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Sample records for administration regulations ear

  1. 22 CFR 120.42 - Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... found at 15 CFR parts 730 through 774. ... Regulations (EAR). 120.42 Section 120.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.42 Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR)....

  2. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... technical data under the authority of this part. Export Administration Regulations 15 CFR 379.3 General... accordance with the regulations of the Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR part 5. See § 370.10(j).) ... Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  3. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technical data under the authority of this part. Export Administration Regulations 15 CFR 379.3 General... accordance with the regulations of the Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR part 5. See § 370.10(j).) ... Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  4. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technical data under the authority of this part. Export Administration Regulations 15 CFR 379.3 General... accordance with the regulations of the Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR part 5. See § 370.10(j).) ... Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  5. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... technical data under the authority of this part. Export Administration Regulations 15 CFR 379.3 General... accordance with the regulations of the Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR part 5. See § 370.10(j).) ... Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  6. 77 FR 25932 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Energetic Materials and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... rule (76 FR 41958) (herein ``the July 15 proposed rule'') that set forth a framework for how articles... Administration Regulations (EAR). On November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68675) (herein ``the November 7 proposed rule...), as extended by the Notice of August 12, 2011, 76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011), has continued the...

  7. 15 CFR 772.1 - Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Regulations (EAR). In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C... export control jurisdiction of the Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce....

  8. 15 CFR 772.1 - Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Regulations (EAR). In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C... of the Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce. Note that certain...

  9. 15 CFR 772.1 - Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Regulations (EAR). In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C... export control jurisdiction of the Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce....

  10. 15 CFR 772.1 - Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Regulations (EAR). In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C... of the Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce. Note that certain...

  11. 15 CFR 772.1 - Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations (EAR). In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C..., responsible for reviewing applications to export and reexport items on the U.S. Munitions List. (See 22 CFR... Office of Foreign Assets Control (see 31 CFR chapter V). Forwarding agent. The person in the...

  12. 75 FR 1020 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) Based Upon the Accession of Albania and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 738 RIN 0694-AE62 Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) Based Upon the Accession of Albania and Croatia to Formal Membership in the North...

  13. 77 FR 35310 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Training Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration's ongoing Export Control Reform Initiative, BIS published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (herein... 7, 2011, BIS published a rule (76 FR 68675) proposing several changes to the framework initially..., 76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011), has continued the Export Administration Regulations in effect...

  14. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... technical data under the authority of this part. Export Administration Regulations 15 CFR 379.3 General... accordance with the regulations of the Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR part 5. See § 370.10(j).) ... not directly and significantly related to design, production, or utilization in industrial...

  15. 78 FR 45026 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control Reform'' (78 FR 22660, April 16, 2013... Control under the United States Munitions List (USML)'' (77 FR 70945, November 28, 2012) (``November 28... Munitions List Category XI and Definition for `Equipment' '' (77 FR 70958, November 28, 2012)...

  16. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``the July 15 proposed rule'') that.... On November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68675), BIS published a proposed rule describing how aircraft and related..., 76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011), has continued the Export Administration Regulations in effect...

  17. 78 FR 55664 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... the Federal Register (67 FR 40910) establishing a list of persons in foreign countries who were...'' guidance set forth in Supplement No. 3 to Part 732 of the EAR. See 67 FR 40910 (June 14, 2002) and 69 FR... (69 FR 42652), BIS expanded the criteria for adding persons to the UVL to include situations in...

  18. 78 FR 76741 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... (67 FR 40910) establishing (the ``Unverified List'' or ``UVL''), a list of persons in foreign... the ``Know Your Customer'' guidance set forth in Supplement No. 3 to Part 732 of the EAR. See 67 FR 40910 (June 14, 2002) and 69 FR 42652 (July 16, 2004). Under that guidance, whenever there is a...

  19. 76 FR 80291 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Submersible Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``the July 15 proposed.... On November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68675), and December 6, 2011 (76 FR 76072), BIS published proposed rules.... Instead, the Administration issued a separate proposed rule, on December 6, 2011 (76 FR 76072),...

  20. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

  1. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  4. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  6. 15 CFR 30.16 - Export Administration Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requirements § 30.16 Export Administration Regulations. The EAR issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce, BIS, also contain some additional reporting requirements pertaining to EEI (see 15 CFR 730-774). (a) The EAR.... (see 15 CFR 758.1(b) and 772.1, definition of the United States.) (b) Requirements to place...

  7. 15 CFR 30.16 - Export Administration Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Requirements § 30.16 Export Administration Regulations. The EAR issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce, BIS, also contain some additional reporting requirements pertaining to EEI (see 15 CFR 730-774). (a) The EAR.... (see 15 CFR 758.1(b) and 772.1, definition of the United States.) (b) Requirements to place...

  8. 15 CFR 30.16 - Export Administration Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements § 30.16 Export Administration Regulations. The EAR issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce, BIS, also contain some additional reporting requirements pertaining to EEI (see 15 CFR 730-774). (a) The EAR.... (see 15 CFR 758.1(b) and 772.1, definition of the United States.) (b) Requirements to place...

  9. [Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway and regulation of inner ear development].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xin-Huan; Cao, Xin

    2013-09-01

    During inner ear development, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is involved in the ventral otic identity, cell fate determination of statoacoustic ganglion neurons and hair cell development. Shh protein, secreted from floor plate, antagonizes Wnt protein from roof plate, which refines and maintains dorsoventral axial patterning in the ear. Shh, served as a mitogen during neurogenesis, directly promotes the development of spiral ganglion neuron. After Shh signaling pathway is activated, Ngn1 is freed from Tbx1 repression. As a result, Shh indirectly upregulates the expression of Ngn1, thus regulating neurogenic patterning of inner ear. In addition, Shh regulates the differentiation of hair cells by influencing cell cycle of the progenitor cells located in the cochlea. The basal-to-apical wave of Shh decline ensures the normal devel- opment pattern of hair cells. It is confirmed by a quantity of researches conducted in both animals and patients with hereditary hearing impairment that abnormal Shh signaling results in aberrant transcription of target genes, disturbance of the proper development of inner ear, and human hearing impairment. In humans, diseases accompanied by hearing disorders caused by abnormal Shh signaling include Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS), Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS), Waardenburg syndrome (WS) and medulloblastoma, etc. This review would provide a theoretical basis for further study of molecular mechanisms and clinical use of inner ear development. PMID:24400478

  10. 75 FR 33682 - Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...In this final rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) makes a technical amendment to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Specifically, BIS deletes references concerning Federal court jurisdiction for judicial review of final decisions and orders issued in BIS export control administrative enforcement proceedings and in administrative appeals of BIS temporary denial orders.......

  11. Inner Ear Vestibular Signals Regulate Bone Remodeling via the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Vignaux, Guillaume; Ndong, Jean Dlc; Perrien, Daniel S; Elefteriou, Florent

    2015-06-01

    The inner ear vestibular system has numerous projections on central brain centers that regulate sympathetic outflow, and skeletal sympathetic projections affect bone remodeling by inhibiting bone formation by osteoblasts and promoting bone resorption by osteoclasts. In this study, we show that bilateral vestibular lesions in mice cause a low bone mass phenotype associated with decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. This reduction in bone mass is most pronounced in lower limbs, is not associated with reduced locomotor activity or chronic inflammation, and could be prevented by the administration of the β-blocker propranolol and by genetic deletion of the β2-adrenergic receptor, globally or specifically in osteoblasts. These results provide novel experimental evidence supporting a functional autonomic link between central proprioceptive vestibular structures and the skeleton. Because vestibular dysfunction often affects the elderly, these results also suggest that age-related bone loss might have a vestibular component and that patients with inner ear pathologies might be at risk for fracture. Lastly, these data might have relevance to the bone loss observed in microgravity, as vestibular function is altered in this condition as well. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25491117

  12. Inner Ear Vestibular Signals Regulate Bone Remodeling via the Sympathetic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Vignaux, Guillaume; Ndong, Jean DLC; Perrien, Daniel S; Elefteriou, Florent

    2016-01-01

    The inner ear vestibular system has numerous projections on central brain centers that regulate sympathetic outflow, and skeletal sympathetic projections affect bone remodeling by inhibiting bone formation by osteoblasts and promoting bone resorption by osteoclasts. In this study, we show that bilateral vestibular lesions in mice cause a low bone mass phenotype associated with decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. This reduction in bone mass is most pronounced in lower limbs, is not associated with reduced locomotor activity or chronic inflammation, and could be prevented by the administration of the β-blocker propranolol and by genetic deletion of the β2-adrenergic receptor, globally or specifically in osteoblasts. These results provide novel experimental evidence supporting a functional autonomic link between central proprioceptive vestibular structures and the skeleton. Because vestibular dysfunction often affects the elderly, these results also suggest that age-related bone loss might have a vestibular component and that patients with inner ear pathologies might be at risk for fracture. Lastly, these data might have relevance to the bone loss observed in microgravity, as vestibular function is altered in this condition as well. PMID:25491117

  13. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION... are implemented in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774) and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) (22 CFR parts 120 through 130). See in particular §§ 742.2...

  14. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION... are implemented in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774) and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) (22 CFR parts 120 through 130). See in particular §§ 742.2...

  15. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION... are implemented in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774) and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) (22 CFR parts 120 through 130). See in particular §§ 742.2...

  16. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION... are implemented in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774) and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) (22 CFR parts 120 through 130). See in particular §§ 742.2...

  17. Topical administration of hyaluronic acid in children with recurrent or chronic middle ear inflammations.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Sara; Marchisio, Paola; Rinaldi, Vittorio; Gaffuri, Michele; Pascariello, Carla; Drago, Lorenzo; Baggi, Elena; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment has been successfully performed in patients with recurrent upper airway infections or rhinitis. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the topical nasal administration of an HA-based compound by investigating its effects in children with recurrent or chronic middle ear inflammations and chronic adenoiditis. A prospective, single-blind, 1:1 randomised controlled study was performed to compare otoscopy, tympanometry and pure-tone audiometry in children which received the daily topical administration of normal 0.9% sodium chloride saline solution (control group) or 9 mg of sodium hyaluronate in 3 mL of a 0.9% sodium saline solution. The final analysis was based on 116 children (49.1% boys; mean age, 62.9 ± 17.9 months): 58 in the control group and 58 in the study group. At the end of follow-up, the prevalence of patients with impaired otoscopy was significantly lower in the study group (P value = 0.024) compared to baseline but not in the control group. In comparison with baseline, the prevalence of patients with impaired tympanometry at the end of the follow-up period was significantly lower in the study group (P value = 0.047) but not in the control group. The reduction in the prevalence of patients with conductive hearing loss (CHL) (P value = 0.008) and those with moderate CHL (P value = 0.048) was significant in the study group, but not in the control group. The mean auditory threshold had also significantly improved by the end of treatment in the study group (P value = 0.004) but not in the control group. Our findings confirm the safety of intermittent treatment with a topical nasal sodium hyaluronate solution and are the first to document its beneficial effect on clinical and audiological outcomes in children with recurrent or chronic middle ear inflammations associated with chronic adenoiditis. PMID:27481884

  18. Epigenetic regulation in the inner ear and its potential roles in development, protection, and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Layman, Wanda S.; Zuo, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning field of epigenetics is beginning to make a significant impact on our understanding of tissue development, maintenance, and function. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the structure and activity of the genome in response to intracellular and environmental cues that direct cell-type specific gene networks. The inner ear is comprised of highly specialized cell types with identical genomes that originate from a single totipotent zygote. During inner ear development specific combinations of transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers must function in a coordinated manner to establish and maintain cellular identity. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of distinct chromatin states and cell-type specific gene expression patterns. In this review, we highlight emerging paradigms for epigenetic modifications related to inner ear development, and how epigenetics may have a significant role in hearing loss, protection, and regeneration. PMID:25750614

  19. 77 FR 40493 - Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 740, 742, 748, 750, 752, and 760 Export Administration Regulations CFR Correction In Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 300 to 799, revised as of January 1, 2012, make the following...

  20. Proteomic Analysis Revealed Nitrogen-mediated Metabolic, Developmental, and Hormonal Regulation of Maize (Zea mays L.) Ear Growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunjian; Li, Xuexian

    2012-01-01

    Optimal nitrogen (N) supply is critical for achieving high grain yield of maize. It is well established that N deficiency significantly reduces grain yield and N oversupply reduces N use efficiency without significant yield increase. However, the underlying proteomic mechanism remains poorly understood. The present field study showed that N deficiency significantly reduced ear size and dry matter accumulation in the cob and grain, directly resulting in a significant decrease in grain yield. The N content, biomass accumulation, and proteomic variations were further analysed in young ears at the silking stage under different N regimes. N deficiency significantly reduced N content and biomass accumulation in young ears of maize plants. Proteomic analysis identified 47 proteins with significant differential accumulation in young ears under different N treatments. Eighteen proteins also responded to other abiotic and biotic stresses, suggesting that N nutritional imbalance triggered a general stress response. Importantly, 24 proteins are involved in regulation of hormonal metabolism and functions, ear development, and C/N metabolism in young ears, indicating profound impacts of N nutrition on ear growth and grain yield at the proteomic level. PMID:22936831

  1. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears Print A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  2. Identification of novel Hoxa1 downstream targets regulating hindbrain, neural crest and inner ear development

    PubMed Central

    Makki, Nadja; Capecchi, Mario R.

    2011-01-01

    Hoxgenes play a crucial role during embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Of the 39 Hox genes, Hoxa1 is the first to be expressed during embryogenesis and the only anterior Hox gene linked to a human syndrome. Hoxa1 is necessary for proper development of the brainstem, inner ear and heart in humans and mice; however, almost nothing is known about the molecular downstream targets through which it exerts its function. To gain insight into the transcriptional network regulated by this protein, we performed microarray analysis on tissue microdissected from the prospective rhombomere 3–5 region of Hoxa1 null and wild type embryos. Due to the very early and transient expression of this gene, dissections were performed on early somite stage embryos during an eight-hour time window of development. Our array yielded a list of around 300 genes differentially expressed between the two samples. Many of the identified genes play a role in a specific developmental or cellular process. Some of the validated targets regulate early neural crest induction and specification. Interestingly, three of these genes, Zic1, Hnf1b and Foxd3, were down-regulated in the posterior hindbrain, where cardiac neural crest cells arise, which pattern the outflow tract of the heart. Other targets are necessary for early inner ear development, e.g. Pax8 and Fgfr3 or are expressed in specific hindbrain neurons regulating respiration, e.g. Lhx5. These findings allow us to propose a model where Hoxa1 acts in a genetic cascade upstream of genes controlling specific aspects of embryonic development, thereby providing insight into possible mechanisms underlying the human HoxA1-syndrome. PMID:21784065

  3. 75 FR 36511 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based Upon a Systematic Review of the Commerce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... in response to a notice of inquiry (July 17, 2007, 72 FR 39052). On April 18, 2008, BIS published the... to the Export Administration Regulations based upon a Systematic Review of the CCL'' (73 FR 21035... CCL review rule made substantive revisions to the EAR, including the CCL (October 6, 2008, 73 FR...

  4. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A A ... How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, but ...

  5. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  6. Numb is not a critical regulator of Notch-mediated cell fate decisions in the developing chick inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Eddison, Mark; Weber, Sara J.; Ariza-McNaughton, Linda; Lewis, Julian; Daudet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway controls differentiation of hair cells and supporting cells in the vertebrate inner ear. Here, we have investigated whether Numb, a known regulator of Notch activity in Drosophila, is involved in this process in the embryonic chick. The chicken homolog of Numb is expressed throughout the otocyst at early stages of development and is concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. It is asymmetrically allocated at some cell divisions, as in Drosophila, suggesting that it could act as a determinant inherited by one of the two daughter cells and favoring adoption of a hair-cell fate. To test the implication of Numb in hair cell fate decisions and the regulation of Notch signaling, we used different methods to overexpress Numb at different stages of inner ear development. We found that sustained or late Numb overexpression does not promote hair cell differentiation, and Numb does not prevent the reception of Notch signaling. Surprisingly, none of the Numb-overexpressing cells differentiated into hair cells, suggesting that high levels of Numb protein could interfere with intracellular processes essential for hair cell survival. However, when Numb was overexpressed early and more transiently during ear development, no effect on hair cell formation was seen. These results suggest that in the inner ear at least, Numb does not significantly repress Notch activity and that its asymmetric distribution in dividing precursor cells does not govern the choice between hair cell and supporting cell fates. PMID:25814931

  7. Plasma and ear tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in dogs with chronic end-stage otitis externa after intravenous administration of enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Cole, Lynette K; Papich, Mark G; Kwochka, Kenneth W; Hillier, Andrew; Smeak, Daniel D; Lehman, Amy M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin following intravenous administration of enrofloxacin in the plasma and ear tissue of dogs with chronic end-stage otitis undergoing a total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy. The goals were to determine the relationship between the dose of enrofloxacin and the concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and determine appropriate doses of enrofloxacin for treatment of chronic otitis externa and media. Thirty dogs were randomized to an enrofloxacin-treatment group (5, 10, 15 or 20 mg kg(-1)) or control group (no enrofloxacin). After surgical removal, ear tissue samples (skin, vertical ear canal, horizontal ear canal, middle ear) and a blood sample were collected. Concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the plasma and ear tissue were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Repeated measures models were applied to log-transformed data to assess dosing trends and Pearson correlations were calculated to assess concentration associations. Ear tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than plasma concentrations. Each 5 mg kg(-1 )increase in the dose of enrofloxacin resulted in a 72% and 37% increase in enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations, respectively. For bacteria with an minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.12-0.15 or less, 0.19-0.24, 0.31-0.39 and 0.51-0.64 microg mL(-1), enrofloxacin should be dosed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg(-1), respectively. Treatment with enrofloxacin would not be recommended for a bacterial organism intermediate or resistant in susceptibility to enrofloxacin since appropriate levels of enrofloxacin would not be attained. PMID:19152587

  8. Line up and listen: planar cell polarity regulation in the mammalian inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Rida, Padmashree C. G.; Chen, Ping

    2009-01-01

    The inner ear sensory organs possess extraordinary structural features necessary to conduct mechanosensory transduction for hearing and balance. Their structural beauty has fascinated scientists since the dawn of modern science and ensured a rigorous pursuit of the understanding of mechanotransduction. Sensory cells of the inner ear display unique structural features that underlie their mechanosensitivity and resolution, and represent perhaps the most distinctive form of a type of cellular polarity, known as planar cell polarity (PCP). Until recently, however, it was not known how the precise PCP of the inner ear sensory organs was achieved during development. Here, we review the PCP of the inner ear and recent advances in the quest for an understanding of its formation. PMID:19508855

  9. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? A tube called the eustachian (say: "you-stay-shee-an") tube connects the middle ear with the back of the nose. Normally this ...

