out to establish whether the Abeta-induced inhibition of LTP in perforant path-granule cell synapses, was coupled with evidence of microglial activation and to assess whether atorvastatin, which is used primarily in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia but which possesses anti-inflammatory properties, might modulate the effect of Abeta on LTP. We report that intracerebroventricular injection of Abeta increased expression of several markers of microglial activation, and in parallel, inhibited LTP in dentate gyrus. The data show that atorvastatin abrogated the Abeta-induced microglial activation and the associated deficit in LTP. On the basis of the evidence presented, we propose that the action of atorvastatin is mediated by its ability to increase production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-4, which we report mimics several of the actions of atorvastatin in the rat hippocampus.
Zhai, Qixiao; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Wei
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that causes adverse health effects in humans and animals. Our previous work demonstrated that oral administration of probiotics can significantly inhibit Cd absorption in the intestines of mice, but further evidence is needed to gain insights into the related protection mode. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether probiotics can inhibit Cd absorption through routes other than the Cd binding, with a focus on gut barrier protection. In the in vitro assay, both the intervention and therapy treatments of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 alleviated Cd-induced cytotoxicity in the human intestinal cell line HT-29 and protected the disruption of tight junctions in the cell monolayers. In a mouse model, probiotics with either good Cd-binding or antioxidative ability increased fecal Cd levels and decreased Cd accumulation in the tissue of Cd-exposed mice. Compared with the Cd-only group, cotreatment with probiotics also reversed the disruption of tight junctions, alleviated inflammation, and decreased the intestinal permeability of mice. L. plantarum CCFM8610, a strain with both good Cd binding and antioxidative abilities, exhibited significantly better protection than the other two strains. These results suggest that along with initial intestinal Cd sequestration, probiotics can inhibit Cd absorption by protecting the intestinal barrier, and the protection is related to the alleviation of Cd-induced oxidative stress. A probiotic with both good Cd-binding and antioxidative capacities can be used as a daily supplement for the prevention of oral Cd exposure. The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that causes adverse health effects in humans and animals. For the general population, food and drinking water are the main sources of Cd exposure due to the biomagnification of Cd within the food chain; therefore, the intestinal tract is the first organ that is susceptible to Cd contamination
Zhai, Qixiao; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Narbad, Arjan
ABSTRACT The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that causes adverse health effects in humans and animals. Our previous work demonstrated that oral administration of probiotics can significantly inhibit Cd absorption in the intestines of mice, but further evidence is needed to gain insights into the related protection mode. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether probiotics can inhibit Cd absorption through routes other than the Cd binding, with a focus on gut barrier protection. In the in vitro assay, both the intervention and therapy treatments of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 alleviated Cd-induced cytotoxicity in the human intestinal cell line HT-29 and protected the disruption of tight junctions in the cell monolayers. In a mouse model, probiotics with either good Cd-binding or antioxidative ability increased fecal Cd levels and decreased Cd accumulation in the tissue of Cd-exposed mice. Compared with the Cd-only group, cotreatment with probiotics also reversed the disruption of tight junctions, alleviated inflammation, and decreased the intestinal permeability of mice. L. plantarum CCFM8610, a strain with both good Cd binding and antioxidative abilities, exhibited significantly better protection than the other two strains. These results suggest that along with initial intestinal Cd sequestration, probiotics can inhibit Cd absorption by protecting the intestinal barrier, and the protection is related to the alleviation of Cd-induced oxidative stress. A probiotic with both good Cd-binding and antioxidative capacities can be used as a daily supplement for the prevention of oral Cd exposure. IMPORTANCE The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that causes adverse health effects in humans and animals. For the general population, food and drinking water are the main sources of Cd exposure due to the biomagnification of Cd within the food chain; therefore, the intestinal tract is the first organ that is susceptible to Cd
An oral administration of fungal polysaccharide schizophyllan has augmented protective immune responses to Sendai virus infection in mice and the rodshaped DNA virus of Penaeus japonicus (RV-PJ) infection in Kuruma shrimps. When schizophyllan was administered orally at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight per day, the survival rates after virus challenge were significantly higher than those of the control groups. High phagocytic activities were observed in the haemocytes of the schizophyllan-fed shrimps.These results suggest that schizophyllan confers effective protection against viral infection by increasing antiviral immune responses, and that it could be used to boost immunity to virus infection in animals or in invertebrates. PMID:18472856
Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Amarjeet; Kumar, Bimlesh; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Bhatia, Amit; Gulati, Monica; Prakash, T; Bawa, Palak; Malik, Adil Hussain
Neuropathic pain associated with chronic alcohol consumption is a medico-socioeconomical problem that affects both central and peripheral nervous system and has no satisfactory treatment till date. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of co-administration of curcumin and sildenafil on alcohol induced neuropathic pain in rats. In order to carry out this, ethanol (35% v/v, 10g/kg, p.o.) was administered for 10 weeks to induce neuropathic pain. Curcumin (30 and 60mg/kg, i.p.) and sildenafil (5 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) were given alone and in combination at their lower doses (30mg/kg curcumin and 5mg/kg, sildenafil, i.p.) to investigate the changes in thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, allodynia and histopathological parameters. Biochemical estimations of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione and protein was also carried out to evaluate oxidative stress. The results revealed that chronic alcohol consumption for 10 weeks caused significant thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, allodynia and increased oxidative stress. Individual administration of both the drugs at their low as well as high doses were able to improve the symptoms of alcohol induced neuropathic pain. Whereas co-administration of curcumin and sildenafil at their lower doses itself were found to significantly improve nerve functions, biochemical and histopathological parameters as compared to their individual administration. It is therefore proposed that co-administration of curcumin and sildenafil may bring new dimension towards attenuation of alcohol induced neuropathic pain affecting central as well as peripheral nervous system.
Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda de Campos; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Marcolino, Larissa Doddi; Marques, Camila; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valerio; Sartori, Alexandrina
This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG) administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups) or three (3xPG50 group) intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg) every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3(+) T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis.
Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda de Campos; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Marcolino, Larissa Doddi; Marques, Camila; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valerio; Sartori, Alexandrina
This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG) administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups) or three (3xPG50 group) intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg) every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+ T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis. PMID:27294161
Zhao, H F; Li, Q; Li, Y
the hippocampus. These results demonstrated that long-term ginsenoside administration may prevent memory loss in aged C57BL/6J mice by modulating the redox status and up-regulating the plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beltifa, Asma; Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Ferieni, Anouar; Elfekih, Abdelfettah; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Allagui, Mohamed Sallah
In the present study, adult, healthy male Wistar rats (120 ± 10 g) were pre-treated by intragastric administration of cerium chloride (CeCl3) 10 mg/kg (BW) each day during 60 days. Control animal were treated with omega 3, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3), by an intragastric administration at 10 mg/kg of BW for 60 days. Our results showed that CeCl3-induced alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. In fact, CeCl3-induced the increase the level of both the creatinine concentration and the expression of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminase activities in serum. On the other hand, CeCl3 significantly increased the levels of lipid peroxidation in the renal and hepatic tissues. The capacity of CeCl3 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) could explain his ability to induce morphological alterations, such as centrilobular hemorrhage, hepatic necrosis, and vacuolization of the cytoplasm in hepatic tissues, and the atrophy of the glomerulus and dilatation of urinary space in renal tissues. However, omega 3, after gastric administration, reduced significantly the toxic effect caused by CeCl3 according to his high ability to scavenge ROS. The present study indicates that omega 3 is a significant compound with protective activity against intoxication with heavy metal, the cerium, and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.
Chmielnicka, J; Zareba, G; Grabowska, U
In the present study the lowest p.o. doses of tin affecting heme biosynthesis in rabbits were determined and the protective effect of zinc on these disorders was evaluated. The experiment was performed on female rabbits who received per os single doses of SnCl2 x 2 H2O (10, 100, and 200 mg Sn/kg) and ZnSO4 (50 mg Zn/kg s.c.). The activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) in the whole blood, free erythrocyte propoporhyrins, urine delta-aminolevulinic acid, and coproporphyrins (CP-U) were determined. In animals administered tin at a dose of 100 mg Sn/kg, ALA-D activity decreased by about 80% and two- to threefold increases in the ALA and CP concentrations in urine were observed. A protective effect of zinc with respect to ALA-D activity was noticed in both groups (100 and 200 mg Sn/kg) after combined administration of both metals. Results of an interaction between zinc and tin were also observed to reduce ALA levels in urine, whereas zinc did not protect against an effect of tin on CP excretion.
Kuhn, Fábio Teixeira; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Roversi, Karine; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; de Freitas, Daniele Leão; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Katiane; Veit, Juliana Cristina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar
Amphetamine (AMPH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug whose use has been related to neurotoxicity. Experimentally, AMPH increases anxiety-like symptoms, showing addictive properties. In the last decades, the growing consumption of processed foods has provided an excess of saturated and trans fats in detriment of essential fatty acids, which may modify the lipid profile of brain membranes, thus modifying its permeability and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we assessed the influence of brain incorporation of different fatty acids (FA) on AMPH self-administration. Three groups of young male rats were orally supplemented from weaning with a mixture of soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA) and fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA), hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans fatty acids--TFA), or water (control group). These animals were born from dams that were supplemented with the same fat from pregnancy to lactation. Anxiety-like symptoms and locomotor index were assessed in elevated plus maze and open-field (OF), respectively, while brain molecular expressions of dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter (DAT), and BDNF were determined in the cortex and hippocampus. HVF increased the frequency of AMPH self-administration and was associated with reinforcement and withdrawal signs as observed by increased anxiety-like symptoms. Contrarily, SO/FO decreased these parameters. Increased BDNF protein together with decreased DAT expression was observed in the hippocampus of HVF group. Based on these findings, our study points to a harmful influence of trans fats on drug addiction and craving symptoms, whose mechanism may be related to changes in the dopaminergic neurotransmission.
Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia
Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534
Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia
Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats.
Fan, Mingyue; Jin, Wei; Zhao, Haifeng; Xiao, Yining; Jia, Yanqiu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Jing; Meng, Nan; Lv, Peiyuan
Lithium has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, but the preventive and treated role on cognition impairment and the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. In the present study, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce the learning and memory deficits. 2 mmol/kg or 5 mmol/kg of lithium chloride (LiCl) was injected intraperitoneally per day before (for 7 days) or post (for 28 days) the operation. This repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced dynamic overexpression of ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and BDNF in hippocampus of mice. LiCl pretreatment and treatment significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the percentage of time that the mice spent in the target quadrant in Morris water maze. 2 mmol/kg LiCl evidently reversed the morphologic changes, up-regulated the survival neuron count and increased the BDNF gene and protein expression. 5 mmol/kg pre-LiCl significantly increased IR-stimulated reduce of Bcl-2/Bax and p-CREB/CREB. These results described suggest that pre-Li and Li treatment may induce a pronounced prevention on cognitive impairment. These effects may relay on the inhibition of apoptosis and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression.
Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kubota, Norihiro; Masuoka, Norie; Hori, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu
The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. PMID:27556484
Amano, Satoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Yoko; Ohmori, Masaki; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, is known to possess strong immune-regulatory activity. We have found and reported the existence of biologically-active LPS in acetic acid bacteria. The LPS shows Limulus-positive activity and activation of macrophages to produce nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor. In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic effect of an orally-administrated acetic acid bacteria extract containing LPS; the cedar pollinosis model was used. Acetic acid bacteria were isolated from various fruits by Nodai kaihen medium. Then, the anti-allergic effect of acetic acid bacteria extracts was investigated. BALB/c mice were immunized with a mixture of cedar pollen and alum into their peritoneal cavity; they also received additional immunizations of pollen to nasal cavity. After immunizing the mice with pollen into their nasal cavity to trigger an allergic reaction, the frequency of nose scratching was counted for 5 min. The bacteria were cultured and prepared and the water-extract contained about 1-10 mg/ml of Limulus positive substances. The extract of acetic acid bacteria induced higher levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and FOXP3 mRNA expression in macrophages (RAW246.7 cell), as assessed by DNA microarray analysis. Oral administration of the acetic acid bacteria extract demonstrated significantly less scratching numbers than control water group with pollen immunization. These results showed that LPS in acetic acid bacteria has the potential to protect from an allergic reaction, especially from cedar pollinosis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Ruggeri, J; Pesciaroli, M; Gaetarelli, B; Scaglione, F E; Pregel, P; Ammendola, S; Battistoni, A; Bollo, E; Alborali, G L; Pasquali, P
A major cause of salmonellosis in humans is the contamination of pork products. Infection in pigs can be controlled using bio-security programs, but they are not sufficient in countries where a high level of infection is recorded. In this context, the use of vaccines can represent a valid supplementary method of control. Recently, we have demonstrated that an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC) is protective against systemic and enteric salmonellosis in mouse and pig infection models, candidating this strain as an oral attenuated vaccine. In this study, we compared the efficacy of this attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain when administered orally or parenterally. Furthermore, in order to reproduce a pseudo-natural infection model, vaccinated pigs were allocated in the same pen with animals shedding virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. Animals were monitored weekly after vaccination and contact with infected piglets. Diarrhea and ataxia were recorded and Salmonella shedding was tested individually through bacterial culture. After four weeks of cohousing, piglets were euthanized, after which lymph nodes reactivity and gross lesions of the gut sections were scored at necropsy. Organs were submitted to microbiological and histological analyses. The data reported herein show that parenterally vaccinated animals do not shed the attenuated strain, and at the same time the absence of symptoms and decrease in virulent strain shedding in feces from day 6 after challenge demonstrated protection against infection induced by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. In conclusion, our findings suggest that this is an alternative route of Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC administration, without ignoring the advantages associated with oral vaccination.
Jung, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Jehee; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Perez, Luis; Jung, Sung-Ju
Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) disease in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) remains an unsolved problem in Korea aquaculture farms. CpG ODNs are known as immunostimulant, can improve the innate immune system of fish providing resistance to diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential of CpG ODNs to induce anti-viral status protecting rock bream from different RBIV infection conditions. We found that, when administered into rock bream, CpG ODN 1668 induces better antiviral immune responses compared to other 5 CpG ODNs (2216, 1826, 2133, 2395 and 1720). All CpG ODN 1668 administered fish (1/5µg) at 2days before infection (1.1×10(7)) held at 26°C died even though mortality was delayed from 8days (1µg) and 4days (5µg). Similarly, CpG ODN 1668 administered (5µg) at 2days before infection (1.2×10(6)) held at 23/20°C had 100% mortality; the mortality was delayed from 9days (23°C) and 11days (20°C). Moreover, when CpG ODN 1668 administered (1/5/10µg) at 2/4/7days before infection or virus concentration was decreased to 1.1×10(4) and held at 20°C had mortality rates of 20/60/30% (2days), 30/40/60% (4days) and 60/60/20% (7days), respectively, for the respective administration dose, through 100 dpi. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, survivors were re-infected with RBIV (1.1×10(7)) at 100 and 400 dpi, respectively. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. The high survival rate of fish following re-challenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream. Our results showed the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using CpG ODN 1668 by reducing RBIV replication speed (i.e. water temperature of 20°C and infection dose of 1.1×10(4)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Yan-Ren; Li, Chao-Jui; Syu, Shih-Han; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Wu, Han-Ping; Hsu Chen, Cheng; Lu, Huai-En; Chen, Wen-Liang
Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n = 20) and control (normal saline, n = 20) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group (p < 0.05). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells' beating function at a low pH level.
Syu, Shih-Han; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Hsu Chen, Cheng
Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n = 20) and control (normal saline, n = 20) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group (p < 0.05). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells' beating function at a low pH level. PMID:28058255
Ding, Yi; Xie, Lan; Chang, Cun-Qing; Chen, Zhi-Min; Ai, Hua
Background: Our previous study has confirmed that one bout of exhaustion (Ex) can cause hippocampus neurocyte damage, excessive apoptosis, and dysfunction. Its initial reason is intracellular calcium overload in hippocampus triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) over-activation. NMDAR activation can be suppressed by γ-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor (GABAAR). Whether GABAAR can prevent intense exercise-induced hippocampus apoptosis, damage, or dysfunction will be studied in this study. Methods: According to dose test, rats were randomly divided into control (Con), Ex, muscimol (MUS, 0.1 mg/kg) and bicuculline (BIC, 0.5 mg/kg) groups, then all rats underwent once swimming Ex except ones in Con group only underwent training. Intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester; glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin (SYP) immunofluorescence were also performed; apoptosis were displayed by dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) stain; endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis pathway was detected by Western blotting analysis; Morris water maze was used to detect learning ability and spatial memory. Results: The appropriate dose was 0.1 mg/kg for MUS and 0.5 mg/kg for BIC. Ex group showed significantly increased [Ca2+]i and astrogliosis; TUNEL positive cells and levels of GFAP, B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, caspase-12 cleavage, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and p-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK) in Ex group also raised significantly compared to Con group, while SYP, synapse plasticity, and Bcl-2 levels in Ex group were significantly lower than those in Con group. These indexes were back to normal in MUS group. BIC group had the highest levels of [Ca2+]i, astrogliosis, TUNEL positive cell, GFAP, Bax, caspase-3, caspase-12 cleavage, CHOP, and p-JNK, it also gained the lowest SYP, synapse plasticity, and Bcl-2 levels among all groups
Stokes, Margaret G. M.; Titball, Richard W.; Neeson, Brendan N.; Galen, James E.; Walker, Nicola J.; Stagg, Anthony J.; Jenner, Dominic C.; Thwaite, Joanne E.; Nataro, James P.; Baillie, Leslie W. J.; Atkins, Helen S.
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease that affects wildlife, livestock, and humans. Protection against anthrax is primarily afforded by immunity to the B. anthracis protective antigen (PA), particularly PA domains 4 and 1. To further the development of an orally delivered human vaccine for mass vaccination against anthrax, we produced Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing full-length PA, PA domains 1 and 4, or PA domain 4 using codon-optimized PA DNA fused to the S. enterica serovar Typhi ClyA and under the control of the ompC promoter. Oral immunization of A/J mice with Salmonella expressing full-length PA protected five of six mice against a challenge with 105 CFU of aerosolized B. anthracis STI spores, whereas Salmonella expressing PA domains 1 and 4 provided only 25% protection (two of eight mice), and Salmonella expressing PA domain 4 or a Salmonella-only control afforded no measurable protection. However, a purified recombinant fusion protein of domains 1 and 4 provided 100% protection, and purified recombinant 4 provided protection in three of eight immunized mice. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of an oral S. enterica-based vaccine against aerosolized B. anthracis spores. PMID:17145938
Heat shock protein 70 protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation-induced nitric oxide synthase II expression.
Chang, Chiung-Chih; Chen, Shang-Der; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Samuel H H; Chuang, Yao-Chung
Status epilepticus induces subcellular changes that may eventually lead to neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. Based on an animal model of status epilepticus, our laboratory showed previously that sustained hippocampal seizure activity activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and upregulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) II gene expression, leading to apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. The present study examined the potential modulatory role of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on NF-κB signaling in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus. In Sprague-Dawley rats, kainic acid (KA) was microinjected unilaterally into the hippocampal CA3 subfield to induce prolonged bilateral seizure activity. Expression of HSP70 was elevated as early as 1h after the elicitation of sustained seizure activity, followed by a progressive elevation that peaked at 24h. Pretreatment with an antisense oligonucleotide against hsp70 decreased the HSP70 expression, and significantly augmented IκB kinase (IKK) activity and phosphorylation of IκBα, alongside enhanced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB in the hippocampal CA3 neurons and glial cells. These cellular events were followed by enhanced upregulation of NOS II and peroxynitrite expression 3h after sustained seizure activity that led to an increase of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampal CA3 neurons 7days after experimental status epilepticus. We concluded that HSP70 protects against apoptotic cell death induced by NF-κB activation and NOS II-peroxynitrite signaling cascade in the hippocampal CA3 and glial cells following experimental status epilepticus via suppression of IKK activity and deactivation of IκBα.
Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes
One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection. (b) Appointment of a PCII Program Manager. The Under...
WASHINGTON - On Tuesday, August 11, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will be discussing the Clean Power Plan at the Resources for the Future (RFF) Leadership Forum. The Clean Power Plan will protect public health, spur clean energy investments and st
Sable, Pratiksha S; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R
Our earlier studies show that maternal diets imbalanced in micronutrients like folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the offspring at birth and postnatal d21. This study followed the offspring till 3 months to examine the hypothesis that impaired brain neurotrophins at birth and d21 due to altered maternal micronutrients can be reversed by prenatal omega 3 fatty acid but not a postnatal control diet leading to altered cognition in adult life. Pregnant rats were divided into control and five treatment groups at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12 (NFBD, EFB and EFBD). Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation was given to the vitamin B12 deficient groups (NFBDO and EFBDO). Following delivery, 8 dams from each group were shifted to control and remaining continued on same diet. Imbalance in maternal micronutrients up to 3months decreased DHA, BDNF and NGF in cortex and only BDNF in the hippocampus and impaired cognitive performance. Postnatal control diet normalized BDNF in the cortex but not the hippocampus and also altered cognitive performance. Prenatal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation normalized DHA, BDNF and NGF while long term supplementation was not beneficial only when micronutrients were imbalanced. Patterns established at birth are not totally reversible by postnatal diets and give clues for planning intervention studies for improving brain functioning and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jett, Julianne D.; Boley, Angela M.; Girotti, Milena; Shah, Amiksha; Lodge, Daniel J.; Morilak, David A.
Rationale Acute low-dose administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine, produces rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects in humans and rodents. Recently, we found that the long-lasting effect of ketamine on the forced swim test requires ventral hippocampal (vHipp) activity at the time of drug administration. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a target of the vHipp dysregulated in depression, is important for cognitive flexibility and response strategy selection. Deficits in cognitive flexibility, the ability to modify thoughts and behaviors in response to changes in the environment, are associated with depression. We have shown that chronic stress impairs cognitive flexibility on the attentional set-shifting test (AST), and induces a shift from active to passive response strategies on the shock-probe defensive burying test (SPDB). Objective In this study, we tested the effects of ketamine on chronic stress-induced changes in cognitive flexibility and coping behavior on the AST and SPDB, respectively. Subsequently, we investigated vHipp-mPFC plasticity as a potential mechanism of ketamine’s therapeutic action. Results Ketamine reversed deficits in cognitive flexibility and restored active coping behavior in chronically stressed rats. Further, high frequency stimulation in the vHipp replicated ketamine’s antidepressant-like effects on the forced swim test and AST, but not on the SPDB. Conclusion These results show that ketamine restores cognitive flexibility and coping response strategy compromised by stress. Activity in the vHipp-mPFC pathway may represent a neural substrate for some of the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of ketamine, including cognitive flexibility, but other circuits may mediate the effects of ketamine on coping response strategy. PMID:25986748
...) Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The PCII Program Manager shall... be known as the “Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS), to record... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure...
...) Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The PCII Program Manager shall... be known as the “Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS), to record... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure...
Maksimenko, A V; Vavaeva, A V; Zvyagintseva, M A; Abramov, A A; Timoshin, A A; Vavaev, A V; Lakomkin, V L
Previously it found that the bienzymatic conjugate superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulfate, catalase (SOD-CHS-CAT) increased the survival rate of rats with endotoxic shock caused by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This effect was observed both in preventive (before LPS) and therapeutic conjugate administration (after the administration of LPS). This study shows that the development of endotoxic shock is accompanied by increased levels of NO in the liver, lungs, kidneys, heart; administration of the SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate insignificantly influenced this parameter. At the same time, the changes in blood urea and creatinine suggest the protective effect of the conjugate on renal function, while diverse changes in biochemical parameters studied complicate the formation of the agreed conclusions on the state of other organs.
Pozdnyakova, N; Yatsenko, L; Parkhomenko, N; Himmelreich, N
Hypoxia and seizures early in life can cause multiple neurological deficits and even chronic epilepsy. Here, we report the data obtained in rats exposed to hypoxia and seizures at age 10-12 postnatal days and taken in experiments 8-9 weeks after hypoxia treatment. A level of the extracellular GABA and the initial velocity of GABA uptake were measured in the brain cortex, hippocampus and thalamus using isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes). It has been revealed that the extracellular [(3)H]GABA level maintained by cortical and hippocampal synaptosomes in standard conditions (with glucose as an energy substrate) was significantly higher in adult rats exposed to hypoxia/seizures at P10-12 than in the control ones, and, moreover, became unstable with tendency to increase. Pyruvate as a single energy substrate was shown to be a highly effective for lowering and stabilizing the extracellular [(3)H]GABA level. This effect of pyruvate was tightly correlated with increase in GABA uptake and GATs affinity to GABA. Thalamus was insensible to the action of perinatal hypoxia/seizures, and thalamic GATs, in contrast to cortical and hippocampal ones, had a lower affinity to GABA (the apparent Km is 39.2±3.1 μM GABA vs 8.9±1.8 μM GABA in the hippocampus). A selective vulnerability of brain regions to hypoxia is suggested to be attributed to distinct terms of their maturation at the postnatal period. Thus, perinatal hypoxia/seizures evoke a long-lasting increase in the extracellular GABA level that could be attenuated by pyruvate treatment. This effect of pyruvate is likely due to a significant increase in GATs-mediated GABA uptake and modulation of GATs kinetic properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Badr, Ramak; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Javadi, Gholamreza; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Mahdian, Reza
The hippocampus is a tiny nub in the mammalian brain that is involved in forming, organizing, and storing memories. Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and reperfusion induced apoptosis lead to cell injury and death. FK-506 is a strong immunosuppressant drug that has neuroprotective effects on the hypoxic-ischemic effects of brain damage. BAD and Bcl-xL are pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively. These genes belong to The B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. In this study, we assessed the neurotrophic properties of FK-506 on expression of the BAD and Bcl-xL genes in the hippocampus following global ischemia and reperfusion. In the present experimental study, adult male Wistar rats were obtained and housed under standard conditions in the Tehran University of Medical Science in Iran. Rats were equally distributed in groups of three among the following groups: normal control, treated-1 (ischemia/reperfusion), and treated-2 (ischemia/reperfusion followed by FK-506). Global ischemia was induced for animals in the treated-1 and treated-2 groups. In treated-2, two doses of FK-506 were injected: one dose as an IV injection immediately after reperfusion and another as an intra-peritoneal (IP) injection after 48 hours. Then, the hippocampus tissue was removed after anaesthetizing the rats. RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and real-time PCR was performed. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed statistically (P value ˂ 0.05). The quantitative results of real-time PCR show that the mRNA expression ratio of Bcl-xL down-regulated was 0.75 ± 0.06 in the ischemia/reperfusion group versus 1.57 ± 0.09 in the control group (P value < 0.001), whereas Bcl-xL gene expression was greater in the ischemia/reperfusion +FK506 group (1.93 ± 0.15) than in the ischemia/reperfusion group. Moreover, the mRNA expression ratio of BAD up-regulated in the ischemia/reperfusion + FK506 group was 3.65 ± 0.49 compared to Normal control (1.39 ± 0.09) and Ischemia/reperfusion + FK506
Eichenbaum, Howard; Amaral, David G; Buffalo, Elizabeth A; Buzsáki, György; Cohen, Neal; Davachi, Lila; Frank, Loren; Heckers, Stephan; Morris, Richard G M; Moser, Edvard I; Nadel, Lynn; O'Keefe, John; Preston, Alison; Ranganath, Charan; Silva, Alcino; Witter, Menno
The journal Hippocampus has passed the milestone of 25 years of publications on the topic of a highly studied brain structure, and its closely associated brain areas. In a recent celebration of this event, a Boston memory group invited 16 speakers to address the question of progress in understanding the hippocampus that has been achieved. Here we present a summary of these talks organized as progress on four main themes: (1) Understanding the hippocampus in terms of its interactions with multiple cortical areas within the medial temporal lobe memory system, (2) understanding the relationship between memory and spatial information processing functions of the hippocampal region, (3) understanding the role of temporal organization in spatial and memory processing by the hippocampus, and (4) understanding how the hippocampus integrates related events into networks of memories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Eichenbaum, Howard; Amaral, David G.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.; Buzsáki, György; Cohen, Neal; Davachi, Lila; Frank, Loren; Heckers, Stephan; Morris, Richard G. M.; Moser, Edvard I.; Nadel, Lynn; O'Keefe, John; Preston, Alison; Ranganath, Charan; Silva, Alcino; Witter, Menno
The journal Hippocampus has passed the milestone of 25 years of publications on the topic of a highly studied brain structure, and its closely associated brain areas. In a recent celebration of this event, a Boston memory group invited 16 speakers to address the question of progress in understanding the hippocampus that has been achieved. Here we present a summary of these talks organized as progress on four main themes: (1) Understanding the hippocampus in terms of its interactions with multiple cortical areas within the medial temporal lobe memory system, (2) understanding the relationship between memory and spatial information processing functions of the hippocampal region, (3) understanding the role of temporal organization in spatial and memory processing by the hippocampus, and (4) understanding how the hippocampus integrates related events into networks of memories. PMID:27399159
... an attorney, accountant, or other professional, referral to the ethics panel of the appropriate professional association; (4) Such other administrative sanctions as the Commission determines to be...
Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles
Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1 : 100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFcε-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFcε-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the
Kal, Ali; Kal, Oznur; Akillioglu, Ishak; Celik, Esin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Gonul, Saban; Solmaz, Merve; Onal, Ozkan
Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is associated with many ocular diseases. Retinal IR injury leads to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), loss of retinal function and ultimately vision loss. The aim of this study was to show the protective effects of prophylactic ozone administration against retinal IR injury. A sham group (S) (n = 7) was administered physiological saline (PS) intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 7 d. An ischemia reperfusion (IR) group (n = 7) was subjected to retinal ischemia followed by reperfusion for 2 h. An ozone group (O) (n = 7) was administered 1 mg/kg of ozone i.p. for 7 d. In the ozone + IR (O + IR) group (n = 7), 1 mg/kg of ozone was administered i.p. for 7 d before the IR procedure and at 8 d, the IR injury was created (as in IR group). The rats were anesthetized after second hour of reperfusion and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Blood samples were sent to a laboratory for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant score (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The degree of retinal injury was evaluated according to changes in retinal cells and necrotic and apoptotic cells using the TUNEL method. Data were evaluated statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis test. The number of RGCs and the inner retinal thickness were significantly decreased after ischemia, and treatment with ozone significantly inhibited retinal ischemic injury. In the IR group, the degree of retinal injury was found to be the highest. In the O + IR group, retinal injury was found to be decreased in comparison to the IR group. In the ozone group without retinal IR injury, the retinal injury score was the lowest. The differences in the antioxidant parameters SOD, GSH-Px and TAC were increased in the ozone group and the lowest in the IR group. The oxidant parameters MDA and TOS were found to be the highest in the IR group and
Hagiwara, Hiroko; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji
The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of mithramycin, an inhibitor of transcription factor Specificity protein (Sp)-1, on the behavioral changes and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the mouse striatum after administration of methamphetamine (METH). Pretreatment with mithramycin (75, 150 or 300 microg/kg) did not alter acute hyperlocomotion in mice after a single administration of METH (3 mg/kg). However, the development of behavioral sensitization in mice after repeated administration of METH (3 mg/kg/day, once daily for 5 days) was significantly blocked by pretreatment with mithramycin (300 microg/kg). Furthermore, pretreatment with mithramycin (300 microg/kg) significantly attenuated the hyperthermia in mice after repeated administration of METH (3 mg/kgx3, 3-h intervals). Moreover, the combination of pretreatment and subsequent administration of mithramycin (75, 150 or 300 microg/kg) significantly attenuated the reductions of dopamine (DA), its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and DA transporter (DAT) in the striatum after repeated administration of METH (3 mg/kgx3, 3-h intervals), and these attenuations were dose dependent. These findings suggest that mithramycin attenuates the development of behavioral sensitization and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice after repeated administration of METH. Therefore, mithramycin could have potential for the treatment of METH abusers, particularly since this drug has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. In the future, however, another Sp1 inhibitors with fewer side effects might be more appropriate.
Hippocampal lesions produce memory deficits, but the exact function of the hippocampus remains obscure. Evidence is presented that its role in memory may be ancillary to physiological regulation. Molecular studies demonstrate that the hippocampus is a primary target for ligands that reflect body physiology, including ion balance and blood pressure, immunity, pain, reproductive status, satiety and stress. Hippocampal receptors are functional, probably accessible to their ligands, and mediate physiological and cognitive changes. This argues that an early role of the hippocampus may have been in sensing soluble molecules (termed here 'enteroception') in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, perhaps reflecting a common evolutionary origin with the olfactory system ('exteroception'). Functionally, hippocampal enteroception may reflect feedback control; evidence is reviewed that the hippocampus modulates body physiology, including the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, blood pressure, immunity, and reproductive function. It is suggested that the hippocampus operates, in parallel with the amygdala, to modulate body physiology in response to cognitive stimuli. Hippocampal outputs are predominantly inhibitory on downstream neuroendocrine activity; increased synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus (e.g. long-term potentiation) could facilitate throughput inhibition. This may have implications for the role of the hippocampus and long-term potentiation in memory.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ/mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 signaling protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus
Background Status epilepticus induces subcellular changes that may lead to neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. However, the mechanism of seizure-induced neuronal cell death remains unclear. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in selected regions of the brain and is emerged as an endogenous neuroprotective molecule in many neurological disorders. We evaluated the neuroprotective role of UCP2 against seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death under experimental status epilepticus. Methods In Sprague–Dawley rats, kainic acid (KA) was microinjected unilaterally into the hippocampal CA3 subfield to induce prolonged bilateral seizure activity. Oxidized protein level, translocation of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c between cytosol and mitochondria, and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) and UCP2 were examined in the hippocampal CA3 subfield following KA-induced status epilepticus. The effects of microinjection bilaterally into CA3 area of a PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone or a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662 on UCP2 expression, induced superoxide anion (O2· -) production, oxidized protein level, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities, translocation of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c, and DNA fragmentation in bilateral CA3 subfields were examined. Results Increased oxidized proteins and mitochondrial or cytosol translocation of Bax or cytochrome c in the hippocampal CA3 subfield was observed 3–48 h after experimental status epilepticus. Expression of PPARγ and UCP2 increased 12–48 h after KA-induced status epilepticus. Pretreatment with rosiglitazone increased UCP2 expression, reduced protein oxidation, O2· - overproduction and dysfunction of mitochondrial Complex I, hindered the translocation of Bax and cytochrome c, and reduced DNA fragmentation in the CA3 subfield. Pretreatment with GW9662 produced opposite effects. Conclusions Activation of PPARγ upregulated mitochondrial UCP2 expression
Rosenberg, Yvonne J.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Lewis, Mark G.; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan P.; Jiang, Xiaoming
Intravascular delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) has shown promise for prevention and treatment of HIV infection. However, multiple IV administrations in geographic locations with poor accessibility to medical care have practical limitations. We have assessed the efficacy of plant-derived PGT121 delivered subcutaneously (SC) against pre-and post-intravaginal challenge using a rigorous SHIV-SF162P3 macaque protection model. SC administered PGT121 exhibited a longer serum half-life than IV administration and was more consistent than intramuscular delivery. A dose of 3.5mg/kg PGT121 prevented infection at a minimum ID50 neutralization titer of 1:295 while 5mg/kg protected five of six macaques when delivered immediately post-challenge. These results suggest the utility of plant-derived bnAbs delivered SC for HIV prevention. PMID:27031108
Timing of captopril administration determines radiation protection or radiation sensitization in a murine model of total body irradiation Thomas A...radiation-induced injury to the hemato- poietic system. We investigated the consequences of different regimens of the ACE inhibitor captopril on radiation... Captopril was provided in the water for different time periods relative to irradiation. Results. In untreated mice, the survival rate from 7.5 Gy was
Timing of captopril administration determines radiation protection or radiation sensitization in a murine model of total body irradiation Thomas A...radiation-induced injury to the hemato- poietic system. We investigated the consequences of different regimens of the ACE inhibitor captopril on radiation... Captopril was provided in the water for different time periods relative to irradiation. Results. In untreated mice, the survival rate from 7.5 Gy was
In vivo administration of extracellular cGMP normalizes TNF-α and membrane expression of AMPA receptors in hippocampus and spatial reference memory but not IL-1β, NMDA receptors in membrane and working memory in hyperammonemic rats.
Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Balzano, Tiziano; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente
Patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) show working memory and visuo-spatial orientation deficits. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to cognitive impairment in HE. Hyperammonemic rats show impaired spatial learning and learning ability in the Y maze. Intracerebral administration of extracellular cGMP restores learning in the Y-maze. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. It also remains unknown whether extracellular cGMP improves neuroinflammation or restores spatial learning in hyperammonemic rats and if it affects differently reference and working memory. The aims of this work were: Spatial working and reference memory were assessed using the radial and Morris water mazes and neuroinflammation by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Membrane expression of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits was analyzed using the BS3 crosslinker. Extracellular cGMP was administered intracerebrally using osmotic minipumps. Chronic hyperammonemia induces neuroinflammation in hippocampus, with astrocytes activation and increased IL-1β, which are associated with increased NMDA receptors membrane expression and impaired working memory. This process is not affected by extracellular cGMP. Hyperammonemia also activates microglia and increases TNF-α, alters membrane expression of AMPA receptor subunits (increased GluA1 and reduced GluA2) and impairs reference memory. All these changes are reversed by extracellular cGMP. These results show that extracellular cGMP modulates spatial reference memory but not working memory. This would be mediated by modulation of TNF-α levels and of membrane expression of GluA1 and GluA2 subunits of AMPA receptors.
Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiangxiang; Liu, Baolin; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound in Curcuma longa with beneficial effects on neuronal protection. This study aims to investigate the action of curcumin in the hippocampus subjected to glutamate neurotoxicity. Glutamate stimulation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to damage in the hippocampus. Curcumin treatment in the hippocampus or SH-SY5Y cells inhibited IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation with suppression of intracellular ROS production. Curcumin increased AMPK activity and knockdown of AMPKα with specific siRNA abrogated its inhibitory effects on IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK activity was essential for the suppression of ER stress. As a result, curcumin reduced TXNIP expression and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by downregulation of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 induction, and thus reduced IL-1β secretion. Specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin prevented mitochondrial malfunction and protected cell survival from glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, oral administration of curcumin reduced brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal damage in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin inhibited p-IRE1α, p-PERK and NLRP3 expression in hippocampus CA1 region. Together, these results showed that curcumin attenuated glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the regulation of AMPK, and thereby protected the hippocampus from ischemic insult. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Klipstein, Frederick A.; Engert, Richard F.
The effect of route of administration, dosage, and number of boosts employed during immunization with the polymyxin-release form of Escherichia coli heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin on the degree and duration of protection afforded was evaluated in rats which were challenged by the ligated loop technique. Increasing the boosting dosage by fivefold from 50 to 250 μg resulted in a marked increase in protection against challenge with toxin in rats immunized either just by the parenteral route (i.p./i.p.) or by a parenteral prime, followed by peroral boosts (i.p./p.o.) in rats pretreated with cimetidine to ablate gastric secretions; such was not the case, however, even with a 50-fold increase in dosage in rats immunized just by the peroral route (p.o./p.o.). Four weekly peroral boosts were required to achieve the strongest degree of protection. Increasing the boosting dosage also increased the degree of protection against challenge with viable LT+/ST− and LT+/ST+ strains (ST indicates heat-stable enterotoxin) in rats immunized by the i.p./p.o., but not by the i.p./i.p., route; no protection was evident against an LT−/ST+ strain. Protection was lost within 3 weeks after immunization in rats immunized by the i.p./i.p. route. In contrast, protection was extended over the 3-month observation period in those immunized by the i.p./p.o. route; the degree of protection was enhanced in rats which received an additional boost at 2 months. These observations establish the fact that immunization with LT is similar to that with cholera toxin in that arousal of the local immune intestinal response by means of peroral immunization provides maximal extended protection. PMID:6987180
Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Young, L. Trevor; Reagan, Lawrence P.; Chen, Biao; McEwen, Bruce S.
Chronic restraint stress, psychosocial stress, as well as systemic or oral administration of the stress-hormone corticosterone induces a morphological reorganization in the rat hippocampus, in which adrenal steroids and excitatory amino acids mediate a reversible remodeling of apical dendrites on CA3 pyramidal cell neurons of the hippocampus. This stress-induced neuronal remodeling is accompanied also by behavioral changes, some of which can be prevented with selective antidepressant and anticonvulsive drug treatments. Lithium is an effective treatment for mood disorders and has neuroprotective effects, which may contribute to its therapeutic properties. Thus, we wanted to determine whether lithium treatment could prevent the effects of chronic stress on CA3 pyramidal cell neuroarchitecture and the associated molecular and behavioral measures. Chronic lithium treatment prevented the stress-induced decrease in dendritic length, as well as the stress-induced increase in glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) mRNA expression and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding in the hippocampus. Lithium treatment, however, did not prevent stress effects on behavior in the open field or the plus-maze. These data demonstrate that chronic treatment with lithium can protect the hippocampus from potentially deleterious effects of chronic stress on glutamatergic activation, which may be relevant to its therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
An important assumption concerning the physiology of consciousness is that all varieties of conscious experience are closely related to each other and, hence, are subserved by the same neural mechanism. There are several considerations that lead us to implicate the hippocampus in the generation of conscious perception and, ultimately, of conscious experiences of all kinds. Firstly, conscious perception of external events is intricately linked with the formation of episodic (declarative) memories, a key function attributed to the hippocampus. Secondly, conscious experience is allocentric and contextualized. Consciousness creates or simulates an image of the world that appears to surround us and to be independent of our observation of it. What is characteristic of wakeful consciousness and dreaming alike is that objects or events are experienced as being embedded in an external, that is, allocentric, frame of space and time. The hippocampus has been implicated in the rapid formation and memorization of allocentric representations that embed objects or events in a world context. Thirdly, the hippocampus is ideally positioned to bind information processed in different sensory association cortices. It is argued that rapidly forming patterns of neuronal ensemble firing in the hippocampus, particularly in region CA3, which encode arbitrary associations between objects and their spatiotemporal and emotional context, that is, associations between information derived from different neocortical processing streams, define the informational content of consciousness. Evidence suggestive of an important contribution of the hippocampus to conscious observation, mental imagery, dreaming, conscious anticipation of outcomes, and hallucinations will be reviewed.