  10. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Text Size Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  11. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  12. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ear drops People with chronic swimmer's ear may ... drop of alcohol with 1 drop of white vinegar and placing the mixture into the ears after ...

  13. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  14. FASCIATED EAR4 encodes a bZIP transcription factor that regulates shoot meristem size in maize.

    PubMed

    Pautler, Michael; Eveland, Andrea L; LaRue, Therese; Yang, Fang; Weeks, Rebecca; Lunde, China; Je, Byoung Il; Meeley, Robert; Komatsu, Mai; Vollbrecht, Erik; Sakai, Hajime; Jackson, David

    2015-01-01

    Plant architecture is dictated by precise control of meristematic activity. In the shoot, an imbalance in positive or negative maintenance signals can result in a fasciated or enlarged meristem phenotype. fasciated ear4 (fea4) is a semidwarfed mutant with fasciated ears and tassels as well as greatly enlarged vegetative and inflorescence meristems. We identified FEA4 as a bZIP transcription factor, orthologous to Arabidopsis thaliana PERIANTHIA. FEA4 was expressed in the peripheral zone of the vegetative shoot apical meristem and in the vasculature of immature leaves and conspicuously excluded from the stem cell niche at the tip of the shoot apical meristem and from incipient leaf primordia. Following the transition to reproductive fate, FEA4 was expressed throughout the entire inflorescence and floral meristems. Native expression of a functional YFP:FEA4 fusion recapitulated this pattern of expression. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing to identify 4060 genes proximal to FEA4 binding sites, including ones that were potentially bound and modulated by FEA4 based on transcriptional changes in fea4 mutant ears. Our results suggest that FEA4 promotes differentiation in the meristem periphery by regulating auxin-based responses and genes associated with leaf differentiation and polarity, potentially in opposition to factors such as KNOTTED1 and WUSCHEL. PMID:25616871

  15. 78 FR 29245 - U.S. General Services Administration Federal Property Management Regulations; Administrative Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Administration Federal Property Management Regulations; Administrative Wage Garnishment AGENCY: Office of the.... Erik Dorman, Financial Policy and Analysis Division, at 202-501- 4568 or via email at erik.dorman@gsa... telephone number. The Administrative Wage Garnishment Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts affected...

  16. Influence of complementary Viscum album (Iscador) administration on microcirculation and immune system of ear, nose and throat carcinoma patients treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Schmidt, W; Werner, E; Werner, M; Niemer, W; Beuth, J

    2005-01-01

    With the techniques of vital microscopic and reflection spectrometric imaging, representative characteristics of microcirculation and immunology of white blood cells were evaluated before, during and after radiotherapy and chemotherapy of patients suffering from ear, nose and throat carcinomas. Adverse effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the microcirculation and the immune system were decreased and reconstitution processes were accelerated by complementary administration of a standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador). PMID:15816634

  17. 7 CFR 52.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification § 52.1 Administration...

  18. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the ear: Baby oil Commercial drops Glycerin Mineral oil Water Another method is to wash out the ... cloth or paper tissue wrapped around your finger. Mineral oil can be used to moisturize the ear and ...

  19. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  20. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear. CUTS ON THE OUTER EAR Apply direct pressure until the bleeding stops. Cover the injury ... Mosby; 2013:chap 143. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  1. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  2. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  3. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  4. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. The tubes inside the ears become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that fluid. If your child isn't old enough to say "My ear ...

  5. Super Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

  6. Signaling from maize organ primordia via FASCIATED EAR3 regulates stem cell proliferation and yield traits.

    PubMed

    Je, Byoung Il; Gruel, Jeremy; Lee, Young Koung; Bommert, Peter; Arevalo, Edgar Demesa; Eveland, Andrea L; Wu, Qingyu; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Meeley, Robert; Bartlett, Madelaine; Komatsu, Mai; Sakai, Hajime; Jönsson, Henrik; Jackson, David

    2016-07-01

    Shoot apical meristems are stem cell niches that balance proliferation with the incorporation of daughter cells into organ primordia. This balance is maintained by CLAVATA-WUSCHEL feedback signaling between the stem cells at the tip of the meristem and the underlying organizing center. Signals that provide feedback from organ primordia to control the stem cell niche in plants have also been hypothesized, but their identities are unknown. Here we report FASCIATED EAR3 (FEA3), a leucine-rich-repeat receptor that functions in stem cell control and responds to a CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) peptide expressed in organ primordia. We modeled our results to propose a regulatory system that transmits signals from differentiating cells in organ primordia back to the stem cell niche and that appears to function broadly in the plant kingdom. Furthermore, we demonstrate an application of this new signaling feedback, by showing that weak alleles of fea3 enhance hybrid maize yield traits. PMID:27182966

  7. Prophylactic administration of haloperidol plus midazolam reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting better than using each drug alone in patients undergoing middle ear surgery

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Khalili, Gholamreza; Mohammadnejad, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The efficacy of using midazolam or haloperidol for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) has been investigated before. The main object of the present study was to evaluate the anti-emetic effects of combining administration of intravenous haloperidol with intravenous midazolam on PONV in patients underwent middle ear surgery in comparison with using each drug alone. Methods: Study design was randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled. 80 patients, aged 18-60 years, scheduled for middle ear surgery in Kashani Hospital Medical Center under general anesthesia were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were divided into 4 groups of 20 each and received haloperidol 2 mg i.v. (Group H); midazolam 2 mg i.v. (Group M); haloperidol 2 mg plus midazolam 2 mg i.v. (Group HM); saline i.v. (Group C). The incidences of PONV and complete response were evaluated at 0-2 hours after arrival to the PACU and 2-24 hours after arrival to the ward in 4 groups. Results: Patients in group HM had significantly lower incidence of PONV compared with groups H, M, and C throughout 0-24 h (P<00.5). The HM group had the lowest incidence of PONV (0-2, 2-24, and 0-24 h) and the highest incidence of complete response. Postoperative anti-emetic requirement was significantly less in group HM compared with group M or H (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combine administration of haloperidol 2 mg plus midazolam 2 mg significantly reduced PONV better than using each drug alone in patients underwent middle ear surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:22754441

  8. Eya1 regulates the growth of otic epithelium and interacts with Pax2 during the development of all sensory areas in the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dan; Silvius, Derek; Rodrigo-Blomqvist, Sandra; Enerbäck, Sven; Xu, Pin-Xian

    2006-10-15

    Members of the Eyes absent (Eya) gene family are important for auditory system development. While mutations in human EYA4 cause late-onset deafness at the DFNA10 locus, mutations in human EYA1 cause branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome. Inactivation of Eya1 in mice causes an early arrest of the inner ear development at the otocyst stage. To better understand the role of Eya1 in inner ear development, we analyzed the cellular and molecular basis of the early defect observed in the Eya1 mutant embryos. We report here that Eya1-/- otic epithelium shows reduced cell proliferation from E8.5 and increased cell apoptosis from E9.0, thus providing insights into the cellular basis of inner ear defect which occurred in the absence of Eya1. Previous studies have suggested that Pax, Eya and Six genes function in a parallel or independent pathway during inner ear development. However, it remains unknown whether Pax genes interact with Eya1 or Six1 during inner ear morphogenesis. To further evaluate whether Pax genes function in the Eya1-Six1 pathway or whether they interact with Eya1 or Six1 during inner ear morphogenesis, we have analyzed the expression pattern of Eya1, Pax2 and Pax8 on adjacent sections of otic epithelium from E8.5 to 9.5 by in situ hybridization and the inner ear gross structures of Pax2, Eya1 and Six1 compound mutants at E17.5 by latex paintfilling. Our data strongly suggest that Pax2 interacts with Eya1 during inner ear morphogenesis, and this interaction is critical for the development of all sensory areas in the inner ear. Furthermore, otic marker analysis in both Eya1-/- and Pax2-/- embryos indicates that Eya1 but not Pax2 regulates the establishment of regional specification of the otic vesicle. Together, these results show that, while Eya1 exerts an early function essential for normal growth and patterning of the otic epithelium, it also functionally synergizes with Pax2 during the morphogenesis of all sensory areas of mammalian inner ear. PMID:16916509

  9. Chronic hemodynamic unloading regulates the morphologic development of newborn mouse hearts transplanted into the ear of isogeneic adult mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    months after transplantation, the myocytes of heterotopic hearts were smaller in size in comparison to those after 2 or 6 months. The graft cells were separated from each other by fibrous tissue and mononuclear cells and were not aligned in parallel within the tissue; often, they appeared to have lost their connections with adjacent cells. The myofibrils within cells were strikingly disorganized, coursing in different directions. Severely degenerated myocytes were commonly seen. These results, without precluding the possible role of neural and hormonal stimuli, clearly indicate that hemodynamic work load regulates the developmental growth of newborn mouse heart transplanted into the pinna of the ear of isogeneic adult recipient mice. In other words, the mass of cardiac tissue would be adjusted to meet the prevailing hemodynamic demands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1632462

  10. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ....; E.O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p... U.S.C. app. 2401 et seq.; 50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.; E.O. 12938, 59 FR 59099, 3 CFR, 1994 Comp., p. 950; E.O. 13020, 61 ] FR 54079, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 219; E.O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp.,...

  11. 78 FR 31431 - Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ..., 2011 proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``July 15 (framework) rule'') setting up a structure to control in... with section 38(f) of the AECA. On November 7, 2011, BIS published a proposed rule (76 FR 68675.... On June 19, 2012, BIS published a proposed rule to define the term ``specially designed'' (77...

  12. 77 FR 33688 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Personal Protective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (herein ``the July 15 proposed rule... November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68675) (herein ``the November 7 proposed rule''), BIS published a rule proposing... Comp., p. 783 (2002), as extended by the Notice of August 12, 2011, 76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011),...

  13. 76 FR 76085 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Vehicles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...The Bureau of Industry and Security publishes a third proposed rule that describes how articles the President determines no longer warrant control under Category VII (military vehicles and related articles) of the United States Munitions List (USML) would be controlled under the Commerce Control List (CCL). This proposed rule would re-propose, with certain changes, five new Export Control......

  14. 76 FR 41957 - Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Items the President...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Control List: Revising Descriptions of Items and Foreign Availability,'' 75 FR 76664 (Dec. 9, 2010); ``Revision to the United States Munitions List,'' 75 FR 76935 (Dec. 10, 2010). In addition, the...

  15. 78 FR 6750 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Articles the President Determines No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Initiative, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (hereinafter...). On November 7, 2011, BIS published a rule (76 FR 68675) (hereinafter the ``November 7 (aircraft) rule..., 2012, BIS published a rule (77 FR 36409) (hereinafter the ``June 19 (specially designed)...

  16. 77 FR 70945 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Initiative, BIS published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``the July 15 proposed rule'') that set forth a... proposed rule (76 FR 68675, November 7, 2011), primarily dealing with aircraft and related items (``the...'' electrical equipment (rotating machinery and transformers) ``specially designed'' to be installed in...

  17. 76 FR 68675 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Aircraft and Related Items...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...This proposed rule describes how articles the President determines no longer warrant control under Category VIII (aircraft and related items) of the United States Munitions List (USML) would be controlled under the Commerce Control List (CCL) in new Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) 9A610, 9B610, 9C610, 9D610, and 9E610. In addition, this proposed rule would control military......

  18. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur if you ... The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid ... plant Note: Leaves and stems are the most dangerous when eaten ...

  19. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this condition. Try an over-the-counter decongestant medicine for a few days. Putting a warm heating pad on your ear may help relieve the pain. If the pain is intense or doesn't go away in 1 or 2 days, see your doctor. No 9. Do you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear ...

  20. On the role of the central nervous system in regulating the mineralisation of inner-ear otoliths of fish.

    PubMed

    Anken, Ralf H

    2006-12-01

    Stato- or otoliths are calcified structures in the organ of balance and equilibrium of vertebrates, the inner ear, where they enhance its sensitivity to gravity. The compact otoliths of fish are composed of the calcium carbonate polymorph aragonite and a small fraction of organic molecules. The latter form a protein skeleton which determines the morphology of an otolith as well as its crystal lattice structure. This short review addresses findings according to which the brain obviously plays a prominent role in regulating the mineralisation of fish otoliths and depends on the gravity vector. Overall, otolith mineralisation has thus been identified to be a unique, neuronally guided biomineralisation process. The following is a hypothetical model for regulation of calcification by efferent vestibular neurons: (1) release of calcium at tight junctions in the macular epithelia, (2) macular carbonic anhydrase activity (which in turn is responsible for carbonate deposition), (3) chemical composition of matrix proteins. The rationale and evidence that support this model are discussed. PMID:17180502

  1. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid Asparagine, a protein found in this plant Note: ... days to a week if treated correctly. Rarely, oxalic acid may cause swelling severe enough to block the ...

  2. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  3. IR ear thermometers: what do they measure and how do they comply with the EU technical regulation?

    PubMed

    Pusnik, Igor; van der Ham, Eric; Drnovsek, Janko

    2004-06-01

    Medical diagnostics and clinical practice rely extensively on test and measurement instrumentation. It is therefore of paramount importance that test and measurement instrumentation provides reliable data of sufficient stability, within appropriate limits of accuracy. At the same time the intended purpose of a particular measuring instrument has to be taken into account. The essential problem of every measuring instrument is that it measures and indicates basically what appears at the input of the measuring instrument, which might be significantly different from the real condition of a measurand. Namely, it is assumed that a measurand is stable, repeatable, and relatively unsusceptible to environmental influences. All these requirements are difficult to assure in a biological system and especially difficult in medical practice. Technology could easily provide high-resolution measurements, but due to natural instability of a measurand and various influential parameters the measurement uncertainty is inevitable. Sometimes even gross measurement errors are introduced. To achieve the expected accuracy for intended purpose is therefore much more demanding than merely relying on manufacturers' specifications. This paper describes and analyses the mentioned dilemmas in the case of widely used infrared ear thermometers, with their benefits and limitations, as well as with regard to the European technical regulation in the field of medical devices. PMID:15253121

  4. 50 CFR 260.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of regulations. 260.1 Section 260.1 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... such functions to any officer or employee of the National Marine Fisheries Service of the Department...

  5. 50 CFR 260.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of regulations. 260.1 Section 260.1 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... such functions to any officer or employee of the National Marine Fisheries Service of the Department...

  6. 50 CFR 260.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of regulations. 260.1 Section 260.1 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... such functions to any officer or employee of the National Marine Fisheries Service of the Department...

  7. 50 CFR 260.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration of regulations. 260.1 Section 260.1 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... such functions to any officer or employee of the National Marine Fisheries Service of the Department...

  8. 50 CFR 260.1 - Administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of regulations. 260.1 Section 260.1 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... such functions to any officer or employee of the National Marine Fisheries Service of the Department...

  9. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Kyun; Lee, Haa-Yung; Pan, Huiqi; Takeshita, Tamotsu; Park, Raekil; Cha, Kiweon; Andalibi, Ali; Lim, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization) in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM). Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:16433908

  10. On the Role of the CNS in regulating the Mineralization of inner Ear Otoliths of Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, R.

    This presentation will address recent phenomenological findings, according to which the brain obviously plays a prominent role in regulating the mineralization of fish otoliths in dependence of the gravity vector. In brief, the hypothetical model for the respective regulatory processes is as follows: Calcification of otoliths might be guided by an (efferent) neuronal modulation of (1) the release of calcium at tight junctions in the macular epithelia (2) macular carbonic anhydrase activity (which in turn is responsible for CaCO_3 deposition) (3) the chemical composition of matrix proteins This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  11. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... 31. Thorne CH. Otoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Middle Ear Inflammation Disrupts the cochlear Intra-Strial Fluid–Blood Barrier through Down-Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Hou, Zhiqiang; Cai, Jing; Dong, Mingmin; Shi, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Middle ear infection (or inflammation) is the most common pathological condition that causes fluid to accumulate in the middle ear, disrupting cochlear homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide, a product of bacteriolysis, activates macrophages and causes release of inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that lipopolysaccharides cause functional and structural changes in the inner ear similar to that of inflammation. However, it is specifically not known how lipopolysaccharides affect the blood-labyrinth barrier in the stria vascularis (intra-strial fluid–blood barrier), nor what the underlying mechanisms are. In this study, we used a cell culture-based in vitro model and animal-based in vivo model, combined with immunohistochemistry and a vascular leakage assay, to investigate lipopolysaccharide effects on the integrity of the mouse intra-strial fluid–blood barrier. Our results show lipopolysaccharide-induced local infection significantly affects intra-strial fluid–blood barrier component cells. Pericytes and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes are particularly affected, and the morphological and functional changes in these cells are accompanied by substantial changes in barrier integrity. Significant vascular leakage is found in the lipopolysaccharide treated-animals. Consistent with the findings from the in vivo animal model, the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer to FITC-albumin was significantly higher in the lipopolysaccharide-treated monolayer than in an untreated endothelial cell monolayer. Further study has shown the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation to have a major effect on the expression of tight junctions in the blood barrier. Lipopolysaccharide was also shown to cause high frequency hearing loss, corroborated by previous reports from other laboratories. Our findings show lipopolysaccharide-evoked middle ear infection disrupts inner ear fluid balance, and its particular effects on the intra-strial fluid

  13. Food and Drug Administration regulation and evaluation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie; Baylor, Norman W

    2011-05-01

    The vaccine-approval process in the United States is regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the US Food and Drug Administration. Throughout the life cycle of development, from preclinical studies to after licensure, vaccines are subject to rigorous testing and oversight. Manufacturers must adhere to good manufacturing practices and control procedures to ensure the quality of vaccines. As mandated by Title 21 of the Code of Regulations, licensed vaccines must meet stringent criteria for safety, efficacy, and potency. PMID:21502242

  14. Food and Drug Administration Regulation of in Vitro Diagnostic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Elizabeth; O’Leary, Timothy J.; Gutman, Steven I.