Merali, Z; Singhal, R L
Administration of cadmium chloride (1.0 mg/kg s.c.) to rats, twice a day for 7 days, significantly stimulated the activities of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase, markedly increased the concentration of hepatic cyclic adenosine monophosphate and circulating blood glucose and significantly reduced serum insulin levels. Furthermore, subacute exposure to cadmium induced glucose intolerance that was associated with a decreased pancreatic secretory activity as evidenced by lowered insulinogenic indices and marked inhibition of phentolamine-stimulated insulin release. In contrast to cadmium, administration of selenium dioxide (2 X 1.0 mg/kg/day s.c., 7 days) failed to alter significantly the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes, hepatic cyclic adenosine monophosphate, blood glucose or serum insulin levels, glucose tolerance or the pancreatic secretory activity. However, administration of selenium concurrently with cadmium completely prevented the cadmium-induced increases of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. Treatment with selenium ameliorated the cadmium-induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and the suppression of pancreatic secretory activity, whereas it failed to alter significantly the cadmium-induced elevation of hepatic cyclic AMP levels. Data provide evidence suggesting that subacute exposure to cadmium alters several parameters of carbohydrate metabolism and suppresses pancreatic secretory activity and that administration of selenium alone is without any appreciable effect on the above parameters. However, administration of selenium concurrently with cadmium prevents, to varying degrees, several of the cadmium-induced metabolic and functional changes.
da Silva, Layze C A; Pessoa, Danielle A N; Lopes, Jose R G; de Albuquerque, Laio G; da Silva, Leomyr S A; Garino Junior, Felicio; Riet-Correa, Franklin
The intraruminal inoculation of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA)-degrading bacteria has been proposed as a method to prevent poisoning by MFA-containing plants. In previous experiments, MFA-degrading bacteria were inoculated intraruminally before or concurrent with plant challenge, with both strategies conferring partial protection to poisoning. To evaluate the protection to Amorimia septentrionalis poisoning provided by the continuous inoculation of MFA-degrading bacteria isolated from plants and soils, 18 goats were divided into three experimental groups of six animals each: Group 1 goats received daily doses of a mixture of Paenibacillus sp. and Cupriavidus sp., and Group 2 goats received a mixture of Ralstonia sp. and Burkholderia sp., for 40 days, while Group 3 goats were not inoculated. Ten days after initiation of bacterial inoculation in Groups 1 and 2, all goats were challenged daily with 5 g/kg body weight of green leaves from A. septentrionalis. Four goats from Group 1 consumed the leaves throughout the 30-day consumption period and showed clinical signs such as transient tachycardia and engorgement of the jugular. The two remaining animals from Group 1 showed obvious signs of intoxication, and plant administration was suspended on days 17 and 19. The goats in Group 2 consumed the leaves throughout the 30-day study without showing signs of poisoning. The goats from Group 3 (control) manifested severe clinical signs of poisoning between the 3rd and 10th days following the start of the A. septentrionalis challenge. Under the conditions of this experiment continuous intraruminal administration of Ralstonia sp. and Burkholderia sp. provided complete protection to poisoning by A. septentrionalis in goats, while continuous intraruminal administration of Paenibacillus sp. and Cupriavidus sp. provided partial protection.
Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiangxiang; Liu, Baolin; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound in Curcuma longa with beneficial effects on neuronal protection. This study aims to investigate the action of curcumin in the hippocampus subjected to glutamate neurotoxicity. Glutamate stimulation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to damage in the hippocampus. Curcumin treatment in the hippocampus or SH-SY5Y cells inhibited IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation with suppression of intracellular ROS production. Curcumin increased AMPK activity and knockdown of AMPKα with specific siRNA abrogated its inhibitory effects on IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK activity was essential for the suppression of ER stress. As a result, curcumin reduced TXNIP expression and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by downregulation of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 induction, and thus reduced IL-1β secretion. Specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin prevented mitochondrial malfunction and protected cell survival from glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, oral administration of curcumin reduced brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal damage in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin inhibited p-IRE1α, p-PERK and NLRP3 expression in hippocampus CA1 region. Together, these results showed that curcumin attenuated glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the regulation of AMPK, and thereby protected the hippocampus from ischemic insult. - Highlights: • Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. • Curcumin suppresses ER stress in glutamate-induced hippocampus slices. • Curcumin inhibits TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. • Regulation of AMPK by curcumin contributes to suppressing ER stress.
Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai
Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125
.... and 5 p.m. on business days. Among other things, the Central Records Unit is responsible for... the APO/Dockets Unit are between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. on business days. Among other things, the APO... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Records Unit and Administrative...
Sesno, Alice Healy
A teacher's professional integrity faces numerous challenges in the classroom. To help educators safeguard against potentially career-ending incidents, numerous "survival rules" are provided in this text. It argues that teachers must safeguard themselves with self-protecting knowledge and, in some instances, must reprogram themselves…
Brücken, Anne; Kurnaz, Pinar; Bleilevens, Christian; Derwall, Matthias; Weis, Joachim; Nolte, Kay; Rossaint, Rolf; Fries, Michael
Argon at a dosage of 70 % is neuroprotective, when given 1 h after cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. We investigated if a neuroprotective effect of argon would also be observed, when administration was delayed. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing between 400 and 500 g were subjected to 7 min of CA and 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Animals were randomized to receive either 1 h of 70 % argon ventilation 1 h (n = 8) or 3 h (n = 8) after return of spontaneous circulation or no argon treatment (n = 8). For all animals, a neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for 7 days following the experiment. On day 8, rats were re-anesthetized and transcardially perfused before brains were harvested for histopathological analyses. All animals survived. Control animals exhibited severe neurologic dysfunction at all time points as measured with the NDS. Argon-treated animals showed significant improvements in the NDS through all postoperative days, even when argon administration was delayed for 3 h. This was paralleled by a significant reduction in the neuronal damage index in the neocortex and the hippocampal CA 3/4 region in argon-treated animals, regardless of the timing of argon administration. However, animals of the delayed argon administration group additionally showed significant reductions in the basal ganglia in comparison with control animals. Our study demonstrates that a 1-h application of argon provided a significant reduction in histopathological damage, associated with a marked improvement in functional neurologic recovery even when treatment was delayed for 3 h. This is highly significant with regard to clinical situations, where argon treatment cannot be provided timely.
Lee, Yu-Na; Youn, Ha-Na; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Kim, Ki-Taek; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon
The extensive morbidity and mortality caused by influenza A viruses worldwide prompts the need for a deeper understanding of the host immune response and novel therapeutic and/or prophylactic interventions. In this study, we assessed the sublingual route as an effective means of delivering probiotics against influenza virus in mice. In addition, IgA levels, NK cell activity, T cell activation, and cytokine profiles in the lungs were examined to understand the mechanism underlying this protective effect. Sublingual administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus provided enhanced protection against influenza virus infection by enhancing mucosal secretory IgA production, and T and NK cell activity. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-12 levels in the lungs increased significantly. Conversely, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in the lungs decreased significantly. On the basis of these promising findings, we propose that the sublingual mucosal route is an attractive alternative to mucosal routes for administering probiotics against influenza virus.
Olcese, James M; Cao, Chuanhai; Mori, Takashi; Mamcarz, Malgorzata B; Maxwell, Anne; Runfeldt, Melissa J; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Guixin; Arendash, Gary W
The neurohormone melatonin has been reported to exert anti-beta-amyloid aggregation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions in various in vitro and animal models. To comprehensively determine the potential for long-term melatonin treatment to protect Alzheimer's transgenic mice against cognitive impairment and development of beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuropathology, we administered melatonin (100 mg/L drinking water) to APP + PS1 double transgenic (Tg) mice from 2-2.5 months of age to their killing at age 7.5 months. A comprehensive behavioral battery administered during the final 6 weeks of treatment revealed that Tg mice given melatonin were protected from cognitive impairment in a variety of tasks of working memory, spatial reference learning/memory, and basic mnemonic function; Tg control mice remained impaired in all of these cognitive tasks/domains. Immunoreactive Abeta deposition was significantly reduced in hippocampus (43%) and entorhinal cortex (37%) of melatonin-treated Tg mice. Although soluble and oligomeric forms of Abeta1-40 and 1-42 were unchanged in the hippocampus and cortex of the same melatonin-treated Tg mice, their plasma Abeta levels were elevated. These Abeta results, together with our concurrent demonstration that melatonin suppresses Abeta aggregation in brain homogenates, are consistent with a melatonin-facilitated removal of Abeta from the brain. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were decreased in hippocampus (but not plasma) of Tg+ melatonin mice. Finally, the cortical mRNA expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) was significantly reduced to non-Tg levels by long-term melatonin treatment in Tg mice. Thus, melatonin's cognitive benefits could involve its anti-Abeta aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and/or antioxidant properties. Our findings provide support for long-term melatonin therapy as a primary or complementary strategy for abating the progression of
Emergency Use Authorization ( EUA ) or an investigational new drug (IND) application. 1.3. Incorporates responsibilities of the Secretary of the Army as...the Lead Component for the use of medical products under EUAs or IND applications. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...medical product under a force health protection program pursuant to an EUA or IND application requires approval of the Assistant Secretary of Defense
Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T
Stress hormones, i.e. cortisol in human and cortisone in rodents, influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampus-based declarative memory performance. Cortisol enhances memory consolidation, but impairs memory retrieval. In this context glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and hippocampal integrity play an important role. This review integrates findings on the relationships between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main coordinators of the stress response, hippocampus, and memory. Findings obtained in healthy participants will be compared with selected mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). These disorders are characterized by alterations of the HPA axis and hippocampal dysfunctions. Interestingly, the acute effects of stress hormones on memory in psychiatric patients are different from those found in healthy humans. While cortisol administration has failed to affect memory retrieval in patients with MDD, patients with PTSD and BPD have been found to show enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after hydrocortisone. This indicates an altered sensitivity to stress hormones in these mental disorders.
Isaacson, Robert L
The continuing explosion of scientific interest in the hippocampus began in the 1950s, initiated in large part by the recognition of the importance of the observations of hippocampectomized monkeys made by Klüver and Bucy and the remarkable memory loss of patient H. M. following temporal lobe surgery. Subsequent to these studies, research and theories about the hippocampus grew exponentially in number and diversity. As yet, no theory of hippocampal function explains all of the phenomena discovered in the clinic or laboratory. In this article, experimental results that have been forgotten or ignored in most theories are presented. Adequate theories of hippocampal function must account for known, reliable postsurgical behavioral observations and consider the conditions under which anomalies are noted. Comprehensive theories will require new approaches in which the interactions of the hippocampus with the central nervous system are understood.
Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T; Khanum, Farhath
Cognition-enhancing activity of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) was evaluated against scopolamine-induced amnesic rats by novel object recognition test (NOR), elevated plus maze (EPM) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg body wt, i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in rats. Piracetam (200 mg/kg body wt, i.p.) was used as positive control. BME at three different dosages (i.e., 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body wt.) improved the impairment induced by scopolamine by increasing the discrimination index of NOR and by decreasing the transfer latency of EPM and escape latency of MWM tests. Our results further elucidate that BME administration has normalized the neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, glutamate, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, norepinephrine) levels that were altered by scopolamine administration in hippocampus of rat brain. BME administration also ameliorated scopolamine effect by down-regulating AChE and up-regulating BDNF, muscarinic M1 receptor and CREB expression in brain hippocampus confirms the potent neuroprotective role and these results are in corroboration with the earlier in vitro studies. BME administration showed significant protection against scopolamine-induced toxicity by restoring the levels of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation. These results indicate that, cognition-enhancing and neuromodulatory propensity of BME is through modulating the expression of AChE, BDNF, MUS-1, CREB and also by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rat brain.
Flora, Swaran J S; Chouhan, Swapnila; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Mittal, Megha; Swarnkar, Harimohan
Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks) were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily), monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily) either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT) count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co-administration
Chouhan, Swapnila; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Mittal, Megha; Swarnkar, Harimohan
Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks) were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily), monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily) either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT) count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co-administration of
Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe
Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209
Can, C; Sen, S; Boztok, N; Tuglular, I
We investigated the effects of orally supplemented L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide (NO) and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor in gentamicin-induced renal failure. Rats were given gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day s.c.), gentamicin and L-arginine (2 g/l, drinking water), gentamicin and L-NAME (100 mg/l, drinking water) or gentamicin plus L-arginine and L-NAME. After 8 days, the gentamicin group developed marked renal failure, characterized by a significantly decreased creatinine clearance and increased blood creatinine, fractional excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of lithium, urine gamma glutamyl transferase, systolic blood pressure and daily urine volume when compared to controls. Renal histological analysis confirmed tubular necrosis. L-arginine administration caused normalization of these parameters, whereas L-NAME led to aggravation of the failure. Concomitant administration of L-NAME and L-arginine to gentamicin-treated rats caused no significant changes when compared to the rats receiving gentamicin alone. We conclude that L-arginine supplementation has beneficial effects in gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats and that these effects are reversed by the NO-synthase inhibitor, L-NAME.
Martz, Sarah-Lynn E; McDonald, Julie A K; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Gloor, Gregory B; Noordhof, Curtis; He, Shu-Mei; Gerbaba, Teklu K; Blennerhassett, Michael; Hurlbut, David J; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Claud, Erika C; Petrof, Elaine O
Salmonella typhimurium is a major cause of diarrhea and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and perturbations of the gut microbiota are known to increase susceptibility to enteric infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic (MET-1) consisting of 33 bacterial strains, isolated from human stool and previously used to cure patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, could also protect against S. typhimurium disease. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with streptomycin prior to receiving MET-1 or control, then gavaged with S. typhimurium. Weight loss, serum cytokine levels, and S. typhimurium splenic translocation were measured. NF-κB nuclear staining, neutrophil accumulation, and localization of tight junction proteins (claudin-1, ZO-1) were visualized by immunofluorescence. Infected mice receiving MET-1 lost less weight, had reduced serum cytokines, reduced NF-κB nuclear staining, and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the cecum. MET-1 also preserved cecum tight junction protein expression, and reduced S. typhimurium translocation to the spleen. Notably, MET-1 did not decrease CFUs of Salmonella in the intestine. MET-1 may attenuate systemic infection by preserving tight junctions, thereby inhibiting S. typhimurium from gaining access to the systemic circulation. We conclude that MET-1 may be protective against enteric infections besides C. difficile infection.
Hanet, C; Rousseau, M F; Vincent, M F; Lavenne-Pardonge, E; Pouleur, H
To determine if the calcium antagonist nicardipine protects the myocardium against ischemia, myocardial lactate, hypoxanthine and prostanoid function was studied in 12 patients during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Values were obtained before balloon inflation and during 4 minutes after deflation. Intracoronary injection of 0.2 mg of nicardipine distal to the stenosis was done randomly before the first or second inflation; the other inflation served as a control. One minute after deflation, coronary sinus flow levels were similar during the nicardipine and control procedure (161 +/- 61 vs 159 +/- 72 ml/min); lactate (-9 +/- 21% vs -17 +/- 21%, p less than 0.025) and hypoxanthine production (-107 +/- 85% vs -218 +/- 153%, p less than 0.05) were less severe after nicardipine pretreatment than after control. All patients reverted to lactate extraction 4 minutes after inflation plus nicardipine infusion, whereas lactate was still produced 4 minutes after control inflation. No significant changes in thromboxane B2 or prostacyclin levels were observed in the coronary sinus 1 minute after inflation, but higher arterial thromboxane B2 values were observed after control inflation than after inflation with nicardipine infusion (median values 169 vs 78 pg/ml, p less than 0.05). In conclusion, intracoronary infusion of nicardipine reduced signs of ischemia and alterations in prostanoid handling after coronary occlusion. The mechanisms of myocardial protection appeared unrelated to coronary sinus blood flow changes or to a systemic effect of nicardipine.
Johnson, D W; Pat, B; Vesey, D A; Guan, Z; Endre, Z; Gobe, G C
Administration of human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) at time of acute ischemic renal injury (IRI) inhibits apoptosis, enhances tubular epithelial regeneration, and promotes renal functional recovery. The present study aimed to determine whether darbepoetin-alfa (DPO) exhibits comparable renoprotection to that afforded by EPO, whether pro or antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are involved, and whether delayed administration of EPO or DPO 6 h following IRI ameliorates renal dysfunction. The model of IRI involved bilateral renal artery occlusion for 45 min in rats (N = 4 per group), followed by reperfusion for 1-7 days. Controls were sham-operated. Rats were treated at time of ischemia or sham operation (T0), or post-treated (6 h after the onset of reperfusion, T6) with EPO (5000 IU/kg), DPO (25 mug/kg), or appropriate vehicle by intraperitoneal injection. Renal function, structure, and immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax were analyzed. DPO or EPO at T0 significantly abrogated renal dysfunction in IRI animals (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.08 +/- 0.03 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.04 +/- 0.01 mmol/l, P = 0.01). Delayed administration of DPO or EPO (T6) also significantly abrogated subsequent renal dysfunction (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.06 +/- 0.01 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.03 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, P = 0.01). There was also significantly decreased tissue injury (apoptosis, P < 0.05), decreased proapoptotic Bax, and increased regenerative capacity, especially in the outer stripe of the outer medulla, with DPO or EPO at T0 or T6. These results reaffirm the potential clinical application of DPO and EPO as novel renoprotective agents for patients at risk of ischemic acute renal failure or after having sustained an ischemic renal insult.
Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Curtiss, Roy
A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis PB1+ (Yptb PB1+) mutant strain combined with chromosome insertion of the caf1R-caf1A-caf1M-caf1 operon and deletions of yopJ and yopK, χ10068 [pYV-ω2 (ΔyopJ315 ΔyopK108) ΔlacZ044::caf1R-caf1M-caf1A-caf1] was constructed. Results indicated that gene insertion and deletion did not affect the growth rate of χ10068 compared to wild-type Yptb cultured at 26 °C. In addition, the F1 antigen in χ10068 was synthesized and secreted on the surface of bacteria at 37 °C (mammalian body temperature), not at ambient culture temperature (26 °C). Immunization with χ10068 primed antibody responses and specific T-cell responses to F1 and YpL (Y. pestis whole cell lysate). Oral immunization with a single dose of χ10068 provided 70% protection against a subcutaneous (s.c.) challenge with ∼ 2.6 × 10(5) LD50 of Y. pestis KIM6+ (pCD1Ap) (KIM6+Ap) and 90% protection against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ∼ 500 LD50 of KIM6+Ap in mice. Our results suggest that χ10068 can be used as an effective precursor to make a safe vaccine to prevent plague in humans and to eliminate plague circulation among humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Mostafa, Adel M; Al-Rikabi, Ammar C; Al-Shabanah, Othman A
Arabic gum (AG) is a complex polysaccharide used as suspending agent. It has been widely used by eastern folk medicine practitioners as a restorative agent and is thought to be an excellent curative for renal failure patients. We therefore tested these folkloric claims using a rat model of gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity. AG (7.5g 100ml(-1), in drinking water) was administered orally for 8 days concurrently with GM (80mgkg(-1) per day, i.p.). Estimation of urine volume, serum creatinine and urea concentrations, kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and glutathione (GSH) were carried out after the last dose of GM. Kidneys were also examined for histological changes. GM caused a marked nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant increases in urine volume (295%), serum creatinine (318%) and urea (258%) and a significant decrease in creatinine clearance (Ccr) (26%). Treatment with AG protected the rats from GM-induced nephrotoxicity as evident by normalisation of these parameters. In addition there was about 187% increase in kidney tissue MDA contents above the control with GM treatment. AG totally prevented the GM-induced rise in kidney tissue contents of MDA. Kidney histology of the tissue from GM-treated rats showed necrosis and desquamation of tubular epithelial cells in renal cortex as well as interstitial nephritis. Whereas it was very much comparable to control when AG was co-administered with GM. In conclusion, AG protected the rats from GM-induced nephrotoxicity, possibly, at least in part through inhibition of the production of oxygen free radicals that cause lipid peroxidation.
Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; De Jong, Hanna K.; De Boer, Onno J.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Day, Nicholas P.; Gram, Hermann; De Vos, Alex F.; Wiersinga, W. Joost
ABSTRACT Background: Melioidosis, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a common cause of community-acquired sepsis in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream product interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) have been proposed to play crucial roles in melioidosis. In this study, we characterized the role of IL-1β more closely and we assessed its therapeutic potential. Methods: mRNA expression of inflammasome components was determined in isolated leukocytes of 32 healthy controls and 34 patients with sepsis caused by B pseudomallei. Wild-type (WT), NLRP3-deficient (Nlrp3−/−), and Asc−/− mice were infected with B pseudomallei. In additional experiments, infected WT mice were treated with an anti-IL-1β antibody. After 24, 48, and 72 hours (h) mice were sacrificed and organs were harvested. Furthermore, survival studies were performed. Results: Patients with melioidosis exhibited lower mRNA levels of caspase-1, NLRP3, and ASC. Bacterial dissemination and organ damage were increased in B pseudomallei-infected Nlrp3−/− and Asc−/− mice, together with a reduced pulmonary cell influx. Anti-IL-1β treatment of B pseudomallei challenged mice resulted in strongly reduced bacterial counts, organ damage, and pulmonary granulocyte influx together with reduced mortality. Postponement of anti-IL-1β treatment for 24 h postinfection still protected mice during melioidosis. Conclusion: Expression of caspase-1, NLRP3, and ASC is altered in melioidosis patients. In mice, both NLRP3 and ASC contribute to the host defense against melioidosis. Anti-IL-1β treatment protects mice against B pseudomallei infection and might be a novel treatment strategy in melioidosis. PMID:27219859
Wei, Benjamin P.C.; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Azzopardi, Kristy; Clark, Graeme M.; O'Leary, Stephen J.
Objectives To determine if ciprofloxacin retains its antimicrobial activity after storage with Healon® at ambient temperature and at 37°C over 5 weeks and then to establish whether the application of ciprofloxacin/Healon® onto scala tympani electrode arrays reduces the risk of meningitis in implanted rats inoculated with S. pneumoniae. Study design in vitro laboratory and in vivo animal studies Methods The antibacterial activity of three concentrations of ciprofloxacin/Healon® (7.5, 75 and 750 μg/ml) was examined over 5 weeks at both ambient temperature (23°C) and body temperature (37°C). Thirty-six rats (18 implanted with ciprofloxacin (750 mg/ml)/Healon®-coated electrode array and 18 without the coating) were infected with S. pneumoniae 4 weeks after implantation via three different routes of infection (hematogenous, middle ear and inner ear) and observed for the development of meningitis. Results The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin/Healon® was maintained over 5 weeks at both 23°C and 37°C. The implanted rats with the ciprofloxacin/Healon-coated electrode array were protected from meningitis when the bacteria were given via the hematogenous route (Fisher’s exact test P =0.008, but not when the bacteria were inoculated directly into the middle or inner ear. However, the time to develop meningitis was significantly longer in rats implanted with a coated array, irrespective of the route of inoculation (P <0.05, log rank test). Conclusion Our animal model demonstrated that a ciprofloxacin-coated electrode array can protect healthy implanted rats from meningitis when the route of infection is hematogenous, and can delay the onset of meningitis when bacteria are inoculated directly into the middle or inner ear. PMID:17146386
Montagrin, Alison; Saiote, Catarina; Schiller, Daniela
The concept of cognitive map has been proposed as a way to organize our experiences and guide behavior across all domains of cognition. The hippocampus has been identified as the neural substrate supporting cognitive maps for navigating physical space. Recent evidence is broadening the role of the hippocampus into mapping other manner of spaces. Here we focus on the case of social space as a candidate for hippocampal representation because it combines multiple continuous dimensions and requires dynamic navigation through social contexts. We present evidence for the role of the hippocampus in (1) supporting social memory, (2) representing different dimensions of social space, (3) tracking dynamic social behavior, (4) maintaining a flexible map allowing adaptation to new social contexts, and (5) maladaptive social behavior across psychiatric disorders. To do so, we explore evidence across species including birds, rodents, nonhuman primates and humans, indicating hippocampal involvement in a range of social processes. Review of previous findings in a manner predicted by the cognitive map supports the existence of systematic mapping of social space by the hippocampus. Evidence for hippocampal social maps complements findings from other abstract domains, such as auditory, temporal and conceptual, allowing successful navigation through many domains of everyday life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prasanthi, Jaya R.P.; Dasari, Bhanu; Marwarha, Gurdeep; Larson, Tyler; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Ghribi, Othman
Cholesterol has been linked to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as a risk factor increasing β-amyloid (Aβ) and oxidative stress levels. Caffeine has anti-oxidant properties and has been demonstrated to reduce Aβ levels in transgenic mouse models of familial AD. However, the effects of caffeine on cholesterol-induced sporadic AD pathology have not been determined. In the present study, we determined the effects of caffeine on Aβ levels, tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress generation, and caffeine-target receptors in rabbits fed a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet, a model system for sporadic AD. Our results showed that the cholesterol-enriched diet increased levels of Aβ, tau phosphorylation as well as oxidative stress measured as increased levels of reactive oxygen species, isoprostanes, glutathione depletion, and increased levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker proteins. Additionally, the cholesterol-enriched diet reduced levels of adenosine A1 (A1R) but not ryanodine (RyR) or adenosine A2A (A2AR) receptors. Caffeine, administered at 0.5 mg and 30 mg/day in the drinking water, reduced cholesterol-induced increase in Aβ, phosphorylated tau and oxidative stress levels, and reversed cholesterol-induced decrease in A1R levels. Our results suggest that even very low doses of caffeine might protect against sporadic AD-like pathology. PMID:20638472
Kim, Hyun Mee; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Soo Dong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Ji Woong; Jang, Sung Sik; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Chung, Dae Kyun; Lee, Jung-Hee
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation alters multiple molecular pathways in the skin, thereby inducing skin damage, including photoaging. In recent years, probiotics have gained interest due to their beneficial effects on skin health, such as inhibiting atopic dermatitis and improving skin immunity or inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of probiotics on UVBinduced photoaging. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 against UVB-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice. The results showed that L. plantarum HY7714 treatment effectively rescued UVB-reduced procollagen expression through the inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Data from a western blot showed that L. plantarum HY7714 inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase, thereby suppressing the UVB-induced phosphorylation and expression of c-Jun. Oral administration of L. plantarum HY7714 clearly inhibited the number, depth, and area of wrinkles in hairless mouse skin. Histological data showed that L. plantarum HY7714 significantly inhibited UVB-induced epidermal thickness in mice. Western blot and zymography data also revealed that L. plantarum HY7714 effectively inhibited MMP-13 expression as well as MMP-2 and -9 activities in dermal tissue. Collectively, these results provide further insight regarding the skin biological actions of L. plantarum HY7714, a potential skin anti-photoaging agent.
Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef
Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rahmania, Lokmane; Orbegozo, Diego; Su, Fuhong; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Vincent, Jean-Louis; De Backer, Daniel
Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery with suprarenal cross-clamping is often associated with renal injury. Although the mechanism underlying such injury is unclear, tissue ischemia and reperfusion, which induces endothelial dysfunction and decreases the availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), may play a role. We evaluated whether BH4 administration prevents renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in an animal model of aortic cross-clamping. Nineteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and invasively monitored adult sheep were randomized into 3 groups: sham animals (n = 5) that underwent surgical preparation but no aortic clamping; an ischemia/reperfusion group (n = 7), where the aorta was clamped above the renal arteries for 1 hour, and a BH4 group (n = 7), in which animals received 20 mg/kg of BH4 followed by aortic cross-clamp for 1 hour. Animals were followed for a maximum of 6 hours after reperfusion. The renal microcirculation was evaluated at baseline (before clamping), and 1, 4, and 6 hours after reperfusion using side-stream dark field videomicroscopy. The renal lactate-to-pyruvate ratio was evaluated using microdialysis. The primary outcome was the change in proportion of small perfused vessels before and after injury. Secondary outcomes were renal tissue redox state and renal function. Ischemia/reperfusion injury was associated with increases in heart rate and mean arterial pressure, which were blunted by BH4 administration. From the first to the sixth hour after reperfusion, the small vessel density (estimated mean difference [EMD], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-1.64; P = .003), perfused small vessel density (EMD, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.29-1.39; P = .005), and proportion of perfused small vessels (EMD, 8.60; 95% CI, 0.85-16.30; P = .031) were altered less in the BH4 than in the ischemia/reperfusion group. The renal lactate-to-pyruvate ratios were lower in the cortex in the BH4 than in the ischemia/reperfusion group from the first to the sixth hour after
Antonic, Vlado; Rabbani, Zahid N; Jackson, Isabel L; Vujaskovic, Zeljko
The objective of the present study was to determine whether single administration of the antioxidant enzyme bovine superoxide dismutase (bSOD) after radiation therapy (RT) mitigates development of pulmonary toxicity in rats. Female F344 rats (n = 60) were divided among six experimental groups: (1) RT, single dose of 21 Gy to the right hemithorax; (2) RT + 5 mg/kg bSOD; (3) RT + 15 mg/kg bSOD; (4) No RT; (5) sham RT + 5 mg/kg bSOD; and (6) sham RT + 15 mg/kg bSOD. A single subcutaneous injection of bSOD (5 or 15 mg/kg) was administered 24 h post-radiation. The effects of bSOD on radiation-induced lung injury were assessed by measurement of body weight, breathing frequency, and histopathological changes. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate oxidative stress (8-OHdG(+), NOX4(+), nitrotyrosine(+), and 4HNE(+) cells), macrophage activation (ED1(+)), and expression of profibrotic transforming growth factor-β or TGF-β in irradiated tissue. Radiation led to an increase in all the evaluated parameters. Treatment with 15 mg/kg bSOD significantly decreased levels of all the evaluated parameters including tissue damage and breathing frequency starting 6 weeks post-radiation. Animals treated with 5 mg/kg bSOD trended toward a suppression of radiation-induced lung damage but did not reach statistical significance. The single application of bSOD (15 mg/kg) ameliorates radiation-induced lung injury through suppression of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species or ROS/RNS-dependent tissue damage.
Background 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a widely used recreational drug known to impair cognitive functions on the long-run. Both hippocampal and frontal cortical regions have well established roles in behavior, memory formation and other cognitive tasks and damage of these regions is associated with altered behavior and cognitive functions, impairments frequently described in heavy MDMA users. The aim of this study was to examine the hippocampus, frontal cortex and dorsal raphe of Dark Agouti rats with gene expression arrays (Illumina RatRef bead arrays) looking for possible mechanisms and new candidates contributing to the effects of a single dose of MDMA (15 mg/kg) 3 weeks earlier. Results The number of differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and the dorsal raphe were 481, 155, and 15, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis of the microarray data revealed reduced expression of 'memory’ and 'cognition’, 'dendrite development’ and 'regulation of synaptic plasticity’ gene sets in the hippocampus, parallel to the upregulation of the CB1 cannabinoid- and Epha4, Epha5, Epha6 ephrin receptors. Downregulated gene sets in the frontal cortex were related to protein synthesis, chromatin organization, transmembrane transport processes, while 'dendrite development’, 'regulation of synaptic plasticity’ and 'positive regulation of synapse assembly’ gene sets were upregulated. Changes in the dorsal raphe region were mild and in most cases not significant. Conclusion The present data raise the possibility of new synapse formation/synaptic reorganization in the frontal cortex three weeks after a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA. In contrast, a prolonged depression of new neurite formation in the hippocampus is suggested by the data, which underlines the particular vulnerability of this brain region after the drug treatment. Finally, our results also suggest the substantial contribution of CB1 receptor and
Taskin, Mine Islimye; Yay, Arzu; Adali, Ertan; Balcioglu, Esra; Inceboz, Umit
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate on cisplatin-induced ovarian toxicity. Thirty-two female rats were divided into four groups. Group 1: saline control; group 2: cisplatin; group 3: sildenafil citrate; and group 4: cisplatin plus sildenafil citrate group. In groups 2 and 4, the rats were injected with 5 mg/kg cisplatin intraperitoneally (i.p.). In groups 3 and 4, the rats were injected with 1.4 mg/kg sildenafil citrate i.p. The ovaries were removed two weeks later in all groups. Histopathologic examination, follicle counting and classification were performed. The expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was detected immunohistochemically in the ovarian tissues. Sildenafil alleviated cisplatin-induced histopathological changes in the ovarian tissue. Primordial, secondary and tertiary follicles were diminished in group 2 compared with group 1 (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with sildenafil citrate preserved primordial follicle count in group 4 compared with group 2, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). According to our results, immunoreactivity intensity of AMH was lower in group 2 compared with group 1 (92.4 ± 3.97 versus 88.8 ± 1.77) but not significantly, whereas immunoreactivity intensity of AMH was higher in group 4 compared with group 2 (88.8 ± 1.77 versus 94.1 ± 2.36; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with sildenafil citrate is beneficial for protecting the ovaries from cisplatin-induced damage. Sildenafil citrate can be a choice for fertility preservation.
Mercer, Kelly E.; Wynne, Rebecca A.; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Lumpkin, Charles K.; Hogue, William R.; Suva, Larry J.; Chen, Jin-Ran; Mason, Andrew Z.; Badger, Thomas M.
Chronic alcohol abuse results in decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which can lead to increased fracture risk. In contrast, low levels of alcohol have been associated with increased BMD in epidemiological studies. Alcohol's toxic skeletal effects have been suggested to involve impaired vitamin D/calcium homeostasis. Therefore, dietary vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial in reducing bone loss associated with chronic alcohol consumption. Six-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed ethanol (EtOH)-containing liquid diets (10 or 36% total calories) for 78 days. EtOH exposure at 10% calories had no effects on any measured bone or serum parameter. EtOH consumption at 36% of calories reduced BMD and bone strength (P < 0.05), decreased osteoblastogenesis, increased osteoclastogenesis, suppressed 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] serum concentrations (P < 0.05), and increased apoptosis in bone cells compared with pair-fed controls. In a second study, female mice were pair-fed 30% EtOH diets with or without dietary supplementation with vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; VitD) for 40 days. VitD supplementation in the EtOH diet protected against cortical bone loss, normalized alcohol-induced hypocalcaemia, and suppressed EtOH-induced expression of receptor of nuclear factor-κB ligand mRNA in bone. In vitro, pretreatment of 1,25(OH)2D3 in osteoblastic cells inhibited EtOH-induced apoptosis. In EtOH/VitD mice circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 was lower compared with mice receiving EtOH alone (P < 0.05), suggesting increased sensitivity to feedback control of VitD metabolism in the kidney. These findings suggest dietary VitD supplementation may prevent skeletal toxicity in chronic drinkers by normalizing calcium homeostasis, preventing apoptosis, and suppressing EtOH-induced increases in bone resorption. PMID:22892342
Mercer, Kelly E; Wynne, Rebecca A; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Lumpkin, Charles K; Hogue, William R; Suva, Larry J; Chen, Jin-Ran; Mason, Andrew Z; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J
Chronic alcohol abuse results in decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which can lead to increased fracture risk. In contrast, low levels of alcohol have been associated with increased BMD in epidemiological studies. Alcohol's toxic skeletal effects have been suggested to involve impaired vitamin D/calcium homeostasis. Therefore, dietary vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial in reducing bone loss associated with chronic alcohol consumption. Six-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed ethanol (EtOH)-containing liquid diets (10 or 36% total calories) for 78 days. EtOH exposure at 10% calories had no effects on any measured bone or serum parameter. EtOH consumption at 36% of calories reduced BMD and bone strength (P<0.05), decreased osteoblastogenesis, increased osteoclastogenesis, suppressed 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] serum concentrations (P<0.05), and increased apoptosis in bone cells compared with pair-fed controls. In a second study, female mice were pair-fed 30% EtOH diets with or without dietary supplementation with vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; VitD) for 40 days. VitD supplementation in the EtOH diet protected against cortical bone loss, normalized alcohol-induced hypocalcaemia, and suppressed EtOH-induced expression of receptor of nuclear factor-κB ligand mRNA in bone. In vitro, pretreatment of 1,25(OH)2D3 in osteoblastic cells inhibited EtOH-induced apoptosis. In EtOH/VitD mice circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 was lower compared with mice receiving EtOH alone (P<0.05), suggesting increased sensitivity to feedback control of VitD metabolism in the kidney. These findings suggest dietary VitD supplementation may prevent skeletal toxicity in chronic drinkers by normalizing calcium homeostasis, preventing apoptosis, and suppressing EtOH-induced increases in bone resorption.
Sayd, Aline; Antón, María; Alén, Francisco; Caso, Javier Rubén; Pavón, Javier; Leza, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando
Background: The acylethanolamides oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide are endogenous lipid mediators with proposed neuroprotectant properties in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. The precise mechanisms remain partly unknown, but growing evidence suggests an antiinflammatory/antioxidant profile. Methods: We tested whether oleoylethanolamide/palmitoylethanolamide (10mg/kg, i.p.) attenuate neuroinflammation and acute phase responses (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis stress axis activation, thermoregulation, and anhedonia) induced by lipopolysaccharide (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Results: Lipopolysaccharide increased mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, nuclear transcription factor-κB activity, and the expression of its inhibitory protein IκBα in cytoplasm, the inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase mRNA, and proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 content in frontal cortex 150 minutes after administration. As a result, the markers of nitrosative/oxidative stress nitrites (NO2 -) and malondialdehyde were increased. Pretreatment with oleoylethanolamide/ palmitoylethanolamide reduced plasma tumor necrosis factor-α levels after lipopolysaccharide, but only oleoylethanolamide significantly reduced brain tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. Oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB)/IκBα upregulation in nuclear and cytosolic extracts, respectively, the expression of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase and the levels of prostaglandin E2. Additionally, both acylethanolamides reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress. Neither oleoylethanolamide nor palmitoylethanolamide modified plasma corticosterone levels after lipopolysaccharide, but both
Xu, Yang; Dong, Hongxia; Ge, Changhui; Gao, Yan; Liu, Haifeng
Background Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a nonspecific inflammatory disease for which medications and therapeutic strategies have only been moderately successful. CBLB502, a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist derived from Salmonella flagellin, exhibits anticancer and radioprotective activities via modulation of TLRs and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and can protect against acute renal ischemic failure. In this study, we intend to examine the effects of CBLB502 on both TLR responses and the interleukin (IL) and NF-κB signaling pathways in UC treatment. Methods The UC mouse model was prepared in BALB/c mice by administering 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). CBLB502 was used as the therapeutic drug. After CBLB502 therapy, the IL and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured by ELISA. Total RNA and protein of colon samples was extracted. Results We found that CBLB502 had a distinctive therapeutic effect in the UC model. In control group animals, IL-10 expression in serum was 91.48±24.38 ng/mL; this was higher than in the model group (59.36±14.46 ng/mL, P<0.05) or the treatment group (54.29±5.83 ng/mL, P<0.05). In model group animals, the concentration of TNF-α in serum was 140.11±12.70 ng/mL, which was lower than protein levels in the control group (173.86±29.26 ng/mL, P<0.05). The mRNA levels of TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 in the CBLB502 treatment group were significantly lower than in the model group (P<0.05). Western blot revealed that CBLB502 also reduced NF-κB expression in the mouse colon, but that NF-κB expression was not significantly lower than the model group. Conclusions CBLB502 can reduce mucosal damage induced by TNBS and inhibit inflammation and TLR expression. The inhibition of UC by CBLB502 is strictly TLR-IL-dependent and is dose-dependent within the efficacious dose range. Therefore, our results suggested that CBLB502 might be a candidate drug for the treatment of UC. PMID:27668221
Sandvik, A; Wang, Y Y; Morton, H C; Aasen, A O; Wang, J E; Johansen, F-E
β-Glucans are glucose polymers with a variety of stimulatory effects on the immune system. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prophylactic oral administration of soluble Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived β-1,3/1,6-glucan (SBG) on the outcome of experimental endotoxaemia and shock-associated organ injury. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with SBG orally (SBGpo, 20 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, subcutaneously (SBGsc, 2 mg/kg/day) for 3 days, or vehicle (placebo). Rats were anaesthetized and subjected to endotoxaemia by intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (6 mg/kg) or saline infusion (sham). We observed significant levels of plasma β-glucan in the SBGpo group (P < 0·5), although the SBGsc group had levels approximately 40-fold higher despite a 10-fold lower dose. SBG prophylaxis caused enhanced blood pressure recovery following LPS-induced blood pressure collapse. Oral treatment with SBG attenuated the LPS-induced rise in plasma creatinine levels (P < 0·05), indicating protection against renal injury. SBG also attenuated the plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (SBGpo, P < 0·01; SBGsc, P < 0·01), indicating protection against LPS-induced hepatic injury. A moderate increase in baseline interleukin (IL)-1β levels was observed in the SBGsc group (P < 0·05). In the LPS-challenged rats, plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines was moderately reduced in both SBG-treated groups compared to placebo. SBG treatment, particularly oral administration, had a striking effect on the haemodynamics of LPS-treated rats, although only a minute fraction of the orally administered β-glucan translocated to the circulation. Enhanced organ perfusion may thus be responsible for the attenuated levels of indicators of kidney and liver injury seen in SBG-treated rats. PMID:17349015
Micheli, M R; Bova, R; Laurenzi, M A; Bazzucchi, M; Grassi Zucconi, G
In this study, we examined the expression profile of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB in adult rat hippocampus following acute administration of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), a neurotoxic compound which was previously shown to induce microglia activation and cell death. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis detected significant variations of BDNF mRNA levels in whole hippocampus homogenates, with a peak at 24h after DDTC injection. Increased BDNF protein expression was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in various hippocampal subfields. The most relevant increase was observed in the hilus of the dentate gyrus where BDNF levels at 120h were found to be almost four times those of basal levels. Full-length TrkB (TrkB.FL) encoding mRNA was also shown to undergo an earlier increase in the hippocampus of DDTC-treated rats. TrkB immunostaining with an antibody binding both full-length and truncated (TrkB.T) isoforms was found to increase at 120h in the hippocampal CA2 and CA3 regions. These results demonstrate that DDTC modulates the expression of BDNF and its receptor in the adult rat hippocampus and suggest a possible involvement of this neurotrophin in the protective response to DDTC-induced neuronal damage.
Pardi, Norbert; Secreto, Anthony J.; Shan, Xiaochuan; Debonera, Fotini; Glover, Joshua; Yi, Yanjie; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Ni, Houping; Mui, Barbara L.; Tam, Ying K.; Shaheen, Farida; Collman, Ronald G.; Karikó, Katalin; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn A.; Madden, Thomas D.; Hope, Michael J.; Weissman, Drew
Monoclonal antibodies are one of the fastest growing classes of pharmaceutical products, however, their potential is limited by the high cost of development and manufacturing. Here we present a safe and cost-effective platform for in vivo expression of therapeutic antibodies using nucleoside-modified mRNA. To demonstrate feasibility and protective efficacy, nucleoside-modified mRNAs encoding the light and heavy chains of the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibody VRC01 are generated and encapsulated into lipid nanoparticles. Systemic administration of 1.4 mg kg−1 of mRNA into mice results in ∼170 μg ml−1 VRC01 antibody concentrations in the plasma 24 h post injection. Weekly injections of 1 mg kg−1 of mRNA into immunodeficient mice maintain trough VRC01 levels above 40 μg ml−1. Most importantly, the translated antibody from a single injection of VRC01 mRNA protects humanized mice from intravenous HIV-1 challenge, demonstrating that nucleoside-modified mRNA represents a viable delivery platform for passive immunotherapy against HIV-1 with expansion to a variety of diseases. PMID:28251988
Nakashima, Ayaka; Suzuki, Kengo; Asayama, Yuta; Konno, Makoto; Saito, Keita; Yamazaki, Noriyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki
Euglena gracilis Z is a micro-algae that is used as a food or nutritional supplement. Paramylon, the carbohydrate storage substance of Euglena gracilis Z has β-1, 3-glucan structure. Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon are reported to affect the immune system. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon against influenza virus infection in mice. Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon were administered to mice as a 2% dietary mixture ad libitum. At 2 weeks after initiation of dietary administration, mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Survival rate was monitored 10 days after infection. In adition, we performed virus titer and cytokine profiles in the lung. High survival rates were observed for Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon-treated groups compared to the control group. Significantly lower virus titer in the lung was observed in the Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon-treated groups compared to the control group from day 1 after infection. Higher amount of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ, and IL-10 was observed in the paramylon groups compared to the control group. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon which provides protection against influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Noteboom, J L; Hummel, W A; Broerse, J J; de Vijlder, J J; Vulsma, T; van Bekkum, D W
Protection of the thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide was investigated in chimpanzees aged 2 to 98 weeks. The uptake of iodide in the thyroid was measured with 123I-. The animals were subjected to a control measurement first, and subsequently the thyroid uptake of 123I- was determined twice; once at the start and once at the end of 11 days of ingestion of 0.5, 1.5 or 5.0 mg of stable iodide per kg body weight per day. The three doses of iodide reduced the control thyroid iodide uptake of 10 to 30% to lower than 1% when ingested 1 h before exposure to the tracer and to 2-4% when ingested 20 h before exposure. In the latter experiments 0.5 mg iodide/kg was less effective than doses of 1.5 mg/kg or higher. The physiological state of the thyroid of control infant chimpanzees does not differ from that of human infants. Incidentally, an increased level of TSH was found during the ingestion of iodide, but with unaltered thyroxine levels. Therefore, it is concluded that a daily dose of 1.5 mg stable iodide/kg body weight and higher offers optimal protection of the thyroid against exposure to radioactive iodine in infants and that, when used during 10 days, it leaves the thyroid unaffected.
Cho, Jinmyoung; Copeland, Laurel A; Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; Restrepo, Marcos I; MacCarthy, Andrea A; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Paul A; Stevens, Alan B
To characterize physical and mental diseases and use of healthcare services and identify factors associated with mortality in the oldest individuals using the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Retrospective study with 5-year survival follow-up. VHA, system-wide. Veterans using the VHA aged 80 and older as of October 2008 (N = 721,588: n = 665,249 aged 80-89, n = 56,118 aged 90-99, n = 221 aged 100-115). Demographic characteristics, physical and mental diseases, healthcare services, and 5-year survival were measured. Accelerated failure time models identified protective and risk factors associated with mortality according to age group. During 5 years of follow-up, 44% of participants died (survival rate: 59% aged 80-89, 32% aged 90-99, 15% aged ≥100). In the multivariable model, protective effects for veterans aged 80-99 were female sex, minority race or ethnicity, being married, having certain physical and mental diagnoses (hypertension, cataract, dyslipidemia, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder), having urgent care visits, having invasive surgery, and having few (1-3) prescriptions. Risk factors were lower VHA priority status, physical and mental conditions (diabetes mellitus, anemia, congestive heart failure, dementia, anxiety, depression, smoking, substance abuse disorder), hospital admission, and nursing home care. For those aged 100 and older, being married, smoking, hospital admission, nursing home care, invasive surgery, and prescription use were significant risk factors; only emergency department (ED) use was protective. Although the data are limited to VHA care (thus missing Medicare services), this study shows that many veterans served by the VHA live to advanced old age despite multiple chronic conditions. Further study is needed to determine whether a comprehensive, coordinated care system like VHA is associated with greater longevity for very old persons. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The
Shetty, Ashok K.; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Muddanna S.; Shuai, Bing
Increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) after brain insults such as excitotoxic lesions, seizures or stroke is a well known phenomenon in the young hippocampus. This plasticity reflects an innate compensatory response of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the young hippocampus to preserve function or minimize damage after injury. However, injuries to the middle-aged and aged hippocampi elicit either no or dampened neurogenesis response, which could be due to an altered plasticity of NSCs and/or the hippocampus with age. We examined whether the plasticity of NSCs to increase neurogenesis in response to a milder injury such as partial deafferentation is preserved during aging. We quantified DG neurogenesis in the hippocampus of young, middle-aged and aged F344 rats after partial deafferentation. A partial deafferentation of the left hippocampus without any apparent cell loss was induced via administration of Kainic acid (0.5 μg in 1.0 μl) into the right lateral ventricle of the brain. In this model, degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons and dentate hilar neurons in the right hippocampus results in loss of commissural axons which leads to partial deafferentation of the dendrites of dentate granule cells and CA1-CA3 pyramidal neurons in the left hippocampus. Quantification of newly born cells that are added to the dentate granule cell layer at post-deafferentation days 4-15 using 5′-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling revealed greatly increased addition of newly born cells (~3 fold increase) in the deafferented young and middle-aged hippocampi but not in the deafferented aged hippocampus. Measurement of newly born neurons using doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining also revealed similar findings. Analyses using BrdU-DCX dual immunofluorescence demonstrated no changes in neuronal fate-choice decision of newly born cells after deafferentation, in comparison to the age-matched naive hippocampus in all age groups. Thus, the plasticity of hippocampal NSCs to increase DG
Nannepaga, John Sushma; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Tirumanyam, Madhavi; Bommavaram, Mahitha; Kuo, Chia-Hua
Impaired antioxidant system and structural changes in hippocampus are considered as key instigators of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and tissue protective properties of Bacopa monniera whole-plant extract (BME) against aluminum (Al)- induced oxidative stress and hippocampus damage in rats. Male Wistar rats were evenly divided into four groups, nine in each and labeled as control, Al treated (10 mg/kg), BME administered (40 mg/kg) and combination of both Al plus BME (Al+BME) treated groups. After one month of treatment by oral administration, antioxidant status was determined, and structural changes in the hippocampus were evaluated by electron microscopy. Al-induced increased oxidative damage in the hippocampus was revealed by elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). This increased lipid peroxidation was associated with significantly decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). However, aluminum intoxicated rats treated with BME for 30 days showed significantly restored antioxidant enzyme activities along with decreased TBARS (P < 0.01). Further evidences from electron micrographs clearly indicated that Al-induced vacuolation, lipofuscin deposition and pyramidal cell degeneration in the hippocampus was attenuated with co-administration of the whole-plant extract. Our results demonstrate that structural derangement in hippocampus by aluminum is directly proportionate with increased lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, B. monniera treatment potentiates the antioxidant status and suppressed the tissue damage induced by Al-intoxication. These findings suggest that B. monniera whole-plant extracts can be considered as a possible remedy to counteract aluminum-associated neurological disorders.
Guardia Clausi, Mariano; Paez, Pablo M; Campagnoni, Anthony T; Pasquini, Laura A; Pasquini, Juana M
Our previous studies showed that the intracerebral injection of apotransferrin (aTf) attenuates white matter damage and accelerates the remyelination process in a neonatal rat model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury. However, the intracerebral injection of aTf might not be practical for clinical treatments. Therefore, the development of less invasive techniques capable of delivering aTf to the central nervous system would clearly aid in its effective clinical use. In this work, we have determined whether intranasal (iN) administration of human aTf provides neuroprotection to the neonatal mouse brain following a cerebral hypoxic-ischemic event. Apotransferrin was infused into the naris of neonatal mice and the HI insult was induced by right common carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to low oxygen concentration. Our results showed that aTf was successfully delivered into the neonatal HI brain and detected in the olfactory bulb, forebrain and posterior brain 30 min after inhalation. This treatment successfully reduced white matter damage, neuronal loss and astrogliosis in different brain regions and enhanced the proliferation and survival of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum (CC). Additionally, using an in vitro hypoxic model, we demonstrated that aTf prevents oligodendrocyte progenitor cell death by promoting their differentiation. In summary, these data suggest that iN administration of aTf has the potential to be used for clinical treatment to protect myelin and to induce remyelination in demyelinating hypoxic-ischemic events in the neonatal brain. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wang, Peiqi; Cao, Jiangbei; Liu, Na; Ma, Li; Zhou, Xueyue; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yongan
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by cognitive declines in patients after surgery. Previous studies have suggested that surgery contributed to such impairment. It has been proven that neuroinflammation may exacerbate surgery-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. The free radical scavenger edaravone has high blood brain barrier permeability, and was demonstrated to effectively remove free radicals from the brain and alleviate the development of POCD in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, suggesting its potential role in preventing POCD. For this reason, this study was designed to determine whether edaravone is protective against POCD through its inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. First, Sprague Dawley adult male rats were administered 3 mg/kg edaravone intraperitoneally after undergoing a unilateral nephrectomy combined with lipopolysaccharide injection. Second, behavioral parameters related to cognitive function were recorded by fear conditioning and Morris Water Maze tests. Last, superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortex on postoperative days 3 and 7, and microglial (Iba1) activation, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and synaptic function (synapsin 1) were also examined 3 and 7 days after surgery. Rats that underwent surgery plus lipopolysaccharide administration showed significant impairments in spatial and working memory, accompanied by significant reductions in hippocampal-dependent and independent fear responses. All impairments were attenuated by treatment with edaravone. Moreover, an abnormal decrease in superoxide dismutase activation, abnormal increase in malondialdehyde levels, significant increase in microglial reactivity, downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and a statistically significant decrease in synapsin-1 were observed in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortices of
Liu, Na; Ma, Li; Zhou, Xueyue; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yongan
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by cognitive declines in patients after surgery. Previous studies have suggested that surgery contributed to such impairment. It has been proven that neuroinflammation may exacerbate surgery-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. The free radical scavenger edaravone has high blood brain barrier permeability, and was demonstrated to effectively remove free radicals from the brain and alleviate the development of POCD in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, suggesting its potential role in preventing POCD. For this reason, this study was designed to determine whether edaravone is protective against POCD through its inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. First, Sprague Dawley adult male rats were administered 3 mg/kg edaravone intraperitoneally after undergoing a unilateral nephrectomy combined with lipopolysaccharide injection. Second, behavioral parameters related to cognitive function were recorded by fear conditioning and Morris Water Maze tests. Last, superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortex on postoperative days 3 and 7, and microglial (Iba1) activation, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and synaptic function (synapsin 1) were also examined 3 and 7 days after surgery. Rats that underwent surgery plus lipopolysaccharide administration showed significant impairments in spatial and working memory, accompanied by significant reductions in hippocampal-dependent and independent fear responses. All impairments were attenuated by treatment with edaravone. Moreover, an abnormal decrease in superoxide dismutase activation, abnormal increase in malondialdehyde levels, significant increase in microglial reactivity, downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and a statistically significant decrease in synapsin-1 were observed in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortices of
Tulsawani, R K; Debnath, M; Pant, S C; Kumar, Om; Prakash, A O; Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhattacharya, R
Chronic toxicity of cyanide in humans and animals has been previously described. Alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) and sodium thiosulfate (STS) are known to confer remarkable protection against acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. Their efficacy against sub-acute or chronic cyanide exposure is not known. The objective of the present study was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) in female rats following oral administration of 7.0 mg/kg (0.5 LD50) for 14 d. The effect of alpha-KG (oral; 1.0 g/kg) and/or STS (intraperitoneal, 1.0 g/kg) on cyanide toxicity was also evaluated. Various hematological and biochemical indices were determined after 7 d of treatment and additional parameters like organ-body weight index (OBI) and histology of brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen were performed after 14 and 21 d (recovery group) of cyanide exposure. Sub-acute exposure of KCN did not produce any significant change in body weight of the animals, OBI, hematology and the levels of blood urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). The levels of temporal glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSSG were unaffected. However, in KCN treated animals elevated levels of blood glucose and reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase were observed. Activities of cytochrome c oxidase in the brain and rhodanese in the liver were diminished. Reduced levels of GSH and enhanced levels of MDA in brain were observed. Increased levels of blood thiocyanate were observed in all the treatments of KCN. Additionally, KCN also produced various histological changes in the brain, heart, liver and kidney. Although, treatment of alpha-KG and STS alone significantly blunted the toxicity of KCN, concomitant use of both interventions afforded to maximum protection. This study indicates a promising role of alpha-KG and STS for the treatment of prolonged cyanide exposures.
Chen, Hao; Luo, Rui; Gong, Suzhen; Matta, Shannon G; Sharp, Burt M
Classical genetic studies show the heritability of cigarette smoking is 0.4-0.6, and that multiple genes confer susceptibility and resistance to smoking. Despite recent advances in identifying genes associated with smoking behaviors, the major source of this heritability and its impact on susceptibility and resistance are largely unknown. Operant self-administration (SA) of intravenous nicotine is an established model for smoking behavior. We recently confirmed that genetic factors exert strong control over nicotine intake in isogenic rat strains. Because the processing of afferent dopaminergic signals by nucleus accumbens shell (AcbS) is critical for acquisition and maintenance of motivated behaviors reinforced by nicotine, we hypothesized that differential basal gene expression in AcbS accounts for much of the strain-to-strain variation in nicotine SA. We therefore sequenced the transcriptome of AcbS samples obtained by laser capture microdissection from 10 isogenic adolescent rat strains and compared all RNA transcript levels with behavior. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, a systems biology method, found 12 modules (i.e., unique sets of genes that covary across all samples) that correlated (p<0.05) with amount of self-administered nicotine; 9 of 12 correlated negatively, implying a protective role. PCR confirmed selected genes from these modules. Chilibot, a literature mining tool, identified 15 genes within 1 module that were nominally associated with cigarette smoking, thereby providing strong support for the analytical approach. This is the first report demonstrating that nicotine intake by adolescent rodents is associated with the expression of specific genes in AcbS of the mesolimbic system, which controls motivated behaviors. These findings provide new insights into genetic mechanisms that predispose or protect against tobacco addiction.
Saleh, Hamid Abdulraouf; Abdel El-Aziz, Gamal Said; Mustafa, Hesham N; Saleh, Asmaa Hamid Abdulraouf; Mal, Ahmed Othman; Deifalla, Abdel Haleem Salem; Abo Rass, Magda
In spite of its indusrial usefulness and varied daily uses, lead (Pb) pollution is a widespread ecological problem that faces the humans in the 21th century. Pb was found to produces a wide range of toxic effects including neurotoxicity especially to the developing and young offspring. Recently, the utilization of herbal plants has received a significant attention where there has been rising awareness in their therapeutic use; among these is the garlic. In light of the above, the current study is designed experimentally in female pregnant rats in order to investigate the beneficial role of garlic extract in the protection from the maternal and fetal cerebellar damage that produced by administration of different doses of Pb during pregnancy. Positively pregnant female rats were divided into five groups; one control group, two Pb-treated groups (exposed to 160 and 320 mg/kg b.wt. of Pb, respectively) and two groups treated with both Pb and garlic (exposed to Pb as previous groups together with 250 mg/ kg b.wt. /day of garlic extract). Treatments started from day 1 till day 20 of pregnancy, where the mother rats of different experimental groups were sacrified to obtain the fetuses. Pb level in the maternal nd fetal blood and cerebellum was estimated by spectrophotometry. Specimens of the cerebellum of different mother and fetal groups were processed to histological and immunohistochemical staining for microscopic examination. The results showed that administration of Pb to pregnant rats resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity for both mothers and fetuses in the form of decrease of maternal weight gain, placental and fetal weights, brain weight and diminished fetal growth parameters, which were prominent in rat's group treated with larger dose of Pb. In Pb-treated rats, Pb level in blood and cerebellum was high when compared to the control. The histopathological examination of the cerebellum of treated dams and fetuses showed marked alterations mainly in the form of
Kükner, A Sahap; Kükner, Aysel; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Colakoğlu, Neriman; Celebi, Serdal; Yilmaz, Turgut; Aydemir, Orhan
.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that oedematous effects of EU on the retina were reduced by the administration of intraperitoneal vitamin C, aprotinin and melatonin, i.e. these antioxidants had significant protective effects on the retina of guinea pigs against oedematous damage in EU. However, the reductive effect of vitamin C on EU was greater than that of aprotinin and melatonin. The intraperitoneal vitamin C, aprotinin and melatonin supplementations may strengthen the antioxidant defence system because of decreased ROS, and these agents may play a role in treating uveitis.
Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Deshmukh, Sidhartha; Holten-Andersen, Lars; Jafaar, Rzgar M; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt
Numerous outbreaks of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 2 in rainbow trout farms are currently being recorded despite established vaccination procedures against this disease. This could indicate that the currently used application of single immersion vaccination (using a commercial vaccine AquaVac(®) RELERA™) does not provide full protection. We elucidated by a controlled duplicated experiment if different vaccine administration methods can improve level and extent of protection. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss were vaccinated by: (1) a single immersion in bacterin diluted 1:10 for 30s (only primary vaccination); (2) two times 30s immersion (primary immersion vaccination followed by booster immersion vaccination 1 month later); (3) a single i.p. injection (only primary vaccination); (4) immersion vaccination followed by injection booster 1 month later; (5) a single 1h bath in bacterin diluted 1:2000; and (6) immersion (30s, 1:10) plus booster (1h in diluted 1:2000 vaccine) 5 months later). Injection challenge experiments were performed 3, 5 and 7 months post primary vaccination with 8.5×10(6) CFU/fish, 10.6×10(6) CFU/fish and 1×10(8) CFU/fish, respectively. In the first challenge trial, control fish exhibited a mortality of 76%, one time immersion vaccination had a mortality of 37%, two times immersion vaccinated fish had a 4% mortality, the one-time injection vaccinated group showed a mortality of 2% and the immersion plus injection boostered fish showed no mortality at all. When rainbow trout were challenged 5 months post primary vaccination, 26% mortality occurred in control fish, 21% in one time immersion group, 12% in two times immersion group, 5% in the one-time injection vaccinated group whereas immersion plus injection boostered fish again showed no mortality at all. When challenged 7 months post vaccination, one-time immersion vaccinated were not protected at all compared to the control group whereas injection
Çiftçi, Osman; Otlu, Ali
Introduction In the current study, the protective effect of hesperidin (HP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated. Material and methods Twenty-eight rats were divided equally into four groups. The first group was kept as a control and given only vehicle. In the second, rats were orally administered 50 mg/kg/day HP for 10 days. Carbon tetrachloride was given in a single intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 2 ml/kg in the third group. In the fourth group, the rats were treated with equal doses of CCl4 and HP. Results It was found that CCl4 induced oxidative stress via a significant increase in the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and caused a significant decline in the levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats. In contrast, HP blocked these toxic effects induced by CCl4, causing an increase in GSH, CAT and SOD levels and decreased formation of TBARS (p < 0.01). In addition, histopathological damage increased with CCl4 treatment. In contrast, HP treatment eliminated the effects of CCl4 and stimulated anti-apoptotic events, as characterized by reduced caspase-3 activation. Conclusions The current study demonstrated that CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity can be prevented with HP treatment. Thus, co-administration of HP with CCl4 may be useful for attenuating the negative effects of CCl4 on the liver. PMID:27279838
Cason, Angie M; Grigson, Patricia S
It is well established that female rats are more sensitive than male rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (Lynch, 2008  for review). We hypothesized that greater preference for cocaine would support greater avoidance of a cocaine-paired taste cue in female vs. male rats. Moreover, at least in male rats, greater avoidance of the taste cue is associated with greater cocaine self-administration (Grigson and Twining, 2002 ). Thus, we anticipated that female rats would not only demonstrate greater avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue, but greater drug-taking as well. We tested these hypotheses by examining avoidance of a saccharin cue in male and female rats following several pairings with self-administered saline or cocaine (0.16, 0.33, or 0.66 mg/infusion). Contrary to expectations, the results showed that female rats exhibited less avoidance of the cocaine-associated saccharin cue than male rats and self-administered less, rather than more, cocaine, Thus, while female rats reportedly take more drug than male rats when the drug is presented in the absence of an alternative reward, they take less drug than male rats when the opportunity to self-administer cocaine is preceded by access to a palatable sweet. Females, then, may not simply be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of drug, but also to the reinforcing properties of natural rewards and this increase in sensitivity to sweets may serve to protect against drug-taking behavior.
Rumio, Cristiano; Dusio, Giuseppina F; Colombo, Barbara; Gasparri, Anna; Cardani, Diego; Marcucci, Fabrizio; Corti, Angelo
Vasostatin-1 (VS-1), the N-terminal fragment of chromogranin A (CgA), decreases the permeability of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated whether a similar effect could be observed also on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro and whether VS-1 could have favorable effects on animal models of acute or chronic colitis, which are characterized by increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium. In vitro, VS-1 was tested on IEC monolayers showing increased permeability, on mechanically injured IEC monolayers, and on the production of the chemokine IL-8/KC by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IECs. In vivo, VS-1 was tested in animal models of dextran sodium salt (DSS)-induced acute or chronic colitis. In vitro, VS-1 inhibited increased permeability of IECs induced by interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, VS-1 promoted healing of mechanically injured IEC monolayers, most likely through stimulation of cell migration, rather than cell proliferation. Eventually, VS-1 inhibited LPS-induced production of IL-8. In vivo, VS-1 exerted protective effects in animal models of acute or chronic colitis upon oral, but not systemic administration. VS-1 is therapeutically active in animal models of acute or chronic, DSS-induced colitis. The mechanisms underlying this effect are likely to be multiple, and may include inhibition of enhanced intestinal permeability, repair of injured intestinal mucosae, and inhibition of the production of IL-8/KC and possibly other inflammatory cytokines.
Cason, Angie M.; Grigson, Patricia S.
It is well established that female rats are more sensitive than male rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (Lynch, 2008 for review). We hypothesized that greater preference for cocaine would support greater avoidance of a cocaine-paired taste cue in female vs. male rats. Moreover, at least in male rats, greater avoidance of the taste cue is associated with greater cocaine self-administration (Grigson & Twining, 2002). Thus, we anticipated that female rats would not only demonstrate greater avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue, but greater drug-taking as well. We tested these hypotheses by examining avoidance of a saccharin cue in male and female rats following several pairings with self-administered saline or cocaine (0.16, 0.33, or 0.66 mg/infusion). Contrary to expectations, the results showed that female rats exhibited less avoidance of the cocaine-associated saccharin cue than male rats and self-administered less, rather than more, cocaine, Thus, while female rats reportedly take more drug than male rats when the drug is presented in the absence of an alternative reward, they take less drug than male rats when the opportunity to self-administer cocaine is preceded by access to a palatable sweet. Females, then, may not simply be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of drug, but also to the reinforcing properties of natural rewards and this increase in sensitivity to sweets may serve to protect against drug-taking behavior. PMID:23474135
Fountoulakis, Michael; Tsangaris, George T; Maris, Antony; Lubec, Gert
The hippocampus is crucial in memory storage and retrieval and plays an important role in stress response. In humans, the CA1 area of hippocampus is one of the first brain areas to display pathology in Alzheimer's disease. A comprehensive analysis of the hippocampus proteome has not been accomplished yet. We applied proteomics technologies to construct a two-dimensional database for rat brain hippocampus proteins. Hippocampus samples from eight months old animals were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The database comprises 148 different gene products, which are in the majority enzymes, structural proteins and heat shock proteins. It also includes 39 neuron specific gene products. The database may be useful in animal model studies of neurological disorders.
Tirassa, Paola; Maccarone, Mattia; Florenzano, Fulvio; Cartolano, Sara; De Nicolò, Sara
Based on our previous findings on the efficacy of ocular applied nerve growth factor as eye drops (oNGF) to act in brain and counteract neuronal damage, we hypothesized that oNGF treatment might revert neuronal atrophy occurring in diabetic brain also by controlling neurotrophin system changes. The major NGF brain target areas, such as the septum and the hippocampus, were used as an experimental paradigma to test this hypothesis. Bilateral oNGF treatment was performed twice a day for 2 weeks in full-blown streptozotocin-treated adult male rats. The forebrain distribution of cholinergic and endothelial cell markers and NGF receptors were studied by confocal microscopy. The septo-hippocampal content of NGF mature and precursor form and NGF receptors expression were also analyzed by Elisa and Western blot. oNGF treatment recovers the morphological alterations and the neuronal atrophy in septum and normalized the expression of mature and pro-NGF, as well as NGF receptors in the septum and hippocampus of diabetic rats. In addition, oNGF stimulated brain vascularization and up-regulated the TRKA receptor in vessel endothelium. Our findings confirm that reduced availability of mature NGF and NGF signaling impairment favors vascular and neuronal alterations in diabetic septo-hippocampal areas and corroborate the ability of oNGF to act as a neuroprotective agent in brain. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kenney, Justin W; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Gould, Thomas J
Nicotine administration alters various forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Increasing work has found that the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially contribute to multiple behaviors. Thus, the present study examined whether the effects of nicotine in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus have distinct influences on contextual fear learning in male C57BL/6J mice. Direct infusion of nicotine into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in an enhancement of contextual fear learning, whereas nicotine infused into the ventral hippocampus resulted in deficits. Nicotine infusions into the ventral hippocampus did not alter hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning or time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze, a measure of anxiety, suggesting that the effects are due to alterations in contextual learning and not other general processes. Finally, results from using direct infusions of MLA, a low-affinity α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, in conjunction with systemic nicotine, provide evidence that α7-nAChRs in the ventral hippocampus mediate the detrimental effect of ventral hippocampal nicotine on contextual fear learning. These results suggest that with systemic nicotine administration, competition exists between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus for behavioral control over contextual learning.
Kenney, Justin W.; Raybuck, Jonathan D.; Gould, Thomas J.
Nicotine administration alters various forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Increasing work has found that the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially contribute to multiple behaviors. Thus, the present study examined whether the effects of nicotine in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus have distinct influences on contextual fear learning in male C57BL/6J mice. Direct infusion of nicotine into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in an enhancement of contextual fear learning, whereas nicotine infused into the ventral hippocampus resulted in deficits. Nicotine infusions into the ventral hippocampus did not alter hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning or time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze, a measure of anxiety, suggesting the effects are due to alterations in contextual learning and not other general processes. Finally, results from using direct infusions of MLA, a low-affinity α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, in conjunction with systemic nicotine, provide evidence that α7-nAChRs in the ventral hippocampus mediate the detrimental effect of ventral hippocampal nicotine on contextual fear learning. These results suggest that with systemic nicotine administration, competition exists between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus for behavioral control over contextual learning. PMID:22271264
Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.
The steroid hormone, estradiol (E2), has numerous targets in the central nervous system, including the hippocampus, which plays a key role in cognition and affective behavior. This review focuses on our evidence from studies in rodents that E2 has diverse mechanisms in the hippocampus for its functional effects E2 has rapid, membrane-mediated effects in the hippocampus to enhance cognitive performance. Administration of E2 to the hippocampus of rats for 10 minutes following training enhances performance in a hippocampus-mediated task. Increased cell firing in the hippocampus occurs within this short time frame. Furthermore, administration of free E2 or an E2 conjugate, E2:bovine serum albumin (BSA), to the hippocampus produces similar performance-enhancing effects in this task, suggesting that E2 has membrane actions in the hippocampus for these effects. Further evidence that E2 has rapid, membrane-mediated effects is that co-administration of E2 and inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), rather than intracellular E2 receptors (ERs) or protein synthesis, attenuate the enhancing effects of E2 in this task. Despite these data that demonstrate E2 can have rapid and/or membrane-mediated effects in the hippocampus, there is clear evidence to suggest that intracellular ERs, particularly the β (rather than α) isoform of ERs, may be important targets for E2’s functional effects for hippocampal processes. Administration of ligands that are specific for ERβ, but not ERα, have enhancing effects on hippocampal processes similar to that of E2 (which has similar affinity for ERα and ERβ). These effects are attenuated when ERβ expression is knocked down in transgenic models or with central administration of antisense oligonucleotides. Thus, there may be a convergence of E2’s actions through rapid, membrane-mediated effects and intracellular ERs and in the hippocampus for these functional effects. PMID:18342348
Malykhin, Nikolai V; Bouchard, Thomas P; Camicioli, Richard; Coupland, Nicholas J
Earlier studies suggest that the anterior hippocampus may show resilience to age-associated volume loss. This study compared high-resolution magnetic resonance images obtained from younger (n=28; age range: 22-50 years) and older (n=39; age range: 65-84 years) healthy right-handed individuals to determine whether age-related volume changes varied between the hippocampal head, body and tail. Volumetric reductions were progressively more severe from hippocampal head to tail. Amygdala volume differences were intermediate in size. Although limited by the cross-sectional design, these data suggest that hippocampal subregions show a gradient of volume reduction in healthy aging that contrasts with the preferential reduction of anterior hippocampal volumes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate the neurobiological processes underlying hippocampal learning and memory. In addition, nicotine's ability to desensitize and upregulate certain nAChRs may alter hippocampus-dependent memory processes. Numerous studies have examined the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning, as well as the roles of low- and high-affinity nAChRs in mediating nicotine's effects on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. These studies suggested that while acute nicotine generally acts as a cognitive enhancer for hippocampus-dependent learning, withdrawal from chronic nicotine results in deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, these studies demonstrated that low- and high-affinity nAChRs functionally differ in their involvement in nicotine's effects on hippocampus-dependent learning. In the present chapter, we reviewed studies using systemic or local injections of acute or chronic nicotine, nAChR subunit agonists or antagonists; genetically modified mice; and molecular biological techniques to characterize the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning.
Pang, Z; Umberger, G H; Geddes, J W
Impaired energy metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of late-onset neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease by increasing neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxic damage through the NMDA receptor. The effects of metabolic impairment on the striatum have been extensively examined, but relatively little is known regarding the vulnerability of the hippocampus. To examine the effect of metabolic impairment on the hippocampal formation, malonate (0.25-2.5 mumol), a reversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, was administered by stereotaxic injection into the hippocampus of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neuronal loss was assessed by Nissl stain, and immunocytochemistry was used to examine cytoskeletal disruption. Malonate produced a dose-dependent lesion in which CA1 pyramidal neurons were most vulnerable, followed by CA3 and dentate gyrus. Cytoskeletal alterations included the loss of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and dendritic MAP1B immunoreactivity, whereas axonal MAP1B and tau proteins were relatively spared. Spatially and temporally correlated with the loss of MAP2 was an increase in the immunoreactivity of calpain-cleaved spectrin. A similar pattern of neuronal damage and cytoskeletal disruption was produced by intrahippocampal injection of quinolinate (0.1 mumol), an NMDA agonist. Although these results are consistent with the hypothesis that metabolic impairment results in excitotoxic death, MK-801 (dizocilipine maleate), a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, did not attenuate the lesions produced by malonate but was effective against quinolinate. The results suggest that NMDA receptor activation is not required for malonate-induced damage in the hippocampal formation.
Hassan, Amal I; Ghoneim, Mona A M; Mahmoud, Manal G; Asker, Mohsen M S; Mohamed, Saher S
Damage to normal tissues is a consequence of both therapeutic and accidental exposures to ionizing radiation. A water-soluble heteropolysaccharide called AXEPS, composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and glucouronic acid in a molar ratio of nearly 1.0:1.6:0.4:2.3, respectively, was isolated from culture medium of strain Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 by ethanol precipitation followed by freeze-drying. Chemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and chromatographic studies revealed that the molecular weight was 1.6 × 10(4) g mol(-1). This study was designed to investigate the radioprotective and biological effects of AXEPS in alleviating the toxicity of ionizing radiation in female albino rats. A total of 32 female albino rats were divided into four groups. In the control group, rats were administered vehicle by tube for four weeks. The second group was administered AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for four weeks. Animals in the third group were exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy) and remained for 2 weeks without treatment. The fourth group received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for two weeks before being exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy), then 24 h post γ-rays, they received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) in a treatment continuing till the end of the experiment (15 days after the whole-body γ-irradiation). Oral administration of AXEPS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed the oxidative stress effects of radiation, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in the bone marrow. Assessment of apoptosis and cell proliferation markers revealed that caspase-3 significantly increased in the irradiated group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the hematological constituents of peripheral blood, the chemotactic index and CD8+ T cells were observed in animals in the irradiation-only group, whereas an increase in the lymphocyte index was observed in animals in that group. In contrast, AXEPS treatment prevented these alterations. From our results, we conclude that
Hassan, Amal I.; Ghoneim, Mona A. M.; Mahmoud, Manal G.; Asker, Mohsen M. S.; Mohamed, Saher S.
Damage to normal tissues is a consequence of both therapeutic and accidental exposures to ionizing radiation. A water-soluble heteropolysaccharide called AXEPS, composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and glucouronic acid in a molar ratio of nearly 1.0:1.6:0.4:2.3, respectively, was isolated from culture medium of strain Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 by ethanol precipitation followed by freeze-drying. Chemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and chromatographic studies revealed that the molecular weight was 1.6 × 104 g mol−1. This study was designed to investigate the radioprotective and biological effects of AXEPS in alleviating the toxicity of ionizing radiation in female albino rats. A total of 32 female albino rats were divided into four groups. In the control group, rats were administered vehicle by tube for four weeks. The second group was administered AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for four weeks. Animals in the third group were exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy) and remained for 2 weeks without treatment. The fourth group received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for two weeks before being exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy), then 24 h post γ-rays, they received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) in a treatment continuing till the end of the experiment (15 days after the whole–body γ-irradiation). Oral administration of AXEPS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed the oxidative stress effects of radiation, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in the bone marrow. Assessment of apoptosis and cell proliferation markers revealed that caspase-3 significantly increased in the irradiated group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the hematological constituents of peripheral blood, the chemotactic index and CD8+ T cells were observed in animals in the irradiation-only group, whereas an increase in the lymphocyte index was observed in animals in that group. In contrast, AXEPS treatment prevented these alterations. From our results, we conclude that
Lee, Andy C. H.; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Barense, Morgan D.
In this review, we will discuss the idea that the hippocampus may be involved in both memory and perception, contrary to theories that posit functional and neuroanatomical segregation of these processes. This suggestion is based on a number of recent neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies that have demonstrated that the hippocampus is involved in the visual discrimination of complex spatial scene stimuli. We argue that these findings cannot be explained by long-term memory or working memory processing or, in the case of patient findings, dysfunction beyond the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Instead, these studies point toward a role for the hippocampus in higher-order spatial perception. We suggest that the hippocampus processes complex conjunctions of spatial features, and that it may be more appropriate to consider the representations for which this structure is critical, rather than the cognitive processes that it mediates. PMID:22529794
Combined administration of levetiracetam and valproic acid attenuates age-related hyperactivity of CA3 place cells, reduces place field area, and increases spatial information content in aged rat hippocampus.
Robitsek, Jonathan; Ratner, Marcia H; Stewart, Tara; Eichenbaum, Howard; Farb, David H
Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of functional inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA.
Combined Administration of Levetiracetam and Valproic Acid Attenuates Age Related Hyperactivity of CA3 Place Cells, Reduces Place Field Area, and Increases Spatial Information Content in Aged Rat Hippocampus
Robitsek, RJ; Ratner, MH; Stewart, TM; Eichenbaum, H; Farb, DH
Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA. PMID:25941121
Casasola, C; Mejía-Gervacio, S; Cruz-Pérez, M; Sánchez-Castillo, H; Velázquez-Martínez, D N
Stimulus discrimination is the capacity of an organism to differentiate between stimuli and emit associated responses. The administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine can be used as a stimulus by mammals in a discrimination task. The present study analyzes the contribution of the hippocampus in scopolamine discrimination and generalization. Male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300 g at the beginning of the experiment, were trained to discriminate between scopolamine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and saline administration using a two-lever operant task; rats had to respond differentially to each lever depending on the preceding drug or saline administration. Once stimulus control was attained, rats were tested with different scopolamine doses (0.0, 0.056, 0.091, 0.16, 0.31 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in order to obtain generalization curves. After generalization the rats were randomly assigned to hippocampal CA1 lesion or control groups. Hippocampus impairment produced a transient decrease in the capacity to discriminate between scopolamine and saline conditions; nonetheless, scopolamine correct responses were rapidly recovered after a few sessions and even maintained after 90 days. Correct responses for saline condition were never recovered. The generalization curve obtained after hippocampus lesion showed a response gradient severely flattened. Results suggest that the hippocampus participates as a neural system supporting the sensitivity to detect discrete changes in stimulus properties and relational memory, more than on the capacity to recall for simple associative responses.
Vaccination with liposomal leishmanial antigens adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-TDM) confers long-term protection against visceral leishmaniasis through a human administrable route.
Ravindran, Rajesh; Maji, Mithun; Ali, Nahid
The development of a long-term protective subunit vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis depends on antigens and adjuvants that can induce an appropriate immune response. The immunization of leishmanial antigens alone shows limited efficacy in the absence of an appropriate adjuvant. Earlier we demonstrated sustained protection against Leishmania donovani with leishmanial antigens entrapped in cationic liposomes through an intraperitoneal route. However, this route is not applicable for human administration. Herein, we therefore evaluated the immune response and protection induced by liposomal soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) formulated with monophosphoryl lipid-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-TDM) through a subcutaneous route. Subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c mice with SLA entrapped in liposomes or with MPL-TDM elicited partial protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, liposomal SLA adjuvanted with MPL-TDM induced significantly higher levels of protection in liver and spleen in BALB/c mice challenged 10 days post-vaccination. Protection conferred by this formulation was sustained up to 12 weeks of immunization, and infection was controlled for at least 4 months of the challenge, similar to liposomal SLA immunization administered intraperitoneally. An analysis of cellular immune responses of liposomal SLA + MPL-TDM immunized mice demonstrated the induction of IFN-γ and IgG2a antibody production not only 10 days or 12 weeks post-vaccination but also 4 months after the challenge infection and a down regulation of IL-4 production after infection. Moreover, long-term immunity elicited by this formulation was associated with IFN-γ production also by CD8⁺ T cells. Taken together, our results suggest that liposomal SLA + MPL-TDM represent a good vaccine formulation for the induction of durable protection against L. donovani through a human administrable route.