    2005-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration regulates the sale and distribution of laboratory devices under a statutory and regulatory framework that is unfamiliar to most clinical laboratory scientists. In this article we briefly describe the criteria that are used to classify and review in vitro diagnostic devices. We discuss the similarities and differences between devices that are not subject to premarket review, and those that are required to undergo either a premarket application or premarket notification [510(k)] pathway. We then discuss the methods that the Food and Drug Administration uses to assess the performance of in vitro diagnostic devices in the marketplace as a component of the total life cycle approach to medical device regulation. PMID:15681468

  15. 77 FR 56766 - Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... 746 of the EAR with respect to Syria is based in part on Executive Order 13338, 69 FR 26751, 3 CFR... Actions of the Government of Syria, 77 FR 27559 (May 10, 2012), which is the most recent such annual... August 15, 2012--Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations, 77 FR 49699 (August...

  16. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  17. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  18. Better Ear Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer’s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

  19. How the Ear Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You How the Ear Works How the Ear Works Patient Health Information News media interested in ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . The ear has three main parts: the outer ear (including ...

  20. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  1. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS; WATER CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART...

  2. Certification Regulations for Teachers and Qualifications for Administrative, Supervisory, and Related Instructional Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    The regulations governing the certification of teachers, qualifications for administrative, supervisory and related instructional positions, and administrative procedures for the state of Virginia are given. (JD)

  3. 75 FR 59102 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Part 204, Administrative Matters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...; Part 204, Administrative Matters AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense.... 0 Therefore 48 CFR part 204 is amended as follows: PART 204--ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS 0 1....

  4. Ear defects.

    PubMed

    Shonka, David C; Park, Stephen S

    2009-08-01

    The projection and exposure of the auricle make it particularly susceptible to actinic injury and thus to cutaneous malignancies. Auricular reconstruction is challenging because of its unique surface anatomy and undulating topography. This article organizes auricular defects into different categories based on anatomic location and extent of tissue loss, including skin-only defects, small composite defects, full-thickness defects involving or sparing the upper third of the ear, and total auricular loss. The authors share an algorithm for repair of the array of auricular defects. PMID:19698921

  5. Ankrd6 is a mammalian functional homolog of Drosophila planar cell polarity gene diego and regulates coordinated cellular orientation in the mouse inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Chonnettia; Qian, Dong; Kim, Sun Myoung; Li, Shuangding; Ren, Dongdong; Knapp, Lindsey; Sprinzak, David; Avraham, Karen B.; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Chi, Fanglu; Chen, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The coordinated polarization of neighboring cells within the plane of the tissue, known as planar cell polarity (PCP), is a recurring theme in biology. It is required for numerous developmental processes for the form and function of many tissues and organs across species. The genetic pathway regulating PCP was first discovered in Drosophila, and an analogous but distinct pathway is emerging in vertebrates. It consists of membrane protein complexes known as core PCP proteins that are conserved across species. Here we report that the over-expression of the murine Ankrd6 (mAnkrd6) gene that shares homology with Drosophila core PCP gene diego causes a typical PCP phenotype in Drosophila, and mAnkrd6 can rescue the loss of function of diego in Drosophila. In mice, mAnkrd6 protein is asymmetrically localized in cells of the inner ear sensory organs, characteristic of components of conserved core PCP complexes. The loss of mAnkrd6 causes PCP defects in the inner ear sensory organs. Moreover, canonical Wnt signaling is significantly increased in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from mAnkrd6 knockout mice in comparison to wild type controls. Together, these results indicated that mAnkrd6 is a functional homolog of the Drosophila diego gene for mammalian PCP regulation and act to suppress canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:25218921

  6. Association of the molecular regulation of ear leaf senescence/stress response and photosynthesis/metabolism with heterosis at the reproductive stage in maize.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Zhe; Tan, Xianjie; Jiang, Yufeng; Gao, Jiong; Lin, Li; Wang, Zhenhua; Ren, Jun; Wang, Xiaolei; Qin, Lanqiu; Cheng, Weidong; Qi, Ji; Kuai, Benke

    2016-01-01

    Maize exhibits a wide range of heterotic traits, but the molecular basis of heterosis at the reproductive stage has seldom been exploited. Leaf senescence is a degenerative process which affects crop yield and quality. In this study, we observed significantly delayed ear leaf senescence in the reciprocal hybrids of B73/Mo17 and Zheng58/Chang7-2 after silking, and all the hybrids displayed larger leaf areas and higher stems with higher yields. Our time-course transcriptome analysis identified 2,826 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two parental lines (PP-DEGs) and 2,328 DEGs between parental lines and the hybrid (PH-DEGs) after silking. Notably, several senescence promoting genes (ZmNYE1, ZmORE1, ZmWRKY53 and ZmPIFs) exhibited underdominant expression patterns in the hybrid, whereas putative photosynthesis and carbon-fixation (ZmPEPC)-associated, starch biosynthetic (ZmAPS1, ZmAPL), gibberellin biosynthetic genes (ZmGA20OX, ZmGA3OX) expressed overdominantly. We also identified 86 transcription factors from PH-DEGs, some of which were known to regulate senescence, stress and metabolic processes. Collectively, we demonstrate a molecular association of the regulations of both ear leaf senescence/stress response and photosynthesis/metabolism with heterosis at the late developmental stage. This finding not only extends our understanding to the molecular basis of maize heterosis but also provides basic information for molecular breeding. PMID:27435114

  7. Association of the molecular regulation of ear leaf senescence/stress response and photosynthesis/metabolism with heterosis at the reproductive stage in maize

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Zhe; Tan, Xianjie; Jiang, Yufeng; Gao, Jiong; Lin, Li; Wang, Zhenhua; Ren, Jun; Wang, Xiaolei; Qin, Lanqiu; Cheng, Weidong; Qi, Ji; Kuai, Benke

    2016-01-01

    Maize exhibits a wide range of heterotic traits, but the molecular basis of heterosis at the reproductive stage has seldom been exploited. Leaf senescence is a degenerative process which affects crop yield and quality. In this study, we observed significantly delayed ear leaf senescence in the reciprocal hybrids of B73/Mo17 and Zheng58/Chang7-2 after silking, and all the hybrids displayed larger leaf areas and higher stems with higher yields. Our time-course transcriptome analysis identified 2,826 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two parental lines (PP-DEGs) and 2,328 DEGs between parental lines and the hybrid (PH-DEGs) after silking. Notably, several senescence promoting genes (ZmNYE1, ZmORE1, ZmWRKY53 and ZmPIFs) exhibited underdominant expression patterns in the hybrid, whereas putative photosynthesis and carbon-fixation (ZmPEPC)-associated, starch biosynthetic (ZmAPS1, ZmAPL), gibberellin biosynthetic genes (ZmGA20OX, ZmGA3OX) expressed overdominantly. We also identified 86 transcription factors from PH-DEGs, some of which were known to regulate senescence, stress and metabolic processes. Collectively, we demonstrate a molecular association of the regulations of both ear leaf senescence/stress response and photosynthesis/metabolism with heterosis at the late developmental stage. This finding not only extends our understanding to the molecular basis of maize heterosis but also provides basic information for molecular breeding. PMID:27435114

  8. SMAX1-LIKE7 Signals from the Nucleus to Regulate Shoot Development in Arabidopsis via Partially EAR Motif-Independent Mechanisms[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are hormonal signals that regulate multiple aspects of shoot architecture, including shoot branching. Like many plant hormonal signaling systems, SLs act by promoting ubiquitination of target proteins and their subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Recently, SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8, members of the SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) family of chaperonin-like proteins, have been identified as proteolytic targets of SL signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate downstream events remain largely unclear. Here, we show that SMXL7 functions in the nucleus, as does the SL receptor, DWARF14 (D14). We show that nucleus-localized D14 can physically interact with both SMXL7 and the MAX2 F-box protein in a SL-dependent manner and that disruption of specific conserved domains in SMXL7 affects its localization, SL-induced degradation, and activity. By expressing and overexpressing these SMXL7 protein variants, we show that shoot tissues are broadly sensitive to SMXL7 activity, but degradation normally buffers the effect of increasing SMXL7 expression. SMXL7 contains a well-conserved EAR (ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR Amphiphilic Repression) motif, which contributes to, but is not essential for, SMXL7 functionality. Intriguingly, different developmental processes show differential sensitivity to the loss of the EAR motif, raising the possibility that there may be several distinct mechanisms at play downstream of SMXL7. PMID:27317673

  9. Ears and Altitude

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ears and Altitude Ears and Altitude Patient Health Information ... uncomfortable feeling of fullness or pressure. Why do ears pop? Normally, swallowing causes a little click or ...

  10. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  11. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  12. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 10.90 - Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. 10.90 Section 10.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures § 10.90 Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 10.90 - Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. 10.90 Section 10.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures § 10.90 Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 10.90 - Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. 10.90 Section 10.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures § 10.90 Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 10.90 - Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. 10.90 Section 10.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures § 10.90 Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. (a)...

  18. A causative link between inner ear defects and long-term striatal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Michelle W; Hübner, Christian A; Arezzo, Joseph C; Hébert, Jean M

    2013-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of behavioral disorders that feature hyperactivity in individuals with severe inner ear dysfunction. What remains unknown is whether inner ear dysfunction can alter the brain to promote pathological behavior. Using molecular and behavioral assessments of mice that carry null or tissue-specific mutations of Slc12a2, we found that inner ear dysfunction causes motor hyperactivity by increasing in the nucleus accumbens the levels of phosphorylated adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), key mediators of neurotransmitter signaling and plasticity. Hyperactivity was remedied by local administration of the pERK inhibitor SL327. These findings reveal that a sensory impairment, such as inner ear dysfunction, can induce specific molecular changes in the brain that cause maladaptive behaviors, such as hyperactivity, that have been traditionally considered exclusively of cerebral origin. PMID:24009395

  19. Scientific Self-Regulation: A Brief Primer for Research Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Timothy N.

    2005-01-01

    The National Academies of Science recently recommended a battery of guidelines for Academe to create an "environment" conducive to the responsible conduct of research. These guidelines affect the research administration field as a whole, as research administrators will be expected to assist in these changes. Research administrators,…

  20. Federal Regulations and Higher Education: An Overview for College and University Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ronald H.; Zuckerman, Judy

    1980-01-01

    The number of pages in the Federal Register devoted to regulations affecting higher education increased 1,000 percent from 1965 to 1977. It is suggested that it is beneficial for all campus administrators to be aware of the central issues involved in federal regulations. A synopsis of the regulations with which administrators most frequently come…

  1. 41 CFR 105-1.101 - General Services Administration Property Management Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Services Administration Property Management Regulations. 105-1.101 Section 105-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System §...

  2. 21 CFR 10.90 - Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration regulations, recommendations, and agreements. 10.90 Section 10.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES General Administrative Procedures § 10.90 Food and Drug...

  3. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, and the Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Regulations. 710.6 Section 710.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...

  4. 77 FR 5020 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSA Form 527...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSA Form 527, Contractor's Qualifications and Financial Information AGENCY: Office of the Chief Finance Officer, GSA... Financial Information. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of...

  5. 7 CFR 1260.520 - Responsibility for administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research: Certification and Nomination Procedures for the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board § 1260.520 Responsibility for administration...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.520 - Responsibility for administration of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research: Certification and Nomination Procedures for the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board § 1260.520 Responsibility for administration...

  7. 41 CFR 105-1.101 - General Services Administration Property Management Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General Services Administration Property Management Regulations. 105-1.101 Section 105-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...

  8. 41 CFR 105-1.101 - General Services Administration Property Management Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General Services Administration Property Management Regulations. 105-1.101 Section 105-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...

  9. 41 CFR 105-1.101 - General Services Administration Property Management Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Services Administration Property Management Regulations. 105-1.101 Section 105-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...

  10. 41 CFR 105-1.101 - General Services Administration Property Management Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General Services Administration Property Management Regulations. 105-1.101 Section 105-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...

  11. 77 FR 9659 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSA Mentor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSA Mentor-Prot g... collection concerning the GSA Mentor-Prot g Program, General Service Administration Acquisition Manual (GSAM..., 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0286, GSA Mentor-Prot...

  12. 78 FR 61873 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make the Commerce Control List (CCL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... (75 FR 76664). The December 9 notice sought, among other things, public comments on how descriptions... July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39679), entitled Request for Public Comments on Shipping Tolerances for Export... clarifications to the final rule published on April 16, 2013 (78 FR 22660) entitled Revisions to the...

  13. 77 FR 71213 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make the Commerce Control List (CCL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Background On December 9, 2010 (75 FR 76664), the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS...'' included in a proposed rule published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41958) entitled ``Proposed Revisions to the... Federal Register notice on June 19, 2012 (77 FR 36409), but rather the relationship between these...

  14. 76 FR 80282 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Vessels of War and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Reform Initiative, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958... proposed rules to be published by BIS. On November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68675), and December 6, 2011 (76 FR 76072... August 17, 2001, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002), as extended by the Notice of August 12, 2011, 76...

  15. Regulation of brain anandamide by acute administration of ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Belen; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alvarez-Jaimes, Lily; Sanchez-Vera, Irene; Giuffrida, Andrea; Serrano, Antonia; Baixeras, Elena; Khaturia, Satishe; Navarro, Miguel; Parsons, Loren H.; Piomelli, Daniele; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid acylethanolamide AEA (arachidonoylethanolamide; also known as anandamide) participates in the neuroadaptations associated with chronic ethanol exposure. However, no studies have described the acute actions of ethanol on AEA production and degradation. In the present study, we investigated the time course of the effects of the intraperitoneal administration of ethanol (4 g/kg of body mass) on the endogenous levels of AEA in central and peripheral tissues. Acute ethanol administration decreased AEA in the cerebellum, the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens of the ventral striatum, as well as in plasma and adipose tissue. Parallel decreases of a second acylethanolamide, PEA (palmitoylethanolamide), were observed in the brain. Effects were observed 45–90 min after ethanol administration. In vivo studies revealed that AEA decreases were associated with a remarkable inhibition of the release of both anandamide and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. There were no changes in the expression and enzymatic activity of the main enzyme that degrades AEA, the fatty acid amidohydrolase. Acute ethanol administration did not change either the activity of N-acyltransferase, the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of the AEA precursor, or the expression of NAPE-PLD (N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D), the enzyme that releases AEA from membrane phospholipid precursors. These results suggest that receptor-mediated release of acylethanolamide is inhibited by the acute administration of ethanol, and that this effect is not derived from increased fatty acid ethanolamide degradation. PMID:17302558

  16. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Update Date 10/ ...

  17. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  18. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  19. Ear Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... shaped organ that converts sound vibrations from the middle ear into electrical signals. The auditory nerve carries these signals from the cochlea to the brain. Other nearby parts of the ear also can be involved in ...

  20. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... or wearing away of the bones of the middle ear, which help with hearing Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part of the ear that helps with balance Hearing ...

  1. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  2. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  3. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  4. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

  5. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation...

  6. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation...

  7. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation...

  8. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation...

  9. 77 FR 749 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Implementation of Information Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...GSA has adopted as final, with changes, an interim rule amending the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (GSAR) to implement policy and guidelines to strengthen the security requirements for contracts and orders that include information technology (IT) supplies, services and...

  10. The Perceptive Eye/Ear Game: An Activity That Encourages Practice on Best Practice; Honing Observation and Problem-Solving Skills of Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantes, Thomas; Williams, Marium

    This paper describes a game-format instructional strategy for administrator development based on a modified case method, the Kentucky New Administrator Standards, and the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards. This instructional strategy is intended to help prepare school leaders to assess and be assessed using authentic…

  11. 75 FR 4565 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... reinstatement of a previously approved information collection requirement regarding industrial ] funding fee and sales reporting. A request for public comments was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 58630, on... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review;...

  12. 78 FR 27239 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... previously approved information collection requirement regarding industrial funding fee and sales reporting. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 76446, on December 28, 2012. One comment was... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review;...

  13. 77 FR 58380 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Price...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... collection requirement regarding the GSAR Price Reductions Clause. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 76 FR 89141, on December 29, 2011. One respondent submitted comments. Public comments are... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review;...

  14. 77 FR 15370 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Price Reductions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... date of the notice of request for comments regarding OMB Control No. 3090-0235, Price Reductions Clause, published in the Federal Register at 76 FR 81941, on December 29, 2011. DATES: Submit comments on or before... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Price...

  15. 21 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - List of Applicable Laws, Regulations, and Administrative Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Regulations (CFR) Parts 1-99, Parts 200-299, Parts 500-599, and Parts 600-799. Relevant sections of the FDA... Administrative Provisions A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Good Manufacturing Practices Pt. 26, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26—List...

  16. 21 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - List of Applicable Laws, Regulations, and Administrative Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Regulations (CFR) Parts 1-99, Parts 200-299, Parts 500-599, and Parts 600-799. Relevant sections of the FDA... Administrative Provisions A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Good Manufacturing Practices Pt. 26, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26—List...

  17. 21 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - List of Applicable Laws, Regulations, and Administrative Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Regulations (CFR) Parts 1-99, Parts 200-299, Parts 500-599, and Parts 600-799. Relevant sections of the FDA... Administrative Provisions A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Good Manufacturing Practices Pt. 26, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26—List...

  18. 21 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - List of Applicable Laws, Regulations, and Administrative Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Regulations (CFR) Parts 1-99, Parts 200-299, Parts 500-599, and Parts 600-799. Relevant sections of the FDA... Administrative Provisions A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Good Manufacturing Practices Pt. 26, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26—List...

  19. The Infralimbic Cortex Regulates the Consolidation of Extinction after Cocaine Self-Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLumiere, Ryan T.; Niehoff, Kate E.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    The infralimbic cortex (IL) regulates the consolidation of extinction learning for fear conditioning. Whether the IL influences the consolidation of extinction learning for cocaine self-administration is unknown. To address this issue, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2 wk of cocaine self-administration followed by extinction training. On the…

  20. 75 FR 14448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... announcing a public workshop entitled ``FDA Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good... representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among the FDA and clinical trial staff,...