Kawahara, Tomohiro; Makizaki, Yutaka; Oikawa, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Maeda, Ayako; Shimakawa, Masaki; Komoto, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Kyoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Koki
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model. As well as prophylactic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 2 days before RV infection, therapeutic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 1 day after RV infection significantly alleviated RV-induced diarrhea. Therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 reduced various types of damage in the small intestine, such as epithelial vacuolization and villous shortening, and significantly diminished the infectious RV titer in mixtures of cecal contents and feces. It was also shown that therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly increased the number of acidic mucin-positive goblet cells and the gene expression of mucosal protective factors including MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, TGFβ1 and TFF3 in the small intestine. This led to alleviation of low gut permeability shown as decreased gene expression levels of occludin, claudin-1 and villin-1 after RV infection. Furthermore, in the small intestine, therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly palliated the decreased gene expression of SGLT-1, which plays an important role in water absorption. In the large intestine, administered BBG9-1 was shown to replicate to assimilate undigested nutrients, resulting in normalization of the abnormally high osmotic pressure. These results suggested that water malabsorption caused by RV infection was alleviated in mice administered
Blaha, G R; Raghupathi, R; Saatman, K E; McIntosh, T K
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of excitotoxicity, axotomy and cerebral ischemia. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following traumatic brain injury in the rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=99) were anesthetized and subjected to lateral fluid percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.4-2.8 atm) or sham injury. Four hours after injury, the animals were reanesthetized, an indwelling, intraparenchymal cannula was implanted, and infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or phosphate-buffered saline vehicle was initiated from a mini-osmotic pump and continued for two weeks. In Study 1 (N=48), vehicle or 12 microg/day of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was infused into the dorsal hippocampus. In Study 2 (N=51), vehicle or brain-derived neurotrophic factor at a high (12 microg/day) or low dose (1.2 microg/day) was infused into the injured parietal cortex. All animals were evaluated for neurological motor function at two days, one week and two weeks post-injury. Cognitive function (learning and memory) was assessed at two weeks post-injury using a Morris Water Maze. At two weeks post-injury, neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA3 and dentate hilus and in the injured cortex was evaluated. In Study 2, neuronal loss was also quantified in the thalamic medial geniculate nucleus. All of the above outcome measures demonstrated significant deleterious effects of brain injury (P<0.05 compared to sham). However, post-traumatic brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion did not significantly affect neuromotor function, learning, memory or neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex or thalamus when compared to vehicle infusion in brain-injured animals, regardless of the infusion site or infusion dose (P>0.05 for each). In contrast to previous studies of axotomy, ischemia and excitotoxicity, our data indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is not protective against
Khoury, Tawfik; Rotnemer-Golinkin, Devorah; Shabat, Yehudit; Zolotarovya, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron
Background and Aims: Both alcoholic drinks and high sugar-containing soft drinks cause major health problems worldwide. Oral administration of OS and M1 soy-derived extracts has been shown to alleviate liver injury in animal models. The aim of the present study was to determine the liver- and sugar-protective effect of OS and M1 soy-derived extracts when added to alcohol and sugar-enriched drinks. Methods: Mice were treated with alcohol or high sugar-containing drinks, with and without administration of a combination of OS and M1 soy extracts. Mice were observed for the effects on liver injury, glucose metabolism, and the immune system. Results: Co-administration of the soy extracts OS and M1 significantly alleviated the liver injury induced by acute alcohol, as evidenced by decreased liver enzymes. These beneficial effects were associated with promotion of subsets of regulatory T lymphocytes and with a trend towards a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory cytokine shift. Co-administration of OS M1 soy extracts with sugar-sweetened beverages significantly alleviated the increases in serum sugar levels. Conclusions: OS and M1 extracts exert a synergistic hepato- and glucose-protective effect in models of alcohol-induced liver damage and soft drinks-associated increases in serum glucose. These extracts may provide a solution to the two pressing health problems.
Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Wu, Renan; Zeisel, Steven H.
Diethanolamine (DEA) is present in many consumer products such as shampoo. Dermal administration of DEA diminishes hepatic stores of the essential nutrient choline, and we previously reported that dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy reduces neurogenesis and increases apoptosis in the hippocampus of fetal rats and mice. Therefore, DEA could also alter brain development. Timed-pregnant C57BL/6 mice were dosed dermally from gestation day 7 through 17 with DEA at 0, 20, 80, 160, 320, and 640 mg/kg body/day. At doses of DEA > 80 mg/kg body/day, we observed decreased litter size. In fetuses (embryonic day 17) collected from dams treated dermally with 80 mg/kg body/day DEA, we observed decreased neural progenitor cell mitosis at the ventricular surface of the ventricular zone of the hippocampus [to 56±14% (SE) histone 3 (H3) phosphorylation as compared to controls; P < 0.01]. We also observed increased apoptosis in fetal hippocampus (to 170±10% of control measured using TUNEL and to 178±7% of control measured using activated caspase 3; P < 0.01). Thus, maternal exposure to DEA reduces the number of neural progenitor cells in hippocampus by two mechanisms, and this could permanently alter memory function in offspring of mothers exposed to this common ingredient of shampoos and soaps.—Craciunescu, C. N., Wu, R., Zeisel, S. H. Diethanolamine alters neurogenesis and induces apoptosis in fetal mouse hippocampus. PMID:16873886
Rocha, Joana N; Cohen, Noah D; Bordin, Angela I; Brake, Courtney N; Giguère, Steeve; Coleman, Michelle C; Alaniz, Robert C; Lawhon, Sara D; Mwangi, Waithaka; Pillai, Suresh D
There is currently no licensed vaccine that protects foals against Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia. Oral administration of live, virulent R. equi to neonatal foals has been demonstrated to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with virulent R. equi. Electron beam (eBeam)-inactivated R. equi are structurally intact and have been demonstrated to be immunogenic when administered orally to neonatal foals. Thus, we investigated whether eBeam inactivated R. equi could protect foals against developing pneumonia after experimental infection with live, virulent R. equi. Foals (n = 8) were vaccinated by gavaging with eBeam-inactivated R. equi at ages 2, 7, and 14 days, or gavaged with equal volume of saline solution (n = 4), and subsequently infected intrabronchially with live, virulent R. equi at age 21 days. The proportion of vaccinated foals that developed pneumonia following challenge was similar among the vaccinated (7/8; 88%) and unvaccinated foals (3/4; 75%). This vaccination regimen did not appear to be strongly immunogenic in foals. Alternative dosing regimens or routes of administration need further investigation and may prove to be immunogenic and protective.
Rocha, Joana N.; Cohen, Noah D.; Bordin, Angela I.; Brake, Courtney N.; Giguère, Steeve; Coleman, Michelle C.; Alaniz, Robert C.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Mwangi, Waithaka; Pillai, Suresh D.
There is currently no licensed vaccine that protects foals against Rhodococcus equi–induced pneumonia. Oral administration of live, virulent R. equi to neonatal foals has been demonstrated to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with virulent R. equi. Electron beam (eBeam)-inactivated R. equi are structurally intact and have been demonstrated to be immunogenic when administered orally to neonatal foals. Thus, we investigated whether eBeam inactivated R. equi could protect foals against developing pneumonia after experimental infection with live, virulent R. equi. Foals (n = 8) were vaccinated by gavaging with eBeam-inactivated R. equi at ages 2, 7, and 14 days, or gavaged with equal volume of saline solution (n = 4), and subsequently infected intrabronchially with live, virulent R. equi at age 21 days. The proportion of vaccinated foals that developed pneumonia following challenge was similar among the vaccinated (7/8; 88%) and unvaccinated foals (3/4; 75%). This vaccination regimen did not appear to be strongly immunogenic in foals. Alternative dosing regimens or routes of administration need further investigation and may prove to be immunogenic and protective. PMID:26828865
Ma, Chunhua; Long, Hongyan
Betulin is extracted from birch tree bark and exerts diverse pharmacological activities. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of betulin (BE) on cognitive decline in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic model was built by streptozotocin (STZ) (30mg/kg, ip). After 4 weeks, the diabetic rats were treated with vehicle or BE (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and serum insulin were detected. Three days later, Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate memory function. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in hippocampus were examined. Inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and hippocampus were measured. The protein expressions of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NF-κB pathways-related molecules in hippocampus were examined. As a results, BE could improve glucose intolerance and modify basal learning performance. Treatment with BE significantly restored SOD activity and decreased MDA content in hippocampus. BE also markedly reduced the contents of inflammatory cytokines in serum and hippocampus. Furthermore, administration of BE effectively upregulated the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and blocked the phosphorylations of IκB, NF-κB. In summary, BE might exhibit protective effect on cognitive decline in STZ-induced diabetic rats through HO-1/Nrf-2/NF-κB pathway.
DeLong, G R
Autism is held to be the result of the failure of a central cognitive processor which is necessary for flexible multidimensional association of sensorial stimuli, memory, and motivational states. Failure of this processor produces rigid, invariant, rote behavior, thought and language and aberrant modulation of emotion. It is argued that this central processing function is critically dependent on the hippocampus. Thus autism is postulated to be the developmental syndrome of hippocampal dysfunction. The hippocampus is postulated to be necessary for normal development in the child of language syntax, semantics, and pragmatics; the capacity for creativity and generativity in language and behavior, and combinatorial possibilities in general; for the integration of motivational states with experience and learning; and for the construction of a complex, useful and flexible structure of meaning. These constructs may become independent of hippocampus for use, but hippocampus is still required to modify or add to them. Finally, this analysis suggests a specific hypothesis of hippocampal organization which I advance as an hypothesis: that the hippocampus can be modelled as a multidimensional system in which the unique intersection of all input dimensions is the resultant.
Barbiero, Janaína K; Santiago, Ronise M; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ariza, Deborah; Morais, Lívia H; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F
The present study investigated the neurochemical, motor and cognitive effects of pioglitazone in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In the first experiment, we administered MPTP, and 1h later administered a single oral dose of pioglitazone (5, 15 and 30 mg/kg). The following day, we performed the open-field test and neurochemical dose response curve. We demonstrated that 30 mg/kg of pioglitazone was capable of restoring striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations and motor behaviors. A second experiment was conducted to test the effects of two protocols (acute and chronic) of pioglitazone (30 mg/kg) administration in the open-field test, two-way active avoidance task and in the DA and metabolites levels. The acute protocol consisted of a single oral administration 1 h after MPTP, whereas the chronic protocol was performed with daily administrations starting 1 h after MPTP and ending 22 days after that. Results showed that neither protocol was able to reverse the cognitive impairment promoted by MPTP. We also demonstrated that acute treatment generated some level of neuroprotection, as confirmed by the absence of DA reduction in the group treated with pioglitazone in comparison to the sham group. By contrast, chronic treatment leaded to a reduction of striatal DA, close to MPTP administration alone. These findings suggest that acute administration of pioglitazone (30 mg/kg) was more efficient in generating beneficial effects on motor behaviors and in striatal DA levels. Nevertheless, we failed to demonstrate that pioglitazone administration improved performance on a dopamine-related cognitive task after MPTP.
Ko, Yong-Hyun; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon
Liquiritigenin (LQ), a flavonoid extracted from the radix of Glycyrrhiza, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive enhancing effects of LQ on learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a muscarinic antagonist, using the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and novel object recognition tests. A single administration of LQ significantly improved scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in these behavioral tests. In addition, LQ dramatically inhibited acetylcholinesterase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance activities in the hippocampus of scopolamine-induced mice in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, LQ markedly increased the protein level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding (CREB) in the hippocampus of scopolamine-induced mice. Taken together, our results indicate that LQ may be useful for the treatment of learning and memory impairments, and that the beneficial effects of LQ are mediated, in part, by cholinergic and BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling enhancement and/or protection.
Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Wennekers, Thomas
The hippocampus is one of the most widely studied brain region. One of its functional roles is the storage and recall of declarative memories. Recent hippocampus research has yielded a wealth of data on network architecture, cell types, the anatomy and membrane properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons, and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the functional roles of different families of hippocampal neurons in information processing, synaptic plasticity and network oscillations poses a great challenge but also promises deep insight into one of the major brain systems. Computational and mathematical models play an instrumental role in exploring such functions. In this paper, we provide an overview of abstract and biophysical models of associative memory with particular emphasis on the operations performed by the diverse (inter)neurons in encoding and retrieval of memories in the hippocampus.
Pugh, Nirmal D; Edwall, Dan; Lindmark, Lars; Kousoulas, K Gus; Iyer, Arun V; Haron, Mona H; Pasco, David S
A growing body of research indicates that oral administration of bacteria (such as probiotics) can exhibit a protective effect against influenza A (H1N1) viral infection in mice. In the present study, we used a mouse model to examine whether oral administration of Immulina(®), a commercial extract from the cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, can reduce the severity of illness resulting from influenza A (H1N1) viral infection. The main active compounds within Immulina(®) are bacterial Braun-type lipoproteins that activate innate immune cells through a toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-dependent pathway. Mice that were fed Immulina(®) for 30 days before and 21 days after infection with influenza A (H1N1) virus exhibited a statistically significant reduction in the severity of infection. Compared to the control group, Immulina(®)-fed mice exhibited less weight loss, increased appetite, decreased clinical signs of disease, and lower lung histopathology scores. The results from the present study adds to the increasing evidence that oral administration of bacterial components that activate innate immune cells, whether derived from a bacterial preparation (probiotics or cyanobacteria) or from plant material containing endophytic bacteria, can exhibit a protective effect against influenza A (H1N1) viral infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Gordon, Richard K; Haigh, Julian R; Garcia, Gregory E; Feaster, Shawn R; Riel, Michael A; Lenz, David E; Aisen, Paul S; Doctor, Bhupendra P
maximal inhibition of AChE (26.2%) and concentration of PB (17.1 ng/mL) occurred at 2.5 h post-PB dosing. AChE activity returned to almost 100% of pre-dose values by 6 h. A dose-dependent linear correlation was found between the amount of PB measured in the blood and the inhibition of AChE. Following soman (GD) exposure, recovered AChE activity was similar to levels that were reversibly protected by the PB administration. Therefore, the WRAIR ChE WB data clearly supports the conclusion that PB is an effective pre-treatment drug for nerve agent exposure (GD). In the second FDA human study for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, the WRAIR ChE WB assay was used to determine the RBC-AChE and serum BChE profile of healthy elderly volunteers receiving Huperzine A. Huperzine A is a plant-derived reversible and selective AChE inhibitor compared to BChE, and is a more potent inhibitor of AChE than PB. Huperzine A is available as a nutraceutical, a natural supplement reported to improve memory, and has a variety of neuroprotective effects. Individuals received an increasing dose regimen of huperzine A (final dose 200 microg after 4 weeks), which produced more than 50% inhibition of RBC-AChE. Huperzine A was well tolerated by these patients at doses that sequestered more RBC-AChE than PB, and thus warrants further study as a prophylaxis for OP poisoning in addition to Alzheimer's therapy. Due to the documented use of OPs by terrorists and in warfare around the globe, Federal, State, and local authorities need a reliable, fast, inexpensive, and standard method for confirming such an assault in order to initiate appropriate containment, decontamination, and treatment measures. This assay is ideal for prescreening military personnel for atypical ChE activities that would preclude their deployment to areas of potential CWA exposure. The WRAIR WB ChE assay will fulfill the requirement for rapid and reliable monitoring of such exposure in military and civilian populations.
Miltiadous, Panagiota; Kouroupi, Georgia; Stamatakis, Antonios; Koutsoudaki, Paraskevi N.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a major neurological disease, often associated with cognitive decline. Since approximately 30% of patients are resistant to antiepileptic drugs, TLE is being considered as a possible clinical target for alternative stem cell-based therapies. Given that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is neuroprotective following a number of experimental insults to the nervous system, we investigated the therapeutic potential of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) transduced, or not, with a lentiviral vector for overexpression of IGF-I after transplantation in a mouse model of kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal degeneration, which represents an animal model of TLE. Exposure of mice to the Morris water maze task revealed that unilateral intrahippocampal NSC transplantation significantly prevented the KA-induced cognitive decline. Moreover, NSC grafting protected against neurodegeneration at the cellular level, reduced astrogliosis, and maintained endogenous granule cell proliferation at normal levels. In some cases, as in the reduction of hippocampal cell loss and the reversal of the characteristic KA-induced granule cell dispersal, the beneficial effects of transplanted NSCs were manifested earlier and were more pronounced when these were transduced to express IGF-I. However, differences became less pronounced by 2 months postgrafting, since similar amounts of IGF-I were detected in the hippocampi of both groups of mice that received cell transplants. Grafted NSCs survived, migrated, and differentiated into neurons—including glutamatergic cells—and not glia, in the host hippocampus. Our results demonstrate that transplantation of IGF-I producing NSCs is neuroprotective and restores cognitive function following KA-induced hippocampal degeneration. PMID:23417642
Since 1972, the issue of human rights protection has grown in complexity and intensity. Congress has passed four laws: Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974; Freedom of Information Act, as amended; Privacy Act of 1974; and National Research Act of 1974. From 1971-1980, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) and then the…
Kumar, Devender; Kirimanjeswara, Girish; Metzger, Dennis W.
Inhalation of Yersinia pestis causes pneumonic plague, which rapidly progresses to death. A previously licensed killed whole-cell vaccine is presently unavailable due to its reactogenicity and inconclusive evidence of efficacy. The present study now shows that vaccination intranasally (i.n.) with inactivated Y. pestis CO92 (iYp) adjuvanted with interleukin-12 (IL-12) followed by an i.n. challenge with a lethal dose of Y. pestis CO92 prevented bacterial colonization and protected 100% of mice from pneumonic plague. Survival of the vaccinated mice correlated with levels of systemic and lung antibodies, reduced pulmonary pathology and proinflammatory cytokines, and the presence of lung lymphoid cell aggregates. Protection against pneumonic plague was partially dependent upon Fc receptors and could be transferred to naïve mice with immune mouse serum. On the other hand, protection was not dependent upon complement, and following vaccination, depletion of CD4 and/or CD8 T cells before challenge did not affect survival. In summary, the results demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of i.n. administered iYp plus IL-12 in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. PMID:21880856
Gómez-Verduzco, G; Téllez, G; Quintana, A L; Isibasi, A; Ortiz-Navarrete, V
The current studies were undertaken to assess the ability of humoral immune response in breeding hens to provide protective maternal antibody in the progeny. A highly purified outer membrane protein, 34 kDa, was isolated from a virulent strain of Salmonella Gallinarum. Cross-reactivity was observed between this protein and Salmonella Typhi porins; thus we consider this outer membrane protein as a Salmonella Gallinarum porin. To evaluate passive immunity against Salmonella Gallinarum, 200 broiler breeder hens were immunized with either 10 microg of Salmonella Gallinarum porins, 30 microg of Salmonella Gallinarum porins, or PBS without porins as a control group. Anti-Salmonella Gallinarum porin antibodies were detected in broiler breeder serum and in fertile eggs (P < 0.05). Consequently, chickens from immunized broiler breeder hens were protected between 53 to 70% against challenges of 20 to 500 half-maximal lethal dose of Salmonella Gallinarum (P < 0.001) when compared with control hens that were injected with PBS. These results suggest that Salmonella Gallinarum porins, as those of other Salmonella species, participate in the induction of the passive protective immunity, and the humoral immune response may be one of the mechanisms involved in the establishment of this protection.
Rabbani, Zahid N.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Huang Jie; Day, Brian J.; Alexander, Elaine; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Purpose: To determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL 10150, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic properties, reduces the severity of radiation-induced injury to the lung from single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy. Methods and Materials: Rats were randomly divided into four different dose groups (0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150), receiving either short-term (1 week) or long-term (10 weeks) drug administration via osmotic pumps. Rats received single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy to the right hemithorax. Breathing rates, body weights, blood samples, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess lung damage. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the study endpoints between the irradiated controls and the three groups receiving RT and short-term administration of AEOL 10150. For the long-term administration, functional determinants of lung damage 20 weeks postradiation were significantly worse for RT + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and RT + 1 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150 as compared with the irradiated groups treated with higher doses of AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day). Lung histology at 20 weeks revealed a significant decrease in structural damage and collagen deposition in rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg/day after radiation in comparison to the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia in rats receiving AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day) after lung irradiation compared with the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Conclusions: The chronic administration of a novel catalytic antioxidant, AEOL 10150, demonstrates a significant protective effect from radiation-induced lung injury. AEOL 10150 has its primary impact on the cascade of events after irradiation, and adding the drug before irradiation and its short-term administration have no significant
Vintiñi, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain.
Pham, K-C; Tran, H T T; Van Doan, C; Le, P H; Van Nguyen, A T; Nguyen, H A; Hong, H A; Cutting, S M; Phan, T-N
In this study, Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a chimeric protein, CotB-VP28, were used as a probiotic vaccine to protect black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g pellet) to shrimps induced immune-relating phenoloxydase activity (PO) in shrimps after 14 days of feeding (prior challenge) and at day 3 post challenge (1·26 and 1·70 fold increase respectively). A 75% protection rate was obtained by continuous feeding of the spore-coated pellets at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g for 14 days prior to WSSV challenge and during all the postchallenge period. Even when the amount of CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets was reduced down to ≥5 × 10(7) CFU per g and ≥1 × 10(6) CFU per g, relatively high protection rates of 70 and 67·5%, respectively, were still obtained. By contrast, feeding pellets without spores (untreated group) and with naked spores (PY79 group) at ≥1 × 10(9) CFU per g could not protect shrimps against WSSV. These data suggest that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at low dose of ≥1 × 10(6) CFU per g could be effective as a prophylactic treatment of WSS for black tiger shrimps. This study reports the protective efficacy of Bacillus subtilis CotB-VP28 spores on black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g) conferred 75% protection after white spot syndrome virus challenge. Even after reducing CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets to ≥1 × 10(6) CFU per g, 67·5% protections was still obtained. These data indicate that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at a low dose of ≥1 × 10(6) CFU per g could be effective in prophylaxis against white spot syndrome in black tiger shrimps. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Zeng, Jin; Xu, Chunyan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Mengsi; Li, Chengpeng; Chen, Jie; Li, Tinyu; Wang, Yaping
Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose) induced aging rat model. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg·d) for 42 days, and the rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of D-gal injection. In another group, normal male SD rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 alone (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) for 28 days. It showed that administration of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly attenuated all the D-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive capacity, senescence-related markers and hippocampal neurogenesis, compared with the D-gal-treated rats. Further investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 protected NSCs/NPCs (neural stem cells/progenitor cells) shown by increased level of SOX-2 expression; reduced astrocytes activation shown by decrease level of Aeg-1 expression; increased the hippocampal cell proliferation; enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (Superoxide Dismutase); decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, which are the proinflammatory cytokines; increased the telomere lengths and telomerase activity; and down-regulated the mRNA expression of cellular senescence associated genes p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p19Arf in the hippocampus of aged rats. Our data provides evidence that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve cognitive ability, protect NSCs/NPCs and promote neurogenesis by enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in the hippocampus. PMID
Zhu, Jiahong; Mu, Xinyi; Zeng, Jin; Xu, Chunyan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Mengsi; Li, Chengpeng; Chen, Jie; Li, Tinyu; Wang, Yaping
Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose) induced aging rat model. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg·d) for 42 days, and the rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of D-gal injection. In another group, normal male SD rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 alone (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) for 28 days. It showed that administration of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly attenuated all the D-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive capacity, senescence-related markers and hippocampal neurogenesis, compared with the D-gal-treated rats. Further investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 protected NSCs/NPCs (neural stem cells/progenitor cells) shown by increased level of SOX-2 expression; reduced astrocytes activation shown by decrease level of Aeg-1 expression; increased the hippocampal cell proliferation; enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (Superoxide Dismutase); decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, which are the proinflammatory cytokines; increased the telomere lengths and telomerase activity; and down-regulated the mRNA expression of cellular senescence associated genes p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p19Arf in the hippocampus of aged rats. Our data provides evidence that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve cognitive ability, protect NSCs/NPCs and promote neurogenesis by enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in the hippocampus.
Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju
In this study, we evaluated the potential of poly (I:C) to induce antiviral status for protecting rock bream from RBIV infection. Rock bream injected with poly (I:C) at 2 days before infection (1.1 × 10(4)) at 20 °C had significantly higher protection with RPS 13.4% and 33.4% at 100 and 200 μg/fish, respectively, through 100 days post infection (dpi). The addition of boost immunization with poly (I:C) at before/post infection at 20 °C clearly enhanced the level of protection showing 33.4% and 60.0% at 100 and 200 μg/fish, respectively. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, rock bream were re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10(7)) at 200 dpi. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. Poly (I:C) induced TLR3 and Mx responses were observed at several sampling time points in the spleen, kidney and blood. Moreover, significantly high expression levels of IRF3 (2.9- and 3.1-fold at 1 d and 2 days post administration (dpa), respectively), ISG15 and PKR expression (5.4- and 10.2-fold at 2 dpa, respectively) were observed in the blood, but the expression levels were low in the spleen and kidney after poly (I:C) administration. Our results showed the induction of antiviral immune responses and indicate the possibility of developing long term preventive measures against RBIV using poly (I:C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knierim, James J.
Place cells of the rat hippocampus are a dominant model system for understanding the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory at the level of single-unit and neural ensemble responses. A complete understanding of the information processing and computations performed by the hippocampus requires detailed knowledge about the properties of the…
Knierim, James J.
Place cells of the rat hippocampus are a dominant model system for understanding the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory at the level of single-unit and neural ensemble responses. A complete understanding of the information processing and computations performed by the hippocampus requires detailed knowledge about the properties of the…
Gao, Yi; Ver Hoef, Lawrence
The hippocampus has been the focus of more imaging research than any other subcortical structure in the human brain. However a feature that has been almost universally overlooked are the bumpy ridges on the inferior aspect of the hippocampus, which we refer to as hippocampal dentation. These bumps arise from folds in the CA1 layer of Ammon's horn. Similar to the folding of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal dentation allows for greater surface area in a confined space. However, while quantitative studies of radiologic brain images have been advancing for decades, examining numerous approaches to hippocampal segmentation and morphology analysis, virtually all published 3D renderings of the hippocampus show the under surface to be quite smooth or mildly irregular; we have rarely seen the characteristic bumpy structure in the reconstructed 3D scene, one exception being the 9.4T postmortem study. This is presumably due to the fact that, based on our experience with high resolution images, there is a dramatic degree of variability in hippocampal dentation between individuals from very smooth to highly dentated. An apparent question is, does this indicate that this specific morphological signature can only be captured using expensive ultra-high field techniques? Or, is such information buried in the data we commonly acquire, awaiting a computation technique that can extract and render it clearly? In this study, we propose a super-resolution technique that captures the fine scale morphometric features of the hippocampus based on common T1-weighted 3T MR images.
Lam, Chun-Sing; Tipoe, George Lim; Wong, Johnny Kong-Ching; Youdim, Moussa B H; Fung, Man-Lung
Monoamine oxidases (MAO), downstream targets of glucocorticoid, maintain the turnover and homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters; yet, its pathophysiological role in monoamine deficiency, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation remains controversial. Protective effects of M30, a brain selective MAO inhibitor with iron-chelating antioxidant properties, have been shown in models of neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of M30 against depressive-like behavior induced by corticosterone (CORT). Sprague-Dawley rats were given CORT subcutaneous injections with or without concomitant M30 administration for two weeks. CORT-treated rats exhibited depressive-like behavior with significant elevated levels of MAO activities, serotonin turnover, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus with significant losses of synaptic proteins when compared to the control. The expression and activity of cytokine-responsive indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), a catabolic enzyme of serotonin and tryptophan, was significantly increased in the CORT-treated group with lowered levels of serotonin. Besides, CORT markedly reduced dendritic length and spine density. Remarkably, M30 administration neutralized the aberrant changes in the hippocampus and prevented the induction of depressive-like behavior induced by CORT. Our results suggest that M30 is neuroprotective against CORT-induced depression targeting elevated MAO activities that cause oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, resulting in IDO-1 activation, serotonin deficiency and neurodegeneration.
Lam, Chun-Sing; Tipoe, George Lim; Wong, Johnny Kong-Ching; Youdim, Moussa B. H.; Fung, Man-Lung
Monoamine oxidases (MAO), downstream targets of glucocorticoid, maintain the turnover and homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters; yet, its pathophysiological role in monoamine deficiency, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation remains controversial. Protective effects of M30, a brain selective MAO inhibitor with iron-chelating antioxidant properties, have been shown in models of neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of M30 against depressive-like behavior induced by corticosterone (CORT). Sprague-Dawley rats were given CORT subcutaneous injections with or without concomitant M30 administration for two weeks. CORT-treated rats exhibited depressive-like behavior with significant elevated levels of MAO activities, serotonin turnover, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus with significant losses of synaptic proteins when compared to the control. The expression and activity of cytokine-responsive indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), a catabolic enzyme of serotonin and tryptophan, was significantly increased in the CORT-treated group with lowered levels of serotonin. Besides, CORT markedly reduced dendritic length and spine density. Remarkably, M30 administration neutralized the aberrant changes in the hippocampus and prevented the induction of depressive-like behavior induced by CORT. Our results suggest that M30 is neuroprotective against CORT-induced depression targeting elevated MAO activities that cause oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, resulting in IDO-1 activation, serotonin deficiency and neurodegeneration. PMID:27870896
Brandhorst, Heide; Theisinger, Bastian; Guenther, Bernhard; Johnson, Paul R; Brandhorst, Daniel
The isolation and transplantation of porcine islets represent a future option for the treatment of type 1 diabetic patients. Stringent product release criteria and limited availability of transgenic and specific pathogen-free pigs will essentially require processing of explanted pig pancreata in specialized, possibly remote isolation facilities, whereby pancreata are exposed to cold ischemia due to prolonged tissue transit time. In the present study we investigated whether pancreas oxygenation can be efficiently combined with an antioxidant strategy utilizing intraductal L-glutamine administration. Pig pancreata were intraductally perfused after retrieval and after cold storage in oxygen-precharged perfluorohexyloctane utilizing University of Wisconsin solution supplemented with (n = 16) or without (n = 14) 5 mmol/L L-glutamine. After isolation purified islets were subjected to extensive quality assessment. Islet recovery postpurification was significantly higher in glutamine-treated pancreata (77.0 ± 3.3% vs. 60.3 ± 6.0%, p < 0.05). Glutamine administration increased intraislet content of reduced glutathione (117.8 ± 16.5 vs. 15.9 ± 2.8 ng/ng protein, p < 0.001) associated with increased islet recovery after culture (65.8 ± 12.1% vs. 40.3 ± 11.7%, p < 0.05), enhanced glucose stimulation index (1.82 ± 0.16 vs. 1.38 ± 0.10, p < 0.05), and improved posttransplant function in diabetic nude mice (p < 0.05). Furthermore, intraductally administered glutamine increased pig islet resistance toward reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and high-dose proinflammatory cytokines. The present study demonstrates that quality and function of pig islets exposed to warm and cold ischemia can significantly be improved using intraductal l-glutamine administration. As the efficiency of the intraductal route may be inferior compared to intravascular administration further studies should aim on assessment of l
Prion Protein Does Not Confer Resistance to Hippocampus-Derived Zpl Cells against the Toxic Effects of Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ Not Supporting a General Protective Role for PrP in Transition Metal Induced Toxicity
Cingaram, Pradeep Kumar Reddy; Nyeste, Antal; Dondapati, Divya Teja; Fodor, Elfrieda; Welker, Ervin
The interactions of transition metals with the prion protein (PrP) are well-documented and characterized, however, there is no consensus on their role in either the physiology of PrP or PrP-related neurodegenerative disorders. PrP has been reported to protect cells from the toxic stimuli of metals. By employing a cell viability assay, we examined the effects of various concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ on Zpl (Prnp-/-) and ZW (Prnp+/+) hippocampus-derived mouse neuronal cells. Prnp-/- Zpl cells were more sensitive to all four metals than PrP-expressing Zw cells. However, when we introduced PrP or only the empty vector into Zpl cells, we could not discern any protective effect associated with the presence of PrP. This observation was further corroborated when assessing the toxic effect of metals by propidium-iodide staining and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Thus, our results on this mouse cell culture model do not seem to support a strong protective role for PrP against transition metal toxicity and also emphasize the necessity of extreme care when comparing cells derived from PrP knock-out and wild type mice. PMID:26426582
Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Zhong, Yong; Dunaief, Joshua L.
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the light damage (LD) model of retinal degeneration as well as in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since iron can promote oxidative stress, the iron chelator Deferiprone (DFP) was tested for protection against light-induced retinal degeneration. To accomplish this, A/J mice were treated with or without DFP in drinking water, and then were placed in constant bright white fluorescent light (10,000 lux) for 20 hours. Retinas were evaluated at several time points after light exposure. Photoreceptor apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL assay. Retinal degeneration was assessed by histology 10 days after exposure to damaging white light. Two genes upregulated by oxidative stress, heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and ceruloplasmin (Cp), as well as complement component 3 (C3) were quantified by RT-qPCR. Cryosections were immunolabeled for oxidative stress marker (nitrotyrosine), a microglial marker (Iba1) as well as both heavy (H) and light (L) ferritin. Light exposure resulted in substantial photoreceptor-specific cell death. Dosing with DFP protected photoreceptors, decreasing the numbers of TUNEL-positive photoreceptors and increasing the number of surviving photoreceptors. The retinal mRNA levels of oxidative stress related genes and C3 were upregulated following light exposure and diminished by DFP treatment. Immunostaining for nitrotyrosine indicated that DFP reduced the nitrative stress caused by light exposure. Robust H/L-ferritin-containing microglial activation and migration to the outer retina occurred after light exposure and DFP treatment reduced microglial invasion. DFP is protective against light-induced retinal degeneration and has the potential to diminish oxidative stress in the retina. PMID:22579919
Sullivan, Nicole L.; Blazevic, Azra; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.; Hoft, Daniel F.
Background Immunization of mice with the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) gene using plasmid DNA, adenoviral vector, and CpG-adjuvanted protein delivery has proven highly immunogenic and provides protection against acute lethal challenge. However, long-term protection induced by TS DNA vaccines has not been reported. The goal of the present work was to test whether the co-administration of a plasmid encoding IL-15 (pIL-15) could improve the duration of protection achieved through genetic vaccination with plasmid encoding TS (pTS) alone. Methodology We immunized BALB/c mice with pTS in the presence or absence of pIL-15 and studied immune responses [with TS-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT, serum IgG ELISAs, intracellular cytokine staining (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2), tetramer staining, and CFSE dilution assays] and protection against lethal systemic challenge at 1 to 6 months post vaccination. Mice receiving pTS alone developed robust TS-specific IFN-γ responses and survived a lethal challenge given within the first 3 months following immunization. The addition of pIL-15 to pTS vaccination did not significantly alter T cell responses or protection during this early post-vaccination period. However, mice vaccinated with both pTS and pIL-15 challenged 6 months post-vaccination were significantly more protected against lethal T. cruzi challenges than mice vaccinated with pTS alone (P<0.05). Improved protection correlated with significantly higher numbers of TS-specific IFN-γ producing total and CD8+ T cells detected>6 months post immunization. Also, these TS-specific T cells were better able to expand after in vitro re-stimulation. Conclusion Addition of pIL-15 during genetic vaccination greatly improved long-term T cell survival, memory T cell expansion, and long-term protection against the important human parasite, T. cruzi. PMID:21408124
brane proteins . Protein oxidizing agents, chloramine -T the hydroxyl radicals at one site while at another site, the and n-chlorosuccinimide, produced only... proteins are also in MDA without causing any direct effects (Table I). likely to be present in the tissue: hemoglobin and trans- DMSO also... proteins can, under certain conditions, release Free Radical Damage in Hippocampus 443 TABLE I. Effect of Protectants on Malonaldehyde Levels in Hippocampus
Noteboom, J L; Hummel, W A; Broerse, J J; de Vijlder, J J; Vulsma, T; Jansen, J T; van Bekkum, D W
The safety and efficacy of the administration of stable iodide to protect the fetal thyroid from exposure to radioactive iodide were investigated in chimpanzees in weeks 19 to 21 of pregnancy. The mean 24-h uptake of iodide in the fetal thyroid, determined with 123I-, was 1.8%. Administration of stable potassium iodide (KI), 0.65, 1.95 or 6.5 mg per kg body weight, 1 h before tracer injection reduced the fetal uptake satisfactorily. Only the higher doses were effective after 20 h. Excess iodide may impair a child's thyroid status. However, adverse effects were not found during the 11 days the animals ingested these doses. Tracer concentrations in the amniotic fluid were 30- to 130-fold lower than in the urine. The dose to the fetus from radioactivity in the maternal bladder was estimated by computer simulation. The potential increment of the risk from this dose during the ingestion of stable iodide is smaller than the reduction of risk achieved by inhibiting the uptake of radioactive iodide by the fetal thyroid. The conclusion of the experiments is that stable iodide can be used safely and effectively to protect the fetal thyroid against contamination with radioactive iodine.
Martins, Tânia; Baptista, Sofia; Gonçalves, Joana; Leal, Ermelindo; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Carlos F; Quintela, Oscar; Lendoiro, Elena; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Ambrósio, António F; Silva, Ana P
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful stimulant drug of abuse that has steadily gained popularity worldwide. It is known that METH is highly neurotoxic and causes irreversible damage of brain cells leading to neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. Recent studies suggested that METH-induced neurotoxicity might also result from its ability to compromise blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Due to the crucial role of BBB in the maintenance of brain homeostasis and protection against toxic molecules and pathogenic organisms, its dysfunction could have severe consequences. In this study, we investigated the effect of an acute high dose of METH (30mg/kg) on BBB permeability after different time points and in different brain regions. For that, young adult mice were sacrificed 1h, 24h or 72h post-METH administration. METH increased BBB permeability, but this effect was detected only at 24h after administration, being therefore a transitory effect. Interestingly, we also found that the hippocampus was the most susceptible brain region to METH, comparing to frontal cortex and striatum. Moreover, in an attempt to identify the key players in METH-induced BBB dysfunction we further investigated potential alterations in tight junction (TJ) proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). METH was able to decrease the protein levels of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, claudin-5 and occludin in the hippocampus 24h post-injection, and increased the activity and immunoreactivity of MMP-9. The pre-treatment with BB-94 (30mg/kg), a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, prevented the METH-induced increase in MMP-9 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. Overall, the present data demonstrate that METH transiently increases the BBB permeability in the hippocampus, which can be explained by alterations on TJ proteins and MMP-9.
Lozano, Iñigo; Sanchez-Insa, Esther; de Leiras, Sergio Rodríguez; Carrillo, Pilar; Ruiz-Quevedo, Valeriano; Pinar, Eduardo; Gopar-Gopar, Silvia; Bayon, Jeremías; Mañas, Pilar; Lasa, Garikoitz; CruzGonzalez, Ignacio; Hernandez, Felipe; Fernandez-Portales, Javier; Fernandez-Fernandez, Javier; Pérez-Serradilla, Ana; de la Torre Hernandez, José M; Gomez-Jaume, Alfredo
The Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency sent a warning in 2010 discouraging the concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole. The purpose is to know the gastroprotective approach in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the level of follow-up of the alert. In 17 hospitals with catheterization laboratory in Spain, 1 per region, we studied 25 consecutive patients per hospital whose diagnosis of discharge since October 1, 2013, had been any type of ACS. We analyzed their baseline clinical profile, the gatroprotective agents at admission and discharge and the antiplatelet therapy at discharge. The number of patients included was 425: age 67.2 ± 12.5 years, women 29.8%, diabetes 36.5%. The patients presented unstable angina in 21.6%, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 35.3% and ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 43.1%. Conservative approach was chosen in 17.9%, bare-metal stents 32.2%, ≥ 1 drug-eluting stent 48.5%, and surgery 1.4%. Aspirin was indicated in 1.9%, aspirin + clopidogrel 73.6%, aspirin + prasugrel 17.6%, and aspririn + ticagrelor 6.8%. Gastroprotective agents were present in 40.2% patients at admission and this percentage increased to 93.7% at discharge. Of the 313 (73.6%) on clopidogrel in 96 (30.6%) was combined with omeprazole and 3 (0.95%) with esomeprazole, whereas the most commonly used was pantoprazole with 190 patients (44.7%). In conclusion, almost the totality of the patients with an ACS receive gastroprotective agents at the moment of discharge, most of them with proton-pump inhibitors. In one every 3 cases of the patients who are on clopidogrel, the recommendation of the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency is not followed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dianat, Mahin; Sadeghi, Najmeh; Badavi, Mohammad; Panahi, Marziyeh; Taheri Moghadam, Mahin
Background: Irreversible myocardial ischemic injury begins 20 minutes after the onset of coronary occlusion. Then the infarcted cells show signs of necrosis and death. Objectives: This study investigated the effects of co-administration of Gallic acid (antioxidant) with cyclosporine (mitochondrial permeability transition pore [mPTP] inhibitor) on myocardial morphology of rats during ischemia and reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four male Wistar rats (250-300 g), were randomly divided into 9 groups: sham, control (Ca received saline, 1 mL/kg, Cb: perfused with cyclosporine CsA 0.2 µM), 3 groups pretreated with Gallic acid in saline (G1a:7.5, G2a:15, and G3a: 30 mg/kg/day, and gavage daily for 10 days, n = 6), and the other three groups were pretreated with Gallic acid then perfused using CsA, (G1b:7.5, G2b:15, and G3b: 30 mg/kg/day) at the first 13 minutes of reperfusion period. After 10 days pretreatment, the rat hearts were isolated and transferred to Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 minutes ischemia following 60 minutes reperfusion. Afterward, the hearts were preserved in 10% formalin for histological studies at the end of the experiment. Finally, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining techniques were used for evaluating the changes in myocardial architecture, degradation of myofibers, and collagen integrity. The differences were analyzed using Pearson test. Results: Cell degenerative changes, pyknotic nuclei, contraction bands, edema, and loosening of collagen in between muscle fibers were observed during ischemia-reperfusion. Myocardial architecture and cellular morphology were recovered in co-administration groups, especially in (Gallic acid 15 mg/kg + CsA, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest the important role of the antioxidant system potentiation in the prevention of myocardial damage. PMID:25625048
Background Type I interferons (IFNs) exhibit direct antiviral effects, but also distinct immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we analyzed type I IFN subtypes for their effect on prophylactic adenovirus-based anti-retroviral vaccination of mice against Friend retrovirus (FV) or HIV. Results Mice were vaccinated with adenoviral vectors encoding FV Env and Gag proteins alone or in combination with vectors encoding IFNα1, IFNα2, IFNα4, IFNα5, IFNα6, IFNα9 or IFNβ. Only the co-administration of adenoviral vectors encoding IFNα2, IFNα4, IFNα6 and IFNα9 resulted in strongly improved immune protection of vaccinated mice from subsequent FV challenge infection with high control over FV-induced splenomegaly and reduced viral loads. The level of protection correlated with augmented virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses and enhanced antibody titers. Similar results were obtained when mice were vaccinated against HIV with adenoviral vectors encoding HIV Env and Gag-Pol in combination with various type I IFN encoding vectors. Here mainly CD4+ T cell responses were enhanced by IFNα subtypes. Conclusions Our results indicate that certain IFNα subtypes have the potential to improve the protective effect of adenovirus-based vaccines against retroviruses. This correlated with augmented virus-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Thus, co-expression of select type I IFNs may be a valuable tool for the development of anti-retroviral vaccines. PMID:21943056
Moodley, K K; Chan, D
AD is the commonest neurodegenerative disorder resulting ultimately in dementia, a stage during which there is a loss of previously acquired intellectual skill and independent occupational and social function. Neurodegenerative changes within the hippocampus and an extended neuronal network involving the medial temporal and medial parietal lobe result in the archetypal memory impairment seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As attention focuses increasingly on early diagnosis and treatment of dementia, this understanding of the hippocampal involvement in AD has helped to develop diagnostic tools for use in early disease. However, hippocampal damage is also a common feature among non-AD neurodegenerative dementias. Neuroimaging techniques, in conjunction with behavioral and pathological techniques, can be used to determine the involvement of the hippocampus in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Brunson, Kristen L.; Chen, Yuncai; Avishai-Eliner, Sarit; Baram, Tallie Z.
The mechanisms that regulate neuronal function are a sum of genetically determined programs and experience. The effect of experience on neuronal function is particularly important during development, because early-life positive and adverse experience (stress) may influence the still “plastic” nervous system long-term. Specifically, for hippocampal-mediated learning and memory processes, acute stress may enhance synaptic efficacy and overall learning ability, and conversely, chronic or severe stress has been shown to be detrimental. The mechanisms that enable stress to act as this “double-edged sword” are unclear. Here, we discuss the molecular mediators of the stress response in the hippocampus with an emphasis on novel findings regarding the role of the neuropeptide known as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). We highlight the physiological and pathological roles of this peptide in the developing hippocampus, and their relevance to the long-term effects of early-life experience on cognitive function during adulthood. PMID:12777683
Fiorini, Ryan N; Donovan, Jennifer L; Rodwell, David; Evans, Zachary; Cheng, Gang; May, Harold D; Milliken, Charles E; Markowitz, John S; Campbell, Crystal; Haines, Julia K; Schmidt, Michael G; Chavin, Kenneth D
Hepatic steatosis increases the extent of cellular injury incurred during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major flavonoid component of green tea (camellia sinensis) is a potent antioxidant that inhibits fatty acid synthase (FAS) in vitro. We investigated the effects of EGCG on hepatic steatosis and markers of cellular damage at baseline and after I/R injury in ob/ob mice. Animals were pretreated with 85 mg/kg EGCG via intraperitoneal (ip) injection for 2 days or oral consumption in the drinking water for 5 days before 15 minutes of warm ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. After EGCG administration, total baseline hepatic fat content decreased from baseline. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid levels also were reduced substantially in all ECGC-treated animals before I/R. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels decreased in all EGCG-treated animals compared with control animals after I/R. Histologic analysis demonstrated an average decrease of 65% necrosis after EGCG administration. EGCG administration also increased resting hepatic energy stores as determined by an increase in cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with a concomitant decrease in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) before I/R. Finally, there was an increased level of glutathione (GSH) in the EGCG-treated mice compared with the vehicle-treated mice both at baseline and after I/R. In conclusion, taken together, this study demonstrates that treatment with ECGC by either oral or ip administration, significantly protects the liver after I/R, possibly by reducing hepatic fat content, increasing hepatic energy status, and functioning as an antioxidant.
Lin, Peng; Li, Wenjuan; Yao, Zhina; Sun, Yu; Wang, Lingshu; Li, Shiwu; Chen, Li
Type 1 diabetes is a T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disease. Antigen-specific immune intervention allows the selective targeting of autoreactive T cell, while leaving the remainder of the immune system intact. However, immune intervention for type 1 diabetes has not yielded perfect results clinically. In our paper published previously, we asked whether pancreatic duodenal home box 1 (PDX1) is a target of anti-islet autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. In this experiment, we assessed the therapeutic effect of oral administration of PDX1 on diabetes development of 4-week-old non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The results indicate that PDX1 immunization is an effective intervention strategy for delaying the onset of diabetes in NOD mice in association with: 1) reduced insulitis; 2) suppression of destructive autoreactive T cells; 3) augmentation of regulatory T cells; 4) a shift in cytokine production. The present observations suggest that immunization with PDX1 modulates immune cell responses in NOD mice, raising the possibility that it is beneficial in ameliorating autoimmune destruction of beta-cells and delaying type 1 diabetes development clinically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gong, Zhaohui; Jin, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yaozhou
The oral administration of disease-specific autoantigens can induce oral immune tolerance and prevent or delay the onset of autoimmune disease symptoms. Here, we describe the construction of an edible vaccine consisting of a fusion protein composed of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and insulin that is produced in silkworm larvae at levels of up to 0.3 mg/ml of hemolymph. The silkworm bioreactor produced this fusion protein vaccine as the pentameric CTB-insulin form, which retained the GM1-ganglioside binding affinity and the native antigenicity of CTB and insulin. Non-obese diabetic mice fed hemolymph containing microgram quantities of the CTB-insulin fusion protein showed a prominent reduction in pancreatic islet inflammation and a delay in the development of symptoms of clinical diabetes. These results demonstrate that the silkworm bioreactor is a feasible production and delivery system for an oral protein vaccine designed to develop immunological tolerance against T-cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes by regulatory T-cell induction.
Dalloul, Rami A; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Klinman, Dennis M; Ding, Xicheng; Min, Wongi; Heckert, Robert A; Lillehoj, Erik P
We have previously demonstrated that short oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) exert a positive effect on weight loss and oocyst shedding associated with Eimeria infection when injected in vivo. The present work investigated the effects of in ovo vaccination with CpG ODNs and an Eimeria recombinant microneme protein (MIC2), alone or in combination, on susceptibility to coccidiosis. In ovo injection of CpG ODNs alone enhanced resistance to experimental Eimeria acervulina infection as best exemplified by reduced oocyst shedding. Two CpG ODNs reduced the oocyst load, but did not affect weight gain. When co-administered with the recombinant microneme protein, both ODNs reduced oocyst shedding; however, only ODN D19 plus MIC2 consistently improved weight gain. Vaccinating with ODN 2006 or MIC2 protein curtailed oocyst shedding but did not enhance weight gain in Eimeria tenella-infected birds. Co-administration of CpG ODN and MIC2 did not have an additive effect in reducing the oocyst output; however, it resulted in the highest and lowest Ab response before and after Eimeria tenella infection, respectively. Collectively, CpG ODNs administered in ovo demonstrated immunoenhancing and adjuvant effects following Eimeria infections.
Abe, S; Ishibashi, H; Tansho, S; Hanazawa, R; Komatsu, Y; Yamaguchi, H
The protective effects of a "hozai" type of Kampo medicine, Juzen-taiho-to (Shi-quan-da-bu-tang, TJ-48), Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang, TJ-41) or Ninjin-yoei-to (Ren-shen-yang-rong-tang, TJ-108) on experimental candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice were investigated. ICR mice, which were immunosuppressed by injection of cyclophosphamide or prednisolone, were given these medicines orally andchallenged intravenously with Candida albicans (day 0). Treatments with a daily dose of 1 g/kg/day of TJ-48 or that of 1 or 2 g/kg/day of TJ-108 for 4 consecutive days from day-4 significantly prolonged the survival time of the Candida-infected mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. Treatments with a daily dose of 1 g/kg/day of TJ-48 for 4 consecutive days from day 0, but not from day -4, significantly prolonged the life span of the Candida-infected mice pretreated with prednisolone. On the basis of these results and previous findings, characteristics of these kampo medicines as therapeutic agents against candidiasis in immunosuppressed hosts were discussed.
Destrieux, C; Bourry, D; Velut, S
Hippocampectomy is an efficient procedure for medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Nevertheless, hippocampus anatomy is complex, due to a deep location, and a complex structure. In this didactic paper, we propose a description of the hippocampus that should help neurosurgeons to feel at ease in this region. Embryological data was obtained from the literature, whereas adult anatomy was described after dissecting 8 human hemispheres (with and without vascular injection) and slicing 3 additional ones. The hippocampus is C-shaped and made of 2 rolled-up laminae, the cornu Ammonis and the gyrus dentatus. Its ventricular aspect is covered by the choroid plexus of the inferior horn excepted at the head level. Its cisternal aspect faces the mesencephalon from which it is limited by the transverse fissure. Its rostral part (head) curves dorso-caudally to form the uncus, located at the medial aspect of the temporal lobe. Its caudal part (tail) splits into the fimbria and the gyrus fasciolaris that respectively run ventral and dorsal to the corpus callosum, to become the fornix and indusium griseum. Consequences of this complex anatomy are presented, and the authors stress the need for a subpial resection. Important landmarks are provided to avoid lesions of the surrounding structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Davis, Thomas A.; Landauer, Michael R.; Mog, Steven R.; Barshishat-Kupper, Michal; Zins, Stephen R.; Amare, Mihret F.; Day, Regina M.
Objective Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent vasoconstrictor, affects the growth and development of hematopoietic cells. Mixed findings have been reported for the effects of ACE inhibitors on radiation-induced injury to the hematopoietic system. We investigated the consequences of different regimens of the ACE inhibitor captopril on radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were either sham irradiated or were exposed to 60Co total body irradiation (0.6 Gy/min). Captopril was provided in the water for different time periods relative to irradiation. Results In untreated mice, the survival rate from 7.5 Gy was 50% at 30 days postirradiation. Captopril treatment for 7 days prior to irradiation resulted in radiosensitization with 100% lethality and a rapid decline of mature blood cells. In contrast, captopril treatment beginning 1 hour postirradiation and continuing for 30 days resulted in 100% survival, with improved recovery of mature blood cells and multilineage hematopoietic progenitors. In nonirradiated control mice captopril biphasically modulated Lin− marrow progenitor cell cycling. After 2 days, captopril suppressed G0-G1 transition and a greater number of cells entered a quiescent state. However, after 7 days of captopril treatment Linprogenitor cell cycling increased compared to untreated control mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that ACE inhibition affects hematopoietic recovery following radiation by modulating the hematopoietic progenitor cell cycle. The timing of captopril treatment relative to radiation exposure differentially affects the viability and repopulation capacity of spared hematopoietic stem cells and therefore can result in either radiation protection or radiation sensitization. PMID:20116413
Wedlock, D Neil; Aldwell, Frank E; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M
Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) delivered to calves by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce protection against bovine tuberculosis. A study was conducted in cattle to determine if a combination of a low dose of oral BCG and a protein vaccine could induce protective immunity to tuberculosis while not sensitising animals to tuberculin. Groups of calves (10 per group) were vaccinated by administering 2 × 10(7)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG orally or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and a protein vaccine comprised of M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) formulated with the adjuvants Chitin and Gel 01 and delivered by the intranasal route, or CFP formulated with Emulsigen and the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4) and administered by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Two further groups were vaccinated with the CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) vaccines alone. Positive control groups were given 10(8)CFU oral BCG or 10(6)CFU s.c. BCG while a negative control group was non-vaccinated. All animals were challenged with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and euthanized and necropsied at 16 weeks following challenge. Groups of cattle vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU or 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG showed significant reductions in seven, three and four pathological or microbiological disease parameters, respectively, compared to the results for the non-vaccinated group. There was no evidence of protection in calves vaccinated with the combination of oral BCG and CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) or oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or vaccinated with the protein vaccines alone. Positive responses in the comparative cervical skin test at 12 weeks after vaccination were only observed in animals vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU oral BCG or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01. In conclusion, co-administration of a protein vaccine, administered by either systemic or mucosal routes with oral
Su, Xiaowei W; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Banasr, Mounira; Duman, Ronald S
Clinical research has shown that co-administration of eszopiclone, a sedative-hypnotic sleeping agent, and fluoxetine, a serotonin uptake inhibitor, exerts an additive antidepressant action in treating patients with both depression and insomnia. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the behavioural actions of antidepressants are linked to neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. To test the hypothesis that the additive effects of eszopiclone and fluoxetine could act via such a mechanism, the influence of combined administration of these agents on the proliferation and survival of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled newborn cells in the hippocampus of adult rats was determined. Chronic eszopiclone+fluoxetine co-administration significantly increased the survival, but not proliferation, of newborn neurons in dorsal hippocampus by approximately 50%, an effect greater than either drug alone. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that eszopiclone enhances the antidepressant action of fluoxetine, in part via a novel mechanism that increases the survival of newborn neurons.
McCullough, Kevin Tyler; Cruz, Stephanie; Thomas, Antonia; Diaz, Claudia G.; Keilholz, Laurie; Grossi, Irma M.; Trost, Lawrence C.; Golding, Hana
ABSTRACT Protection from lethality by postchallenge administration of brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) was studied in normal and immune-deficient (nude, nu/nu) BALB/c mice infected with vaccinia virus (VACV). Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to record total fluxes in the nasal cavity, lungs, spleen, and liver and to enumerate pox lesions on tails of mice infected via the intranasal route with 105 PFU of recombinant IHD-J-Luc VACV expressing luciferase. Areas under the flux curve (AUCs) were calculated for individual mice to assess viral loads. A three-dose regimen of 20 mg/kg BCV administered every 48 h starting either on day 1 or day 2 postchallenge protected 100% of mice. Initiating BCV treatment earlier was more efficient in reducing viral loads and in providing protection from pox lesion development. All BCV-treated mice that survived challenge were also protected from rechallenge with IHD-J-Luc or WRvFire VACV without additional treatment. In immune-deficient mice, BCV protected animals from lethality and reduced viral loads while animals were on the drug. Viral recrudescence occurred within 4 to 9 days, and mice succumbed ∼10 to 20 days after treatment termination. Nude mice reconstituted with 105 T cells prior to challenge with 104 PFU of IHD-J-Luc and treated with BCV postchallenge survived the infection, cleared the virus from all organs, and survived rechallenge with 105 PFU of IHD-J-Luc VACV without additional BCV treatment. Together, these data suggest that BCV protects immunocompetent and partially T cell-reconstituted immune-deficient mice from lethality, reduces viral dissemination in organs, prevents pox lesion development, and permits generation of VACV-specific memory. IMPORTANCE Mass vaccination is the primary element of the public health response to a smallpox outbreak. In addition to vaccination, however, antiviral drugs are required for individuals with uncertain exposure status to smallpox or for whom vaccination is contraindicated
Zaitseva, Marina; McCullough, Kevin Tyler; Cruz, Stephanie; Thomas, Antonia; Diaz, Claudia G; Keilholz, Laurie; Grossi, Irma M; Trost, Lawrence C; Golding, Hana
Protection from lethality by postchallenge administration of brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) was studied in normal and immune-deficient (nude, nu/nu) BALB/c mice infected with vaccinia virus (VACV). Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to record total fluxes in the nasal cavity, lungs, spleen, and liver and to enumerate pox lesions on tails of mice infected via the intranasal route with 10(5) PFU of recombinant IHD-J-Luc VACV expressing luciferase. Areas under the flux curve (AUCs) were calculated for individual mice to assess viral loads. A three-dose regimen of 20 mg/kg BCV administered every 48 h starting either on day 1 or day 2 postchallenge protected 100% of mice. Initiating BCV treatment earlier was more efficient in reducing viral loads and in providing protection from pox lesion development. All BCV-treated mice that survived challenge were also protected from rechallenge with IHD-J-Luc or WRvFire VACV without additional treatment. In immune-deficient mice, BCV protected animals from lethality and reduced viral loads while animals were on the drug. Viral recrudescence occurred within 4 to 9 days, and mice succumbed ∼10 to 20 days after treatment termination. Nude mice reconstituted with 10(5) T cells prior to challenge with 10(4) PFU of IHD-J-Luc and treated with BCV postchallenge survived the infection, cleared the virus from all organs, and survived rechallenge with 10(5) PFU of IHD-J-Luc VACV without additional BCV treatment. Together, these data suggest that BCV protects immunocompetent and partially T cell-reconstituted immune-deficient mice from lethality, reduces viral dissemination in organs, prevents pox lesion development, and permits generation of VACV-specific memory. Mass vaccination is the primary element of the public health response to a smallpox outbreak. In addition to vaccination, however, antiviral drugs are required for individuals with uncertain exposure status to smallpox or for whom vaccination is contraindicated. Whole
Ekor, M; Adesanoye, O A; Udo, I E; Adegoke, O A; Raji, J; Farombi, E O
Excessive intake of cholesterol (CHOL) and induction of free radical production play a critical role in the pathophysiology of several human diseases. Dietary therapy with plant products rich in flavonoids has been shown to provide benefits without the adverse effects of agents used in clinical practice. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been used for various purposes due to myriads of flavonoids present in it. In this study, the chemopreventive property of HS ethanolic extract (HSE) was investigated in dyslipidemia and oxidant stress associated with prolonged CHOL administration in rabbits. Twenty-five (25) adult male rabbits weighing between 1.5 and 1.7 kg were used and randomly divided into five groups of five rabbits per group. The CHOL-fed rabbits received 1 g/kg/day of CHOL suspended in 1 ml of corn oil for 8 weeks. Group 1 received 1 ml of corn oil and served as control. Group 2 was fed with CHOL only while groups 3, 4 and 5 received daily doses ofcholestyramine (questran, 260 mg/kg), HSE 200 mg/kg and HSE 300 mg/kg respectively along with CHOL. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24-hours after last dose. Enzymic and non-enzymic markers of oxidative stress and lipid profile were analysed in serum, liver, kidney and heart of rabbits. HSE significantly attenuated the alteration in lipid levels and antioxidant status induced by high CHOL intake in rabbits in this study. Both serum and tissue levels of low density lipoprotein-CHOL, triglycerides, phospholipids, and total CHOL decreased with increase in high density lipoprotein-CHOL except in the heart, following treatment with HSE in CHOL-fed rabbits when compared with the untreated group (p<0.05). Similarly, HSE prevented CHOL-induced depletion of enzymic (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and non-enzymic (reduced glutathione, vitamin C) antioxidants with the attendant increases in lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in these animals. The effectiveness of HSE in this condition was comparable
Lin, Tsung-Shun; Chuang, Chuan-Chang; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Liu, Yu-Tien; Lin, Wen-Po; Liang, Chung-Chih; Liu, Wen-Tssann
Amphotericin B (AmB) is an antifungal antibiotic the activity of which has been associated with modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in cultured cells. Herein we reveal that co-administration with AmB enhances the immunogenicity of oral Lip-JENS1 vaccine which derived from liposomes functionalized with DSPC (distearoylphosphatidylcholine) and cholesterol (2:1, molar ratio)-bearing JE virus NS1 protein (600 microg ml(-1)). Oral single dose of Lip-JENS1 elicited a detectable serum NS1-specific IgG antibody response from a mouse model. Remarkably, the addition of AmB (125 microg per mouse), particularly, 2 h prior to, but not simultaneously with, the administration of Lip-JENS1 significantly enhanced the systemic antigen-specific antibody response, providing superior protection against lethal JEV challenges. Further, we observed AmB-induced the transcription of cytokine expression and translocation of transcriptional factor NF-kappaB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus for the murine macrophage J774A.1. Moreover, Peyer's-patch lymphocytes (PPL) from AmB-treated mice produced high levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression compared to the corresponding control of cells from non-treated mice. Taken together, the results suggest that AmB exerts a profound influence upon mucosal vaccination with Lip-JENS1, possibly playing an adjuvant-augmented role to "fine-tune" humoral as well as cellular immune response, thus conferring enhanced protective immunity for immunising individuals against JE infection.
Elahi, M M; Cagampang, F R; Ohri, S K; Hanson, M A
We aimed to study the effects of long-term statin administration to high fat (HF)-fed female mice from the time they were weaned through to pregnancy and lactation on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in their HF-fed offspring. Female C57 mice on HF (45% kcal fat) were given pravastatin in their drinking water from the time they were weaned, during pregnancy and lactation. Weaned offspring were then fed an HF diet until adulthood generating the dam/offspring dietary groups HF/HF and HF plus pravastatin from the time dams were weaned, during pregnancy and lactation/HF (HF+S/HF). These groups were compared with offspring from mothers fed standard chow (control) which were then fed a control diet up to adulthood (control/control; C/C). HF+S dams showed significantly reduced total cholesterol concentrations and systolic blood pressure (SBP) versus HF dams. The reduction in total cholesterol and SBP in the HF+S dams did not restore values to those observed in the C group. Both male and female HF+S/HF offspring were significantly lighter in weight, and had lower SBP and serum cholesterol concentrations versus HF/HF. HF/HF offspring had elevated C-reactive protein levels but HF+S/HF animals of both sexes had reduced levels similar to those found in the C/C group. Long-term pravastatin administration to dams not only protects them from the deleterious effects of an HF diet, but this long-term maternal statin protection also has an equal and permanent effect in both male and female offspring up to their adult life, which is a novel finding.
Goc, Zofia; Szaroma, Waldemar; Kapusta, Edyta; Dziubek, Karol
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is an antihypertensive drug with proven dose-dependent toxic effects attributed mainly to the production of cyanide but also excesive nitric oxide (NO) and derived reactive species. The present study evaluated whether melatonin administration would have time-dependent protective effect against SNP−induced toxicity. Male Swiss mice were used in this study. Control mice were treated with 0.9% NaCl; the second group was injected with 10 mg melatonin (MEL)/kg body weight (b.w.); the third group was given SNP at the dose of 3,6 mg/kg b.w.; the fourth group received both MEL and SNP at the same doses. In homogenates of brain, liver and kidneys, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were estimated after 3, 6 and 24 h of drugs administration. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) was also evaluated in the blood, brain, liver and kidneys of mice at the same time intervals. In animals receiving MEL, the highest levels of GSH were observed in all the organs as compared to the control after 3, 6 h. Meanwhile, SNP decreased GSH concentration in the blood, brain, liver and kidneys in all time intervals. Administration of MEL in combination with SNP increased the GSH levels in all organs, as compared to the administration of SNP alone; this effect was observed after 3, 6 and 24 h. The activity of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in the MEL-treated group increased after 3 h in all the organs, while in liver and kidney the increase was also observed after 6 h. Conversely, the SNP intoxication caused a decrease of the activity of enzymes in the tested organs in all intervals, while administration of MEL + SNP resulted in increased activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in all the organs after 3 h and 6 h. The investigation carried out in the present study provide new data to add to the study of antioxidant properties of MEL and SNP-induced oxidative stress with regard to time-dependent properties in different
Kim, Seong Bum; Kim, Seon Ju; Lee, Byung Min; Han, Young Woo; Rahman, Md Masudur; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Yoo, Dong Jin; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug
Enhancing and/or modulating innate and adaptive immunity by cytokines appears to be greatly useful to provide effective protective immunity against infectious diseases. However, an effective delivery system for mass administration in livestock industry is needed because of limitations such as cost, labor, time, and protein stability. Here the immunomodulatory functions of swine interleukine-18 (swIL-18), known as IFN-γ-inducing factor (IGIF), were evaluated in a vaccination model of pseudorabies virus (PrV) using attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as the oral delivery system. The oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing swIL-18 prior to vaccination with inactivated PrV vaccine induced enhanced levels of serum PrV-specific IgG and its IgG2 isotype, compared to administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium harboring the empty vector. Furthermore, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing swIL-18 mounted Th1-biased cellular immune responses against PrV antigen, as evaluated by the production of IFN-γ and IL-4 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of piglets. Subsequently, Th1-biased immunity induced by S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing swIL-18 showed rapid response and rendered piglets displayed more alleviated clinical signs following the virulent PrV challenge. Also, this alleviation of clinical signs was further confirmed by the reduction of nasal excretion of PrV after challenge. The present study demonstrates the extended use of immunomodulatory functions of swIL-18 orally delivered by attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shinohara, H; Killion, J J; Bucana, C D; Yano, S; Fidler, I J
We recently reported that p.o. administration of the new synthetic bacterial lipopeptide JBT-3002 can protect mice from irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced intestinal injury, but the mechanism was not known. Because interleukin-15 (IL-15) is associated with maintenance of intestinal epithelial cell integrity, we examined whether p.o. administration of JBT-3002 elevates expression of this monocyte-derived cytokine. Four daily i.p. injections of 100 mg/kg CPT-11 were effective against liver metastases produced by CT-26 murine colon cancer cells, but severe damage to the intestinal epithelium and early death of the mice also resulted. Three consecutive daily p.o. doses of JBT-3002 prior to i.p. injection of irinotecan prevented the undesirable side effects of irinotecan without reducing its ability to eradicate liver metastases. Immunohistochemical analyses of the intestines of mice treated with JBT-3002 and CPT-11 demonstrated an increase in the number of dividing cells in the crypts and enhanced expression of IL-15 in lamina propria cells; the increase correlated with increased expression of the IL-15 gene as determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that JBT-3002 induced expression of IL-15 in peritoneal macrophages but not in normal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). Moreover, the presence of IL-15 decreased irinotecan-mediated cytotoxicity of IEC-6 epithelial cells. These data show that the p.o. administration of JBT-3002 induces expression of IL-15 by macrophages in the lamina propria, which can prevent irinotecan-induced injury to the intestinal mucosa.
Kikuchi, Yosuke; Kunitoh-Asari, Ayami; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Imai, Shinjiro; Kasuya, Kenji; Abe, Kimio; Adachi, Yu; Fukudome, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Hachimura, Satoshi
The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer’s patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer’s patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA+ B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection. PMID:24466081
Kikuchi, Yosuke; Kunitoh-Asari, Ayami; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Imai, Shinjiro; Kasuya, Kenji; Abe, Kimio; Adachi, Yu; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Hachimura, Satoshi
The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+) B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection.
Brynjolfsson, Siggeir F; Bjarnarson, Stefania P; Mori, Elena; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Jonsdottir, Ingileif
Mycobacterium bovis BCG is administered to human neonates in many countries worldwide. The objective of the study was to assess if BCG could act as an adjuvant for polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in newborns and thereby induce protective immunity against encapsulated bacteria in early infancy when susceptibility is high. We assessed whether BCG could enhance immune responses to a meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate vaccine, MenC-CRM(197), in mice primed as neonates, broaden the antibody response from a dominant IgG1 toward a mixed IgG1 and IgG2a/IgG2b response, and increase protective efficacy, as measured by serum bactericidal activity (SBA). Two-week-old mice were primed subcutaneously (s.c.) with MenC-CRM(197). BCG was administered concomitantly, a day or a week before MenC-CRM(197). An adjuvant effect of BCG was observed only when it was given concomitantly with MenC-CRM(197), with increased IgG response (P = 0.002) and SBA (8-fold) after a second immunization with MenC-CRM(197) without BCG, indicating increased T-cell help. In neonatal mice (1 week old) primed s.c. with MenC-CRM(197) together with BCG, MenC-polysaccharide (PS)-specific IgG was enhanced compared to MenC-CRM(197) alone (P = 0.0015). Sixteen days after the second immunization with MenC-CRM(197), increased IgG (P < 0.05), IgG1 (P < 0.05), IgG2a (P = 0.06), and IgG2b (P < 0.05) were observed, and only mice primed with MenC-CRM(197) plus BCG showed affinity maturation and detectable SBA (SBA > 128). Thus, vaccination with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine (and possibly with other conjugates) may benefit from concomitant administration of BCG in the neonatal period to accelerate and enhance production of protective antibodies, compared to the current infant administration of conjugate which follows BCG vaccination at birth.
Ozmen, E; Ozsoy, S Y; Donmez, N; Ozsoy, B; Yumuşak, N
We investigated the protective effects of L-carnitine on hippocampus tissue damage in rats during experimental formaldehyde (FA) intoxication. Male Wistar albino rats were assigned into four groups: (1) control (C), (2) formaldehyde (FA), (3) formaldehyde + 0.5 g/kg of L-carnitine (FA + 0.5 LC) (4) formaldehyde + 1 g/kg L-carnitine (FA + 1 LC). At the end of the 14 day trial period, animals were sacrificed by decapitation under anesthesia. The hippocampus tissue samples were extracted to measure MDA, GSH and SOD activity. Neuronal degeneration was assessed based on histopathological (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical (anti-ubiquitin) examination. To detect oxidative stress, specimens were reacted with anti-Cu/Zn-SOD antibody. After administering L-carnitine with FA to the animals, the activities of SOD and GSH increased, but the levels of MDA decreased in hippocampus tissue. Neuronal degeneration was observed in the FA group. L-carnitine administration reduced neuronal degeneration and histological structure was similar to controls. After FA application, degenerated hippocampus neurons were stained with anti-ubiquitin and Cu/Zn-SOD antibodies; weakly positive staining was observed in L- carnitine-treated groups. L-carnitine may be useful for preventing oxidative damage in the hippocampus tissue due to formaldehyde intoxication.
Zong, Nan; Li, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jingshan; Jin, Feng; Gong, Qihai
Excitotoxicity is one of the most extensively studied causes of neuronal death and plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariin is a flavonoid component of a traditional Chinese medicine reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin against learning and memory impairment induced by excitotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that rats receiving intracerebroventricular injection of excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid exhibited impaired learning and memory. Oral administration of icariin at doses of 20 and 40mg/kg rescued behavioral performance and protected against neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus by suppressing ibotenic acid induced pro-apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blott of hippocampal specimens revealed that icariin up-regulated the expression of calbindin-D28k protein following ibotenic acid administration. Additionally, icariin inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, implicating the MAPK signaling and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in the mechanism underlying icariin-mediated neuroprotection against ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity. These data suggested that icariin could be a potential agent for treatment of excitotoxicity-related diseases, including AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal
While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus. PMID:27677455
Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal
While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus.
Araki, T; Kogure, K
We investigated the effect of vinconate, a novel vinca alkaloid derivative, on delayed neuronal death using Mongolian gerbils. The animals were allowed to survive for 7 d after 3 or 5 min of forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries. Morphological changes and calcium (45Ca) accumulation were evaluated in the CA1 sector of the hippocampus after ischemia. Vinconate (50, 100, and 300 mg/kg) showed protective effects against neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner when administered intraperitoneally (ip) 10 min before 5 min of ischemia. However, the administration of vinconate (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip) immediately after 5 min of ischemia showed no therapeutic effect, whereas a marked therapeutic effect of vinconate (50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) was observed when administered immediately after 3 min of ischemia. An anesthetic dose of pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, ip) also produced significant protection against neuronal death. Furthermore, a 45Ca autoradiographic study indicated that a marked calcium accumulation was found in the Ca1 sector at 7 d after 5 min of ischemia, which was consistent with the extent of histological neuronal damage. When vinconate (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip) was administered 10 min before 5 min of ischemia, the abnormal calcium accumulation was not detected in the CA1 sector. These data indicate that suppression of abnormal neuronal activity may be owing to the antagonistic action of vinconate on calcium accumulation.
do Amaral e Silva Müller, Gabrielle; Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; Tavares, Carolina Pereira; Menegatti, Angela C O; Terenzi, Hernán; Tasca, Carla Inês; Severino, Patricia Cardoso
Preconditioning induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) has been used as a therapeutic tool against later neuronal insults. NMDA preconditioning affords neuroprotection against convulsions and cellular damage induced by the NMDA receptor agonist, quinolinic acid (QA) with time-window dependence. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular alterations promoted by NMDA and to compare these alterations in different periods of time that are related to the presence or lack of neuroprotection. Putative mechanisms related to NMDA preconditioning were evaluated via a proteomic analysis by using a time-window study. After a subconvulsant and protective dose of NMDA administration mice, hippocampi were removed (1, 24 or 72 h) and total protein analyzed by 2DE gels and identified by MALDI-TOF. Differential protein expression among the time induction of NMDA preconditioning was observed. In the hippocampus of protected mice (24 h), four proteins: HSP70(B), aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein and creatine kinase were found to be up-regulated. Two other proteins, HSP70(A) and V-type proton ATPase were found down-regulated. Proteomic analysis showed that the neuroprotection induced by NMDA preconditioning altered signaling pathways, cell energy maintenance and protein synthesis and processing. These events may occur in a sense to attenuate the excitotoxicity process during the activation of neuroprotection promoted by NMDA preconditioning.
Davies, B J; Pickard, B S; Steel, M; Morris, R G; Lathe, R
Brain serine proteases are implicated in developmental processes, synaptic plasticity, and in disorders including Alzheimer's disease. The spectrum of the major enzymes expressed in brain has not been established previously. We now present a systematic study of the serine proteases expressed in adult rat and mouse hippocampus. Using a combination of techniques including polymerase chain reaction amplification and Northern blotting we show that tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is the major species represented. Unexpectedly, the next most abundant species were RNK-Met-1, a lymphocyte protease not reported previously in brain, and two new family members, BSP1 (brain serine protease 1) and BSP2. We report full-length sequences of the two new proteases; homologies indicate that these are of tryptic specificity. Although BSP2 is expressed in several brain regions, BSP1 expression is strikingly restricted to hippocampus. Other enzymes represented, but at lower levels, included elastase IV, proteinase 3, complement C2, chymotrypsin B, chymotrypsin-like protein, and Hageman factor. Although thrombin and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were not detected in the primary screen, low level expression was confirmed using specific polymerase chain reaction primers. In contrast, and despite robust expression of t-PA, the usual t-PA substrate plasminogen was not expressed at detectable levels.
Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A
The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duszczyk-Budhathoki, Michalina; Olczak, Mieszko; Lehner, Malgorzata; Majewska, Maria Dorota
Thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We previously showed that its administration to infant rats causes behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological abnormalities similar to those present in autism. Here we examined, using microdialysis, the effect of thimerosal on extracellular levels of neuroactive amino acids in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC). Thimerosal administration (4 injections, i.m., 240 μg Hg/kg on postnatal days 7, 9, 11, 15) induced lasting changes in amino acid overflow: an increase of glutamate and aspartate accompanied by a decrease of glycine and alanine; measured 10-14 weeks after the injections. Four injections of thimerosal at a dose of 12.5 μg Hg/kg did not alter glutamate and aspartate concentrations at microdialysis time (but based on thimerosal pharmacokinetics, could have been effective soon after its injection). Application of thimerosal to the PFC in perfusion fluid evoked a rapid increase of glutamate overflow. Coadministration of the neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS; 80 mg/kg; i.p.) prevented the thimerosal effect on glutamate and aspartate; the steroid alone had no influence on these amino acids. Coapplication of DHEAS with thimerosal in perfusion fluid also blocked the acute action of thimerosal on glutamate. In contrast, DHEAS alone reduced overflow of glycine and alanine, somewhat potentiating the thimerosal effect on these amino acids. Since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, our data imply that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. DHEAS may partially protect against mercurials-induced neurotoxicity.
Luo, Ji; Zhang, Wei-dong; Du, Yi-meng
The calcium channel blocker (CCB), nifedipine, is a more effective treatment for early- than late-stage cardiac hypertrophy. We investigated the effects of early- and late-stage nifedipine administration on calcium homeostasis, CaMKII (Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) activity and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes under hypertrophic stimulation with angiotensin II (AngII). Primary rat cardiomyocytes were divided into five treatment groups: AK, AngII plus the CaMKII inhibitor, KN-93; AN-1 (early-stage), AngII plus nifedipine × 48 h; AN-2 (late-stage), AngII × 48 h, then AngII plus nifedipine × 48 h; C, untreated; and A, AngII × 48 h. The t1/2β [time required for intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i) to decline to one half of the peak value] decreased; however, CaMKII and SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase 2a) activities increased in the AN-1 group compared with the AK group. In the AN-2 group compared with the AN-1 group, CaMKII activity, t1/2α [time required for [Ca(2+) ]i to increase from the bottom to one half of peak value], t1/2β, and apoptosis increased. These results indicate that the timing of CCB administration affects the calcium concentration and apoptosis of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes through the CaMKII-SERCA2a signalling pathway, thereby influencing the drug's protective activity against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Akinrinde, Akinleye S.; Olowu, Ebunoluwa; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Omobowale, Olutayo T.
Background: Arsenic intoxication is known to produce symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting, which are indications of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Objective: We investigated whether Kolaviron (KV) administration protected against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced damage to gastric and intestinal epithelium in rats. Materials and Methods: Control rats (Group I) were given a daily oral dose of corn oil. Rats in other groups were given a single dose of NaAsO2 (100 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) alone (Group II) or after pretreatment for 7 days with KV at 100 mg/kg (Group III) and 200 mg/kg (Group IV). Rats were sacrificed afterward and portions of the stomach, small intestine and colon were processed for histopathological examination. Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments. Results: NaAsO2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines. KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner. The different segments had marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, with hyperplasia of the crypts, which occurred to much lesser degrees with KV administration. Conclusion: The present findings showed that KV might be a potent product for mitigating NaAsO2 toxicity in the GIT. PMID:26130939
Puhl, Matthew D; Blum, Joshua S; Acosta-Torres, Stefany; Grigson, Patricia S
One of the most menacing consequences of drug addiction is the devaluation of natural rewards (e.g. food, sex, work, money, caring for one's offspring). However, evidence also suggests that natural rewards, such as an enriched environment, can devalue drugs of abuse. Thus, this study used a rodent model to test whether exposure to an enriched environment could protect adult rats from acquiring cocaine self-administration and from the resultant drug-induced devaluation of a natural saccharin reward cue. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intravenous jugular catheters. Rats were then separated into two housing conditions: an enriched condition, including social companions(four/cage) and novel objects (e.g. balls, polyethylene tubes, paper, etc.), and a nonenriched condition where the rats were singly housed with no novel objects. During testing, the rats were given 5-min access to 0.15% saccharin, followed by 1 h to self-administer saline or cocaine (0.167 mg/infusion) on fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. The results showed that rats that were singly housed in the nonenriched environment fell into two groups: low drug-takers (n=34) and high drug-takers (n=12). In comparison, only one out of the 22 rats housed in the enriched environment was a high drug-taker. Thus, all rats in the enriched environment, except one, behaved like low drug-takers under the nonenriched condition. As such, these rats self-administered almost no drug on either the fixed ratio or the progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement and were extremely slow to self-administer their first cocaine infusion. Interestingly, despite their very low levels of drug self-administration, low-drug-taking rats housed in the enriched environment continued to avoid intake of the drug-associated saccharin cue. Taken together, these data suggest that the enriched environment itself served as a salient natural reward that reduced cocaine seeking and cocaine taking, but
Backus, Alexander R.; Bosch, Sander E.; Ekman, Matthias; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Doeller, Christian F.