  1. 76 FR 21743 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Sealed Bidding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected. DATES: Submit... Respondent: 1. Hours per Response: .5. Total Burden Hours: 5. Obtaining Copies of Proposals: Requesters may... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Sealed...

  2. 77 FR 74631 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation: Modifications (Multiple Award Schedules...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... and methodology; and (3) to identify ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the... Respondent: 3. Total Responses: 61,500. Hours per Response: 5. Total Burden Hours: 307,000. Obtaining Copies... ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 552 and 538 General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation:...

  3. 77 FR 17481 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Identification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... accurate and based on valid assumptions and methodology; and ways to enhance the quality, utility, and.... Responses per Respondent: 1. Annual Responses: 9,000. Hours per Response: 3. Total Burden Hours: 27,000... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Identification...

  4. 76 FR 38179 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSAR Provision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... information is accurate, and based on valid assumptions and methodology; ways to enhance the quality, utility.... Responses per Respondent: 1. Hours per Response: 1. Total Burden Hours: 6794. Obtaining Copies of Proposals... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; GSAR Provision...

  5. 76 FR 46808 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Sealed Bidding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected. DATES: Submit... per Respondent: 1. Hours per Response: .5. Total Burden Hours: 5. Obtaining Copies of Proposals... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Sealed...

  6. 77 FR 36543 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (GSAR) Part 523; Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... methodology; and ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected. DATES... Reporting Burden Respondents: 563. Responses per Respondent: 3. Hours per Response: .658. Total Burden Hours... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (GSAR) Part 523; Information...

  7. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  8. Effect of anesthetic gas on middle ear fluid.

    PubMed

    Tom, L W; Tsao, F; Marsh, R R; Kessler, A; Konkle, D F

    1994-07-01

    Tympanometry was performed before (preoperative) and after (intraoperative) the administration of inhalation anesthesia including nitrous oxide and halothane on 109 children undergoing myringotomy with pressure equalization tube insertion. A total of 213 preoperative tympanograms were compared with their intraoperative counterparts and the presence or absence of middle ear effusion at myringotomy. When preoperative tympanograms were consistent with pneumatized middle ears, intraoperative findings demonstrated a mean middle ear pressure increase of +147 daPa. When preoperative tympanometry suggested middle ear effusion, less than 1% demonstrated intraoperative tympanometric changes and/or findings at surgery that would support anesthesia clearing middle ear effusion. Preoperative tympanometric data were poor predictors of the presence or absence of effusion at myringotomy. The relationship between inhalation anesthetics (i.e., nitrous oxide and halothane) and middle ear fluids, and the reliability of tympanometry to predict middle ear effusion are discussed. PMID:8022245

  9. 43 CFR 19.6 - Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations respecting administration and... § 19.6 Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the Secretary. Regulations respecting administration and use of areas under the jurisdiction of the...

  10. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  11. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...-D038) in the Federal Register on January 15, 2010 (75 FR 2457). The public comment period closed March... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038... RIN 0750-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition...

  12. 14 CFR 294.33 - Compliance with the regulations of the Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration. 294.33 Section 294.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.33 Compliance with the regulations of the Federal...

  13. 14 CFR 294.33 - Compliance with the regulations of the Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration. 294.33 Section 294.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.33 Compliance with the regulations of the Federal...

  14. 14 CFR 294.33 - Compliance with the regulations of the Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration. 294.33 Section 294.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.33 Compliance with the regulations of the Federal...

  15. 14 CFR 294.33 - Compliance with the regulations of the Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration. 294.33 Section 294.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.33 Compliance with the regulations of the Federal...

  16. 14 CFR 294.33 - Compliance with the regulations of the Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration. 294.33 Section 294.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.33 Compliance with the regulations of the Federal...

  17. 75 FR 3236 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... in the Federal Register at 74 FR 58628, on November 13, 2009. No comments were received. Public... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCIES: Department of... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and...

  18. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... the middle ear and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  19. Ear canal cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Holt, J J

    1992-06-01

    Although cholesteatomas are more commonly found in the middle ear and the mastoid, the disease can occur in the external ear canal. All cases of ear canal cholesteatoma treated by the author were reviewed. There were nine ears in seven patients, who had an average age of 62 years. The lesions ranged in size from a few millimeters to extensive mastoid destruction. Smaller lesions can be managed by frequent cleaning as an office procedure. Larger lesions require surgery, either canaloplasty or mastoidectomy. The otolaryngologist should suspect this disease in the elderly. Microscopic examination of the ear with meticulous cleaning of all wax, especially in elderly patients, is most useful in detecting early disease. Frequent applications of mineral oil to the canal should be used in the management of the disease and to prevent recurrence. PMID:1376388

  20. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  1. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  2. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  3. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  4. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  5. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane. PMID:16138712

  6. 78 FR 13675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 69441, on November 19, 2012. Two respondents submitted... the Federal Register at 75 FR 3236, on January 20, 2010. Based on data from the Federal Procurement... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of...

  7. 77 FR 14016 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Preparation, Submission, and Negotiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Register at 77 FR 9658 on February 17, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Regulatory Secretariat... at 77 FR 9658 on February 17, 2012, on page 9658, second column, paragraph 2, line 12, the figures...] General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Preparation, Submission, and Negotiation...

  8. 75 FR 76692 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... (DFARS Case 2009-D038) in the Federal Register on January 15, 2010 (75 FR 2457). The public comment... rule, DoD published a second proposed rule with request for comments on December 3, 2010 (75 FR 75550... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS...

  9. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eardrum, ear canal, ossicles, cochlea, or the vestibular nerve. Here's a look at the most common ... may cause permanent hearing loss or balance problems. Vestibular therapy may help kids with balance problems. And ...

  10. Middle Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  12. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  13. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  14. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  15. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  16. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  17. Prohibited or regulated? LSD psychotherapy and the United States Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Oram, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Over the 1950s and early 1960s, the use of the hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to facilitate psychotherapy was a promising field of psychiatric research in the USA. However, during the 1960s, research began to decline, before coming to a complete halt in the mid-1970s. This has commonly been explained through the increase in prohibitive federal regulations during the 1960s that aimed to curb the growing recreational use of the drug. However, closely examining the Food and Drug Administration's regulation of LSD research in the 1960s will reveal that not only was LSD research never prohibited, but that the administration supported research to a greater degree than has been recognized. Instead, the decline in research reflected more complex changes in the regulation of pharmaceutical research and development. PMID:27194113

  18. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumie, Sabine; Goffner, Deborah; Barbier, Odile; Martinant, Jean-Pierre; Pichon, Magalie; Barrière, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3) mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225), and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying) and ear (younger lignifying) internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the different events leading

  19. Middle ear cholesteatoma in 11 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579

  20. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 732 - Subject to the Ear?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subject to the Ear? No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 732 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... FOR USING THE EAR Pt. 732, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 732—Subject to the Ear? ER06FE04.001...

  2. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  3. A case for tobacco content regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    du Toit, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many people welcome the recent move by the United States to give its Food and Drug Administration (fda) the authority to regulate the content of tobacco, some worry that such regulation constitutes unwarranted interference with the freedom of competent adult tobacco consumers. The concern for protecting the autonomy of individuals is valuable indeed, but given the highly addictive nature of tobacco products (and especially the nicotine in tobacco products), the continued use of tobacco by smokers cannot —without straining credulity—be said to be autonomous. This fact, combined with a proper construal of the fda’s role and an appreciation of the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco use, makes a strong case for content regulation. PMID:20697516

  4. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  5. Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved You are here Home » Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Diseases and Conditions Age-Related ... Do You Need a Hearing Test? Interactive Quiz Ear Infections in Children Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood ...

  6. The infralimbic cortex regulates the consolidation of extinction after cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    LaLumiere, Ryan T.; Niehoff, Kate E.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    The infralimbic cortex (IL) regulates the consolidation of extinction learning for fear conditioning. Whether the IL influences the consolidation of extinction learning for cocaine self-administration is unknown. To address this issue, male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent 2 wk of cocaine self-administration followed by extinction training. On the first 5 d of extinction, rats underwent brief (15- or 30-min) extinction sessions and received intra-IL microinjections immediately after each extinction session. On days 6–12 of extinction, rats underwent full-length (2-h) extinction sessions that were used to assess the retention of the extinction learning from the short sessions. IL inactivation via microinjections of the GABA agonists baclofen and muscimol (BM) immediately after the extinction sessions (days 1–5) impaired the retention of extinction learning. Control experiments demonstrated that this effect was not due to inactivation of the prelimbic cortex or due to effects of the drugs on the subsequent day's behavior. In contrast, post-training intra-IL microinjections of the allosteric AMPA receptor potentiator 4-[2-(phenylsulfonylamino)ethylthio]-2,6-difluorophenoxyacetamide (PEPA) enhanced retention of the extinction learning. As evidence suggests a role for the β-adrenergic receptors in memory consolidation, other rats received microinjections of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol or antagonist ICI-118,551 (ICI). Post-training intra-IL administration of clenbuterol or pre-training administration of ICI enhanced or impaired, respectively, the retention of extinction learning. These data indicate that the IL, and specifically the glutamatergic and β-adrenergic systems in the IL, regulates the consolidation of extinction of cocaine self-administration and that the IL can be manipulated to influence the retention of extinction. PMID:20332188

  7. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  8. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common ... What ENT Problems Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ...

  9. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  10. Reconstructive Middle Ear Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, R.R.F.; Ballagh, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss is a common cause of deafness and disability, particularly in children and young adults. This article presents a brief overview of the various methods currently available for reconstructing the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicular chain, including some comments as to their indications and limitations. Schematic diagrams showing these techniques illustrate the various types of repair described. PMID:21221356

  11. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  12. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    How to Use Ear Drops(Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and ... facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container ...

  13. The Effect of Growth Hormone Administration on the Regulation of Mitochondrial Apoptosis in-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Keane, James; Tajouri, Lotti; Gray, Bon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) would show any significant effects on the expression of apoptosis regulating proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Additionally, the potential for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNA was assessed in two cellular compartments, the cytosol and the mitochondria. Ten male subjects were subcutaneously injected with either rhGH (1 mg) or saline (0.9%) for seven consecutive days in a double-blinded fashion. Blood sampling was undertaken prior to treatment administration and over a period of three weeks following treatment cessation. Bcl-2 and Bak gene and protein expression levels were measured in PBMCs, while attention was also directed to the expression of miR-181a and miR-125b, known translational inhibitors of Bcl-2 and Bak respectively. Results showed that rhGH significantly decreased Bak protein concentrations compared to placebo samples for up to 8 days post treatment. While cytosolic miRNA expression was not found to be significantly affected by rhGH, measurement of the expression of miR-125b in mitochondrial fractions showed a significant down-regulation eight days post-rhGH administration. These findings suggest that rhGH induces short-term anti-apoptotic effects which may be partially mediated through a novel pathway that alters the concentration of mitochondrially-associated miRNAs. PMID:26057745

  14. US Food and Drug Administration international collaborations for cellular therapy product regulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cellular therapy products are an emerging medical product class undergoing rapid scientific and clinical innovation worldwide. These products pose unique regulatory challenges both for countries with existing regulatory frameworks and for countries where regulatory frameworks for cellular therapy products are under development. The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has a history of productive working relationships with international regulatory authorities, and seeks to extend this to the cellular therapy field. The US FDA and its global regulatory counterparts are engaged in collaborations focused on the convergence of scientific and regulatory approaches, and the education of scientists, clinicians, regulators, and the public at large on the development of cellular therapies. PMID:23021082

  15. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear. PMID:26223352

  16. 78 FR 76738 - Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ..., 78 FR 49107 (August 12, 2013) has continued the EAR in effect under the International Emergency... by each notice are set forth below. The notice of January 17, 2013, 78 FR 4303 (January 22, 2013... Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Process, 60 FR 5079, 3 CFR, 1995 Comp.,...

  17. 75 FR 20520 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2009 Missile Technology Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... December 10, 2009 (74 FR 65662). DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective: April 20, 2010. Although... Final Rule The 2008 MTCR Plenary implementation rule published on November 9, 2009 (74 FR 57581... under this ECCN. Subsequently, an EAR final rule published on December 10, 2009 (74 FR...

  18. Allopregnanolone Elevations Following Pregnenolone Administration are Associated with Enhanced Activation of Emotion Regulation Neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Sripada, Rebecca K.; Marx, Christine E.; King, Anthony P.; Rampton, Jessica C.; Ho, Shaun; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Background The neurosteroid allopregnanolone is a potent allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor with anxiolytic properties. Exogenous administration of allopregnanolone reduces anxiety, and allopregnanolone blockade impairs social and affective functioning. However, the neural mechanism whereby allopregnanolone improves mood and reduces anxiety is unknown. In particular, brain imaging has not been used to link neurosteroid effects to emotion regulation neurocircuitry. Methods To investigate the brain basis of allopregnanolone’s impact on emotion regulation, participants were administered 400mg of pregnenolone (N=16) or placebo (N=15) and underwent 3T fMRI while performing the Shifted-Attention Emotion Appraisal Task (SEAT), which probes emotional processing and regulation. Results Compared to placebo, allopregnanolone was associated with reduced activity in the amygdala and insula across all conditions. During the appraisal condition, allopregnanolone increased activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and enhanced connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, an effect that was associated with reduced self-reported anxiety. Conclusions These results demonstrate that in response to emotional stimuli, allopregnanolone reduces activity in regions associated with generation of negative emotion. Furthermore, allopregnanolone may enhance activity in regions linked to regulatory processes. Aberrant activity in these regions has been linked to anxiety psychopathology. These results thus provide initial neuroimaging evidence that allopregnanolone may be a target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and suggest potential future directions for research into neurosteroid effects on emotion regulation neurocircuitry. PMID:23348009

  19. Molten metal burns: further evidence of industrial foundries' failure to comply with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, B C; Drake, D B; Gear, A J; Watkins, F H; Edlich, R F

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe another case of a molten metal burn to the foot of a foundry worker. The foundry in which he worked failed to comply with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations with regard to protective apparel. This injury could have been prevented with annual, unscheduled inspections by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and with enforcement of additional regulations regarding protective apparel. PMID:9348058

  20. Ear recognition: a complete system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

    2013-05-01

    Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

  1. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods. PMID:22197961

  2. The new E.U. Animal Transport Regulation: improved welfare and health or increased administration?

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    2006-03-01

    There is public discussion of the new E.U. Animal Transport Regulation No 1/2005 of Dec. 2004 and its advantages and draw-backs. This Regulation is no longer a Directive, so that it is directly applicable in the Members States. Although the Regulation is recognised to have great potential to improve welfare and health of transported animals, it will also increase administrative work. Most improvements will come through better education and the increased responsibilities of animal attendants, drivers, keepers and transport organisers, and through the stricter control mechanisms (log book, training, instructions etc.) and the introduction of the GPS control systems to further enhance the transparency of animal movements. The formats of the transport certificates used in all Member States will be harmonised. Technical records will be kept on air temperature and water consumption. Contact offices in all member states for transport affairs will improve the exchange of data between the responsible authorities and harmonise control and surveillance practice. Specific regulations are now in place for horses (broken, unbroken, registered) and for the transport age of young animals (piglets, lambs, calves, foals). In spite of some substantial improvements there are still significant gaps in our knowledge of both normal and long transports, for example optimal journey times, food and water supply on long transports, environmental factors such as vibration, motion, light and ventilation requirements in different European geographical regions. The same is true for the epidemiological aspects of the prevention of disease transmission; for example, very little is known about the bacterial and particulate emissions of the animal transport vehicles which travel across Europe. A serious drawback of the regulation is the fact that it does not abolish the unloading of animals on long transports to rest for 24 h at staging points, so that the concomitant risks to health and welfare

  3. 76 FR 12279 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: Application Processing, Issuance, and Denial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... most recently by the Notice of August 16, 2010 (75 FR 50681, August 16, 2010), has continued the EAR in.... 1701 et seq.; Sec 1503, Pub. L. 108-11, 117 Stat. 559: E.O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783; Presidential Determination 2003-21 of May...

  4. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  5. Food and Drug Administration regulation of diabetes-related mHealth technologies.