The ability to form associations between a multitude of events is the hallmark of episodic memory. Computational models have espoused the importance of the hippocampus as convergence zone, binding different aspects of an episode into a coherent representation, by integrating information from multiple brain regions. However, evidence for this long-held hypothesis is limited, since previous work has largely focused on representational and network properties of the hippocampus in isolation. Here we identify the hippocampus as mnemonic convergence zone, using a combination of multivariate pattern and graph-theoretical network analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from humans performing an associative memory task. We observe overlap of conjunctive coding and hub-like network attributes in the hippocampus. These results provide evidence for mnemonic convergence in the hippocampus, underlying the integration of distributed information into episodic memory representations. PMID:27325442
Parker, Scott; Crump, Ryan; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Lanier, E Randall; Painter, George; Schriewer, Jill; Trost, Lawrence C; Buller, R Mark
Natural orthopoxvirus outbreaks such as vaccinia, cowpox, cattlepox and buffalopox continue to cause morbidity in the human population. Monkeypox virus remains a significant agent of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Furthermore, monkeypox virus's broad host-range and expanding environs make it of particular concern as an emerging human pathogen. Monkeypox virus and variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox) are both potential agents of bioterrorism. The first line response to orthopoxvirus disease is through vaccination with first-generation and second-generation vaccines, such as Dryvax and ACAM2000. Although these vaccines provide excellent protection, their widespread use is impeded by the high level of adverse events associated with vaccination using live, attenuated virus. It is possible that vaccines could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to reduce the incidence and severity of vaccine-associated adverse events, or as a preventive in individuals with uncertain exposure status or contraindication to vaccination. We have used the intranasal mousepox (ectromelia) model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with Dryvax or ACAM2000 in conjunction with treatment using the broad spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001). We found that co-treatment with BCV reduced the severity of vaccination-associated lesion development. Although the immune response to vaccination was quantifiably attenuated, vaccination combined with BCV treatment did not alter the development of full protective immunity, even when administered two days following ectromelia challenge. Studies with a non-replicating vaccine, ACAM3000 (MVA), confirmed that BCV's mechanism of attenuating the immune response following vaccination with live virus was, as expected, by limiting viral replication and not through inhibition of the immune system. These studies suggest that, in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis, co-administration of BCV with vaccination should be considered
Quirantes-Piné, R; Herranz-López, M; Funes, L; Borrás-Linares, I; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A
Lippia citriodora (lemon verbena) has been widely used in folk medicine for its pharmacological properties. Verbascoside, the most abundant compound in this plant, has protective effects associated mostly with its strong antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of L. citriodora extract intake on the antioxidant response of blood cells and to correlate this response with the phenolic metabolites found in plasma. For this purpose, firstly the L. citriodora extract was characterized and its radical scavenging activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Then, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRed) activities were determined in lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and neutrophils isolated from rats after acute intake of L. citriodora. Phenolic metabolites were analyzed in the same plasma samples by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in neutrophils, which has been proposed as a marker for inflammatory vascular damage, was also determined. After L. citriodora administration, the antioxidant enzymes activities significantly accelerated (p<0.05) while MPO activity subsided, indicating that the extract protects blood cells against oxidative damage and shows potential anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic activities. The main compounds found in plasma were verbascoside and isoverbascoside at a concentration of 80±10 and 57±4 ng/ml, respectively. Five other metabolites derived from verbascoside and isoverbascoside were also found in plasma, namely hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, ferulic acid glucuronide, and homoprotocatechuic acid, together with another eight phenolic compounds. Therefore, the phenylpropanoids verbascoside and isoverbascoside, as well as their metabolites, seem to be the responsible for the above-mentioned effects, although the post-transcriptional activation mechanism of blood-cell antioxidant enzymes by these compounds needs further investigation
Koo, Moses; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Lettieri, Gerard A.; Paoletti, Alyssa D.; Lane, Thomas E.; Fitchen, John H.; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Beachy, Roger N.
Hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were constructed with the use of fusion to the coat protein peptides of 10 or 15 amino acids, containing the 5B19 epitope from the spike protein of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and giving rise to TMV-5B19 and TMV-5B19L, respectively. The TMV hybrids were propagated in tobacco plants, and the virus particles were purified. Immunogold labeling, with the use of the monoclonal MAb5B19 antibody, showed specific decoration of hybrid TMV particles, confirming the expression and display of the MHV epitope on the surface of the TMV. Mice were immunized with purified hybrid viruses after several regimens of immunization. Mice that received TMV-5B19L intranasally developed serum IgG and IgA specific for the 5B19 epitope and for the TMV coat protein. Hybrid TMV-5B19, administered by subcutaneous injections, elicited high titers of serum IgG that was specific for the 5B19 epitope and for coat protein, but IgA that was specific against 5B19 was not observed. Mice that were immunized with hybrid virus by subcutaneous or intranasal routes of administration survived challenge with a lethal dose (10 × LD50) of MHV strain JHM, whereas mice administered wild-type TMV died 10 d post challenge. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the dose of administered immunogen and protection against MHV infection. These studies show that TMV can be an effective vaccine delivery vehicle for parenteral and mucosal immunization and for protection from challenge with viral infection.
Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei
To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.
Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Pourahmad, Jalal; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Vousooghi, Nasim; Yoonessi, Ali; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Behzadfar, Ladan; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad
Despite the worldwide use of tramadol, few studies have been conducted about its effects on memory and mitochondrial function, and controversial results have been reported. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in physical exercise as a protective approach to neuronal and cognitive impairments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on spatial learning and memory and brain mitochondrial function in tramadol-treated rats. After completion of 2-week (short-term) and 4-week (long-term) treadmill exercise regimens, male Wistar rats received tramadol (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 30days. Then spatial learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test (MWM). Moreover, brain mitochondrial function was evaluated by determination of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Chronic administration of tramadol impaired spatial learning and memory as well as brain mitochondrial function as indicated by increased ROS level, MMP collapse, increased mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Conversely, treadmill exercise significantly attenuated the impairments of spatial learning and memory and brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by tramadol. The results revealed that chronic tramadol treatment caused memory impairments through induction of brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, pre-exposure to physical exercise markedly mitigated these impairments through its positive effects on brain mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Fu, Yuan-hui; Jiao, Yue-Ying; He, Jin-sheng; Giang, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yi-Fei; Ma, Yao; Hua, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Xiang-Lei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Hong, Tao
Sublingual (s.l.) immunization has been described as a convenient and safe way to induce mucosal immune responses in the respiratory and genital tracts. We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing a condon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein (sFsyn) of respiratory syncytial virus (HDAd-sFsyn) and explored the potential of s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn to stimulate immune responses in the respiratory mucosa. The RSV specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were generated in BALB/c mice, and the serum IgG with neutralizing activity was significantly elevated after homologous boost with s.l. application of HDAd-sFsyn. Humoral immune responses could be measured even 14weeks after a single immunization. Upon challenge, s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn displayed an effective protection against RSV infection. These findings suggest that s.l. administration of HDAd-sFsyn acts as an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against RSV infection, and may be a useful tool in the prevention of RSV infection.
Maeda, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Risa; Hirose, Yoshitaka; Murosaki, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kase, Tetsuo; Yoshikai, Yasunobu
We have previously reported that heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (HK-LP) stimulates macrophage/dendritic cells to produce T helper (Th) 1-related cytokines in vitro and in vivo in mice. We here examined the effect of oral administration of HK-LP on protection against influenza virus infection in mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given HK-LP from day -7 to 7 and intranasally infected with influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1, a mouse-adapted strain) at 100 pfu on day 0. The survival time was significantly prolonged in mice treated with HK-LP than that in mice treated with PBS as controls. The viral titers in the lung were significantly lower in mice treated with HK-LP than controls at the early stage after influenza virus infection. An appreciable level of interferon (IFN)-beta was detected in the serum of mice treated with HK-LP, while no IFN-beta was detected in controls after influenza infection. Our results suggest that HK-LP, a potent IFN-beta inducer, is useful for prevention against influenza infection.
HIBBERD, CARINA; YAU, JOYCE L. W.; SECKL, JONATHAN R.
Approximately 30% of human and mammalian populations develop cognitive impairments with ageing. Many of these impairments have been linked to dysfunction of the hippocampus, a well studied area of the medial-temporal lobe, which is involved in episodic memory and control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal stress axis and, thus, of glucocorticoid secretion. This paper reviews the growing body of studies which explore a possible relationship between lifetime exposure to glucocorticoids and hippocampal impairment. There is now strong evidence which associates hypercortisolemia in aged men with later cognitive dysfunction and this complements a wealth of rodent and other human data. We conclude with a discussion of possible pharmacological and behavioural interventions. PMID:11197528
Lisman, John; Redish, A.D.
Recordings of rat hippocampal place cells have provided information about how the hippocampus retrieves memory sequences. One line of evidence has to do with phase precession, a process organized by theta and gamma oscillations. This precession can be interpreted as the cued prediction of the sequence of upcoming positions. In support of this interpretation, experiments in two-dimensional environments and on a cue-rich linear track demonstrate that many cells represent a position ahead of the animal and that this position is the same irrespective of which direction the rat is coming from. Other lines of investigation have demonstrated that such predictive processes also occur in the non-spatial domain and that retrieval can be internally or externally cued. The mechanism of sequence retrieval and the usefulness of this retrieval to guide behaviour are discussed. PMID:19528000
Chomyk, Anthony M; Volsko, Christina; Tripathi, Ajai; Deckard, Sadie A; Trapp, Bruce D; Fox, Robert J; Dutta, Ranjan
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system (CNS). Memory impairments and hippocampal demyelination are common features in MS patients. Our previous data have shown that demyelination alters neuronal gene expression in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modifier of gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether DNA methylation is altered in MS hippocampus following demyelination. Our results show that mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase were increased in demyelinated MS hippocampus, while de-methylation enzymes were decreased. Comparative methylation profiling identify hypo-methylation within upstream sequences of 6 genes and hyper-methylation of 10 genes in demyelinated MS hippocampus. Genes identified in the current study were also validated in an independent microarray dataset generated from MS hippocampus. Independent validation using RT-PCR revealed that DNA methylation inversely correlated with mRNA levels of the candidate genes. Queries across cell-specific databases revealed that a majority of the candidate genes are expressed by astrocytes and neurons in mouse and human CNS. Taken together, our results expands the list of genes previously identified in MS hippocampus and establish DNA methylation as a mechanism of altered gene expression in MS hippocampus.
Huang, Changshun; Zhang, Xingcai; Zheng, Jungang; Chen, Chunru; Chen, Yijun; Yi, Juan
Purpose: Ketamine is commonly used in pediatric anesthesia but may cause neurodegeneration in young brains. The aim of the study is to use an animal model to characterize the role of microRNA 137 (miR-137) in ketamine-induced neurodegeneration in neonatal hippocampus. Methods: Young Sprague-Dawley Rats (1 month old) was systemically administrated with ketamine (75 mg/kg) for 3 days. TUNEL assay was used to assess the ketamine-induced neurodegeneration of hippocampal CA1 neurons, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to assess the expression of miR-137 and Morris water maze test (MWM) to assess the damaged memory function. Alternatively, lentivirus over-expressing miR-137 was injected into hippocampus before ketamine administration, and the subsequent effects of miR-137 upregulation on ketamine-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration and memory dysfunction were investigated. Furthermore, the direct downstream target of miR-137, CDC42, was down-regulated by siRNA injection into hippocampus. The effects of CDC42 inhibition on hippocampal apoptosis and memory function were also investigated. Results: Excessive ketamine treatment resulted in severe apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 neurons, downregulation of miR-137 in hippocampus and significant long-term memory dysfunction. Conversely, pre-treatment of overexpressing miR-137 protected hippocampal neurodegeneration and memory loss. The molecular target of miR-137, CDC42 was down-regulated by ketamine in hippocampus. Knocking down hippocampal CDC42 exerted an apoptotic effect on hippocampal neurons and memory loss, similar to the effect of ketamine treatment. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that miR-137 played an important role in regulating ketamine induced hippocampal neurodegeneration, possibly through CDC42. PMID:25197371
Ostrovskaya, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Zaplina, A P; Vahitova, Ju V; Salimgareeva, M H; Jamidanov, R S; Seredenin, S B
We studied the effect of original dipeptide preparation Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111) with nootropic and neuroprotective properties on the expression of mRNA for neurotropic factors NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus. Expression of NGF and BDNF mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was studied by Northern blot analysis. Taking into account the fact that pharmacological activity of Noopept is realized after both acute and chronic treatment, we studied the effect of single and long-term treatment (28 days) with this drug. Expression of the studied neurotropic factors in the cerebral cortex was below the control after single administration of Noopept, while chronic administration caused a slight increase in BDNF expression. In the hippocampus, expression of mRNA for both neurotrophins increased after acute administration of Noopept. Chronic treatment with Noopept was not followed by the development of tolerance, but even potentiated the neurotrophic effect. These changes probably play a role in neuronal restoration. We showed that the nootropic drug increases expression of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotrophin synthesis in the hippocampus determines cognitive function, particularly in consolidation and delayed memory retrieval. Published data show that neurotrophic factor deficiency in the hippocampus is observed not only in advanced Alzheimer's disease, but also at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (pre-disease state). In light of this our findings suggest that Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, therapeutic effectiveness of Noopept should be evaluated at the initial stage of Alzheimer's disease.
González-Reyes, Susana; Santillán-Cigales, Juan Jair; Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica Saraí; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda
Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a triterpene present in the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra that has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects. Recently, it was demonstrated that GL produced neuroprotective effects on the postischemic brain as well as on the kainic acid injury model in rats. In addition to this, GL also prevented excitotoxic effects on primary cultures. The aims of the present study were to evaluate GL scavenging properties and to investigate GL's effect on oxidative stress and inflammation in the lithium/pilocarpine-induced seizure model in two cerebral regions, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, at acute time intervals (3 or 24h) after status epilepticus (SE). Fluorometric methods showed that GL scavenged three reactive oxygen species: hydrogen peroxide, peroxyl radicals and superoxide anions. In contrast, GL was unable to scavenge peroxynitrite, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen and 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals suggesting that GL is a weak scavenger. Additionally, administration of GL (50mg/kg, i.p.) 30min before pilocarpine administration significantly suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, malondialdehyde levels were diminished and glutathione levels were maintained at control values in both cerebral regions at 3 and 24 after SE. At 24h after SE, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activity increased in the hippocampus, while both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity were unchanged in the olfactory bulb at that time. In addition, GL suppressed the induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in both cerebral regions evaluated. These results suggest that GL confers protection against pilocarpine damage via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Ge, Qingman; Wang, Shaocheng; Zheng, Yuezhong
Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of systemic injection of an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody (mAb) on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats (6–8 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: EIU, anti-TNF-α mAb + EIU, and control. EIU was induced by injecting Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the hind footpad of the rats (150 μg/rat). The anti-TNF-α mAb (1 μg/kg) was administrated 30 min before LPS injection through one-time intravenous injection. The onset time and peak time of EIU were recorded. The serum and aqueous humor (AH) TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 4, 24, and 72 h post-LPS injection. Clinical manifestations of EIU and eye histopathology were scored. Results: Compared with the EIU rats, anti-TNF-α mAb + EIU rats showed significantly delayed onset of uveitis (t = 7.41, P < 0.001), lower clinical scores and histopathological grades (t = 3.18/2.22, P < 0.001), reduced levels of TNF-α (F = 15.06/59.43, P < 0.001) and IL-6 (F = 99.63/14.92, P < 0.001), and increased levels of IL-10 (F = 24.94/8.99, P < 0.001) in the serum and AH. AH TNF-α, serum IL-6, and AH IL-6 levels are positively correlated, whereas serum IL-10 levels were negatively correlated with EIU activity. Conclusion: Antagonizing TNF-α by system injection of the anti-TNF-α mAb protects against EIU in rats. Blocking TNF-α signaling could be a useful strategy for managing uveitis. PMID:28112125
Chen, Hui; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Wu, Jiangman; Zhu, Junping; Li, Jieqiong; Wang, Juan; Chen, Yanlei; An, Jing
As a potential cytokine adjuvant of DNA vaccines, granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has received considerable attention due to its essential role in the recruitment of antigen-presenting cells, differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells. However, in our recent study of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) DNA vaccine, co-inoculation of a GM-CSF plasmid dramatically suppressed the specific IgG response and resulted in decreased protection against JEV challenge. It is known that GM-CSF has been used in clinic to treat neutropenia for repopulating myeloid cells, and as an adjuvant in vaccine studies; it has shown various effects on the immune response. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the suppressive effects on the immune response to a JEV DNA vaccine by the co-administration of the GM-CSF-expressing plasmid and clarified the underlying mechanisms of the suppression in mice. Our results demonstrated that co-immunization with GM-CSF caused a substantial dampening of the vaccine-induced antibody responses. The suppressive effect was dose- and timing-dependent and likely related to the immunogenicity of the antigen. The suppression was associated with the induction of immature dendritic cells and the expansion of regulatory T cells but not myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Collectively, our findings not only provide valuable information for the application of GM-CSF in clinic and using as a vaccine adjuvant but also offer further insight into the understanding of the complex roles of GM-CSF. PMID:22493704
Boal, Frederic; Timotin, Andrei; Roumegoux, Jessica; Alfarano, Chiara; Calise, Denis; Anesia, Rodica; Parini, Angelo; Valet, Philippe; Tronchere, Helene
Background and Purpose Apelin‐13, an endogenous ligand for the apelin (APJ) receptor, behaves as a potent modulator of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we examined the effects of apelin‐13 on myocardial injury in a mouse model combining ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and obesity and explored their underlying mechanisms. Experimental Approach Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or high‐fat diet (HFD) for 6 months and then subjected to cardiac I/R. The effects of apelin‐13 post‐treatment on myocardial injury were evaluated in HFD‐fed mice after 24 h I/R. Changes in protein abundance, phosphorylation, subcellular localization and mRNA expression were determined in cardiomyoblast cell line H9C2, primary cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue from ND‐ and HFD‐fed mice. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL staining and caspase‐3 activity. Mitochondrial ultrastructure was analysed by electron microscopy. Key Results In HFD‐fed mice subjected to cardiac I/R, i.v. administration of apelin‐13 significantly reduced infarct size, myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial damage compared with vehicle‐treated animals. In H9C2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes, apelin‐13 induced FoxO1 phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion. FoxO1 silencing by siRNA abolished the protective effects of apelin‐13 against hypoxia‐induced apoptosis and mitochondrial ROS generation. Finally, apelin deficiency in mice fed a HFD resulted in reduced myocardial FoxO1 expression and impaired FoxO1 distribution. Conclusions and Implications These data reveal apelin as a novel regulator of FoxO1 in cardiac cells and provide evidence for the potential of apelin‐13 in prevention of apoptosis and mitochondrial damage in conditions combining I/R injury and obesity. PMID:27005319
Kim, Chanyang; Kim, Sehee; Park, Seungjoon
Mammalian neurogenesis continues throughout adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. It is well known that hippocampal neurogenesis is essential in mediating hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Ghrelin, a peptide hormone mainly synthesized in the stomach, has been shown to play a major role in the regulation of energy metabolism. A plethora of evidence indicates that ghrelin can also exert important effects on neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the adult brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the current role of ghrelin on the in vivo and in vitro regulation of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. We will also discuss the possible role of ghrelin in dietary restriction-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and the link between ghrelin-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions.
There is considerable recent evidence that, in addition to its representation of space, the hippocampus also represents the temporal organization of memories. Time plays a central role in episodic memory, and studies have identified the hippocampus as playing an essential role in the temporal organization of memories in humans and animals. Temporal organization is supported by a gradually changing temporal context signal in the hippocampus, and this changing context signal involves "time cells" in the hippocampus that code sequential moments in temporally organized experiences. Finally, hippocampal temporal context representations mechanisms in intrinsic circuitry and oscillatory patterns throughout hippocampal subfields and likely depend on inputs from parahippocampal cortical areas and a widespread temporal processing system in the neocortex.
Kim, Chanyang; Kim, Sehee; Park, Seungjoon
Mammalian neurogenesis continues throughout adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. It is well known that hippocampal neurogenesis is essential in mediating hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Ghrelin, a peptide hormone mainly synthesized in the stomach, has been shown to play a major role in the regulation of energy metabolism. A plethora of evidence indicates that ghrelin can also exert important effects on neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the adult brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the current role of ghrelin on the in vivo and in vitro regulation of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. We will also discuss the possible role of ghrelin in dietary restriction-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and the link between ghrelin-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions. PMID:28282857
Antunes, Michelle S; Ruff, Jossana Rodrigues; de Oliveira Espinosa, Dieniffer; Piegas, Manuela Bastos; de Brito, Maicon Lenon Otenio; Rocha, Kellen Athaíde; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Goes, André Tiago Rossito; Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Donato, Franciele; Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Jesse, Cristiano R
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and a primary cause of disability. To better treat patients suffering this illness, elucidation of the underlying psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms is urgently needed. Based on the above-mentioned evidence, we sought to investigate the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) treatment in tricyclic antidepressant treatment-resistant depression induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration. Mice were treated with NPY (5.84, 11.7 or 23.4mmol/μl) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) for one or five days. The levels of serum corticosterone, tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in the hippocampus were analyzed. The behavioral parameters (depressive-like and locomotor activity) were also verified. This study demonstrated that ACTH administration increased serum corticosterone levels, KYN, 5-HIAA levels, IDO activity (hippocampus), immobility in the forced swimming test (FST) and the latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT). In addition, ACTH administration decreased the BDNF and NGF levels in the hippocampus of mice. NPY treatment was effective in preventing these hormonal, neurochemical and behavioral alterations. It is suggested that the main target of NPY is the modulation of corticosterone and neuronal plasticity protein levels, which may be closely linked with pharmacological action in a model of tricyclic antidepressant treatment-resistant depression. Thus, this study demonstrated a protective effect of NPY on the alterations induced by ACTH administration in mice, indicating that it could be useful as a therapy for the treatment of tricyclic antidepressant treatment-resistant depression.
National Telecommunications and Information Administration Authorization. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on HR 5497, a Bill to Authorize Appropriations for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration for Fiscal Years of 1985 and 1986.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.
This report on a hearing on legislation to authorize an increased appropriation for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for fiscal years 1985 and 1986 contains an introductory statement by Timothy E. Wirth, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance; the text of the bill;…
Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)
Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya
Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.
Bach, Dominik R.; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Packard, Pau A.; Miró, Júlia; Falip, Mercè; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Dolan, Raymond J.
Summary Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [2–6]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate . Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus . Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus. PMID:24560572
Bach, Dominik R; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Packard, Pau A; Miró, Júlia; Falip, Mercè; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Dolan, Raymond J
Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate. Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus. Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya
Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711
Kanter, Mehmet; Unsal, Cuneyt; Aktas, Cevat; Erboga, Mustafa
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate cadmium (Cd)-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal tissues and beneficial effect of quercetin (QE) against neuronal damage. A total of 30 male rats were divided into 3 groups: control, Cd-treated, and Cd + QE-treated groups. After the treatment, the animals were killed and hippocampal tissues were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Cd significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels and also decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities in hippocampal tissue compared with the control. Administration of QE with Cd significantly decreased the levels of MDA and PC and significantly elevated the levels of antioxidant enzymes in hippocampal tissue. In the Cd-treated group, the neurons of both tissues became extensively dark and degenerated with pyknotic nuclei. The morphology of neurons in Cd + QE group was well protected, but not as neurons of the control group. The caspase-3 immunopositivity was increased in degenerating neurons of the Cd-treated group. Treatment of QE markedly reduced the immunoreactivity of degenerating neurons. The results of the present study show that QE therapy causes morphologic improvement in neurodegeneration of hippocampus after Cd exposure in rats. © The Author(s) 2013.
Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.
Methamphetamine exposure reduces hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and neurogenesis and these alterations partially contribute to hippocampal maladaptive plasticity. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity were identified in the present study. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a regulator of LTP and neurogenesis), and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) were studied in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal tissue lysates in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day) or extended access (6 h/day) paradigm for 17 days post baseline sessions. Extended access methamphetamine enhanced expression of BDNF with significant effects observed in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Methamphetamine-induced enhancements in BDNF expression were not associated with TrkB receptor activation as indicated by phospho (p)-TrkB-706 levels. Conversely, methamphetamine produced hypophosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) at Tyr-1472 in the ventral hippocampus, indicating reduced receptor activation. In addition, methamphetamine enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduced pro-apoptotic protein Bax levels in the ventral hippocampus, suggesting a mechanism for reducing cell death. Analysis of Akt, a pro-survival kinase that suppresses apoptotic pathways and pAkt at Ser-473 demonstrated that extended access methamphetamine reduces Akt expression in the ventral hippocampus. These data reveal that alterations in Bcl-2 and Bax levels by methamphetamine were not associated with enhanced Akt expression. Given that hippocampal function and neurogenesis vary in a subregion-specific fashion, where dorsal hippocampus regulates spatial processing and has higher levels of neurogenesis, whereas ventral hippocampus regulates anxiety-related behaviors, these data suggest that methamphetamine self-administration initiates distinct allostatic changes in
Galinato, M H; Orio, L; Mandyam, C D
Methamphetamine exposure reduces hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and neurogenesis and these alterations partially contribute to hippocampal maladaptive plasticity. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity were identified in the present study. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a regulator of LTP and neurogenesis), and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) were studied in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal tissue lysates in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1h/day) or extended access (6h/day) paradigm for 17days post baseline sessions. Extended access methamphetamine enhanced expression of BDNF with significant effects observed in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Methamphetamine-induced enhancements in BDNF expression were not associated with TrkB receptor activation as indicated by phospho (p)-TrkB-706 levels. Conversely, methamphetamine produced hypophosphorylation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) at Tyr-1472 in the ventral hippocampus, indicating reduced receptor activation. In addition, methamphetamine enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduced pro-apoptotic protein Bax levels in the ventral hippocampus, suggesting a mechanism for reducing cell death. Analysis of Akt, a pro-survival kinase that suppresses apoptotic pathways and pAkt at Ser-473 demonstrated that extended access methamphetamine reduces Akt expression in the ventral hippocampus. These data reveal that alterations in Bcl-2 and Bax levels by methamphetamine were not associated with enhanced Akt expression. Given that hippocampal function and neurogenesis vary in a subregion-specific fashion, where dorsal hippocampus regulates spatial processing and has higher levels of neurogenesis, whereas ventral hippocampus regulates anxiety-related behaviors, these data suggest that methamphetamine self-administration initiates distinct
Delgado-Cortés, María José; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Sarmiento, Manuel; Argüelles, Sandro; Herrera, Antonio J; Mauriño, Raquel; Villarán, Ruth F; Venero, José L; Machado, Alberto; de Pablos, Rocío M
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Although the primary cause of the disease is presently unknown, to date several risk factors have been described. Evidence suggests that one of these risk factors could be chronic stress. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that chronic stress is able to induce Alzheimer's disease features after the administration of nontoxic doses of sodium azide. We found that chronic stress increases the levels of several proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, such as presenilin 1, presenilin 2, and S100β, besides inducing the aggregation of Tau, ubiquitin, and β-amyloid proteins in the hippocampus. More important, our work shows a synergistic effect of stress and sodium azide treatment leading to significant neuronal death in the mouse hippocampus. Our results point out that chronic stress is a risk factor contributing to amplify and accelerate Alzheimer's disease features in the hippocampus.
Enhancement of Th1-biased protective immunity against avian influenza H9N2 virus via oral co-administration of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interferon-α and interleukin-18 along with an inactivated vaccine
Background Control of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against LPAI H9N2 virus strains. Cytokines play a crucial role in mounting both the type and extent of an immune response generated following infection with a pathogen or after vaccination. To improve the efficacy of inactivated LPAI H9N2 vaccine, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used for oral co-administration of chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α) and chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) as natural immunomodulators. Results Oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18, prior to vaccination with inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine, modulated the immune response of chickens against the vaccine antigen through enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to chickens that received single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing either chIFN-α or chIL-18. To further test the protective efficacy of this improved vaccination regimen, immunized chickens were intra-tracheally challenged with a high dose of LPAI H9N2 virus. Combined administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18 showed markedly enhanced protection compared to single administration of the construct, as determined by mortality, clinical severity, and feed and water intake. This enhancement of protective immunity was further confirmed by reduced rectal shedding and replication of AIV H9N2 in different tissues of challenged chickens. Conclusions Our results indicate the value of combined administration of chIFN-α and chIL-18 using a Salmonella vaccine strain to generate an effective immunization strategy in chickens against LPAI H9N2. PMID:22776696
Liu, Shanshan; Ho, Paul C
Scutellarin (SCU) is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease, but its clinic applications have been limited due to its poor water solubility, poor bioavailability and short half-life. In comparison with the conventional oral and intravenous administration, nasal administration may help targeting the drug more directly to brain. Thus, we proposed to employ a novel SCU-loaded HP-β-CD/chitosan nanoparticles (CD/CS-SCU-NPs) to deliver SCU to brain through the nasal route. CD/CS-SCU-NPs were prepared by an ionic cross-linking method. The NPs formulation was tested in vivo in C57BL mice. The concentrations of SCU in brain and plasma after intranasal and oral administration of the CD/CS-SCU-NPs and after intranasal administration of SCU solution (SCU-SL) were determined and brain targeting parameters were calculated. Compared to the intranasal administration of SCU-SL, intranasal and oral administration of the CD/CS-SCU-NPs increased accumulation of SCU in brain, indicating that CD/CS-SCU-NPs have obvious brain targeting advantage, although the advantage is more evident after intranasal administration. Findings from in-vivo study indicated that much higher SCU brain exposure was observed after intranasal administration of the CD/CS-SCU-NPs. Administration of CD/CS-SCU-NPs through the nasal route would have potential to treat ischemic cerebrovascular disease. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Molchanova, Svetlana M; Oja, Simos S; Saransaari, Pirjo
Taurine, a non-protein amino acid, acts as an osmoregulator and inhibitory neuromodulator in the brain. Here we studied the effects of intraperitoneal injections of taurine on the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, and their precursors, glutamine and alanine, in the rat striatum and hippocampus. Injections of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg taurine led to a gradual increase in taurine tissue concentrations in both hippocampus and striatum. Glutamate and GABA also increased in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum. Glutamine increased and alanine decreased markedly in both brain structures. The results corroborate the neuromodulatory role of taurine in the brain. Taurine administration results in an imbalance in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the glutamatergic (hippocampus) and GABAergic (striatum) brain structures, affecting more markedly the neurotransmitter precursors.
Pierzynowski, Stefan; Ushakova, Galyna; Kovalenko, Tatiana; Osadchenko, Iryna; Goncharova, Kateryna; Gustavsson, Per; Prykhodko, Olena; Wolinski, Jarek; Slupecka, Monika; Ochniewicz, Piotr; Weström, Björn; Skibo, Galina
The first milk, colostrum, is an important source of nutrients and an exclusive source of immunoglobulins (Ig), essential for the growth and protection from infection of newborn pigs. Colostrum intake has also been shown to affect the vitality and behaviour of neonatal pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding colostrum and plasma immunoglobulin on brain development in neonatal pigs. Positive correlations were found between growth, levels of total protein and IgG in blood plasma and hippocampus development in sow-reared piglets during the first 3 postnatal days. In piglets fed an elemental diet (ED) for 24h, a reduced body weight, a lower plasma protein level and a decreased level of astrocyte specific protein in the hippocampus was observed, as compared to those that were sow-reared. The latter was coincident with a reduced microgliogenesis and an essentially diminished number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus after 72h. Supplementation of the ED with purified plasma Ig, improved the gliogenesis and supported the trophic and immune status of the hippocampus. The data obtained indicate that the development of the hippocampus structure is improved by colostrum or an Ig-supplemented elemental diet in order to stimulate brain protein synthesis and its development during the early postnatal period.
Wei, Ya Bin; Backlund, Lena; Wegener, Gregers; Mathé, Aleksander A; Lavebratt, Catharina
Telomeres are protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of each chromosome, maintained primarily by the enzyme telomerase. Shortening of the blood leukocyte telomeres is associated with aging, several chronic diseases, and stress, eg, major depression. Hippocampus is pivotal in the regulation of cognition and mood and the main brain region of telomerase activity. Whether there is telomere dysfunction in the hippocampus of depressed subjects is unknown. Lithium, used in the treatment and relapse prevention of mood disorders, was found to protect against leukocyte telomere shortening in humans, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. To answer the questions whether telomeres are shortened and the telomerase activity changed in the hippocampus and whether lithium could reverse the process, we used a genetic model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line rat, and treated the animals with lithium. Telomere length, telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) expression, telomerase activity, and putative mediators of telomerase activity were investigated in the hippocampus of these animals. The naïve Flinders Sensitive Line had shorter telomere length, downregulated Tert expression, reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and reduced telomerase activity compared with the Flinders Resistant Line controls. Lithium treatment normalized the Tert expression and telomerase activity in the Flinders Sensitive Line and upregulated β-catenin. This is the first report showing telomere dysregulation in hippocampus of a well-defined depression model and restorative effects of lithium treatment. If replicated in other models of mood disorder, the findings will contribute to understanding both the telomere function and the mechanism of lithium action in hippocampus of depressed patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Fabri, Denise R S; Hott, Sara C; Reis, Daniel G; Biojone, Caroline; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Resstel, Leonardo B M
The dorsal portion of the hippocampus is a limbic structure that is involved in fear conditioning modulation in rats. Moreover, evidence shows that the local dorsal hippocampus glutamatergic system, nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP modulate behavioral responses during aversive situations. Therefore, the present study investigated the involvement of dorsal hippocampus NMDA receptors and the NO/cGMP pathway in contextual fear conditioning expression. Male Wistar rats were submitted to an aversive contextual conditioning session and 48 h later they were re-exposed to the aversive context in which freezing, cardiovascular responses (increase of both arterial pressure and heart rate) and decrease of tail temperature were recorded. The intra-dorsal hippocampus administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP7, prior to the re-exposure to the aversive context, attenuated fear-conditioned responses. The re-exposure to the context evoked an increase in NO concentration in the dorsal hippocampus of conditioned animals. Similar to AP7 administration, we observed a reduction of contextual fear conditioning after dorsal hippocampus administration of either the neuronal NO synthase inhibitor N-propyl-L-arginine, the NO scavenger c-PTIO or the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ. Therefore, the present findings suggest the possible existence of a dorsal hippocampus NMDA/NO/cGMP pathway modulating the expression of contextual fear conditioning in rats.
Jangra, Ashok; Kwatra, Mohit; Singh, Tavleen; Pant, Rajat; Kushwah, Pawan; Sharma, Yogita; Saroha, Babita; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits.
Del Angel-Meza, A R; Dávalos-Marín, A J; Ontiveros-Martinez, L L; Ortiz, G G; Beas-Zarate, C; Chaparro-Huerta, V; Torres-Mendoza, B M; Bitzer-Quintero, O K
Tryptophan (TRP), which plays an important role in immune system regulation, protein synthesis, serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin production, is a potent endogenous free radical scavenger and antioxidant. The aim of this work was to determine the efficacy of TRP in neuro-inflammation induced by systemic administration of lipopolysacharide (LPS, 20mg/kg) which promotes the synthesis of free radical (LPO: MDA and 4-HDA), and pro-inflammatory cytokine Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in different brain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) of rats. Experiments were performed on adult female, pregnant and lactating rats fed with a diet of TRP content (0.5mg/100g protein), cerebral cortex and hippocampus were evaluated for lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, nitrites, nitrates and plasmatic concentration of IFN-γ. LPO levels in LPS+TRP groups were significantly decreased than that obtained in the LPS group. However, there were no observed differences in plasmatic levels of nitrites and nitrates as well as IFN-γ, neither in the cerebral cortex or hippocampus. The TRP has protective effect in the oxidative damage in a model of endotoxic shock in the breading nurslings induced by the systemic administration of LPS, acting as a scavenger of free radicals. So, it can be proposed as an innocuous protector agent in the endotoxic shock process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hypertension and type II diabetes are co-morbid diseases that lead to the development of nephropathy. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are reported to provide protection from renal injury. We hypothesized that the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) protects ...
Liu, Yadong; Ma, Shiping; Qu, Rong
Increasing evidence demonstrates that stress or depression can lead to atrophy and cell loss in the hippocampus. In contrast, antidepressant treatment significantly reduces apoptosis in the dentate granule cell layer and subgranular zone in animal models of depression. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of SCLM, the total saponins extracted from Chaihu-jia-longgu-muli-tang, a traditional Chinese medicinal formula which was prescribed 1000 years ago, in the reduction of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons using an experimental chronic mild stress (CMS) model. Mice were subjected to the CMS procedure for a period of 21 consecutive days. SCLM (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (20 mg/ kg, p.o.) was administered during the stress periods. CMS mice showed a decreased sucrose intake over 21 days, and an increase in the number of TUNEL-positive neurons as well as up-regulation of the apoptotic-related factors, such as Bax and caspase-3 in the hippocampus, compared with control mice. On the other hand, the administration of SCLM (100 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) reversed these effects induced by CMS, showing a significant increase of sucrose intake and a dramatic reduction of TUNEL-positive neurons and decreased expression of Bax and caspase-3 proteins. The present results suggest that SCLM possesses a significant antidepressant-like property, and this effect may be through protection against stress-induced neuronal apoptosis by affecting the expression of Bax and caspase-3 proteins in the hippocampus. These findings provide important information that the anti-apoptotic effect of herbal medicine therapy may be beneficial for the treatment of depression.
Keralapurath, Madhusudhanan M; Clark, Jason K; Hammond, Sherri; Wagner, John J
Despite the well documented role of the hippocampus in various modes of drug reinstatement behavior, the persisting effects of in vivo cocaine exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity are not sufficiently understood. In this report we investigated the effects of cocaine conditioning on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampus along its septotemporal axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats experienced a behavioral protocol, in which locomotor activity was monitored in response to various conditioning treatments. LTP was measured in ex vivo slice preparations taken 1-2 weeks after the last behavioral session from the ventral (vH) and dorsal (dH) sectors of hippocampus. Unexpectedly, experiencing the minor intermittent stimuli of the behavioral protocol caused stress-induced metaplastic changes in both vH (increased LTP) and dH (decreased LTP) in the saline conditioned rats relative to behaviorally naïve controls. These stress effects in the vH and dH were blocked by conditioning with either mineralocorticoid (spironolactone) or glucocorticoid (mifepristone) antagonists, respectively. Stress-induced metaplasticity in the vH was also prevented by prior administration of the kappa opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Cocaine conditioning induced locomotor sensitization and significantly increased LTP in the vH without causing significant change in LTP in the dH. Cocaine-induced metaplasticity in the vH was prevented by co-administration of the dopamine D2-like antagonist eticlopride during cocaine conditioning, but not by co-administration of the D1/5 antagonist SCH 23390. Our results suggest that the functional connectivity of hippocampus is altered by metaplastic triggers such as exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stressors, thereby shifting the efferent output of hippocampus from dH (cortical) toward vH (limbic) influenced circuits.
Kadivar, Mehdi; Farahmandfar, Maryam; Ranjbar, Faezeh Esmaeli; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, such as morphine, elicits a progressive enhancement of drug-induced behavioral responses, a phenomenon termed behavioral sensitization. These changes in behavior may reflect long-lasting changes in some of the important molecules involved in memory processing such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In the present study, we investigated the effect of morphine sensitization on mRNA expression of α and β isoforms and activity of CaMKII in the hippocampus of male rats. Animals were treated for 3 days with saline or morphine (20mg/kg) and following a washout period of 5 days, a challenge dose of morphine (5mg/kg) were administered. The results indicate that morphine administration in pre-treated animals produces behavioral sensitization, as determined by significant increase in locomotion and oral stereotypy behavior. In addition, repeated morphine treatment increased mRNA expression of both α and β isoforms of CaMKII in the hippocampus. The present study also showed that induction of morphine sensitization significantly increased both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II in the rat hippocampus. However, acute administration of morphine (5mg/kg) did not alter either α and β CaMKII mRNA expression or CaMKII activity in the hippocampus. The stimulation effects of morphine sensitization on mRNA expression and activity of CaMKII were completely abolished by administration of naloxone, 30min prior to s.c. injections of morphine (20mg/kg/day×3 days). Our data demonstrated that induction of morphine sensitization could effectively modulate the activity and the mRNA expression of CaMKII in the hippocampus and this effect of morphine was exerted by the activation of opioid receptors.
Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Younghwan; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon
It is well known that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial and contextual memory, and that spatial information is tightly regulated by the hippocampus. However, it is still highly controversial whether the hippocampus plays a role in object recognition memory. In a pilot study, the administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, enhanced memory in the passive avoidance task, but not in the novel object recognition task. In the present study, we hypothesized that these different results are related to the characteristics of each task and the different roles of hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. A region-specific drug-treatment model was employed to clarify the role of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in object recognition memory. After a single habituation in the novel object recognition task, intra-perirhinal cortical injection of bicuculline increased and intra-hippocampal injection decreased the exploration time ratio to novel object. In addition, when animals were repeatedly habituated to the context, intra-perirhinal cortical administration of bicuculline still increased exploration time ratio to novel object, but the effect of intra-hippocampal administration disappeared. Concurrent increases of c-Fos expression and ERK phosphorylation were observed in the perirhinal cortex of the object with context-exposed group either after single or repeated habituation to the context, but no changes were noted in the hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that object recognition memory formation requires the perirhinal cortex but not the hippocampus, and that hippocampal activation interferes with object recognition memory by the information encoding of unfamiliar environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Collino, Massimo; Aragno, Manuela; Castiglia, Sara; Tomasinelli, Chiara; Thiemermann, Christoph; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Roberto
OBJECTIVE—There is evidence that insulin reduces brain injury evoked by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of insulin remain unknown. Insulin is a well-known inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Here, we investigate the role of GSK-3β inhibition on I/R-induced cerebral injury in a rat model of insulinopenic diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were subjected to 30-min occlusion of common carotid arteries followed by 1 or 24 h of reperfusion. Insulin (2–12 IU/kg i.v.) or the selective GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8 (0.2–3 mg/kg i.v.) was administered during reperfusion. RESULTS—Insulin or TDZD-8 dramatically reduced infarct volume and levels of S100B protein, a marker of cerebral injury. Both drugs induced phosphorylation of the Ser9 residue, thereby inactivating GSK-3β in the rat hippocampus. Insulin, but not TDZD-8, lowered blood glucose. The hippocampi of the drug-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress at 1 h of reperfusion as shown by the decreased generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. I/R-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB was attenuated by both drug treatments. At 24 h of reperfusion, TDZD-8 and insulin significantly reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α; neutrophil infiltration, measured as myeloperoxidase activity and intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1 expression; and cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible-NO-synthase expression. CONCLUSIONS—Acute administration of insulin or TDZD-8 reduced cerebral I/R injury in diabetic rats. We propose that the inhibitory effect on the activity of GSK-3β contributes to the protective effect of insulin independently of any effects on blood glucose. PMID:18840784
Yum, Hye-Won; Kang, Jing X; Hahm, Ki Baik; Surh, Young-Joon
Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs on experimentally induced murine colitis. Intrarectal administration of 2.5% 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) caused inflammation in the colon of wild type mice, but this was less severe in fat-1 transgenic mice that constitutively produce ω-3 PUFAs from ω-6 PUFAs. The intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a representative ω-3 PUFA, was also protective against TNBS-induced murine colitis. In addition, endogenously formed and exogenously introduced ω-3 PUFAs attenuated the production of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the colon of TNBS-treated mice. The effective protection against inflammatory and oxidative colonic tissue damages in fat-1 and DHA-treated mice was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and with elevated activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of its target gene, heme oxygenase-1. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic basis of protective action of ω-3 fatty PUFAs against experimental colitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Erickson, Kirk I; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Basak, Chandramallika; Szabo, Amanda; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S; Heo, Susie; Alves, Heloisa; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily; Vieira, Victoria J; Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F
The hippocampus shrinks in late adulthood, leading to impaired memory and increased risk for dementia. Hippocampal and medial temporal lobe volumes are larger in higher-fit adults, and physical activity training increases hippocampal perfusion, but the extent to which aerobic exercise training can modify hippocampal volume in late adulthood remains unknown. Here we show, in a randomized controlled trial with 120 older adults, that aerobic exercise training increases the size of the anterior hippocampus, leading to improvements in spatial memory. Exercise training increased hippocampal volume by 2%, effectively reversing age-related loss in volume by 1 to 2 y. We also demonstrate that increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal volume declined in the control group, but higher preintervention fitness partially attenuated the decline, suggesting that fitness protects against volume loss. Caudate nucleus and thalamus volumes were unaffected by the intervention. These theoretically important findings indicate that aerobic exercise training is effective at reversing hippocampal volume loss in late adulthood, which is accompanied by improved memory function.
WASHINGTON -President Obama announced the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final Clean Power Plan today, which will cut U.S. carbon pollution from the power sector by 870 million tons, or 32 percent
Prakash, Dharmalingam; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam
Dietary flavonoids have been suggested to promote brain health by protecting brain parenchymal cells. Recently, understanding the possible mechanism underlying neuroprotective efficacy of flavonoids is of great interest. Given that fisetin exerts neuroprotection, we have examined the mechanisms underlying fisetin in regulating Aβ aggregation and neuronal apoptosis induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) administration in vivo. Male Swiss albino mice were induced orally with AlCl3 (200 mg/kg. b.wt./day/8 weeks). Fisetin (15 mg/Kg. b.wt. orally) was administered for 4 weeks before AlCl3-induction and administered simultaneously for 8 weeks during AlCl3-induction. We found aggregation of Amyloid beta (Aβ 40-42), elevated expressions of Apoptosis stimulating kinase (ASK-1), p-JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase), p53, cytochrome c, caspases-9 and 3, with altered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in favour of apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of AlCl3-administered mice. Furthermore, TUNEL and fluoro-jade C staining demonstrate neurodegeneration in cortex and hippocampus. Notably, treatment with fisetin significantly (P<0.05) reduced Aβ aggregation, ASK-1, p-JNK, p53, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and 3 protein expressions and modulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. TUNEL-positive and fluoro-jade C stained cells were also significantly reduced upon fisetin treatment. We have identified the involvement of fisetin in regulating ASK-1 and p-JNK as possible mediator of Aβ aggregation and subsequent neuronal apoptosis during AlCl3-induced neurodegeneration. These findings define the possibility that fisetin may slow or prevent neurodegneration and can be utilised as neuroprotective agent against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz
Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse causes neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported but its putative mechanism remains unclear. The current study evaluates the role of various doses of TPM on protection of rat hippocampal cells from MPH-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in vivo. Seventy adult male rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 received normal saline (0.7 mL/rat) and group 2 was injected with MPH (10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 concurrently were treated by MPH (10 mg/kg) and TPM (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), respectively for 21 days. After drug administration, the open field test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity. Oxidative, antioxidant and inflammatory factors were measured in isolated hippocampus. Also, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level was measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cresyl violet staining of Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 cell layers of the hippocampus were also performed. MPH significantly disturbs motor activity in OFT and TPM (70 and 100 mg/kg) decreased this disturbance. Also MPH significantly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial reduced state of glutathione (GSH) level, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and BDNF level in isolated hippocampal cells. Also superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity significantly decreased. Various doses of TPM attenuated these effects and significantly decreased MPH-induced oxidative damage, inflammation and hippocampal cell loss and increased BDNF level. This study suggests that TPM has the potential to be used as a neuroprotective agent against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by frequent use of MPH.
Hammond, Rebecca S; Tull, Laura E; Stackman, Robert W
The role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory processes is unclear in the current literature. Conflicting results have been found in lesion studies of both primates and rodents. Procedural differences between studies, such as retention interval, may explain these discrepancies. In the present study, acute lidocaine administration was used to temporarily inactivate the hippocampus prior to training in the spontaneous object recognition task. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered bilateral lidocaine (4%, 0.5 microl/side) or aCSF (0.5 microl/side) directly into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus 5 min prior to sample object training, and object recognition memory was tested after a short ( 5 min) or long (24 h) retention interval. There was no effect of intra-hippocampal lidocaine on the time needed for mice to accumulate sample object exploration, suggesting that inactivation of the hippocampus did not affect sample session activity or the motivation to explore objects. Lidocaine-treated mice exhibited impaired object recognition memory, measured as reduced novel object preference, after a 24 h but not a 5 min retention interval. These data support a delay-dependent role for the hippocampus in object recognition memory, an effect consistent with the results of hippocampal lesion studies conducted in rats. However, these data are also consistent with the view that the hippocampus is involved in object recognition memory regardless of retention interval, and that object recognition processes of parahippocampal structures (e.g., perirhinal cortex) are sufficient to support object recognition memory over short retention intervals.
Dai, Yun-Jian; Wu, Deng-Chang; Feng, Bo; Hou, Wei-wei; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-Wei
Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common type of convulsions in childhood and complex FSs represent an increased risk for development of temporal lobe epilepsy. The aim of this study was to analyze the anticonvulsant effects of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide composed of alanine and histidine, on hyperthermia induced seizure in immature mice. Injection of carnosine significantly increased the latency and decreased the duration of FSs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, histidine had similar effects on FSs as carnosine. The protective effect of carnosine or histidine was completely abolished by α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, or in histidine decarboxylase deficient (HDC-KO) mice. Peripheral carnosine administration increased the level of carnosine, histidine and histamine in the cortex and hippocampus of mice pups, but decreased glutamate contents in the cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that carnosine can protect against FSs in mice pups through its conversion to histamine, suggesting that it may serve as an efficient anti-FSs drug in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Kang; Jia, Hengchuan; She, Xiaojun; Cui, Bo; Zhang, Na; Chen, Xuewei; Xu, Chuanxiang; An, Gaihong; Ma, Qiang
Chronic noise exposure has been associated with abnormalities in glutamate (Glu)-NMDAR signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. However, further studies are necessary to clarify potential causal relationships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of NMDA receptors in noise-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups in the present study: control with isotonic saline instillation (n=10); noise exposure (100 dB SPL white noise, 4h/d × 14d) and treated with saline (n=10); and noise exposure and treated with MK-801 (0.5mg/kg, intraperitoneally; n=10). The levels of tau phosphorylated at Ser202 and Ser396, and proteins involved in hyperphosphorylation, namely glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), were measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) after the last noise exposure. We showed that phosphorylated tau levels were enhanced in noise-exposed-rat hippocampus and PFC. MK-801 decreased the hyperphosphorylation of tau at Ser202 and Ser396 sites in the hippocampus and PFC. Furthermore, MK-801 reversed noise-induced GSK3β overexpression but had no significant effect on PP2A levels. This suggests that MK-801 protects against chronic-noise-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus and PFC. These findings demonstrate that Glu-NMDAR signaling may be involved in triggering aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus and PFC after chronic noise exposure.
Takagi, Yasuhiro; Kurihara, Shigekazu; Higashi, Natsumi; Morikawa, Saeko; Kase, Tetsuo; Maeda, Akiko; Arisaka, Harumi; Shibahara, Susumu; Akiyama, Yukio
Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses are attenuated with aging. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels also decrease with aging. Previously, we have reported that combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine enhances antigen-specific IgG production, partly through augmentation of GSH levels and T helper 2-mediated responses in 12-week-old mice. These findings suggest that combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine to aged mice improves immune responses via increase of GSH synthesis. Here, we examined the effects of combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine on antigen-specific antibody production and influenza virus infection in aged mice. Combined administration of these amino acids for 14 days before primary immunization significantly enhanced the serum antigen-specific IgM and IgG levels in 24-month-old mice. Furthermore, 13-month-old mice co-treated with these amino acids orally for 10 days had significantly lower lung viral titers than controls at 6 days after influenza virus infection. In addition, this co-treatment also significantly prevented the weight loss associated with infection. Enhancement of anti-influenza-virus IgG antibodies by combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine was seen 10 days after infection. The significantly elevated serum interleukin-10/interferon-gamma ratio and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase mRNA expression, which is the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis, in the spleen 3 days after infection may have contributed to the observed beneficial effects. These results suggest that combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine enhances immune function and GSH synthesis which are compromised with advanced age, and may become a useful strategy in healthy aging.
Robinson, Jennifer L.; Barron, Daniel S.; Kirby, Lauren A. J.; Bottenhorn, Katherine L.; Hill, Ashley C.; Murphy, Jerry E.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Salibi, Nouha; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.
Much of what we assume about the functional topography of the hippocampus was derived from a single case study over half a century ago. Given advances in the imaging sciences, a new era of discovery is underway, with potential to transform our understanding of healthy processing as well as our ability to treat disorders. We employed coactivation based parcellation, a meta-analytic approach, and ultra-high field, high-resolution functional and structural neuroimaging to characterize the neurofunctional topography of the hippocampus. Data revealed strong support for an evolutionarily preserved topography along the long-axis. Specifically, the left hippocampus was segmented into three distinct clusters: an emotional processing cluster supported by structural and functional connectivity to the amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, a cognitive operations cluster, with functional connectivity to the anterior cingulate and inferior frontal gyrus, and a posterior perceptual cluster with distinct structural connectivity patterns to the occipital lobe coupled with functional connectivity to the precuneus and angular gyrus. The right hippocampal segmentation was more ambiguous, with plausible 2- and 5-cluster solutions plausible. Segmentations shared connectivity with brain regions known to support the correlated processes. This represents the first neurofunctional topographic model of the hippocampus using a robust, bias-free, multi-modal approach. PMID:26350954
Duss, Simone B; Reber, Thomas P; Hänggi, Jürgen; Schwab, Simon; Wiest, Roland; Müri, René M; Brugger, Peter; Gutbrod, Klemens; Henke, Katharina
Textbooks divide between human memory systems based on consciousness. Hippocampus is thought to support only conscious encoding, while neocortex supports both conscious and unconscious encoding. We tested whether processing modes, not consciousness, divide between memory systems in three neuroimaging experiments with 11 amnesic patients (mean age=45.55 years, standard deviation=8.74, range=23-60) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Examined processing modes were single item versus relational encoding with only relational encoding hypothesized to depend on hippocampus. Participants encoded and later retrieved either single words or new relations between words. Consciousness of encoding was excluded by subliminal (invisible) word presentation. Amnesic patients and controls performed equally well on the single item task activating prefrontal cortex. But only the controls succeeded on the relational task activating the hippocampus, while amnesic patients failed as a group. Hence, unconscious relational encoding, but not unconscious single item encoding, depended on hippocampus. Yet, three patients performed normally on unconscious relational encoding in spite of amnesia capitalizing on spared hippocampal tissue and connections to language cortex. This pattern of results suggests that processing modes divide between memory systems, while consciousness divides between levels of function within a memory system. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.
Duss, Simone B.; Reber, Thomas P.; Hänggi, Jürgen; Schwab, Simon; Wiest, Roland; Müri, René M.; Brugger, Peter; Gutbrod, Klemens
Textbooks divide between human memory systems based on consciousness. Hippocampus is thought to support only conscious encoding, while neocortex supports both conscious and unconscious encoding. We tested whether processing modes, not consciousness, divide between memory systems in three neuroimaging experiments with 11 amnesic patients (mean age = 45.55 years, standard deviation = 8.74, range = 23–60) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Examined processing modes were single item versus relational encoding with only relational encoding hypothesized to depend on hippocampus. Participants encoded and later retrieved either single words or new relations between words. Consciousness of encoding was excluded by subliminal (invisible) word presentation. Amnesic patients and controls performed equally well on the single item task activating prefrontal cortex. But only the controls succeeded on the relational task activating the hippocampus, while amnesic patients failed as a group. Hence, unconscious relational encoding, but not unconscious single item encoding, depended on hippocampus. Yet, three patients performed normally on unconscious relational encoding in spite of amnesia capitalizing on spared hippocampal tissue and connections to language cortex. This pattern of results suggests that processing modes divide between memory systems, while consciousness divides between levels of function within a memory system. PMID:25273998
Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C
Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected.
Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B.; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.
Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected. PMID:26798521
Commentary on Faw's comprehensive response to a previous commentary ('Hippocampus as a wormhole' by Ralf-Peter Behrendt, doi: 10.1002/wcs.1446) on Faw and Faw's paper (doi: 10.1002/wcs.1412). WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, e1447. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1447. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
SAN FRANCISCO - On Tuesday, October 20th, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and United Farm Workers of America (UFW) president, Arturo Rodriguez, will participate in a farm tour and a meeting with farm workers at Pacific Triple E Farm to discuss
SAN FRANCISCO - On Tuesday, October 20th, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and United Farm Workers of America (UFW) president, Arturo Rodriguez, will participate in a farm tour and a meeting with farm workers at Pacific Triple E Farm to discuss
The hippocampal theta oscillation is strongly correlated with behaviors such as memory and spatial navigation, but we do not understand its specific functional role. One hint of theta's function came from the discovery in rodents that theta oscillations are traveling waves that allow parts of the hippocampus to simultaneously exhibit separate oscillatory phases. Because hippocampal theta oscillations in humans have different properties compared with rodents, we examined these signals directly using multielectrode recordings from neurosurgical patients. Our findings confirm that human hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, but also show that these oscillations appear at a broader range of frequencies compared with rodents. Human traveling waves showed a distinctive pattern of spatial propagation such that there is a consistent phase spread across the hippocampus regardless of the oscillations' frequency. This suggests that traveling theta oscillations are important functionally in humans because they coordinate phase coding throughout the hippocampus in a consistent manner. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show for the first time in humans that hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, moving along the length of the hippocampus in a posterior–anterior direction. The existence of these traveling theta waves is important for understanding hippocampal neural coding because they cause neurons at separate positions in the hippocampus to experience different theta phases simultaneously. The theta phase that a neuron measures is a key factor in how that cell represents behavioral information. Therefore, the existence of traveling theta waves indicates that, to fully understand how a hippocampal neuron represents information, it is vital to also account for that cell's location in addition to conventional measures of neural activity. PMID:26354915
This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.
Fanselow, Michael S.; Dong, Hong-Wei
One literature treats the hippocampus as a purely cognitive structure involved in memory; another treats it as a regulator of emotion whose dysfunction leads to psychopathology. We review behavioral, anatomical, and gene expression studies that together support a functional segmentation into 3 hippocampal compartments dorsal, intermediate and ventral. The dorsal hippocampus, which corresponds to the posterior hippocampus in primates, performs primarily cognitive functions. The ventral (anterior in primates) relates to stress, emotion and affect. Strikingly, gene expression in the dorsal hippocampus correlates with cortical regions involved in information processing, while genes expressed in the ventral hippocampus correlate with regions involved in emotion and stress (amygdala and hypothalamus). PMID:20152109
Yoshii, Yukie; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Furukawa, Takako; Morokoshi, Yukie; Sogawa, Chizuru; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yoshii, Hiroshi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo
(64)Cu-diacetyl-bis (N (4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM) is a promising theranostic agent that targets hypoxic regions in tumors related to malignant characteristics. Its diagnostic usefulness has been recognized in clinical studies. Internal radiotherapy (IRT) with (64)Cu-ATSM is reportedly effective in preclinical studies; however, for clinical applications, improvements to reduce radiation exposure in non-target organs, particularly the liver, are required. We developed a strategy to reduce radiation doses to critical organs while preserving tumor radiation doses by controlled administration of copper chelator penicillamine during (64)Cu-ATSM IRT. Biodistribution was evaluated in HT-29 tumor-bearing mice injected with (64)Cu-ATSM (185 kBq) with or without oral penicillamine administration. The appropriate injection interval between (64)Cu-ATSM and penicillamine was determined. Then, the optimal penicillamine administration schedule was selected from single (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg) and fractionated doses (100 mg/kg×3 at 1- or 2-h intervals from 1 h after (64)Cu-ATSM injection). PET imaging was performed to confirm the effect of penicillamine with a therapeutic (64)Cu-ATSM dose (37 MBq). Dosimetry analysis was performed to estimate human absorbed doses. Penicillamine reduced (64)Cu accumulation in the liver and small intestine. Tumor uptake was not affected by penicillamine administration at 1 h after (64)Cu-ATSM injection, when radioactivity was almost cleared from the blood and tumor uptake had plateaued. Of the single doses, 300 mg/kg was most effective. Fractionated administration at 2-h intervals further decreased liver accumulation at later time points. PET indicated that penicillamine acts similarly with the therapeutic (64)Cu-ATSM dose. Dosimetry demonstrated that appropriately scheduled penicillamine administration reduced radiation doses to critical organs (liver, ovaries, and red marrow) below tolerance levels. Laxatives reduced radiation
Movassaghi, Shabnam; Nadia Sharifi, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Farzaneh; Soleimani, Mansooreh
Objective(s): 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in the world with hallucinogenic properties that has been shown to induce apoptosis in liver cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on liver damage induced by acute administration of MDMA in Wistar rat. Materials and Methods: Animals were administered with saline or MDMA (7.5 mg/kg, IP) 3 times with 2 hr intervals. PTX (200 mg kg, IP), was administered simultaneously with last injection of MDMA in experimental group. Results: The concomitant administration of pentoxifylline and MDMA decreased liver injury including apoptosis, fibrosis and hepatocytes damages. Conclusion: Our results showed for the first time that PTX treatment diminishes the extent of apoptosis and fibrosis caused by MDMA in rat liver. PMID:24106597
Otero-Ferrer, F; Herrera, R; López, A; Socorro, J; Molina, L; Bouza, C
Morphometric and genetic analyses confirmed the first records of the West African seahorse Hippocampus algiricus at Gran Canaria Island (north-east Atlantic Ocean), and also the first evidence of interspecific hybridization in seahorses. These results provide additional data on the distribution of H. algiricus that may help to establish future conservation strategies, and uncover a new potential sympatric scenario between H. algiricus and Hippocampus hippocampus.
Shetty, Ashok K.; Hattiangady, Bharathi
Degeneration of the CA3 pyramidal and dentate hilar neurons in the adult rat hippocampus after an intracerebroventricular kainic acid (KA) administration, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy, leads to permanent loss of the calcium binding protein calbindin in major fractions of dentate granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons. We hypothesize that the enduring loss of calbindin in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 subfield after CA3-lesion is due to disruption of the hippocampal circuitry leading to hyperexcitability in these regions; therefore, specific cell grafts that are capable of both reconstructing the disrupted circuitry and suppressing hyper-excitability in the injured hippocampus can restore calbindin. We compared the effects of fetal CA3 or CA1 cell grafting into the injured CA3 region of adult rats at 45 days after KA-induced injury on the hippocampal calbindin. The calbindin immunoreactivity in the dentate granule cells and the CA1 pyramidal neurons of grafted animals was evaluated at 6 months after injury (i.e. at 4.5 months post-grafting). Compared with the intact hippocampus, the calbindin in “lesion-only” hippocampus was dramatically reduced at 6 months post-lesion. However, calbindin expression was restored in the lesioned hippocampus receiving CA3 cell grafts. In contrast, in the lesioned hippocampus receiving CA1 cell grafts, calbindin expression remained less than the intact hippocampus. Thus, specific cell grafting restores the injury-induced loss of calbindin in the adult hippocampus, likely via restitution of the disrupted circuitry. Since loss of calbindin after hippocampal injury is linked to hyperexcitability, re-expression of calbindin in both dentate gyrus and CA1 subfield following CA3 cell grafting may suggest that specific cell grafting is efficacious for ameliorating injury-induced hyperexcitability in the adult hippocampus. However, electrophysiological studies of KA-lesioned hippocampus receiving CA3 cell grafts are required in future
West, G L; Konishi, K; Diarra, M; Benady-Chorney, J; Drisdelle, B L; Dahmani, L; Sodums, D J; Lepore, F; Jolicoeur, P; Bohbot, V D
The hippocampus is critical to healthy cognition, yet results in the current study show that action video game players have reduced grey matter within the hippocampus. A subsequent randomised longitudinal training experiment demonstrated that first-person shooting games reduce grey matter within the hippocampus in participants using non-spatial memory strategies. Conversely, participants who use hippocampus-dependent spatial strategies showed increased grey matter in the hippocampus after training. A control group that trained on 3D-platform games displayed growth in either the hippocampus or the functionally connected entorhinal cortex. A third study replicated the effect of action video game training on grey matter in the hippocampus. These results show that video games can be beneficial or detrimental to the hippocampal system depending on the navigation strategy that a person employs and the genre of the game.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.155.
Zhao, Yuan-Yu; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hong; Chao, Feng-Lei; Huang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Xuan; Chen, Lin; Lu, Wei; Tang, Yong
It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition and for the neurons and synapses in hippocampus. Previous study reported that the oligodendrocyte density in hippocampus was increased when the rats were reared in the enriched environment from weaning to adulthood. However, biological conclusions based on density were difficult to interpret because the changes in density could be due to an alteration of total quantity and/or an alteration in the reference volume. In the present study, we used unbiased stereological methods to investigate the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in aged rats. Our results indicated that there was significant difference in the total numbers of CNPase positive cells in both CA1 and DG between enriched environment group and standard environment group. The present study provided the first evidence for the protective effects of enriched environment on the CNPase positive cells in aged hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zuo, Hong-Yan; Wang, De-Wen; Peng, Rui-Yun; Wang, Shui-Ming; Gao, Ya-Bing; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Xiao, Feng-Jun
To study the effects of electromagnetic radiation on RKIP and phosphorylated ERK in primary cultured hippocampus neurons. The inhibitor of MEK U0126 was applied to investigate the role of RKIP mediated ERK pathway in radiation injury. Primary hippocampus neurons were cultured in vitro. X-HPM, S-HPM and EMP were taken as radiation source respectively to establish three cell models exposed to electromagnetic radiation. RKIP and phosphorylated ERK were measured by immunofluorescent labelling and laser scanning confocal microscope. Apoptosis and death fraction of the cells were detected by Annexin V-PI double labelling and flow cytometry. After three kinds of electromagnetic radiation, the expression of RKIP in hippocampus neurons decreased but the expression of phosphorylated ERK increased, and its nuclear translocation occurred. No significant differences were seen between radiation groups. Apoptosis and death fraction of the neurons in U0126 pretreatment groups was significantly lower than that in radiation groups but they were still higher than those in sham-radiation group. The excessive activation of RKIP mediated ERK pathway is one of the important mechanisms for the apoptosis and death of hippocampus neurons induced by electromagnetic radiation. U0126 have some protective effects on radiation injury.
Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Nagayama, Tomomi; Isegawa, Kengo; Katsuki, Masato; Takesue, Ko; Sunagawa, Kenji
In metabolic syndrome (MetS), previous studies have suggested that cognitive decline is worsened. Among the factors associated with cognition, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus causes cognitive decline. We previously reported that exercise training with calorie restriction yielded protection against cognitive decline via BDNF in the hippocampus of hypertensive rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not calorie restriction results in protection against cognitive decline via BDNF and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampus of MetS model rats. We divided dietary-induced obesity-prone and hypertensive rats (OP), as metabolic syndrome model rats, into three groups, fed with a high fat diet (HF), treated with calorie restriction (CR) plus vehicle, and treated with CR and ANA-12 (a TrkB antagonist) (CR+A). After treatment for 28 days, body weight, insulin, fasting blood glucose, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus were significantly lower, and BDNF expression in the hippocampus was significantly higher in CR and CR+A than in HF. Cognitive performance determined by the Morris water maze test was significantly higher in CR than in HF, whereas the benefit was attenuated in CR+A. In conclusion, calorie restriction protects against cognitive decline via up-regulation of BDNF/TrkB through an antioxidant effect in the hippocampus of dietary-induced obesity rats.
Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Atmanli, Ayhan; Radovits, Tamás; Li, Shiliang; Hegedüs, Peter; Ruppert, Mihály; Brlecic, Paige; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor
We recently demonstrated that the pre-treatment of rats with zinc and acetylsalicylic acid complex in the form of bis(aspirinato)zinc(II) [Zn(ASA)2] is superior to acetylsalicylic acid in protecting the heart from acute myocardial ischemia. Herein, we hypothesized that Zn(ASA)2 treatment after the onset of an acute myocardial injury could protect the heart. The rats were treated with a vehicle or Zn(ASA)2 after an isoproterenol injection. Isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage [inflammatory infiltration into myocardial tissue, DNA-strand breakage evidenced by TUNEL-assay, increased 11-dehydro thromboxane (TX)B2-levels, elevated ST-segment, widened QRS complex and prolonged QT-interval] was prevented by the Zn(ASA)2 treatment. In isoproterenol-treated rats, load-independent left ventricular contractility parameters were significantly improved after Zn(ASA)2. Furthermore, Zn(ASA)2 significantly increased the myocardial mRNA-expression of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-4 and decreased the level of Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase. Postconditioning with Zn(ASA)2 protects the heart from acute myocardial ischemia. Its mechanisms of action might involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory prostanoids and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.
Jafarinejad-Farsangi, Saeideh; Farazmand, Ali; Rezayof, Ameneh; Darbandi, Niloufar
Morphine's effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under post-training morphine influence. In the hippocampus, a total of 18 proteins were identified whose MASCOT (Modular Approach to Software Construction Operation and Test) scores were inside 95% confidence level. Of these, five hippocampal proteins altered in morphine-induced amnesia and ten proteins were found to change in the hippocampus of animals that had received post-training and pre-test morphine. These proteins show known functions in cytoskeletal architecture, cell metabolism, neurotransmitter secretion and neuroprotection. The findings indicate that the effect of morphine on memory formation in passive avoidance learning has a morphological correlate on the hippocampal proteome level. In addition, our proteomicscreensuggests that morphine induces memory impairment and state-dependent learning through modulating neuronal plasticity.
Abdel-Zaher, Ahmed O; Hamdy, Mostafa M; Abdel-Rahman, Mahran S; Abd El-Hamid, Doaa H
The potential protective effect of citicoline on aluminum chloride-induced cognitive deficits was investigated in rats. In a Morris water maze, administration of aluminum chloride to rats for 90 days resulted in increased escape latency to reach the platform and decreased swimming speed in acquisition trials. Similarly, in probe trials, the time required to reach the hidden platform was increased and the time spent in the target quadrant was reduced. Also, administration of aluminum chloride to rats for 90 days increased the reference and working memory errors and time required to end the task in the radial arm maze. In addition, this treatment decreased the step-through latency in the passive avoidance test. Concurrently, treatment of rats with aluminum chloride for 90 days increased hippocampal glutamate, malondialdehyde, and nitrite levels and decreased intracellular reduced glutathione level. In the citicoline-treated group, aluminum chloride-induced learning and memory impairments as assessed by the Morris water maze, radial arm maze, and passive avoidance tests were inhibited. At the same time, treatment of rats with citicoline prevented the biochemical alterations induced by aluminum chloride in the hippocampus. It can be concluded that elevation of hippocampal glutamate level with consequent oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction may play an important role in aluminum-induced cognitive impairments. Also, our results suggest, for the first time, that citicoline can protect against the development of these cognitive deficits through inhibition of aluminum-induced elevation of glutamate level, oxidative stress, and NO overproduction in the hippocampus.
van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.
There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.
Fanselow, M S
This review examines the relationship between exploration and contextual fear conditioning. The fear acquired to places or contexts associated with aversive events is a form of Pavlovian conditioning. However, an initial period of exploration is necessary to allow the animal to form an integrated memory of the features of the context before conditioning can take place. The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in this process. Cells within the dorsal hippocampus are involved in the formation, storage and consolidation of this integrated representation of context. Projections from the subiculum to the nucleus accumbens regulate the exploration necessary for the acquisition of information about the features of the context. This model explains why electrolytic but not excitotoxic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus cause enhanced exploratory activity but both cause deficits in contextual fear. It also explains why retrograde amnesia of contextual fear is greater than anterograde amnesia.
Kim, Soyun; Dede, Adam J O; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R
We evaluated two different perspectives about the function of the human hippocampus--one that emphasizes the importance of memory and another that emphasizes the importance of spatial processing and scene construction. We gave tests of boundary extension, scene construction, and memory to patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus or large lesions of the medial temporal lobe. The patients were intact on all of the spatial tasks and impaired on all of the memory tasks. We discuss earlier studies that associated performance on these spatial tasks to hippocampal function. Our results demonstrate the importance of medial temporal lobe structures for memory and raise doubts about the idea that these structures have a prominent role in spatial cognition.
Palombo, D J; Keane, M M; Verfaellie, M
In the present study, we examined the role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in prospective time estimation at short and long timescales using a novel behavioral paradigm adapted from rodent work. Amnesic patients with MTL damage and healthy control participants estimated the duration of nature-based video clips that were either short (≤ 90 s) or long (more than 4 min). Consistent with previous work in rodents, we found that amnesic patients were impaired at making estimations for long, but not for short durations. Critically, these effects were observed in patients who had lesions circumscribed to the hippocampus, suggesting that the pattern observed was not attributable to the involvement of extra-hippocampal structures. That the MTL, and more specifically the hippocampus, is critical for prospective temporal estimation only at long intervals suggests that multiple neurobiological mechanisms support prospective time estimation.
Mishra, Deepshikha; Gupta, Richa; Pant, S C; Kushwah, Pramod; Satish, H T; Flora, S J S
Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengal basin in India is unfolding as one of the worst natural geo-environmental disasters to date. Chelation therapy with chelating agents is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning; however, they are compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side-effects. Efficacy of combined administration of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) (English: Drumstick tree) seed powder, a herbal extract, with a thiol chelator monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) post-arsenic exposure in mice was studied. Mice were exposed to 100 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 6 months, followed by 10-days treatment with M. oleifera seed powder (500 mg/kg, orally through gastric gavage, once daily), MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) either individually or in combination. Arsenic exposure caused significant decrease in blood glutathione, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species in blood and soft tissues. Significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in tissues (liver in particular) along with significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and metallothionein levels in arsenic intoxicated mice was also noted. Combined administration of MiADMSA with M. oleifera proved better than all other treatments in the recovery of most of the above parameters accompanied by more pronounced depletion of arsenic. The results suggest that concomitant administration of M. oleifera during chelation treatment with MiADMSA might be a better treatment option than monotherapy with the thiol chelator in chronic arsenic toxicity.
Stanojlović, Miloš; Guševac, Ivana; Grković, Ivana; Mitrović, Nataša; Zlatković, Jelena; Horvat, Anica; Drakulić, Dunja
Although a substantial number of pre-clinical and experimental studies have investigated effects of 17β-estradiol, its precise molecular mechanism of action in the early state of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains controversial. The present study attempted to verify whether post-ischemic estradiol treatment (33.3 μg/kg for seven consecutive days) affects previously reported number of hippocampal apoptotic cells and amount of DNA fragmentation characteristic for apoptosis as well as the expression of key elements within synaptosomal Akt and Erk signal transduction pathways (NF-κB, Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, caspase 3, and PARP). Additionally, alterations of aforementioned molecules linked to protection in various neurodegenerative disorders were monitored in the cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear fractions associating investigated kinases and NF-κB with gene expression of their downstream effectors-Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3. The results revealed that an initial increase in the number of apoptotic cells and amount of DNA fragmentation induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was significantly reduced by 17β-estradiol. In synaptic regions, an altered profile with respect to the protein expression of Bcl-2 and phosphorylated Akt was detected, although the level of other examined proteins was not modified. In other investigated sub-cellular fractions, 17β-estradiol elicited phosphorylation and translocation of Akt and Erk along with modulation of the expression of their subsequent effectors. Our findings support the concept that repeated post-ischemic 17β-estradiol treatment attenuates neurodegeneration induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in hippocampus through the activation of investigated kinases and regulation of their downstream molecules in sub-cellular manner indicating a time window and regime of its administration as a valid therapeutic intervention.
Fiedorowicz, A; Figiel, I; Kamińska, B; Zaremba, M; Wilk, S; Oderfeld-Nowak, B
We investigated the effect of trimethyltin (TMT), a well-known neurotoxicant, on murine hippocampal neurons and glial cells. Three days following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of TMT into 1-month-old Balb/c mice at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight we detected damage of the dentate gyrus granular neurons. The dying cells displayed chromatin condensation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which are the most characteristic features of apoptosis. To study, if prolyl oligopeptidase is engaged in neuronal apoptosis following TMT administration, we pretreated mice with the specific inhibitor--Fmoc-Pro-ProCN in doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight (i.p. injection). Three days following injection we did not observe any attenuation of neurotoxic damage, regardless of inhibitor dose, indicating the lack of prolyl oligopeptidase contribution to neuronal injury caused by TMT. The neurodegeneration was associated with reactive astrogliosis in whole hippocampus, but particularly in injured dentate gyrus. The reactive astrocytes showed an increased nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in ventral as well as dorsal hippocampal parts. NGF immunoreactivity was also augmented in neurons of CA3/CA4 areas, which were almost totally spared after TMT intoxication. It suggested a role for this neurotrophin in protection of pyramidal cells from loss of connection between CA3/CA4 and dentate gyrus fields. The granule neurons' death was accompanied by increased histochemical staining with isolectin B4, a marker of microglia, in the region of neurodegeneration. The microglial cells displayed ramified and ameboid morphology, characteristic of their reactive forms. Activated microglia were the main source of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta). It is possible that this cytokine may participate in neurodegeneration of granule cells. Alternatively, IL-1beta elaborated by microglia could play a role in increasing NGF expression, both in astroglia and in CA3/CA4 neurons.
Parrott, J M; Redus, L; Santana-Coelho, D; Morales, J; Gao, X; O'Connor, J C
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has an important role in mediating the behavioral effects of inflammation, which has implications in understanding neuropsychiatric comorbidity and for the development of novel therapies. Inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prevents the development of many of these inflammation-induced preclinical behaviors. However, dysregulation in the balance of downstream metabolism, where neuroactive kynurenines are generated, is hypothesized to be a functionally important pathogenic feature of inflammation-induced depression. Here we utilized two novel transgenic mouse strains to directly test the hypothesis that neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism causes depressive-like behavior following peripheral immune activation. Wild-type (WT) or kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO)-deficient (KMO−/−) mice were administered either lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 mg kg−1) or saline intraperitoneally. Depressive-like behavior was measured across multiple domains 24 h after immune challenge. LPS precipitated a robust depressive-like phenotype, but KMO−/− mice were specifically protected from LPS-induced immobility in the tail suspension test (TST) and reduced spontaneous alternations in the Y-maze. Direct administration of 3-hydroxykynurenine, the metabolic product of KMO, caused a dose-dependent increase in depressive-like behaviors. Mice with targeted deletion of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase (HAAO), the enzyme that generates quinolinic acid, were similarly challenged with LPS. Similar to KMO−/− mice, LPS failed to increase immobility during the TST. Whereas kynurenine metabolism was generally increased in behaviorally salient brain regions, a distinct shift toward KMO-dependent kynurenine metabolism occurred in the dorsal hippocampus in response to LPS. Together, these results demonstrate that KMO is a pivotal mediator of hippocampal-dependent depressive-like behaviors induced by
Novelli, B; Otero-Ferrer, F; Socorro, J A; Caballero, M J; Segade-Botella, A; Molina Domínguez, L
Information about early development after male release lags behind studies of juveniles and adult seahorses, and newborn seahorses, similar in shape to adults, are considered juveniles or fry. During early life, Hippocampus hippocampus present behavioural (shift in habitat, from planktonic to benthic) and morphological changes; for this reasons, the aims of this study are to define the stage of development of H. hippocampus after they are expelled from the male brood pouch and to establish direct or indirect development through an osteological analysis. The ossification process was studied in 120 individuals, from their release to 30 days after birth. To analyse the osteological development, Alcian Blue-Alizarin Red double staining technique for bone and cartilage was adapted to this species. At birth, H. hippocampus presents a mainly cartilaginous structure that ossifies in approximately 1 month. The bony armour composed of bony rings and plates develops in 10 days. The caudal fin, a structure absent in juveniles and adult seahorses, is present at birth and progressively disappears with age. The absence of adult osteological structure in newborns, like coronet, bony rings and plates, head spines and components allowing tail prehensile abilities, suggests a metamorphosis before the juvenile stage. During the indirect development, the metamorphic stage started inside brood pouch and followed outside and leads up to reconsider the status of H. hippocampus newborns.
Borrego, Belén; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Mateos, Francisco; Lorenzo, Gema; Cardillo, Sabrina; Smitsaart, Eliana; Sobrino, Francisco; Sáiz, Margarita
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. We have previously reported the use of RNA transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the FMDV RNA as potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an FMD vaccine in mice. Here, we describe the enhancing effect of RNA delivery on the immunogenicity and protection induced by a suboptimal dose of a conventional FMD vaccine in pigs. Animals receiving the RNA developed earlier and higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against homologous and heterologous isolates, compared to those immunized with the vaccine alone, and had higher anti-FMDV titers at late times post-vaccination. RNA delivery also induced higher specific T-cell response and protection levels against FMDV challenge. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs inoculated with RNA and the vaccine had a higher IFN-γ specific response than those from pigs receiving the vaccine alone. When challenged with FMDV, all three animals immunized with the conventional vaccine developed antibodies to the non-structural viral proteins 3ABC and two of them developed severe signs of disease. In the group receiving the vaccine together with the RNA, two pigs were fully protected while one showed delayed and mild signs of disease. Our results support the immunomodulatory effect of these RNA molecules in natural hosts and suggest their potential use for improvement of FMD vaccines strategies.
Shin, Min-Kyoung; Kang, Mi Lan; Jung, Myung Hwan; Cha, Seung-Bin; Lee, Won-Jung; Kim, Jung-Mi; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Yoo, Han Sang
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious endemic disease of pigs worldwide, inducing significant economic losses worldwide. Apx toxins, which are correlated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its possible use as an oral vaccine has been confirmed in our previous studies using a murine model. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that oral immunization using S. cerevisiae expressing either ApxI or ApxII could protect pigs against A. pleuropneumoniae as an effective way of inducing both mucosal and systemic immune responses. The surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressing S. cerevisiae was selected as an oral vaccine candidate by finding on induction of higher immune responses in mice after oral vaccination. The surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressing S. cerevisiae and the ApxIA expressing S. cerevisiae were developed to serve as an oral vaccine in pigs. The vaccinated pigs showed higher specific IgG- and IgA-related antibody activities than the non-treated control and vector control pigs. Additionally, the induced immune responses were found to protect pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae according to the analysis of clinical signs and the gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions. These results suggested that the surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 and ApxIA in S. cerevisiae might be a potential oral vaccine to protect pigs against porcine pleuropneumonia. Thus the present study is expected to contribute to the development of a live oral vaccine against porcine pleuropneumonia as an alternative to current conventional vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harada, Naoaki; Zhao, Juan; Kurihara, Hiroki; Nakagata, Naomi; Okajima, Kenji
We examined whether resveratrol increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production in the hippocampus by stimulating sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby improving cognitive function in mice. Resveratrol increased calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from wild-type (WT) mice. Increases in tissue levels of CGRP, IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA and immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I were observed in the hippocampus at 3 weeks after oral administration of resveratrol in WT mice. Significant enhancement of angiogenesis and neurogenesis was observed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in these animals (P<.01). Improvement of spatial learning in the Morris water maze was observed in WT mice after administration of resveratrol. None of the effects of resveratrol observed in WT mice were seen after resveratrol administration in CGRP-knockout (CGRP(-/-)) mice. Although red wine containing 20 mg/L of resveratrol produced effects similar to those of resveratrol administrationl in WT mice, neither red wine containing 3.1 mg/L of resveratrol nor white wine exhibited such effects in WT mice. Resveratrol was undetectable in the hippocampus of WT mice administered resveratrol and red wine containing 20 mg/L of resveratrol. These observations strongly suggest that resveratrol increases hippocampal IGF-I production via sensory neuron stimulation in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby improving cognitive function in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The in vitro and in vivo effects of cocaine in the noradrenergic pathway in the rat hippocampus were examined. Although the blockade of (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine-uptake by cocaine has been well-characterized in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, investigations characterizing the electrophysiological effects of cocaine in the central nervous system have been limited. The first part of this thesis examines the relationship between the ability of cocaine to potentiate the electrophysiological response to norepinephrine (NE) and the ability of cocaine to block noradrenergic high affinity uptake in rat hippocampal slices. The second part of this thesis examines the effects of the repeated administration of cocaine on noradrenergic pre- and postsynaptic function and receptors of the rat hippocampus. These studies demonstrate that after repeated administration of cocaine (10 mg/kg/day) for 8 and 14 days there is a 50% decrease in NE high affinity uptake in the rat hippocampus. This was accompanied by a 40% increase in a binding site for NE uptake inhibitors at 14 days. In contrast to these effects, there was no effect on ..beta..-adrenergic receptor number or the isoproterenol induced electrophysiological responsiveness in the rat hippocampus. The conclusion of these studies is that the repeated administration of cocaine has a greater effect on presynaptic targets in the noradrenergic system than on postsynaptic neurons.
Ruusuvirta, T; Astikainen, P; Wikgren, J; Nokia, M
Any change or novelty in the auditory environment is potentially important for survival. The cortex has been implicated in the detection of auditory change whereas the hippocampus has been associated with the detection of auditory novelty. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 area of the hippocampus in waking rabbits. In the oddball condition, a rare tone of one frequency (deviant) randomly replaced a repeated tone of another frequency (standard). In the equal-probability condition, the standard was replaced by a set of tones of nine different frequencies in order to remove the repetitive auditory background of the deviant (now labelled as control-deviant) while preserving its temporal probability. In the oddball condition, evoked potentials at 36-80 ms post-stimulus were found to have greater amplitude towards negative polarity for the deviant relative to the standard. No significant differences in response amplitudes were observed between the control-deviant and the standard. These findings suggest that the hippocampus plays a role in auditory change detection.
Jutras, Michael J; Buffalo, Elizabeth A
The hippocampus plays a critical role in recognition memory in both monkeys and humans. However, neurophysiological studies have rarely reported recognition memory signals among hippocampal neurons. The majority of these previous studies used variants of the delayed match-to-sample task; however, studies of the effects of hippocampal damage in monkey and humans have shown that another task of recognition memory, the visual paired-comparison, or visual preferential looking task (VPLT), is more sensitive to hippocampal damage than the delayed matching tasks. Accordingly, to examine possible recognition memory signals in the hippocampus, we recorded the activity of 131 hippocampal neurons in two monkeys performing the VPLT. Eighty-eight neurons (67%) responded significantly to stimulus presentation relative to the baseline prestimulus period. A substantial proportion of these visually responsive neurons (36%) showed significant firing-rate modulations that reflected whether stimuli were novel or familiar. Additionally, these firing-rate modulations were correlated with recognition memory performance on the VPLT such that larger modulations by stimulus novelty were associated with better performance. Together, these results provide evidence for a neural signal in the hippocampus that may support recognition memory performance.
Romero, José E; Coupe, Pierrick; Manjón, José V
The importance of the hippocampus in the study of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease makes it a structure of great interest in neuroimaging. However, few segmentation methods have been proposed to measure its subfields due to its complex structure and the lack of high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) data. In this work, we present a new pipeline for automatic hippocampus subfield segmentation using two available hippocampus subfield delineation protocols that can work with both high and standard resolution data. The proposed method is based on multi-atlas label fusion technology that benefits from a novel multi-contrast patch match search process (using high resolution T1-weighted and T2-weighted images). The proposed method also includes as post-processing a new neural network-based error correction step to minimize systematic segmentation errors. The method has been evaluated on both high and standard resolution images and compared to other state-of-the-art methods showing better results in terms of accuracy and execution time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lorenzo, Gema; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; López-Gil, Elena; Sobrino, Francisco; Borrego, Belén; Sáiz, Margarita; Brun, Alejandro
In this work we have addressed the effect of synthetic, non-infectious, RNA transcripts, mimicking structural domains of the non-coding regions (NCRs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome on the infection of mice with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Groups of 5 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 200 μg of synthetic RNA resembling the 5'-terminal S region, the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) or the 3'-NCR of the FMDV genome. RNA inoculation was performed 24h before (-24 h), 24 h after (+24 h) or simultaneously to the challenge with a lethal dose of RVFV. Administration of the IRES RNA afforded higher survival rates than administration of S or 3'NCR transcripts either at -24h or +24h after challenge. In contrast, when RNA inoculation and viral challenge were performed simultaneously, all mice survived in both IRES- and 3'NCR-inoculated groups, with an 80% survival in mice receiving the S RNA. Among survivors, a complete correlation between significant anti-RVFV circulating antibody titers and resistance to a second lethal challenge with the virus was observed, supporting a limited viral replication in the RNA-inoculated animals upon the first challenge. All three RNA transcripts were able to induce the production of systemic antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data show that triggering of intracellular pathogen sensing pathways constitutes a promising approach towards development of novel RVF preventive or therapeutic strategies.
Hernández-Muñoz, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M; López, V; López-Barrera, F; Yáñez, L; Vidrio, S; Aranda-Fraustro, A; Chagoya de Sánchez, V
Oxidative stress and its consequent lipid peroxidation (LP) exert harmful effects, which have been currently involved in the generation of carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. However, the recent report that "physiological" LP can be associated with liver regeneration (LR) makes it necessary to discriminate between oxidative stress-induced and LR-associated LP. In rats rendered cirrhotic by continuous CCl4 administration for 4 weeks, moderate cell necrosis and fine fatty infiltration were found. The histological abnormalities were accompanied by increased LP, mainly accounted for by the microsomal and cytosolic fractions and evidence of oxidative stress (decreased hepatic glutathione content and changes in xanthine oxidase and pentose phosphate pathway activities). After 8 weeks, a micronodular cirrhosis developed, but oxidative stress was greatly attenuated, only persisting in the enhanced LP confined to microsomes. Simultaneous administration of adenosine, a reliable hepatoprotector that readily prevents the onset of liver fibrosis, was able to block the oxidative stress induced by the long-term CCl4 treatment but elicited a selective subcellular distribution of increased LP, similar to that found during LR. The adenosine-induced changes in liver LP (mainly in the nuclear fraction) correlated with an increased activity of thymidine kinase. Therefore, data suggest that adenosine-mediated preservation of energy availability and mitochondrial function could participate in preventing the onset of oxidative stress in cirrhotic rats. The latter could induce a successful liver recovery, curtailing the sequence of events leading to fibrogenesis.
Bekheet, Souad H M
This research comprises studies on the transfer of cadmium (CdCl(2)) from the lactating dam to the pup via milk and absorbed in the suckling, showing that cadmium is transferred to the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland during development. The present studies were carried out in order to assess the protective effects of selenium against cadmium toxicity in pregnant rats. On the sixth day of gestation, the females were dosed subcutaneously either with cadmium or with cadmium and selenium in the following doses (mg/kg of body weight): 0, 1 Cd, 1 Cd + 1 Se, 2 Cd, 2 Cd + 2 Se. In groups treated with cadmium, no maternal or embryonic toxicities were observed; however, an increase in testes diameters of seminiferous tubules, a progressive sloughing of germ cells, vacuolization of Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells hyperplasia were noted. The reduction in the ovary size and inhibited folliculogenesis resulted in diminution of the numbers of primordial, growing, and tertiary follicles. The pathological change in the cerebellum, the migration of granular cells from the external germinal layer to the internal granular layer, was strongly retarded. Also, the formation of many microfollicles in the thyroid gland which mimic the changes was seen in thyrotoxicosis. It also appears that selenium used at a low-enough dose could be a very effective protection against cadmium-induced developmental toxicity in the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland but not in the higher dose in the ovary and cerebellum.
Olearczyk, Jeffrey J; Quigley, Jeffrey E; Mitchell, Bradford C; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Kim, In-Hae; Newman, John W; Luria, Ayala; Hammock, Bruce D; Imig, John D
Hypertension and Type 2 diabetes are co-morbid diseases that lead to the development of nephropathy. sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase) inhibitors are reported to provide protection from renal injury. We hypothesized that the sEH inhibitor AUDA [12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid] protects the kidney from the development of nephropathy associated with hypertension and Type 2 diabetes. Hypertension was induced in spontaneously diabetic GK (Goto-Kakizaki) rats using AngII (angiotensin II) and a high-salt diet. Hypertensive GK rats were treated for 2 weeks with either AUDA or its vehicle added to drinking water. MAP (mean arterial pressure) increased from 118+/-2 mmHg to 182+/-20 and 187+/-6 mmHg for vehicle and AUDA-treated hypertensive GK rats respectively. AUDA treatment did not alter blood glucose. Hypertension in GK rats resulted in a 17-fold increase in urinary albumin excretion, which was decreased with AUDA treatment. Renal histological evaluation determined that AUDA treatment decreased glomerular and tubular damage. In addition, AUDA treatment attenuated macrophage infiltration and inhibited urinary excretion of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and kidney cortex MCP-1 gene expression. Taken together, these results provide evidence that sEH inhibition with AUDA attenuates the progression of renal damage associated with hypertension and Type 2 diabetes.
Coltri, Kely C.; Oliveira, Leandro L.; Pinzan, Camila F.; Vendruscolo, Patrícia E.; Martinez, Roberto; Goldman, Maria Helena; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina
KM+ is a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia that induces interleukin (IL)-12 production by macrophages and protective T helper 1 immune response against Leishmania major infection. In this study, we performed experiments to evaluate the therapeutic activity of jackfruit KM+ (jfKM+) and its recombinant counterpart (rKM+) in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. To this end, jfKM+ or rKM+ was administered to BALB/c mice 10 days after infection with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. Thirty days postinfection, lungs from the KM+-treated mice contained significantly fewer colony-forming units and little to no organized granulomas compared to the controls. In addition, lung homogenates from the KM+-treated mice presented higher levels of nitric oxide, IL-12, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, whereas higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were detected in the control group. With mice deficient in IL-12, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, or TLR adaptor molecule MyD88, we demonstrated that KM+ led to protection against P. brasiliensis infection through IL-12 production, which was dependent on TLR2. These results demonstrated a beneficial effect of KM+ on the severity of P. brasiliensis infection and may expand its potential use as a novel immunotherapeutic molecule. PMID:18599609
Kocamaz, Erdogan; Adiguzel, Esat; Er, Buket; Gundogdu, Gulşah; Kucukatay, Vural
Sulfites are compounds commonly used as preservatives in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals. Sulfite is also endogenously generated during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and drugs. It has been shown that sulfite is a highly toxic molecule. Many studies have examined the effects of sulfite toxicity, but the effect of ingested sulfite on the number of neurons in the hippocampus has not yet been reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ingested sulfite on pyramidal neurons by counting cells in CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions of the rat hippocampus. For this purpose, rats were assigned to one of four groups (6 rats per group): control (C), sulfite (S), deficient (D) and deficient+sulfite (DS). Sulfite oxidase deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding 200ppm tungsten (W) to their drinking water. Sulfite (70mg/kg) was also administered to the animals via their drinking water. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed by exsanguination under anesthesia, and their brains and livers quickly removed. The livers were used for a SOX activity assay, and the brains were used for neuronal counts in a known fraction of the CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions of the left hippocampus using the optical fractionator method, which is a stereological method. The results showed that sulfite treatment caused a significant decrease in the total number of pyramidal neurons in three subdivisions of the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3-2) in the S, D and DS groups compared with the control group. It is concluded that exogenous administration of sulfite causes loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3-2 subdivisions in both normal and SOX deficient rat hippocampus. This finding provides supporting evidence that sulfite is a neurotoxic molecule.
Roozendaal, Benno; Hahn, Emily L; Nathan, Sheila V; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; McGaugh, James L
Previous findings indicate that administration of abeta-adrenoceptor antagonist systemically blocks glucocorticoid impairment of memory retrieval. Here, we report that beta-adrenoceptor activation in the hippocampus and the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is implicated in the impairing effects of glucocorticoids on memory retrieval. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist 11beta,17beta-dihydroxy-6,21-dimethyl-17alpha-pregna-4,6-trien-20yn-3-one (RU 28362) (15 ng) infused into the hippocampus of male Sprague Dawley rats 60 min before water maze retention testing, 24 hr after training, impaired probe trial retention performance, as assessed by quadrant search time and initial latency to cross the platform location. Because we found previously that RU 28362 infused into the hippocampus does not affect water maze acquisition or immediate recall, the findings suggest that the GR agonist-induced retention impairment was attributable to a selective influence on long-term memory retrieval. Likewise, systemic injections of the beta1-adrenoceptor partial agonist xamoterol (3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) 60 min before the probe trial dose-dependently impaired retention performance. The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (2.0 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously before retention testing did not affect retention performance alone, but blocked the memory retrieval impairment induced by concurrent intrahippocampal infusions of RU 28362. Pretest infusions of the beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol into either the hippocampus (1.25 microg in 0.5 microl) or the BLA (0.5 microg in 0.2 microl) also prevented the GR agonist-induced memory retrieval impairment. These findings suggest that glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory by facilitating noradrenergic mechanisms in the hippocampus, and additionally, that norepinephrine-mediated BLA activity is critical in enabling hippocampal glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval.
Jyoti, Amar; Sharma, Deepak
Bacopa monniera is a nerve tonic used extensively in traditional Indian medicinal system "Ayurveda". Reports regarding its various antioxidative, adaptogenic and memory enhancing roles have already appeared in the last few decades. In the present study, aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) was used to generate neurotoxicity. We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of Bacopa extract against aluminium-induced changes in peroxidative products, such as thio-barbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) and protein carbonyl contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Effect on lipofuscin (age pigments) accumulation and ultrastructural changes were also studied. Bacopa effects were compared with those of l-deprenyl. Co-administration of Bacopa extract during aluminium treatment significantly prevented the aluminium-induced decrease in SOD activity as well as the increased oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. Protective effect was also observed at microscopic level. Fluorescence and electron microscopic studies revealed considerable inhibition of intraneuronal lipofuscin accumulation and necrotic alteration in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Observations showed that Bacopa's neuroprotective effects were comparable to those of l-deprenyl at both biochemical and microscopic levels.
Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Wegener, Gregers; Liebenberg, Nico; Zarate, Carlos A; Popoli, Maurizio; Elfving, Betina
In the search for new drug targets, that may help point the way to develop fast-acting treatments for mood disorders, we have explored molecular pathways regulated by ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, which has consistently shown antidepressant response within a few hours of administration. Using Sprague-Dawley rats we investigated the effects of ketamine on the presynaptic release machinery responsible for neurotransmitter release at 1, 2 and 4 h as well as 7 days after administration of a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg). A large reduction in the accumulation of SNARE complexes was observed in hippocampal synaptic membranes after 1, 2 and 4 h of ketamine administration. In parallel, we found a selective reduction in the expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I and an increase in the levels of synapsin I in hippocampal synaptosomes suggesting a mechanism by which ketamine reduces SNARE complex formation, in part, by regulating the number of synaptic vesicles in the nerve terminals. Moreover, ketamine reduced Thr(286)-phosphorylated αCaMKII and its interaction with syntaxin 1A, which identifies CaMKII as a potential target for second messenger-mediated actions of ketamine. In addition, despite previous reports of ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK-3, we were unable to detect regulation of its activity after ketamine administration. Our findings demonstrate that ketamine rapidly induces changes in the hippocampal presynaptic machinery similar to those that are obtained only with chronic treatments with traditional antidepressants. This suggests that reduction of neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus has possible relevance for the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine.
Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Wegener, Gregers; Liebenberg, Nico; Zarate, Carlos A.; Popoli, Maurizio; Elfving, Betina
In the search for new drug targets, that may help point the way to develop fast-acting treatments for mood disorders, we have explored molecular pathways regulated by ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, which has consistently shown antidepressant response within a few hours of administration. Using Sprague-Dawley rats we investigated the effects of ketamine on the presynaptic release machinery responsible for neurotransmitter release at 1, 2 and 4 h as well as 7 days after administration of a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg). A large reduction in the accumulation of SNARE complexes was observed in hippocampal synaptic membranes after 1, 2 and 4 h of ketamine administration. In parallel, we found a selective reduction in the expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I and an increase in the levels of synapsin I in hippocampal synaptosomes suggesting a mechanism by which ketamine reduces SNARE complex formation, in part, by regulating the number of synaptic vesicles in the nerve terminals. Moreover, ketamine reduced Thr286-phosphorylated αCaMKII and its interaction with syntaxin 1A, which identifies CaMKII as a potential target for second messenger-mediated actions of ketamine. In addition, despite previous reports of ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK-3, we were unable to detect regulation of its activity after ketamine administration. Our findings demonstrate that ketamine rapidly induces changes in the hippocampal presynaptic machinery similar to those that are obtained only with chronic treatments with traditional antidepressants. This suggests that reduction of neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus has possible relevance for the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. PMID:23548331
Monteiro, Rosário; Faria, Ana; Mateus, Nuno; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Isabel
Oestrogens have neuroprotective properties, resulting in memory and learning preservation. Red wine (RW) has been linked to neuroprotection, but mechanisms are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to test the effect of RW or 13% ethanol solution consumption on the expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors (ER) in the rat hippocampus. Beverages were supplied to male Wistar rats and after 8 weeks of treatment animals were euthanised, hippocampus was removed, aromatase expression assessed by western blotting and aromatase and ER transcription determined by RT-PCR. The effects of treatments on hippocampal aromatase activity were also determined, as well as the effect of several red wine polyphenols in hippocampal homogenates from untreated animals. Aromatase transcription was increased by ethanol (to 158+/-7%) but only significantly by RW (to 180+/-9%). No difference was found in ERalpha expression among groups, whereas RW significantly decreased ERbeta expression (to 63+/-10%). Resveratrol, quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol had no effect on aromatase activity and catechin (300 microM), epicatechin (200 microM), procyanidin extract (200 mg/L) and fractioned procyanidins (FI and FII; 200 mg/L) significantly decreased aromatase activity. The contribution of procyanidins in wine to the effect observed in aromatase was investigated in animals treated for the same period with these compounds (200 mg/L), although no effect was seen in aromatase activity, mRNA or protein levels, meaning that this group of compounds had little contribution, if any, to the effects observed. Nevertheless, the increase in aromatase expression induced by RW may corroborate the neuroprotective ability attributed to this beverage. Alterations in the relative abundance of ER expression may also play an important role in the protection.
Huang, Tzu Lun; Chang, Chung Hsing; Lin, Kung Hung; Sheu, Min Muh; Tsai, Rong Kung
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of administrations of triamcinolone acetonide and systemic methylprednisolone sodium succinate on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in a rat model of optic nerve crush. The treated groups either received triamcinolone immediately in the form of two pieces of soaked-gelform surrounding retrobulbar optic nerves (0.5 mg/per gelform) or methylprednisolone via peritoneal injection, and control group received intra-peritoneal injection with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) after crush experiments. RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with Fluorogold, and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Terminal transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assays, Western blot analysis of serine/threonine kinase (p-Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and immunohistochemistry of ED1, marker of macrophage/microglia in the optic nerve were conducted. Two and four weeks after optic nerve crush experiments, neither triamcinolone nor methylprednisolone treatment rescued the RGC from death in the central and mid-peripheral retinas compared with those of the corresponding optic nerve-crushed and PBS-treated rats. Visual-evoked potentials measurements showed a prolonged latency of the P(1) wave in all treated groups (triamcinolone-treated: 123 ± 23 ms, methylprednisolone-treated: 133 ± 25 ms and PBS-treated: 151 ± 55 ms) after two weeks. TUNEL assays showed that there was no decrease in apoptotic cells in the RGC layers of both triamcinolone treated and methylprednisolone-treated retinas. Western blot analysis showed that p-AKT, p-ERK and p-Stat3 were not up-regulated in either retina of the triamcinolone or methylprednisolone treated rats. In addition, the number of ED1-positive cells was not attenuated at the lesion sites of the ON in either treatment group. Based upon these results
Sirichoat, Apiwat; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Chaichun, Amnart; Wigmore, Peter; Umka Welbat, Jariya
Asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene from Centella asiatica. Previous studies have reported that asiatic acid exhibits antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cell culture. It also prevents memory deficits in animal models. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between spatial working memory and changes in cell proliferation within the hippocampus after administration of asiatic acid to male Spraque-Dawley rats. Control rats received vehicle (propylene glycol) while treated rats received asiatic acid (30 mg/kg) orally for 14 or 28 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL) test. In animals administered asiatic acid for both 14 and 28 days, the number of Ki-67 positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus was significantly higher than in control animals. This was associated with a significant increase in their ability to discriminate between novel and familiar object locations in a novel object discrimination task, a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory test. Administration of asiatic acid also significantly increased doublecortin (DCX) and Notch1 protein levels in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that asiatic acid treatment may be a potent cognitive enhancer which improves hippocampal-dependent spatial memory, likely by increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:26445061
Farahmandfar, Maryam; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Kadivar, Mehdi; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Naghdi, Nasser
Repeated, intermittent exposure to drugs of abuse, such as morphine results in response enhancements to subsequent drug treatments, a phenomenon referred to as behavioral sensitization. As persistent neuronal sensitization may contribute to the long-lasting consequences of drug abuse, characterizing the neurochemical mechanisms of sensitization is providing insights into addiction. Although it has been shown that GABAergic systems in the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus are involved in morphine sensitization, the alteration of extracellular level of GABA in this area in morphine sensitization has not been investigated. In the present study, using the in vivo microdialysis technique, we investigated the effect of morphine sensitization on extracellular GABA concentration in CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus of freely moving rats. Sensitization was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of morphine, once daily for 3 days followed by 5 days free of the opioid treatment. The results showed that extracellular GABA concentration in CA1 was decreased following acute administration of morphine in non-sensitized rats. However, morphine-induced behavioral sensitization significantly increased the extracellular GABA concentration in this area. The enhancement of GABA in morphine sensitized rats was inhibited by administration of naloxone 30 min before each of three daily doses of morphine. These results suggest an adaptation of the GABAergic neuronal transmission in dorsal hippocampus induced by morphine sensitization and it is implied that opioid receptors may play an important role in this effect.
Ezquerra, Laura; Pérez-García, Carmen; Garrido, Elisa; Díez-Fernández, Carmen; Deuel, Thomas F; Alguacil, Luis F; Herradón, Gonzalo
Pleiotrophin and midkine are two recently discovered growth factors that promote survival and differentiation of catecholaminergic neurons. Chronic opioid stimulation has been reported to induce marked alterations of the locus coeruleus-hippocampus noradrenergic pathway, an effect that is prevented when opioids are coadministered with the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. The present work tries to examine a possible link between yohimbine reversal of morphine effects and pleiotrophin/midkine activation in the rat hippocampus by studying the levels of expression of pleiotrophin and midkine in response to acute and chronic administration of morphine, yohimbine and combinations of both drugs. Pleiotrophin gene expression was not altered by any treatment; however midkine mRNA levels were increased after chronic treatment with morphine. Chronic administration of yohimbine alone also increased midkine expression levels, whereas yohimbine and morphine administered together exhibited summatory effects on the upregulation of midkine expression levels. The data suggest that midkine could play a role in the prevention of opioid-induced neuroadaptations in hippocampus by yohimbine.
Sirichoat, Apiwat; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Chaichun, Amnart; Wigmore, Peter; Welbat, Jariya Umka
Asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene from Centella asiatica. Previous studies have reported that asiatic acid exhibits antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cell culture. It also prevents memory deficits in animal models. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between spatial working memory and changes in cell proliferation within the hippocampus after administration of asiatic acid to male Spraque-Dawley rats. Control rats received vehicle (propylene glycol) while treated rats received asiatic acid (30 mg/kg) orally for 14 or 28 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL) test. In animals administered asiatic acid for both 14 and 28 days, the number of Ki-67 positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus was significantly higher than in control animals. This was associated with a significant increase in their ability to discriminate between novel and familiar object locations in a novel object discrimination task, a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory test. Administration of asiatic acid also significantly increased doublecortin (DCX) and Notch1 protein levels in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that asiatic acid treatment may be a potent cognitive enhancer which improves hippocampal-dependent spatial memory, likely by increasing hippocampal neurogenesis.
Lin, Tzu-Wei; Shih, Yao-Hsiang; Chen, Shean-Jen; Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Tung-Yi; Chen, Shun-Hua; Jen, Chauying J; Kuo, Yu-Min
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. Post-mortem examination and brain imaging studies indicate that neurodegeneration is evident in the hippocampus and amygdala of very early stage AD patients. Exercise training is known to enhance hippocampus- and amygdala-associated neuronal function. Here, we investigated the effects of exercise (running) on the neuronal structure and function of the hippocampus and amygdala in APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice. At 4-months-old, an age before amyloid deposition, the amygdala-associated, but not the hippocampus-associated, long-term memory was impaired in the Tg mice. The dendritic complexities of the amygdalar basolateral neurons, but not those in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neurons, were reduced. Furthermore, the levels of BDNF/TrkB signaling molecules (i.e. p-TrkB, p-Akt and p-PKC) were reduced in the amygdala, but not in the hippocampus of the 4-month-old Tg mice. The concentrations of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the amygdala were higher than those in the hippocampus. Ten weeks of treadmill training (from 1.5- to 4-month-old) increased the hippocampus-associated memory and dendritic arbor of the CA1 and CA3 neurons, and also restored the amygdala-associated memory and the dendritic arbor of amygdalar basolateral neurons in the Tg mice. Similarly, exercise training also increased the levels of p-TrkB, p-AKT and p-PKC in the hippocampus and amygdala. Furthermore, exercise training reduced the levels of soluble Aβ in the amygdala and hippocampus. Exercise training did not change the levels of APP or RAGE, but significantly increased the levels of LRP-1 in both brain regions of the Tg mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that tests of amygdala function should be incorporated into subject selection for early prevention trials. Long-term exercise protects neurons in the amygdala and hippocampus against AD-related degeneration, probably via enhancements of BDNF signaling pathways and Aβ clearance. Physical
Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.
One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…
Sable, M. H.
Explores three potential sources of harrassment from whom the librarian requires protection--patrons, lower-echelon supervisors, and library administrators. Types of protection provided by library associations, the courts, unionization, librarians' professional goals, actions of progressive administrators, collective bargaining, and public and…
Balderas, Israela; Morin, Jean-Pascal; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico
In this work we probed the effects of post-trial infusions of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine on object recognition memory formation. Scopolamine was infused bilaterally immediately after the sample phase in the perirhinal cortex or dorsal hippocampus and animals were tested for short-term (90 min) or long-term (24 h) memory. Results showed that scopolamine impaired short-term memory when injected in either the perirhinal cortex or hippocampus. Nevertheless, scopolamine disrupted long-term memory when administrated in the perirhinal cortex but not when applied in the hippocampus. Long-term memory was unaffected when scopolamine was infused 160 min after the sample phase or 90 min before test phase. Our data indicate that short-term recognition memory requires muscarinic receptors signaling in both the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, whereas long-term recognition memory depends on muscarinic receptors in the perirhinal cortex but not hippocampus. These results support a differential involvement of muscarinic activity in these two medial temporal lobe structures in the formation of recognition memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Moura Alvorcem, Leonardo; da Rosa, Mateus Struecker; Glänzel, Nícolas Manzke; Parmeggiani, Belisa; Grings, Mateus; Schmitz, Felipe; Wyse, Angela T S; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian
Patients with sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency present severe brain abnormalities, whose pathophysiology is not yet elucidated. We evaluated the effects of sulfite and thiosulfate, metabolites accumulated in SO deficiency, on creatine kinase (CK) activity, mitochondrial respiration and redox status in hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum of developing rats. Our in vitro results showed that sulfite and thiosulfate decreased CK activity, whereas sulfite also increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in all brain structures evaluated. Sulfite further diminished mitochondrial respiration and increased DCFH oxidation and hydrogen peroxide production in hippocampus. Sulfite-induced CK activity decrease was prevented by melatonin (MEL), resveratrol (RSV), and dithiothreitol while increase of MDA levels was prevented by MEL and RSV. Regarding the antioxidant system, sulfite increased glutathione concentrations in hippocampus and striatum. In addition, sulfite decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase in all brain structures, of glutathione S-transferase in hippocampus and cerebellum, and of glutathione reductase in cerebellum. In vivo experiments performed with intrahippocampal administration of sulfite demonstrated that this metabolite increased superoxide dismutase activity without altering other biochemical parameters in rat hippocampus. Our data suggest that impairment of energy metabolism and redox status may be important pathomechanisms involved in brain damage observed in individuals with SO deficiency.
Sewal, Angila S.; Patzke, Holger; Perez, Evelyn J.; Park, Pul; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Fletcher, Bonnie R.; Long, Jeffrey M.
The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) treatment has attracted considerable attention in the emerging area of cognitive neuroepigenetics. The possibility that ongoing cognitive experience importantly regulates the cell biological effects of HDACi administration, however, has not been systematically examined. In an initial experiment addressing this issue, we tested whether water maze training influences the gene expression response to acute systemic HDACi administration in the young adult rat hippocampus. Training powerfully modulated the response to HDACi treatment, increasing the total number of genes regulated to nearly 3000, including many not typically linked to neural plasticity, compared with <300 following HDACi administration alone. Although water maze training itself also regulated nearly 1800 genes, the specific mRNAs, gene networks, and biological pathways involved were largely distinct when the same experience was provided together with HDACi administration. Next, we tested whether the synaptic protein response to HDACi treatment is similarly dependent on recent cognitive experience, and whether this plasticity is altered in aged rats with memory impairment. Whereas synaptic protein labeling in the young hippocampus was selectively increased when HDACi administration was provided in conjunction with water maze training, combined treatment had no effect on synaptic proteins in the aged hippocampus. Our findings indicate that ongoing experience potently regulates the molecular consequences of HDACi treatment and that the interaction of recent cognitive experience with histone acetylation dynamics is disrupted in the aged hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The possibility that interventions targeting epigenetic regulation could be effective in treating a range of neurodegenerative disorders has attracted considerable interest. Here we demonstrate in the rat hippocampus that ongoing experience powerfully modifies the molecular
Urban, I J
The effects of vasopressin (VP), VP fragments and propressophysin glycopeptide on neuronal activities in the septum-hippocampus complex of rats were studied in vitro and in vivo. The frequency of the hippocampus theta rhythm in Brattleboro rats homozygous for diabetes insipidus was significantly slower than that of heterozygous litter mates and normal rats. Intracerebroventricular micro-injection of des-glycine-amide vasopressin corrected for several hours the frequency deficit of the theta rhythm in the homozygous Brattleboro rats and the centrally administered VP slowed down theta rhythm in normal rats. Microinotophoretically administered VP excited single neurons in the lateral septum of ventral hippocampus, and/or facilitated the responses of these neurons to glutamate and to stimulation of the glutamatergic afferent fibers in the fimbria bundle. The excitatory effects of VP vanished within seconds after termination of the peptide administration, however, the peptide-induced enhancement of glutamate and syntatically induced excitations were sustained for up to 60 min after the peptide administration. In vitro, pM concentrations of VP, VP 4-8 and C-terminus glycopeptide of propresophysin facilitated for 30-60 min the glutamate-mediated EPSPs in neurons of the lateral septum or the ventral hippocampus. The EPSPs increase in the lateral septum neurons was not prevented by pretreatment with antagonist of the V1a type of the vasopressin receptor. The resting membrane potential and input resistance were not affected by the peptides. A low-frequency electrical stimulation in the diagonal Band of Broca or in the Bed nucleus of the stria terminals, sources of the vasopressinergic innervation of the septum, facilitated the negative wave of the filed potentials responses evoked in the lateral septum by stimulating the fimbria bundle fibers in control Long-Evans and Brattleboro rats heterozygous for diabetes insipidus. The field potential increase was sustained for several
Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Sharma, Narendra Kumar; Das, Mainak; Bhargava, Kalpana
NAP (davunetide) is a clinical octapeptide and reportedly possesses neuroprotective, neurotrophic and cognitive protective properties. The information for NAP-mediated neuroproteome changes and associated signaling pathways during hypoxia will help in drug development programmes across the world. In the present study, we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of NAP in rat hippocampus exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (25,000 ft, 282 mm Hg) for 3, 6 and 12 h respectively. Using 2D-gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry, we have identified altered expression of 80 proteins in NAP-supplemented hippocampus after hypoxia. Pathway analysis revealed that NAP supplementation significantly regulated oxidative stress response, oxidoreductase activity and cellular response to stress pathways during hypoxia. Additionally, NAP supplementation also regulated energy production pathways along with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and signaling by Rho family GTPases pathways. We observed higher expression of antioxidant Sod1, Eno1, Prdx2 and Prdx5 proteins that were subsequently validated by Western blotting. A higher level of Prdx2 was also observed by immunohistochemistry in NAP-supplemented hippocampus during hypoxia. In corroboration, we are able to detect significant lower level of protein carbonyls in NAP-supplemented hypoxic hippocampus suggesting amelioration of oxidant molecules by NAP supplementation. These results emphasize the antioxidant and signaling properties of NAP in rodent hippocampus during hypobaric hypoxia.
Jounai, Kenta; Sugimura, Tetsu; Ohshio, Konomi; Fujiwara, Daisuke
When activated by viral infection, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a primary role in the immune response through secretion of IFN-α. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM5805 (JCM5805) is a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that activates murine and human pDCs to express type I and type III interferons (IFNs). JCM5805 has also been shown to activate pDCs via a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) dependent pathway. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of oral administration of JCM5805 using a mouse model of murine parainfluenza virus (mPIV1) infection. JCM5805-fed mice showed a drastic improvement in survival rate, prevention of weight loss, and reduction in lung histopathology scores compared to control mice. We further examined the mechanism of anti-viral effects elicited by JCM5805 administration using naive mice. Microscopic observations showed that JCM5805 was incorporated into CD11c+ immune cells in Peyer's patches (PP) and PP pDCs were significantly activated and the expression levels of IFNs were significantly increased. Interestingly, nevertheless resident pDCs at lung were not activated and expressions levels of IFNs at whole lung tissue were not influenced, the expressions of anti-viral factors induced by IFNs, such as Isg15, Oasl2, and Viperin, at lung were up-regulated in JCM5805-fed mice compared to control mice. Therefore expressed IFNs from intestine might be delivered to lung and IFN stimulated genes might be induced. Furthermore, elevated expressions of type I IFNs from lung lymphocytes were observed in response to mPIV1 ex vivo stimulation in JCM5805-fed mice compared to control. This might be due to increased ratio of pDCs located in lung were significantly increased in JCM5805 group. Taken together, a specific LAB strain might be able to affect anti-viral immunological profile in lung via activation of intestinal pDC leading to enhanced anti-viral phenotype in vivo.
González-Castillo, Celia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Pallàs, Mercè; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia Esperanza
Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted growth factor, and also a cytokine, associated with the extracellular matrix, which has recently starting to attract attention as a significant neuromodulator with multiple neuronal functions during development. PTN is expressed in several tissues, where its signals are generally related with cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation by acting through different receptors. In Central Nervous System (CNS), PTN exerts post-developmental neurotrophic and -protective effects, and additionally has been involved in neurodegenerative diseases and neural disorders. Studies in Drosophila shed light on some aspects of the different levels of regulatory control of PTN invertebrate homologs. Specifically in hippocampus, recent evidence from PTN Knock-out (KO) mice involves PTN functioning in learning and memory. In this paper, we summarize, discuss, and contrast the most recent advances and results that lead to proposing a PTN as a neuromodulatory molecule in the CNS, particularly in hippocampus.
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator may...
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator...
Wang, Miao; Pan, Li; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhongwang; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang
Mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum strains NC8 and WCFS1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a pSIP411-VP1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with NC8-pSIP411, NC8-pSIP411-VP1, WCFS1-pSIP411, WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 or milk. Animals immunized with NC8-pSIP411-VP1 and WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 developed high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG, IgA, IgM, mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) and neutralizing antibodies, and revealed stronger cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced protection against FMDV challenge compared with control groups. The recombinant pSIP411-VP1 effectively improved immunoprotection against FMDV in guinea pigs. PMID:26629822
Wang, Miao; Pan, Li; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhongwang; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang
Mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum strains NC8 and WCFS1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a pSIP411-VP1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with NC8-pSIP411, NC8-pSIP411-VP1, WCFS1-pSIP411, WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 or milk. Animals immunized with NC8-pSIP411-VP1 and WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 developed high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG, IgA, IgM, mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) and neutralizing antibodies, and revealed stronger cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced protection against FMDV challenge compared with control groups. The recombinant pSIP411-VP1 effectively improved immunoprotection against FMDV in guinea pigs.
Yue, Peijian; Gao, Lin; Wang, Xuejing; Ding, Xuebing; Teng, Junfang
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays important roles in protecting the damaged or dying dopamine neurons in the animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was to determine the effect and mechanisms of GDNF on the apoptosis of neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced Parkinson's disease model of rats. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-240 g) were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). 6-OHDA was used to establish the PD rat model. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry was used to assess the neuron loss in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. TUNEL and western blot were used to identify the effects and mechanisms of GDNF in the rat model of PD. The numbers of TH-positive neurons in the 6-OHDA-injected lesioned substantia nigra (SN) decreased significantly compared with the Sham group. GDNF treatment effectively ameliorated the apoptosis of neuronal cells in SN induced by 6-OHDA. In addition, GDNF significantly increased serine protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) phosphorylation induced by 6-OHDA. In contrast, application of LY294002 or triciribine reversed the roles of GDNF in PD models. The results implicated that the anti-apoptosis effects of GDNF in neurons might be mediated through PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. Therefore, GDNF may be a promising agent for PD treatment.
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...
Yu, Dafu; Zhou, Heng; Zou, Lin; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqun; Jiang, Lizhu; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rongrong
Thyroid hormone (TH) receptors are highly distributed in the hippocampus, which plays a vital role in memory processes. However, how THs are involved in the different stages of memory process is little known. Herein, we used hippocampus dependent contextual fear conditioning to address the effects of hippocampal THs on the different stages of fear memory. First, we found that a single systemic levothyroxine (LT4) administration increased the level of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free tetraiodothyroxine (FT4) not only in serum but also in hippocampus. In addition, a single systemic LT4 administration immediately after fear conditioning significantly impaired fear memory. These results indicated the important role of hippocampal THs in fear memory process. To further confirm the effects of hippocampal THs on the different stages of fear memory, LT4 (0.4 μg/μl, 1 μl/side) was injected bilaterally into hippocampus. Rats given LT4 into hippocampus before training or tests had no effect on the acquisition or retrieval of fear memory, however rats given LT4 into hippocampus either immediately or 2 h after training showed being significantly impaired fear memory, which demonstrated LT4 administration into hippocampus impairs the consolidation but has no effect on the acquisition and retrieval of fear memory. Furthermore, hippocampal injection of LT4 did not affect rats’ locomotor activity, thigmotaxis and THs level in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and serum. These findings may have important implications for understanding mechanisms underlying contribution of THs to memory disorders. PMID:28824379
Watson, Deborah J.; Ostroff, Linnaea; Cao, Guan; Parker, Patrick H.; Smith, Heather
ABSTRACT In adult hippocampus, long‐term potentiation (LTP) produces synapse enlargement while preventing the formation of new small dendritic spines. Here, we tested how LTP affects structural synaptic plasticity in hippocampal area CA1 of Long‐Evans rats at postnatal day 15 (P15). P15 is an age of robust synaptogenesis when less than 35% of dendritic spines have formed. We hypothesized that LTP might therefore have a different effect on synapse structure than in adults. Theta‐burst stimulation (TBS) was used to induce LTP at one site and control stimulation was delivered at an independent site, both within s. radiatum of the same hippocampal slice. Slices were rapidly fixed at 5, 30, and 120 min after TBS, and processed for analysis by three‐dimensional reconstruction from serial section electron microscopy (3DEM). All findings were compared to hippocampus that was perfusion‐fixed (PF) in vivo at P15. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses on dendritic spines and shafts were distinguished from synaptic precursors, including filopodia and surface specializations. The potentiated response plateaued between 5 and 30 min and remained potentiated prior to fixation. TBS resulted