    PubMed

    Brooke, M Jason; Thompson, Bradley Merrill

    2013-01-01

    mHealth smartphone applications (apps) offer great promise for managing people with diabetes, as well as those with prediabetes. But to realize that potential, industry needs to get clarity from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the scope of its regulatory oversight. Certain smartphone apps, when properly understood, simply help people live healthier lives, assisting with dietary choices, monitoring exercise, and recording other factors important to overall health. The manufacturers of such apps, in an effort to promote their products but also to educate customers, might wish to explain how using the app can help reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Right now, though, the mere mention of the disease "diabetes" would cause the app to be regulated by the FDA. Such regulation, we submit, discourages the kind of education and motivational messages that our country needs to stem the tide of this disease. Further, should the app simply receive data from a blood glucose meter and graph that data for easier comprehension by the patient, the app would become a class II medical device that requires FDA clearance. Again, we submit that such simple software functionality should not be so discouraged. In this article, we identify the issues that we believe need to be clarified by the FDA in order to unleash the potential of mHealth technology in the diabetes space. PMID:23566984

  6. Cortisol administration induces global down-regulation of the brain's reward circuitry.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David; Rosenberger, Lisa A; van Honk, Jack

    2014-09-01

    Research in rodents and humans has shown divergent effects of the glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol (CRT) on reward processing. In rodents, administration of CRT increases reward drive by facilitating dopamine release in the ventral striatum. In humans, correspondingly, risky decision-making increases when CRT levels are elevated. Human stress studies contrariwise show that elevated CRT is accompanied by a decrease in reward-related brain activity. There are however no direct insights into how CRT acts on the reward system in the human brain. Accordingly, we used pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (pharmaco-fMRI) to investigate the effects of CRT on the brain's reward system. In a randomized within-subject design we administered a high dose of CRT (40 mg) and placebo to twenty healthy male volunteers on separate days, and used a monetary incentive delay task to assess the effects of the hormone on the striatum and the amygdala in anticipation of potential reward. In contrast to animal studies, we show that this high dose of CRT strongly decreases activity of the striatum in both reward and non-reward conditions. Furthermore, we observed reductions in activity in the basolateral amygdala, a key regulator of the brain's reward system. Crucially, the overall down-regulation of the brain's reward circuit was verified on the subjective level as subjects reported significantly reduced reward preference after CRT. In sum, we provide here direct evidence in humans that CRT acts on brain regions involved in reward-related behavior, that is, the basolateral amygdala and the striatum. Our findings suggest that CRT in the quantity and time course presently used globally down-regulates the reward system, and thereby decreases motivational processing in general. PMID:25001954

  7. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  8. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  9. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  10. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. PMID:27526995

  11. Altered regulation of energy homeostasis in older rats in response to thyroid hormone administration

    PubMed Central

    Walrand, Stephane; Short, Kevin R.; Heemstra, Lydia A.; Novak, Colleen M.; Levine, James A.; Coenen-Schimke, Jill M.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism causes increased energy intake and expenditure, although anorexia and higher weight loss have been reported in elderly individuals with hyperthyroidism. To determine the effect of age on energy homeostasis in response to experimental hyperthyroidism, we administered 200 μg tri-iodothyronine (T3) in 7- and 27-mo-old rats for 14 d. T3 increased energy expenditure (EE) in both the young and the old rats, although the old rats lost more weight (147 g) than the young rats (58 g) because of the discordant effect of T3 on food intake, with a 40% increase in the young rats, but a 40% decrease in the old ones. The increased food intake in the young rats corresponded with a T3-mediated increase in the appetite-regulating proteins agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and uncoupling protein 2 in the hypothalamus, but no increase occurred in the old rats. Evidence of mitochondrial biogenesis in response to T3 was similar in the soleus muscle and heart of the young and old animals, but less consistent in old plantaris muscle and liver. Despite the comparable increase in EE, T3's effect on mitochondrial function was modulated by age in a tissue-specific manner. We conclude that older rats lack compensatory mechanisms to increase caloric intake in response to a T3-induced increase in EE, demonstrating a detrimental effect of age on energy homeostasis.—Walrand, S., Short, K. R., Heemstra, L. A., Novak, C. M., Levine, J. A., Coenen-Schimke, J. M., Nair, K. S. Altered regulation of energy homeostasis in older rats in response to thyroid hormone administration. PMID:24344330

  12. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. 874.4420 Section 874.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  15. 75 FR 14335 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations To Enhance U.S. Homeland Security: Addition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... and Their Supporters), see 74 FR 2355, Jan. 15, 2009. An interagency working group on homeland... Foreign Policy Interests of the United States to the EAR), see 73 FR 49311, Aug. 21, 2008, and adding... reference was added to the EAR on July 30, 2004 (69 FR 46070). (4) In Sec. 740.10 (Servicing and...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement 2 to Part 732 - Am I Subject to the EAR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Am I Subject to the EAR? 2 Supplement 2 to Part 732 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... FOR USING THE EAR Pt. 732, Supp. 2 Supplement 2 to Part 732—Am I Subject to the EAR? ER06FE04.001...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement 2 to Part 732 - Am I Subject to the EAR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Am I Subject to the EAR? 2 Supplement 2 to Part 732 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... FOR USING THE EAR Pt. 732, Supp. 2 Supplement 2 to Part 732—Am I Subject to the EAR? ER06FE04.001...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 732 - Am I Subject to the EAR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Am I Subject to the EAR? No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 732 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... FOR USING THE EAR Pt. 732, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 732—Am I Subject to the EAR? ER06FE04.001...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement 2 to Part 732 - Am I Subject to the EAR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Am I Subject to the EAR? 2 Supplement 2 to Part 732 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... FOR USING THE EAR Pt. 732, Supp. 2 Supplement 2 to Part 732—Am I Subject to the EAR? ER06FE04.001...

  20. Differential regulation of nicotinic receptor-mediated neurotransmitter release following chronic (-)-nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Iris; Anderson, David J; Surowy, Carol S; Puttfarcken, Pamela S

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter release from slices of rat striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus following chronic (-)-nicotine (Nic) administration (tartrate salt, 2 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days). Binding studies were also conducted to measure changes in receptor density. Relative to saline-treated animals, the number of nAChRs measured by [(3)H]-cytisine (CYT) binding was significantly increased in all brain regions examined by 15% to 25% following chronic Nic administration. Using a relatively high throughput method to measure neurotransmitter release, we found that Nic, CYT, and (+/-)-epibatidine (EB) evoked similar concentration-dependent striatal [(3)H]-dopamine (DA) and hippocampal [(3)H]-norepinephrine (NE) release from both saline (rank order of potency for [(3)H]-DA: EB>CYT>Nic; pEC(50) values, EB (9 +/- 0.1), CYT (8 +/- 0.13), Nic (7.3 +/- 0.19); rank order potency for [(3)H]-NE: EB>Nic=CYT; pEC(50) values, EB (8 +/- 0.18), Nic (5.5 +/- 0.09), CYT (5.12 +/- 0.1)) -and Nic-treated animals (pEC(50) values [(3)H]-DA, EB (9.5 +/- 0.15), Nic (8 +/- 0.16, CYT (6.6 +/- 0.52); [(3)H]-NE, EB (8.4 +/- 0.23), Nic (5.19 +/- 0.1), CYT (5.18 +/- 0.29)). Although no change in potency was detected between the two treatment groups, the agonist efficacies in both tissues were significantly reduced by approximately 17-54% following chronic Nic administration. In contrast to striatum, treatment with Nic did not affect the maximal [(3)H]-DA response (efficacy) in the frontal cortex. However, as observed in the striatum, no change in agonist potency was observed in the frontal cortex following chronic Nic administration (pEC(50) values, saline; EB (9.2 +/- 0.2), >CYT (6.95 +/- 0.75) = Nic (6.9 +/- 0.16); Nic-treated, EB (9 +/- 0.42)>CYT (6.88 +/- 0.27) = Nic (7.1 +/- 0.17)). Chronic Nic treatment did not significantly affect KCl-evoked [(3)H]-NE release from hippocampus or [(3)H]-DA release from frontal cortex or striatum. Since

  1. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery. PMID:27565392

  2. 77 FR 59790 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (GSAR); Rewrite of Part 504...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... October 9, 2008, GSA published in the Federal Register at 73 FR 59589 a proposed rule with a request for... (GSAR); Rewrite of Part 504; Administrative Matters AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy, General... Administrative Matters and Forms. This final rule is part of the General Services Administration...

  3. 76 FR 78010 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Administration, Quality Assurance (GSAR Parts 542 and 546; GSA Form 1678 and GSA Form 308) AGENCY: Office of the... comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0027, Contract Administration and Quality Assurance... ``Information Collection 3090-0027, Contract Administration and Quality Assurance (GSAM Part 542 and Part...

  4. Education Department General Administrative Regulations. 34 CFR Parts 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85 and 86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    During calendar year 1994, the U.S. Department of Education published significant revisions to the Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR). These regulatory changes addressed the noncompeting continuation (NCC) application process for discretionary grants and cooperative agreements, the Department's implementation of the…

  5. 43 CFR 19.6 - Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the Secretary. 19.6 Section 19.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.6 Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of...

  6. 43 CFR 19.6 - Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the Secretary. 19.6 Section 19.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.6 Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of...

  7. 43 CFR 19.6 - Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the Secretary. 19.6 Section 19.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.6 Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of...

  8. 43 CFR 19.6 - Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of the Secretary. 19.6 Section 19.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.6 Regulations respecting administration and uses of wilderness areas under jurisdiction of...

  9. The Influence of Teacher Perceived Administration of Self-Regulated Learning on Students' Motivation and Information-Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozendaal, J.S.; Minnaert, A.; Boekaerts, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing over time. This was done in the context of the Interactive Learning group System (ILS^(R)): a large-scale innovation program in Dutch vocational schools. A total of 185 students were grouped post…

  10. Alternative splicing of inner-ear-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Liu, Yueyue; Nie, Hongyun; Ma, Xin; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in the development and physiological function of the inner ear. Inner-ear-specific gene splicing is necessary to establish the identity and maintain the function of the inner ear. For example, exon 68 of Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene is subject to inner-ear-specific alternative splicing, and as a result, Cdh23(+ 68) is only expressed in inner ear hair cells. Alternative splicing along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea contributes to frequency tuning, particularly in lower vertebrates, such as chickens and turtles. Differential splicing of Kcnma1, which encodes for the α subunit of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel), has been suggested to affect the channel gating properties and is important for frequency tuning. Consequently, deficits in alternative splicing have been shown to cause hearing loss, as we can observe in Bronx Waltzer (bv) mice and Sfswap mutant mice. Despite the advances in this field, the regulation of alternative splicing in the inner ear remains elusive. Further investigation is also needed to clarify the mechanism of hearing loss caused by alternative splicing deficits. PMID:27376950

  11. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  16. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... your hands before touching your pierced ears. Applying rubbing alcohol also can help keep germs away. With an adult's help, soak a cotton ball in rubbing alcohol and apply it to both sides of the ...

  17. Keloid above the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keloids are overgrowths of scar tissue that follow skin injuries. Keloids may appear after such minor trauma as ear piercing. Dark skinned individuals tend to form keloids more readily than lighter skinned individuals.

  18. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... you requested has moved to Ear Infections. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  19. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  20. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the first 2 to 4 years of life for several reasons: Their eustachian tubes are shorter and more horizontal than those of adults, which lets bacteria and viruses find their way into the middle ear more ...

  1. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > For Kids > What ...

  2. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Qiuhuan; Gong, Shusheng; Liu, Honggang; Yu, Zilong; Zhang, Luo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009), and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage. PMID:22928138

  3. The visible ear surgery simulator.

    PubMed

    Trier, Peter; Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time computer simulation of surgical procedures in the ear, in which a surgeon drills into the temporal bone to gain access to the middle or inner ear. The purpose of this simulator is to support development of anatomical insight and training of drilling skills for both medical students and experienced otologists. The key contributions in this application are the visualization and interaction models in the context of ear surgical simulation. The visualization is based on an existing data set, "The Visible Ear", containing a unique volume depicting the inner ear in natural colours. The applied visualization is based on GPU ray casting, allowing high quality and flexible volume rendering using modern graphics card. In connection with the visualization model, different methods for optimizing the GPU ray casting procedure are presented, along with a method for combining polygon based graphics with volume rendering. In addition, different light models are presented that contribute to a realistic rendering of the different parts of the inner ear. To achieve a physically plausible drilling experience, a Phantom Omni force feedback device is utilized. The applied interaction model facilitates a realistic user experience of the response forces from the drilling tool. PMID:18391361

  4. Update on Middle Ear Barotrauma after Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy—Insights on Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Marco Antônio Rios; Farage, Luciano; Cury, Maria Cristina Lancia; Bahamad, Fayez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Middle ear barotrauma is the most common side effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Knowledge and understanding of its pathophysiology are crucial for an accurate diagnosis and proper decision making about treatment and prevention. Objective Describe up-to-date information on pathophysiology of middle ear barotrauma after hyperbaric oxygen therapy considering the physiology of pressure variation of the middle ear. Data Synthesis Middle ear barotrauma occurs especially during the compression phase of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The hyperoxic environment in hyperbaric oxygen therapy leads to ventilatory dysfunction of the eustachian tube, especially in monoplace chambers, where the patients are pressurized with 100% O2, favoring middle ear barotrauma. Conclusion The eustachian tube, the tympanic cavity, and mastoid work together in a neural controlled feedback system in which various mechanisms concur for middle ear pressure regulation. PMID:25992091

  5. 29 CFR 790.17 - “Administrative regulation, order, ruling, approval, or interpretation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL STATEMENT AS TO THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF... pursuant to statute by an administrative agency, which have the binding effect of law, unless set aside... General's Committee, page 27. To the same effect in 1 Vom Baur, Federal Administrative Law (1942), p....

  6. 29 CFR 790.17 - “Administrative regulation, order, ruling, approval, or interpretation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL STATEMENT AS TO THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF... pursuant to statute by an administrative agency, which have the binding effect of law, unless set aside... General's Committee, page 27. To the same effect in 1 Vom Baur, Federal Administrative Law (1942), p....

  7. 76 FR 75799 - General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... the size of their farming operation. However, FCIC does waive certain administrative fees for limited... CFR Part 400 Administrative practice and procedure, Crop insurance, Reporting and...

  8. 76 FR 17138 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  9. 76 FR 78933 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  10. 75 FR 51824 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  11. 76 FR 51040 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... workshop. The public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  12. 77 FR 8886 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements... public workshop on FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  13. 77 FR 18818 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... quality assurance. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 76 FR 78010, on December 15, 2011. No... Administration, Quality Assurance (GSAR Parts 542 and 546; GSA Form 1678 and GSA Form 308) AGENCY: Office of the...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0027, Contract Administration and...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear in Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing; Poe, Dennis; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Naganawa, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have made it possible to examine the compartments of the cochlea using gadolidium-chelate (GdC) as a contrast agent. As GdC loads into the perilymph space without entering the endolymph in healthy inner ears, the technique provides possibilities to visualize the different cochlear compartments and evaluate the integrity of the inner ear barriers. This critical review presents the recent advancements in the inner ear MRI technology, contrast agent application and the correlated ototoxicity study, and the uptake dynamics of GdC in the inner ear. GdC causes inflammation of the mucosa of the middle ear, but there are no reports or evidence of toxicity-related changes in vivo either in animals or in humans. Intravenously administered GdC reached the guinea pig cochlea about 10 minutes after administration and loaded the scala tympani and scala vestibuli with the peak at 60 minutes. However, the perilymphatic loading peak was 80 to 100 minutes in mice after intravenous administration of GdC. In healthy animals the scala media did not load GdC. In mice in which GdC was administered topically onto the round window, loading of the cochlea peaked at 4 hours, at which time it reached the apex. The initial portions of the organ to be filled were the basal turn of the cochlea and vestibule. In animal models with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), bulging of the Reissner's membrane was observed as deficit of GdC in the scala vestibuli. Histologically the degree of bulging correlated with the MR images. In animals with immune reaction-induced EH, MRI showed that EH could be limited to restricted regions of the inner ear, and in the same inner ear both EH and leakage of GdC into the scala media were visualized. More than 100 inner ear MRI scans have been performed to date in humans. Loading of GdC followed the pattern seen in animals, but the time frame was different. In intravenous delivery of double-dose GdC, the inner ear compartments

  15. Modulation by glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives of TPA-induced mouse ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Mori, T.; Shibata, S.; Koshihara, Y.

    1989-01-01

    1. The anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced mouse ear oedema were studied. The mechanisms of TPA-induced ear oedema were first investigated with respect to the chemical mediators. 2. The formation of ear oedema reached a maximum 5 h after TPA application (2 micrograms per ear) and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production of mouse ear increased with the oedema formation. 3. TPA-induced ear oedema was prevented by actinomycin D and cycloheximide (0.1 mg per ear, respectively) when applied during 60 min after TPA treatment. 4. Of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives examined, dihemiphthalate derivatives (IIe, IIe', IIIa, IIIa', IVa, IVa') most strongly inhibited ear oedema on both topical (ID50, 1.6 mg per ear for IIe, 2.0 mg per ear for IIIa and 1.6 mg per ear for IVa) and oral (ID50, 88 mg kg-1 for IIe', 130 mg kg-1 for IIIa' and 92 mg kg-1 for IVa') administration. 5. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and its derivatives applied 30 min before TPA treatment were much more effective in inhibiting oedema than when applied 30 min after TPA. A dihemiphthalate of triterpenoid compound IVa completely inhibited oedema, even when applied 3 h before TPA treatment. 6. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and deoxoglycyrrhetol (IIa), the parent compounds, produced little inhibition by oral administration at less than 200 mg kg-1. 7. These results suggest that the dihemiphthalate derivatives of triterpenes derived from glycyrrhetinic acid by chemical modification are useful for the treatment of skin inflammation by both topical and oral application. PMID:2924072

  16. To Set Up Norms for Drug Safety and Inspection: To Guarantee Administrative Sufficiency and Avoid Regulators from Being Wrongly Punished.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Qingsheng; Dong, Zuojun; Shao, Mingli

    2015-09-01

    Currently, as there is no systematic norm or standard for drug safety and inspection, it cannot be judged whether the regulatory authority or regulators have fulfilled their administrative responsibilities entirely or not, when a drug safety-related incident occurs. And there is a probability that some may even be wrongly punished. In this study, we have analyzed the risk of not having appropriate norms in place and also put forward recommendations for the government or the regulatory authorities to set up norms to be fulfilled for drug safety and inspection issues. This, on one hand, could provide a basic guideline for the regulatory authorities and regulators to improve their professional levels and administrative acumen and on the other hand, it could also provide a baseline for society to judge whether the regulatory authorities and regulators have fulfilled their responsibilities correctly and thereby also help prevent regulators from being mistakenly punished. This study proposes that a systematic and functional norm for drug safety and inspection could be set up relating to the determination of the responsibilities of regulatory authorities and scope of various inspections, number and frequency of inspections, number and qualifications of regulators, handling of inspection results, inspection records, and disciplinary codes for inspectors. This study also puts forward suggestions on who should be responsible for drafting the norms and what are the factors that need to be considered while formulating the norms. PMID:27352264

  17. μ Opioid Receptor Expression after Morphine Administration Is Regulated by miR-212/132 Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Concejo, Adrian; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Ada; Rodríguez, Raquel E.

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, miRNAs have emerged as a promising therapeutical approach in the treatment of several diseases, as demonstrated by miR-212 and its relation to addiction. Here we prove that the miR-212/132 cluster can be regulated by morphine, through the activation of mu opioid receptor (Oprm1). The molecular pathways triggered after morphine administration also induce changes in the levels of expression of oprm1. In addition, miR-212/132 cluster is actively repressing the expression of mu opioid receptor by targeting a sequence in the 3’ UTR of its mRNA. These findings suggest that this cluster is closely related to opioid signaling, and function as a post-transcriptional regulator, modulating morphine response in a dose dependent manner. The regulation of miR-212/132 cluster expression is mediated by MAP kinase pathway, CaMKII-CaMKIV and PKA, through the phosphorylation of CREB. Moreover, the regulation of both oprm1 and of the cluster promoter is mediated by MeCP2, acting as a transcriptional repressor on methylated DNA after prolonged morphine administration. This mechanism explains the molecular signaling triggered by morphine as well as the regulation of the expression of the mu opioid receptor mediated by morphine and the implication of miR-212/132 in these processes. PMID:27380026

  18. Impact of implementing an Internal Bed Regulation Committee on administrative and care indicators at a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Luciane Cristine Ribeiro; Juliani, Carmen Maria Casquel Monti

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare hospital indicators before and after implementing an Internal Bed Regulation Committee at a reference hospital. Methods It is an quantitative, evaluation, exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional research. The data was gathered from the hospital administrative reports for the period 2008-2013, provided by the Information Technology Center of the Complexo FAMEMA. Results The indicators improved after implementation of the Internal Bed Regulation Committee. Conclusion The individuals involved in the process acknowledged the improvement. It is necessary to carry on the regulatory actions, especially in a comprehensive and complex healthcare system, such as the brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde. PMID:25993075

  19. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  20. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  1. Ear disorders in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Azizi, M H

    2011-01-01

    History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called "diving medicine" was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas), and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers. PMID:23022815

  2. 78 FR 303 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Proposal To Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ...) has various mission responsibilities related to the acquisition and provision of real property management, and disposal of real and personal property. These mission responsibilities generate requirements... Paperwork Reduction Act, the General Services Administration will be submitting to the Office of...

  3. Regulation of lipid droplet-associated proteins following growth hormone administration and feed restriction in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Faylon, M P; Koltes, D E; Spurlock, D M

    2014-05-01

    Lipid metabolism plays a crucial role in the adaptation of dairy cows to periods of energy insufficiency. The objective of the current study was to determine if lipolytic proteins are consistently regulated when energy mobilization is stimulated by different factors. We evaluated 2 models of altered energy balance in mid-lactation Holstein cows, including feed restriction (FR) and administration of bovine growth hormone (GH), by quantifying the abundance and (or) phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), perilipin (PLIN), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). For GH administration, adipose tissue and blood samples were collected 4d before and 3 and 7d after administration of GH (n=20 cows). Similarly, adipose and blood samples were obtained 6d before and 1 and 4d after initiation of FR (n=18 cows). Estimated net energy balance decreased and nonesterified fatty acid concentration increased in both experimental models. Decreased ATGL and PLIN protein abundance was observed with GH administration and FR. Additionally, the abundance of phosphorylated HSLSer565 decreased in both models. Decreased abundance of phosphorylated PLIN was observed with GH administration, but not FR. Decreased ATGL protein abundance appears to be a consistent response to energy insufficiency in lactating cows, as this response was also described with negative energy balance at the onset of lactation. In contrast, the abundance of PLIN protein and phosphorylation of HSL using antibodies targeting serine residue 565 of HSL (HSLSer565) were altered in the current research, but not at the onset of lactation. Our findings demonstrate that lipolysis is altered through the regulation of multiple proteins, and that this regulation differs according to physiological state in lactating cows. PMID:24630665

  4. Region-specific tolerance to cocaine-regulated cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation following chronic self-administration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott; Graham, Danielle L; Bachtell, Ryan K; Self, David W

    2007-04-01

    Chronic cocaine self-administration can produce either tolerance or sensitization to certain cocaine-regulated behaviours, but whether differential alterations develop in the biochemical response to cocaine is less clear. We measured cocaine-induced phosphorylation of multiple cAMP-dependent and -independent protein substrates in mesolimbic dopamine terminal regions following chronic self-administration. Changes in self-administering rats were compared to changes produced by passive yoked injection to identify reinforcement-related regulation, whereas acute and chronic yoked groups were compared to identify the development tolerance or sensitization in the biochemical response to cocaine. Microwave-fixed brain tissue was collected immediately following 4 h of intravenous cocaine administration, and subjected to Western blot analysis of phosphorylated and total protein substrates. Chronic cocaine produced region- and substrate-specific tolerance to cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation, including GluR1(S845) phosphorylation in striatal and amygdala subregions and NR1(S897) phosphorylation in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus. Tolerance also developed to cAMP-independent GluR1(S831) phosphorylation in the prefrontal cortex. In contrast, sensitization to presynaptic regulation of synapsin(S9) phosphorylation developed in the hippocampal CA3 subregion while cAMP-dependent tyrosine hydroxylase(S40) phosphorylation decreased in striatal dopamine terminals. Cocaine-induced ERK and CREB(S133) phosphorylation were dissociated in many brain regions and failed to develop either tolerance or sensitization with chronic administration. Positive reinforcement-related correlations between cocaine intake and protein phosphorylation were found only in self-administering animals, while negative dose-related correlations were found primarily with yoked administration. These regional- and substrate-specific adaptations in cocaine-induced protein phosphorylation are discussed in

  5. Water channel proteins in the inner ear and their link to hearing impairment and deafness.

    PubMed

    Eckhard, Andreas; Gleiser, Corinna; Arnold, Heinz; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Müller, Marcus; Hirt, Bernhard; Löwenheim, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is a fluid-filled sensory organ that transforms mechanical stimuli into the senses of hearing and balance. These neurosensory functions depend on the strict regulation of the volume of the two major extracellular fluid domains of the inner ear, the perilymph and the endolymph. Water channel proteins, or aquaporins (AQPs), are molecular candidates for the precise regulation of perilymph and endolymph volume. Eight AQP subtypes have been identified in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. Similar AQP subtypes are also expressed in the kidney, where they function in whole-body water regulation. In the inner ear, AQP subtypes are ubiquitously expressed in distinct cell types, suggesting that AQPs have an important physiological role in the volume regulation of perilymph and endolymph. Furthermore, disturbed AQP function may have pathophysiological relevance and may turn AQPs into therapeutic targets for the treatment of inner ear diseases. In this review, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the expression and function of AQPs in the inner ear. We give special consideration to AQP subtypes AQP2, AQP4 and AQP5, which have been studied most extensively. The potential functions of AQP2 and AQP5 in the resorption and secretion of endolymph and of AQP4 in the equilibration of cell volume are described. The pathophysiological implications of these AQP subtypes for inner ear diseases, that appear to involve impaired fluid regulation, such as Menière's disease and Sjögren's syndrome, are discussed. PMID:22732097

  6. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system. PMID:25796080

  7. 77 FR 73289 - Hazardous Substances and Articles; Administration and Enforcement Regulations: Revisions to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... rulemaking to amend and to update regulations on the CPSC's animal testing methods under the FHSA. 77 FR...: Revisions to Animal Testing Regulations AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule... animal testing methods under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA). DATES: This rule is...

  8. The molecular basis of neurosensory cell formation in ear development: a blueprint for hair cell and sensory neuron regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Beisel, Kirk W.; Hansen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Summary The inner ear of mammals uses neurosensory cells derived from the embryonic ear for mechanoelectric transduction of vestibular and auditory stimuli (the hair cells) and conducts this information to the brain via sensory neurons. As with most other neurons of mammals, lost hair cells and sensory neurons are not spontaneously replaced and result instead in age-dependent progressive hearing loss. We review the molecular basis of neurosensory development in the mouse ear to provide a blueprint for possible enhancement of therapeutically useful transformation of stem cells into lost neurosensory cells. We identify several readily available adult sources of stem cells that express, like the ectoderm-derived ear, genes known to be essential for ear development. Use of these stem cells combined with molecular insights into neurosensory cell specification and proliferation regulation of the ear, might allow for neurosensory regeneration of mammalian ears in the near future. PMID:17120192

  9. 22 CFR 120.5 - Relation to regulations of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Justice has been separately labeled the U.S. Munitions Import List (27 CFR part 447) to distinguish it... proliferation activities, under the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). For....5 Section 120.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS...

  10. 77 FR 31026 - Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., IL, 60016. Contact: Lisa Misevicz, Food and Drug Administration, 550 West Jackson Blvd., suite 1500, Chicago, IL 60661; 312-596-4217; email: lisa.misevicz@fda.hhs.gov . Registration: Send registration... July 2, 2012. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please contact Lisa Misevicz...

  11. Extinction Training Regulates Neuroadaptive Responses to Withdrawal from Chronic Cocaine Self-Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagula, Cynthia S.; Self, David W.; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Simmons, Diana; Walker, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine produces multiple neuroadaptations with chronic repeated use. Many of these neuroadaptations can be reversed or normalized by extinction training during withdrawal from chronic cocaine self-administration in rats. This article reviews our past and present studies on extinction-induced modulation of the neuroadaptive response to chronic…

  12. 78 FR 43972 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Limited Syria Waiver for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...). See 69 FR 26766 (May 14, 2004). In addition, BIS later made administrative changes to General Order No.... See 74 FR 77115 (Dec. 12, 2011). On June 12, 2013, the Secretary of State exercised authority..., 2001 (3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002)), as amended by Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013, 78...

  13. 77 FR 69768 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (GSAR); Rewrite of Part 504...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... (GSA) published a document in the Federal Register on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59790), revising... published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 59790 on October 1, 2012 contained a typographical error. This...); Rewrite of Part 504, Administrative Matters; Correction AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy,...

  14. 77 FR 10665 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Acquisition-Related Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... 75 FR 53129, August 30, 2010, with an effective date of October 1, 2010. FAR Case 2008-024 implements... thresholds, was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 53129, August 30, 2010, with an effective date of... ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 519 and 552 [GSAR Amendment 2012-02; GSAR Case 2011-G502; (Change 54) Docket...

  15. How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159452.html How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear Simple steps after a day in the water ... 2016 SATURDAY, June 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Swimmer's ear -- a common summertime problem among children -- is easy ...

  16. Infant Ear Infections Becoming Less Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... who is director of pediatric otolaryngology at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, in New ... Galveston; Joseph Bernstein, M.D., director, pediatric otolaryngology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York ...

  17. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  18. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity and Ear, ... all children be regularly screened for snoring. Middle ear infections Acute otitis media (AOM) and chronic ear ...

  19. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  20. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Thalmann, Isolde

    2001-01-01

    The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula. PMID:11790893

  1. The caecilian ear: further observations.

    PubMed

    Wever, E G; Gans, C

    1976-10-01

    The structure of the ear is examined in two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis glutinosus and I. orthoplicatus, and the sensitivity to aerial sounds is assessed in terms of the electrical potentials of the cochlea. The results are in general agreement with previous reports on other caecilian species. PMID:1068485

  2. Region-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the brain of mice following chronic nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2015-07-23

    Nicotine addiction is considered to be the main preventable cause of death worldwide. While growing evidence indicates that the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin can modulate the addictive properties of several abused drugs, the regulation of the oxytocinergic system following nicotine administration has so far received little attention. Here, we examined the effects of long-term nicotine or saline administration on the central oxytocinergic system using [(125)I]OVTA autoradiographic binding in mouse brain. Male, 7-week old C57BL6J mice were treated with either nicotine (7.8 mg/kg daily; rate of 0.5 μl per hour) or saline for a period of 14-days via osmotic minipumps. Chronic nicotine administration induced a marked region-specific upregulation of the oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala, a brain region involved in stress and emotional regulation. These results provide direct evidence for nicotine-induced neuroadaptations in the oxytocinergic system, which may be involved in the modulation of nicotine-seeking as well as emotional consequence of chronic drug use. PMID:26037668

  3. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  4. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  6. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  7. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A Text ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  8. Education Department General Administrative Regulations. 34 CFR Parts 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 97, 98, and 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This publication by the U.S. Department of Education is an unofficial version of the Department's General Administrative Regulations. The volume incorporates final regulations that the Department published too late to appear in the official July 1, 1998, version of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations issued by the Office of the Federal…

  9. The Effect of Ear Canal Pressure on Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions:. Comparison Between Human and Lizard Ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, P.; Manley, G. A.

    2009-02-01

    The center frequency, height and width of peaks in SOAE spectra depend on ear canal pressure. The width is interpreted as a measure of the inner ear source-signal-to-(e.g. thermal)-noise ratio. In humans, width increases with decreasing height. Apparently, ear canal pressure modifies the amplitude of the inner ear emission source signal. In lizards, the relation between peak width and height is not consistent. Here, middle ear transmission changes may account for many the observed amplitude effects.

  10. 78 FR 69543 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Federal Register of November 30, 2010 (75 FR 73951), we amended certain regulations in part 1 (21 CFR part... products under the Tobacco Control Act (75 FR 73951 at 73952). However, the revisions inadvertently created... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Felicia Billingslea, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition...

  11. 76 FR 58393 - Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... notice of August 12, 2011--Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations (76 FR 50661... FR 15825, 3 CFR, 1976 Comp., p. 114; E.O. 12002, 42 FR 35623, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 133; E.O. 12058, 43 FR 20947, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 179; E.O. 12214, 45 FR 29783, 3 CFR, 1980 Comp., p. 256;...

  12. 20 CFR 672.500 - What administrative regulations apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements found in 20 CFR part 667, except those that apply only to the WIA Title I-B program and those that... grants requirements: Circular A-110 (codified at 2 CFR part 215), and Circular A-102 at 29 CFR parts 95 and 97, as applicable; (2) The Department's regulations at 29 CFR part 37, which implement...

  13. 20 CFR 672.500 - What administrative regulations apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements found in 20 CFR part 667, except those that apply only to the WIA Title I-B program and those that... grants requirements: Circular A-110 (codified at 2 CFR part 215), and Circular A-102 at 29 CFR parts 95 and 97, as applicable; (2) The Department's regulations at 29 CFR part 37, which implement...

  14. 20 CFR 672.500 - What administrative regulations apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements found in 20 CFR part 667, except those that apply only to the WIA Title I-B program and those that... grants requirements: Circular A-110 (codified at 2 CFR part 215), and Circular A-102 at 29 CFR parts 95 and 97, as applicable; (2) The Department's regulations at 29 CFR part 37, which implement...

  15. 77 FR 71099 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Temporary Waiver of FHA's Regulation on Property Flipping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... mortgages insured by FHA, HUD issued a final rule on May 1, 2003 (68 FR 23370) that provides in 24 CFR 203... final rule published on June 7, 2006 (71 FR 33138), HUD expanded the exemptions to the 90-day time... Register on May 21, 2010, at 75 FR 28633. The May 2010 notice waived HUD's regulations through December...

  16. 75 FR 28632 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA)-Temporary Exemption From Compliance With FHA's Regulation on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... practice with respect to mortgages insured by FHA, HUD issued a final rule on May 1, 2003 (68 FR 23370... are specified in Sec. 203.37a(c). In a final rule published on June 7, 2006 (71 FR 33138), HUD... Compliance With FHA's Regulation on Property Flipping AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for...

  17. 78 FR 18981 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Proposal to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal and/or business confidential... to the acquisition and provision of real property management, and disposal of real and personal... Lease model is not used for projects requiring lease construction or leases employing the best...

  18. 75 FR 53864 - Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Regarding Export Control Regulations (74 FR 50681, August 16, 2010), which is the most recent such annual..., Inventions and patents, Research, Science and technology. 15 CFR Parts 736, 738, 770, and 772 Exports. 15 CFR... recordkeeping requirements, Science and technology. 0 Accordingly, parts 730, 732, 734, 736, 738, 740, 742,...

  19. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  20. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. PMID:25820086

  1. 76 FR 77115 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations: Facilitating Enhanced Public Understanding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... that of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50,661 (Aug. 16, 2011)), has continued the Regulations in effect under.... 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783; Notice of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50661 (Aug. 16, 2011)). Sec. 732.1 0 2. Section 732.1 is amended by: 0...

  2. 76 FR 41046 - Addition of the New State of the Republic of South Sudan to the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Secretary of State as a state sponsor of terrorism under U.S. law on August 12, 1993 (58 FR 52523, Oct. 8... FR 50681, August 16, 2010), has continued the EAR in effect under the International Emergency....C. 7210; E.O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR,...

  3. US Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Medical Devices and Radiation Oncology: Can Reform Improve Safety?

    PubMed Central

    Hattangadi, Jona A.; O'Reilly, James T.; Recht, Abram

    2012-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is highly safe and effective in treating cancer, recent reports of dangerous radiation-related errors have focused a national spotlight on the field of radiation oncology and, more specifically, on the rapidly evolving and complex nature of radiation devices and how they are regulated. The purpose of this review is to explore the issues involved in medical device regulation in radiation oncology. We start with a general review of federal medical device regulation, including explanations of the legal and regulatory framework, and then discuss issues specific to radiation oncology with real-world examples. We also provide our thoughts on potential solutions and reforms to the current system, including better reporting of radiation-related errors in a centralized database, well-defined criteria for establishing substantial equivalence of a new device, and standard postmarket surveillance of radiation devices. Modern radiation therapy is a powerful tool that can help cure many patients' cancers and alleviate others' suffering with limited adverse effects. We must ensure that this promise is never compromised by avoidable mistakes. PMID:22548012

  4. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B.; Kappel, Simon L.; Mandic, Danilo P.; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency

  5. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B; Kappel, Simon L; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency

  6. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Laser Angiography in Pediatric Autologous Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Martins, Deborah B; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P; Lee, Justine C

    2016-05-01

    Skin flap vascularity is a critical determinant of aesthetic results in autologous ear reconstruction. In this study, we investigate the use of intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as an adjunctive measure of skin flap vascularity in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. Twenty-one consecutive pediatric patients undergoing first-stage autologous total ear reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated. The first 10 patients were treated traditionally (non-ICGA), and the latter 11 patients were evaluated with ICGA intraoperatively after implantation of the cartilage construct and administration of suction. Relative and absolute perfusion units in the form of contour maps were generated. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample Student t test. Statistically significant differences in exposure and infection were not found between the 2 groups. However, decreased numbers of surgical revisions were required in cases with ICGA versus without ICGA (P = 0.03), suggesting that greater certainty in skin flap perfusion correlated with a reduction in revision surgeries. In cases of exposure, we found an average lowest absolute perfusion unit of 14.3, whereas cases without exposure had an average of 26.1 (P = 0.02), thereby defining objective parameters for utilizing ICGA data in tailoring surgical decision making for this special population of patients. Defined quantitative parameters for utilizing ICGA in evaluating skin flap vascularity may be a useful adjunctive technique in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:27579233

  7. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Laser Angiography in Pediatric Autologous Ear Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Deborah B.; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S.; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Skin flap vascularity is a critical determinant of aesthetic results in autologous ear reconstruction. In this study, we investigate the use of intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as an adjunctive measure of skin flap vascularity in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. Twenty-one consecutive pediatric patients undergoing first-stage autologous total ear reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated. The first 10 patients were treated traditionally (non-ICGA), and the latter 11 patients were evaluated with ICGA intraoperatively after implantation of the cartilage construct and administration of suction. Relative and absolute perfusion units in the form of contour maps were generated. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample Student t test. Statistically significant differences in exposure and infection were not found between the 2 groups. However, decreased numbers of surgical revisions were required in cases with ICGA versus without ICGA (P = 0.03), suggesting that greater certainty in skin flap perfusion correlated with a reduction in revision surgeries. In cases of exposure, we found an average lowest absolute perfusion unit of 14.3, whereas cases without exposure had an average of 26.1 (P = 0.02), thereby defining objective parameters for utilizing ICGA data in tailoring surgical decision making for this special population of patients. Defined quantitative parameters for utilizing ICGA in evaluating skin flap vascularity may be a useful adjunctive technique in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:27579233

  8. Administrative politics in the Ohio Department of Energy: the regulation of electric utility strategic planning

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examines political behavior manifested by several regulatory and quasi-regulatory state agencies in the development and implementation of a procedure to review electric utility long-range forecasts of demand and resources. The analysis identifies the political issues which orient political behavior during the development and implementation of the forecast evaluation process, and examines the social and cultural resources that various actors manipulate in pursuit of support for their political goals. A processual framework is employed to trace actors' dynamic manipulative strategies, including those involving the manipulation of cultural forms such as myth and ideology. The research results suggest that bureaucratic agencies are adept at manipulating social and cultural forms in their pursuit of legislative and administrative support for their political goals.

  9. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  10. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  11. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the korean liberation: focusing on regulating the pharmaceutical affairs law(yaksabeop) in 1953.

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    The pharmaceutical administration under U.S Military Government in Korea and government of the Republic of Korea aimed at cleaning up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism which the pharmaceutical administration attached police administration and preparing with legal and systemic basis after the Korean liberation. The pharmaceutical bureau under U.S Military Government in Korea was reorganized as the independent division. The pharmaceutical bureau focused on preserving order, narcotics control and the distribution of relief drug. U.S Military Government proceeded supply side pharmaceutical policy for the distribution of relief drug without constructing human and material infrastructure. After the Korean War, Korean society asked the construction of system for nation building. Korean national assembly regulated National Medical Law(Gukmin uiryobeop) for promotion of public health in 1951. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop) was regulated in 1953, and it prescribed the job requirement of pharmacist, apothecary, and drug maker and seller, and presented the frame of managing medical supplies. The Pharmaceutical Law originally planned the ideal pharmaceutical administration, but it rather secured the status of traditional apothecary, and drug maker and seller. On the contrary, though the Pharmaceutical Law guaranteed the traditional druggists, it did not materialize reproduction system such as educational and license system. It means that the traditional druggists would be degenerated in the near future. After the armistice agreement in 1953, Korean was in medical difficulties. Korean government was suffered from the deficiency of medical resources. Because of destruction of pharmaceutical facilities, Korean had to depend on United States and international aid. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law did not cleaned up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism, and compromised with reality lacked human and material infrastructure. As a result, the law became the origin of

  12. Factors affecting retention of estradiol-17 beta silicone rubber implants in ears of steers.

    PubMed

    Parrott, J C; Basson, R P; Carroll, L H; Elliston, N G; Ferguson, T H; Gorham, P E; Grueter, H P; McAskill, J W; Wagner, J F

    1985-10-01

    A series of trials were conducted to identify the factors causing loss of estradiol-17 beta (E2-beta) silicone rubber implants from the ears of cattle and to evaluate methods of reducing this loss. Surface application of cattle feces to the ears before implanting resulted in an increase in loss of implants compared with the loss from dry, clean ears (30.6 vs 8.6%; P less than .05). Washing ears with a povidone-iodine antiseptic solution before implanting or treating implant sites with an antibiotic after implanting reduced (P less than .05) implant loss when ears were coated with the fecal slurry. Coating silicone rubber implants with .5 to 2 mg of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) reduced (P less than .0001) implant loss from 39.8 to 13.8% when ears were coated with fecal slurry. When silicone rubber implants with a 1.5-mg coating of OTC were implanted in cattle before submerging in a dipping vat, implant loss was reduced from 6.2 to 2.7%. In studies designed to evaluate mechanical factors affecting implant loss, implants that were placed in the middle of the ear in tight skin moved .79 cm toward the insertion site during a 14-d period after administration compared with 2.82 cm when placed in the base of the ear. When placed in the middle of the ear in tight skin, only 2 of 399 (.5%) implants were lost from steers submerged in a dipping vat immediately following implantation compared with 42 of 394 (10.7%) when placed in the base of the ear (P less than .0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3934122

  13. Regulated hypothermia in the hypothyroid rat induced by administration of propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Gordon, C J

    1997-05-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU), an antithyroidal drug that reduces serum L-thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), is presumed to lower core temperature (T0) by impairing metabolic thermogenesis. However, it is not understood why PTU-treated animals cannot use behavioral and other thermoeffectors to maintain normal Tc. Male rats were administered PTU in drinking water (0.05 mg/ml) while the following parameters were measured: 1) Tc and motor activity (MA) recorded by radiotelemetry for 24 h at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 10-30 degrees C; 2) selected Ta, MA, and Tc in a temperature gradient; and 3) Tc, MA, and grooming behavior during exposure to heat stress (TH = 34.5 degrees C) for 2 h. PTU reduced serum levels of T4, and T3 by 95 and 60%, respectively. Tc decreased after 3 days of PTU treatment; a 0.5 degree C decrease in Tc persisted throughout the PTU treatment. PTU rats exposed to Ta of 10-30 degrees C maintained a consistent hypothermic Tc during the light phase; however, a deficit in the stability of Tc at night was noted during exposure to 10 degrees C. In the temperature gradient, PTU rats selected warmer Ta, but their Tc was maintained at the same hypothermic levels as observed at fixed Ta values of 15-30 degrees C. Heat stress caused Tc of control rats to increase to 39 degrees C, whereas Tc of the PTU rats was maintained below 38 degrees C. The regulation of Tc at hypothermic levels over a wide range of Ta values and when rats were housed in a temperature gradient indicates that chronic PTU induces a state of regulated hypothermia. PMID:9176328

  14. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  15. Renal regulation of acid-base equilibrium during chronic administration of mineral acid.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, R C; Harrington, J T; Ricanati, E S; Shelkrot, J W; Schwartz, W B

    1974-02-01

    Previous studies in metabolic alkalosis have demonstrated that two factors are the prime determinants of acid excretion and bicarbonate reabsorption; first, the diversion to distal exchange sites of sodium previously reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and loop of Henle; and, second, a stimulus to sodium-cation exchange greater than that produced by a low-salt diet alone. In the present study we have examined the hypothesis that these two factors are also the prime determinants of acid excretion during the administration of mineral acid loads. To test this hypothesis, we have administered to dogs ingesting a low NaCl diet a daily dose of 7 meq/kg of H+ with anions (chloride, sulfate, or nitrate) whose differing degrees of reabsorbability influence the speed and completeness with which each is delivered to the distal nephron with its accompanying Na+. After 2-3 wk of acid administration, and after an initial urinary loss of Na+ and K+, the steady-state value for plasma [HCO3-] was 8.6 meq/liter below control in the HCl group, 3.7 meq/liter below control in the H2SO4 group, and unchanged from control in the HNO3 group; all of these values were significantly different from each other. We would propose the following explanation for our findings: when HCl is administered chronically, marked acidosis occurs because distal delivery of Cl- is restricted by the ease with which the Cl- can be reabsorbed in the proximal portions of the nephron. Only when Cl- retention produces sufficient hyperchloremia to insure delivery of Na+ (previously reabsorbed in proximal tubule and loop of Henle) to the distal nephron in quantities equal to ingested Cl is this primary constraint removed. In the case of sulfuric and nitric acids, there is no constraint on distal delivery, the nonreabsorbability of the administered anion causing prompt, total delivery of Na+ to exchange sites in quantities equal to administered hydrogen. Thus, with H2SO4 and HNO3 the sole constraint on removal of the acid

  16. A symphony of inner ear developmental control genes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumantra; Kraus, Petra; Lufkin, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most complex and detailed organs in the vertebrate body and provides us with the priceless ability to hear and perceive linear and angular acceleration (hence maintain balance). The development and morphogenesis of the inner ear from an ectodermal thickening into distinct auditory and vestibular components depends upon precise temporally and spatially coordinated gene expression patterns and well orchestrated signaling cascades within the otic vesicle and upon cellular movements and interactions with surrounding tissues. Gene loss of function analysis in mice has identified homeobox genes along with other transcription and secreted factors as crucial regulators of inner ear morphogenesis and development. While otic induction seems dependent upon fibroblast growth factors, morphogenesis of the otic vesicle into the distinct vestibular and auditory components appears to be clearly dependent upon the activities of a number of homeobox transcription factors. The Pax2 paired-homeobox gene is crucial for the specification of the ventral otic vesicle derived auditory structures and the Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes play a major role in specification of the dorsally derived vestibular structures. Some Micro RNAs have also been recently identified which play a crucial role in the inner ear formation. PMID:20637105

  17. Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

  18. Altered regulation of energy homeostasis in older rats in response to thyroid hormone administration.

    PubMed

    Walrand, Stephane; Short, Kevin R; Heemstra, Lydia A; Novak, Colleen M; Levine, James A; Coenen-Schimke, Jill M; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism causes increased energy intake and expenditure, although anorexia and higher weight loss have been reported in elderly individuals with hyperthyroidism. To determine the effect of age on energy homeostasis in response to experimental hyperthyroidism, we administered 200 μg tri-iodothyronine (T3) in 7- and 27-mo-old rats for 14 d. T3 increased energy expenditure (EE) in both the young and the old rats, although the old rats lost more weight (147 g) than the young rats (58 g) because of the discordant effect of T3 on food intake, with a 40% increase in the young rats, but a 40% decrease in the old ones. The increased food intake in the young rats corresponded with a T3-mediated increase in the appetite-regulating proteins agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and uncoupling protein 2 in the hypothalamus, but no increase occurred in the old rats. Evidence of mitochondrial biogenesis in response to T3 was similar in the soleus muscle and heart of the young and old animals, but less consistent in old plantaris muscle and liver. Despite the comparable increase in EE, T3's effect on mitochondrial function was modulated by age in a tissue-specific manner. We conclude that older rats lack compensatory mechanisms to increase caloric intake in response to a T3-induced increase in EE, demonstrating a detrimental effect of age on energy homeostasis. PMID:24344330

  19. A novel regulation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate-1) expression following short term insulin administration

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Reduced insulin-mediated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of T2DM (Type II diabetes mellitus). Impaired intracellular insulin signalling is implicated as a key underlying mechanism. Attention has focused on early signalling events such as defective tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate-1), a major target for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. This is required for normal induction of signalling pathways key to many of the metabolic actions of insulin. Conversely, increased serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS1 following prolonged insulin exposure (or in obesity) reduces signalling capacity, partly by stimulating IRS1 degradation. We now show that IRS1 levels in human muscle are actually increased 3-fold following 1 h of hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemia. Similarly, transient induction of IRS1 (3-fold) in the liver or muscle of rodents occurs following feeding or insulin injection respectively. The induction by insulin is also observed in cell culture systems, although to a lesser degree, and is not due to reduced proteasomal targeting, increased protein synthesis or gene transcription. Elucidation of the mechanism by which insulin promotes IRS1 stability will permit characterization of the importance of this novel signalling event in insulin regulation of liver and muscle function. Impairment of this process would reduce IRS1 signalling capacity, thereby contributing to the development of hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance prior to the appearance of T2DM. PMID:16128672

  20. Prominent ears: Anthropometric study of the external ear of primary school children of Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Muteweye, Wilfred; Muguti, Godfrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prominent ear is the most common congenital ear deformity affecting 5% of children in the Western world and has profound psychosocial effects on the bearer. It is important to know the prevalence in the local population to have a better appreciation of the local burden of the abnormality as well as to know the parameters of ear morphology locally. These parameters can be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of ear anomalies and may help reconstructive surgeons in reproducing an anatomically correct ear of an African/Zimbabwean child. Objectives To evaluate the frequency of prominent ears in black school going children in Zimbabwe and to establish morphometric properties of the ear. Design Prospective observational, cross sectional study. Setting Three Primary schools in Harare. Two in a high density area and one in a low density area. Materials and methods Three Primary schools in Harare were selected at random. The following measurements were taken: ear lengths, ear projection and face height using a sliding caliper. Three hundred and five healthy pupils of the age range 9–13 years of both sexes were included in the study, whilst children with congenital anomalies, ear tumours and history of ear trauma were excluded. Results The mean ear height across the cohort was 56.95 ± 5.00 (right ear) and 56.86 ± 4.92 (left ear). Ear projection was 19.52 ± 2.14 (right ear) and 19.59 ± 2.09 (left ear). Gender related differences were noted. Mean ear height was significantly higher in males (p-value = 0.000). Ear projection was higher in males compared to females. A total of 6.89% had prominent ears. Among males, 7.69% had prominent ears whilst 6.17% of females had prominent ears. Conclusion The prevalence of prominent ear among black African children in the studied population is comparable to that of Caucasians. The study provides a set of biometric data of auricular dimensions for normal black African children aged 9–13 years. PMID:26468372

  1. Restoring Equal Opportunity in Education: An Analysis of Arguments for and against the Bush Administration Single-Sex Education Regulations. Briefing Paper #C368

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the George W. Bush Administration issued new Title IX regulations that allow for sex-segregated classrooms and schools in public, non-vocational elementary and secondary schools. These regulations provide schools with another condition that allows them to provide sex-segregated programs as long as they meet an "important governmental…

  2. Complying with the Drug-Free Schools and Campuses Regulations: [EDGAR Part 86]. A Guide for University and College Administrators. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRicco, Beth

    2006-01-01

    This guide describes the requirements of the 1989 amendments to the "Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act" (DFSCA), as articulated in the "Education Department General Administrative Regulations" (EDGAR) Part 86,--the Drug-Free Schools and Campuses Regulations--and ways in which institutions of higher education (IHEs) have met these requirements.…

  3. Zinc sulphate following the administration of iodine-131 on the regulation of thyroid function, in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Davinder; Singh Baweja, Mandeep; Dani, Vijayta

    2007-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in men is often treated with high doses of iodine-131 ((131)I), which may induce radiation side effects to patients and their environment. These therapeutic doses of (131)I could be decreased, if the (131)I uptake of the thyroid gland of the patients could be increased. Zinc sulphate has been considered to exercise a protective role by maintaining the cellular integrity of the thyroid under various pathological states. The aim of our study was to study in Wistar rats whether zinc sulphate can after treatment of the thyroid gland with (131)I: a) increase the uptake of (131)I in the thyroid and b) stabilize the function of the follicular cells. If such a stabilization finally exists in men we could have favorable results like fewer cases of hypothyroidism after (131)I treatment of hyperthyroidism. To carry out these investigations, rats were divided into four groups comprising of eight animals each. Group I animals served as normal controls. Group II animals received a dose of 3.7 MBq of (131)I. Group III animals were supplemented with zinc (227 mg/L of drinking water) and animals in Group IV were given (131)I together with zinc sulphate as above. Our results showed that in Group II, serum levels of tetra-iodo-thyronine (T(4)) and tri-iodo-thyronine (T(3)) decreased significantly as a function of time following (131)I treatment. An increase in the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was noticed one week after (131)I treatment, becoming less pronounced with time. In Group II, thyroid uptake at 2h and at 24h was significantly decreased. In the same Group biological half life (T(biol)) of (131)I in the thyroid gland, was significantly elevated four weeks after the administration of (131)I and decreased eight weeks after. In Group IV animals, zinc sulfate after four weeks, induced normalization of elevated serum TSH levels and a further increase in the T(biol) of (131)I. After eight weeks in these animals, serum T(3) became normal and TSH

  4. Current Status and Prospects of Gene Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Aji

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inner ear diseases are common and often result in hearing disability. Sensorineural hearing loss is the main cause of hearing disability. So far, no effective treatment is available although some patients may benefit from a hearing aid equipped with a hearing amplifier or from cochlear implantation. Inner ear gene therapy has become an emerging field of study for the treatment of hearing disability. Numerous new discoveries and tremendous advances have been made in inner ear gene therapy including gene vectors, routes of administration, and therapeutic genes and targets. Gene therapy may become a treatment option for inner ear diseases in the near future. In this review, we summarize the current state of inner ear gene therapy including gene vectors, delivery routes, and therapeutic genes and targets by examining and analyzing publications on inner ear gene therapy from the literature and patent documents, and identify promising patents, novel techniques, and vital research projects. We also discuss the progress and prospects of inner ear gene therapy, the advances and shortcomings, with possible solutions in this field of research. PMID:21338273

  5. Agenda-building influences on the news media's coverage of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's push to regulate tobacco, 1993-2009.

    PubMed

    Foster, Caroline; Thrasher, Jim; Kim, Sei-Hill; Rose, India; Besley, John; Navarro, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Citing agenda-building theory, this article examines the influence of three key factors on the news media's coverage of the process of placing tobacco and tobacco products under regulation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration between 1993 and 2009. We analyzed data from a content analysis of 570 news articles from The New York Times and Washington Post and found that the media published significantly more FDA regulation articles during the Clinton administration than during the Bush administration. Our analysis links that imbalance of media coverage to the influence of the president of the United States (Clinton and Bush, during the duration of this study), journalistic routines and real world events. We compared the Clinton and Bush era news coverage on article prominence, article topics, and reasons to support/oppose FDA regulation and found significant differences, which we suggest led to the imbalance of news articles in the two administrations. PMID:23293806

  6. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  7. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  8. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  9. Ear canal hyperostosis--surfer's ear. An improved surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Seftel, D M

    1977-01-01

    The increased populatiry of surfing has produced a marked augmentation in the incidence of ear canal exostosis. However, when it becomes moderately severe, I prefer to call it "hyperostosis." Exposure to cold ocean water for many years can be an important etiologic factor in hyperostosis. There is a serious risk, and a high incidence of tympanic membrane perforations during the removal of large external canal hyperostosis. This injury can be prevented by placing a sheet of Silastic against the tympanic membrane beforehand. I describe the method. Serious degrees of hyperostosis, causing transient hearing loss and otitis externa, are increasingly common in coastal towns, where cold-water surfing is a popular year-around sport. PMID:831701

  10. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  11. Is Attention Shared Between the Ears?1

    PubMed Central

    Shiffrin, Richard M.; Pisoni, David B.; Castaneda-Mendez, Kicab

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the locus of attention during selective listening for speech-like stimuli. Can processing be differentially allocated to the two ears? Two conditions were used. The simultaneous condition involved one of four randomly chosen stop-consonants being presented to one of the ears chosen at random. The sequential condition involved two intervals; in the first S listened to the right ear; in the second S listened to the left ear. One of the four consonants was presented to an attended ear during one of these intervals. Experiment I used no distracting stimuli. Experiment II utilized a distracting consonant not confusable with any of the four target consonants. This distractor was always presented to any ear not containing a target. In both experiments, simultaneous and sequential performance were essentially identical, despite the need for attention sharing between the two ears during the simultaneous condition. We conclude that selective attention does not occur during perceptual processing of speech sounds presented to the two ears. We suggest that attentive effects arise in short-term memory following processing. PMID:23226838

  12. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  13. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  14. Middle ear malformations in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Kidowaki, Naoko; Kamitani, Toru; Nakamura, Takashi; Taki, Masakatsu; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The majority of the congenital anomalies of middle ear are solitary and a non-hereditary. We report cases of identical twins with congenital incudo-stapedial disconnection. Case 1 was an 8-year-old girl. Hearing impairment was identified at the age of three. She was referred to our university hospital in April 2005. Pure-tone audiogram showed conductive hearing impairments. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the incudo-stapedial disconnections in both ears. The exploratory tympanotomies on the right and left ears were performed in May and July 2005, respectively. The surgical findings showed absence of the long process and presence of the lenticular process of the incus in both ears. After the reconstructions of ossicular chain, the hearing of both ears improved. Case 2 was an 11-year-old girl. The hearing impairment of the right ear was identified in May 2008. She was referred to our university hospital three months later. Pure-tone audiogram showed the conductive hearing impairment in the right ear. CT revealed the incudo-stapedial disconnection in the right ear. The surgery showed the same findings as those of case 1. Anomalies of both cases suggest that the lenticular process of the incus and the stapes originate from a common primordium. PMID:24355584

  15. Oral Pseudoephedrine Decreases the Rate of Trans-mucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Miriam S.; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Martin, Brian S; Cullen Doyle, Brendan M.; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if oral pretreatment with a vasoconstrictor decreases the blood to middle-ear exchange-rate of the perfusion-limited gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Study Design Randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Methods Ten adult subjects with and 10 without past middle-ear disease completed paired experimental sessions, identical but for oral pretreatment with either pseudoephedrine HCL or lactose placebo. At each session, subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes (acclimation period), 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes (experimental period) and 100% O2 for 10 minutes (recovery period). Throughout, heart-rate, blood-pressure and O2 saturation were monitored and bilateral middle-ear pressures were recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome was the slope of the middle-ear pressure-time function for the experimental period which estimates the volume N2O exchange-rate. Using repeated measures ANOVA, the effects of Group (disease history), Treatment (active vs. placebo) and Period (1 vs. 2) on the recorded vital signs, and of Group, Treatment and Ear (left/right) on the middle-ear pressure-time slope were evaluated for statistical significance. Results Statistically significant effects of Period on O2 saturation (Period 2>Period 1) and of Treatment on heart-rate (Active>Placebo) were documented. Only Treatment was statistically significant for the middle-ear pressure-time slope with a shallower slope characterizing the active treatment session. Conclusion The volume exchange-rate across the middle-ear mucosa of perfusion-limited gases can be modulated pharmacologically. Theoretically, similar drugs can be used to reduce the requisite Eustachian tube opening efficiency for adequate middle-ear pressure regulation. PMID:26152838

  16. A Missense Mutation in PPARD Causes a Major QTL Effect on Ear Size in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Duan, Yanyu; Qiao, Ruimin; Yao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyan; Yang, Bin; Guo, Yuanmei; Xiao, Shijun; Wei, Rongxin; Ouyang, Zixuan; Ding, Nengshui; Ai, Huashui; Huang, Lusheng

    2011-01-01

    Chinese Erhualian is the most prolific pig breed in the world. The breed exhibits exceptionally large and floppy ears. To identify genes underlying this typical feature, we previously performed a genome scan in a large scale White Duroc × Erhualian cross and mapped a major QTL for ear size to a 2-cM region on chromosome 7. We herein performed an identical-by-descent analysis that defined the QTL within a 750-kb region. Historically, the large-ear feature has been selected for the ancient sacrificial culture in Erhualian pigs. By using a selective sweep analysis, we then refined the critical region to a 630-kb interval containing 9 annotated genes. Four of the 9 genes are expressed in ear tissues of piglets. Of the 4 genes, PPARD stood out as the strongest candidate gene for its established role in skin homeostasis, cartilage development, and fat metabolism. No differential expression of PPARD was found in ear tissues at different growth stages between large-eared Erhualian and small-eared Duroc pigs. We further screened coding sequence variants in the PPARD gene and identified only one missense mutation (G32E) in a conserved functionally important domain. The protein-altering mutation showed perfect concordance (100%) with the QTL genotypes of all 19 founder animals segregating in the White Duroc × Erhualian cross and occurred at high frequencies exclusively in Chinese large-eared breeds. Moreover, the mutation is of functional significance; it mediates down-regulation of β-catenin and its target gene expression that is crucial for fat deposition in skin. Furthermore, the mutation was significantly associated with ear size across the experimental cross and diverse outbred populations. A worldwide survey of haplotype diversity revealed that the mutation event is of Chinese origin, likely after domestication. Taken together, we provide evidence that PPARD G32E is the variation underlying this major QTL. PMID:21573137

  17. Increased Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in trigeminal nociceptive neurons following propofol administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shoda, Emi; Kitagawa, Junichi; Suzuki, Ikuko; Nitta-Kubota, Ieko; Miyamoto, Makiko; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Masahiro; Masuda, Yuji; Oi, Yoshiyuki; Ren, Ke; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Although propofol (PRO) is widely used in clinic as a hypnotic agent, the underlying mechanisms of its action on pain pathways is still unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to receive PRO or pentobarbital (PEN) and were divided into two groups as LIGHT and DEEP hypnotic levels based on the EEG analysis. Rats in each hypnotic level received capsaicin injection into the face and phosphorylated extracellular regulated-kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry were performed in subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal cord. A large number of pERK-like immunoreactive (LI) cells was observed in the trigeminal spinal subnuclei interpolaris and caudalis transition zone (Vi/Vc), middle Vc and transition zone between Vc and upper cervical spinal cord (Vc/C2) in the rats with PEN or PRO administration following capsaicin injection into the whisker pad region. The number of pERK-LI cells in Vi/Vc, middle Vc and Vc/C2 was significantly larger in rats with PRO injection than those with PEN injection. The number of pERK-LI cells was increased following an increase in the dose of PRO but not in PEN. The pERK-LI cells were dominantly distributed in the Vi/Vc, middle Vc and Vc/C2 after the bolus injections of PRO. The expression of pERK-LI cells was depressed after the intravenous lidocaine application before PRO injection. The present findings suggested that PRO induced an enhancement of the activity of trigeminal nociceptive pathways through nociceptors innervating the venous structure, as indicated by a lidocaine-sensitive increase in pERK. This may explain deep pain around the injection regions during intravenous bolus injection of PRO. Perspective: The effect of propofol administration on ERK phosphorylation in the subregions of the spinal trigeminal complex and upper cervical spinal cord neurons were precisely analyzed in rats with PRO injection. A large number of pERK-LI cells was observed following intravenous PRO administration, suggesting an enhancement of

  18. Posttranscriptional regulation of sodium-iodide symporter mRNA expression in the rat thyroid gland by acute iodide administration.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Nascimento, Caroline; Calil-Silveira, Jamile; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2010-04-01

    Iodide is an important regulator of thyroid activity. Its excess elicits the Wolff-Chaikoff effect, characterized by an acute suppression of thyroid hormone synthesis, which has been ascribed to serum TSH reduction or TGF-beta increase and production of iodolipids in the thyroid. These alterations take hours/days to occur, contrasting with the promptness of Wolff-Chaikoff effect. We investigated whether acute iodide administration could trigger events that precede those changes, such as reduction of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA abundance and adenylation, and if perchlorate treatment could counteract them. Rats subjected or not to methylmercaptoimidazole treatment (0.03%) received NaI (2,000 microg/0.5 ml saline) or saline intraperitoneally and were killed 30 min up to 24 h later. Another set of animals was treated with iodide and perchlorate, in equimolar doses. NIS mRNA content was evaluated by Northern blotting and real-time PCR, and NIS mRNA poly(A) tail length by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-poly(A) test (RACE-PAT). We observed that NIS mRNA abundance and poly(A) tail length were significantly reduced in all periods of iodide treatment. Perchlorate reversed these effects, indicating that iodide was the agent that triggered the modifications observed. Since the poly(A) tail length of mRNAs is directly associated with their stability and translation efficiency, we can assume that the rapid decay of NIS mRNA abundance observed was due to a reduction of its stability, a condition in which its translation could be impaired. Our data show for the first time that iodide regulates NIS mRNA expression at posttranscriptional level, providing a new mechanism by which iodide exerts its autoregulatory effect on thyroid. PMID:20107044

  19. Hyaluronic acid liposomal gel sustains delivery of a corticoid to the inner ear.

    PubMed

    El Kechai, Naila; Mamelle, Elisabeth; Nguyen, Yann; Huang, Nicolas; Nicolas, Valérie; Chaminade, Pierre; Yen-Nicolaÿ, Stéphanie; Gueutin, Claire; Granger, Benjamin; Ferrary, Evelyne; Agnely, Florence; Bochot, Amélie

    2016-03-28

    The inner ear is one of the most challenging organs for drug delivery, mainly because of the blood-perilymph barrier. Therefore, local rather than systemic drug delivery methods are being developed for inner ear therapy. In this work, we have evaluated the benefit of a hyaluronic acid liposomal gel for sustained delivery of a corticoid to the inner ear after local injection into the middle ear in a guinea pig model. The liposomal gel was easily injectable as a result of the shear-thinning behavior of hyaluronic acid. A prolonged residence time at the site of injection as well as in the round window were achieved without any negative effect on the hearing thresholds of the animals. The presence of liposomes in the formulation resulted in sustained release of the drug in the perilymph for 30days and promoted the conversion of the prodrug loaded within the liposomes (dexamethasone phosphate) into its active form (dexamethasone). In this way, therapeutic doses were attained in the perilymph. A small amount of intact liposomes was visualized in the perilymph, whereas the main proportion of liposomes seemed to be trapped in the round window resulting in a reservoir effect. Thus, the administration of hyaluronic acid liposomal gel to the middle ear is an efficient strategy for delivering corticoids to the inner ear in a sustained manner. PMID:26860286

  20. Understanding fly-ear inspired directional microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Xuming; Yu, Miao

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the equivalent two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model for the hypersensitive ear of fly Ormia ocharacea is revisited. It is found that in addition to the mechanical coupling between the ears, the key to the remarkable directional hearing ability of the fly is the proper contributions of the rocking mode and bending mode of the ear structure. This can serve as the basis for the development of fly-ear inspired directional microphones. New insights are also provided to establish the connection between the mechanics of the fly ear and the prior biological experiments, which reveals that the fly ear is a nature-designed optimal structure that might have evolved to best perform its localization task at 5 kHz. Based on this understanding, a new design of the fly-ear inspired directional microphone is presented and a corresponding normalized continuum mechanics model is derived. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the identified non-dimensional parameters on the microphone performance. Directional microphones are developed to verify the understanding and concept. This study provides a theoretical guidance to develop miniature bio-inspired directional microphones, and can impact many fronts that require miniature directional microphones.

  1. The ototoxic effect of intratympanic terbinafine applied in the middle ear of rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Otomycosis is defined as an infection of the external ear canal with fungal agents. The treatment of the disease is cleansing and drying of the external ear canal, identification and treatment of any predisposing factors and application of topical antifungal agents. Terbinafine is used as an antifungal agent to treat otomycosis. We proposed to investigate the probable ototoxic effect of terbinafine solution on auditory brain stem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) when applied intratympanically in the middle ear of rats. Methods The experiment was performed on 30 female Wistar albino rats. Thirty animals were divided into three groups of 10 animals each. 1% terbinafine solution was administered to the first group (group T). The second group (group G) was administered 40 mg/ml gentamicin solution (ototoxic control). The third group (group S) was administered saline solution (negative control). Baseline DPOAE measurements and ABR testing from the left ears were obtained from the animals in all groups under general anesthesia. Ear solutions were applied in the middle ear intratympanically with a dental needle. Treatment was initiated after baseline measurements and repeated once every two days for fifteen days. Results Pre and post-treatment DPOAE responses for all tested frequencies of group T and Group S showed no statistically significant difference. However, the group G demonstrated a significant change in ABR thresholds and DPOAE responses. Conclusions Terbinafine solution is a broad spectrum antifungal agent effective in the treatment of otomycosis. The present study demonstrated that its direct administration in the middle ear of rats does not affect inner ear function as measured by ABR and DPOAE responses. PMID:23663536

  2. Segregating neural and mechanosensory fates in the developing ear: patterning, signaling, and transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Raft, Steven; Groves, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is composed of multiple sensory receptor epithelia, each of which is specialized for detection of sound, gravity, or angular acceleration. Each receptor epithelium contains mechanosensitive hair cells, which are connected to the brainstem by bipolar sensory neurons. Hair cells and their associated neurons are derived from the embryonic rudiment of the inner ear epithelium, but the precise spatial and temporal patterns of their generation, as well as the signals that coordinate these events, have only recently begun to be understood. Gene expression, lineage tracing, and mutant analyses suggest that both neurons and hair cells are generated from a common domain of neural and sensory competence in the embryonic inner ear rudiment. Members of the Shh, Wnt, and FGF families, together with retinoic acid signals, regulate transcription factor genes within the inner ear rudiment to establish the axial identity of the ear and regionalize neurogenic activity. Close-range signaling, such as that of the Notch pathway, specifies the fate of sensory regions and individual cell types. We also describe positive and negative interactions between basic helix-loop-helix and SoxB family transcription factors that specify either neuronal or sensory fates in a context-dependent manner. Finally, we review recent work on inner ear development in zebrafish, which demonstrates that the relative timing of neurogenesis and sensory epithelial formation is not phylogenetically constrained. PMID:24902666

  3. Ear Infections in Autistic and Normal Children. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Homatidis, Soula

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness for 51 autistic children (ages 2-18) indicated that autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers and lower functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than higher functioning autistic peers. (Author)

  4. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  9. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  15. An analysis of the acoustic input impedance of the ear.

    PubMed

    Withnell, Robert H; Gowdy, Lauren E

    2013-10-01

    Ear canal acoustics was examined using a one-dimensional lossy transmission line with a distributed load impedance to model the ear. The acoustic input impedance of the ear was derived from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal of healthy human ears. A nonlinear least squares fit of the model to data generated estimates for ear canal radius, ear canal length, and quantified the resistance that would produce transmission losses. Derivation of ear canal radius has application to quantifying the impedance mismatch at the eardrum between the ear canal and the middle ear. The length of the ear canal was found, in general, to be longer than the length derived from the one-quarter wavelength standing wave frequency, consistent with the middle ear being mass-controlled at the standing wave frequency. Viscothermal losses in the ear canal, in some cases, may exceed that attributable to a smooth rigid wall. Resistance in the middle ear was found to contribute significantly to the total resistance. In effect, this analysis "reverse engineers" physical parameters of the ear from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal. PMID:23917695

  16. Middle Ear Adenoma: Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Vrugt, B.; Huber, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite modern radiological workup, surgeons can still be surprised by intraoperative findings or by the pathologist's report. Materials & Methods. We describe the case of a 52-year-old male who was referred to our clinic with a single sided conductive hearing loss. He ultimately underwent middle ear exploration and excision of a middle ear tumour followed by second look and ossiculoplasty a year later. Results. Though preoperative CT and MRI scanning were suggestive of a congenital cholesteatoma, the pathologist's report diagnosed a middle ear adenoma. Discussion. Middle ear glandular tumors are extremely rare and, despite numerous histological techniques, continue to defy satisfactory classification. Most surgeons advocate surgical excision though evidence of the tumour's natural course and risk of recurrence is lacking. PMID:25045567

  17. Directional Sensitivity of the Human Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, John D.; Bazley, Martin

    1985-01-01

    Presents a classroom experiment that demonstrates the directional sensitivity of the human ear. Outlines the activity's procedures and provides a diagrammatical view of the experimental arrangement. Also included is an analysis of the expected results. (ML)

  18. Predictions of middle-ear and passive cochlear mechanics using a finite element model of the pediatric ear.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Keefe, Douglas H; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-04-01

    A finite element (FE) model was developed based on histological sections of a temporal bone of a 4-year-old child to simulate middle-ear and cochlear function in ears with normal hearing and otitis media. This pediatric model of the normal ear, consisting of an ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea, was first validated with published energy absorbance (EA) measurements in young children with normal ears. The model was used to simulate EA in an ear with middle-ear effusion, whose results were compared to clinical EA measurements. The spiral cochlea component of the model was constructed under the assumption that the mechanics were passive. The FE model predicted middle-ear transfer functions between the ear canal and cochlea. Effects of ear structure and mechanical properties of soft tissues were compared in model predictions for the pediatric and adult ears. EA responses are predicted to differ between adult and pediatric ears due to differences in the stiffness and damping of soft tissues within the ear, and any residual geometrical differences between the adult ear and pediatric ear at age 4 years. The results have significance for predicting effects of otitis media in children. PMID:27106321

  19. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D. M.; Cheeseman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  20. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D M; Cheeseman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (10(4)-10(5) colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  1. Comparison of ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo in rats undergoing cardiovascular telemetry.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, I H E; Voipio, H-M; Leskinen, H; Luodonpää, M; Nevalainen, T O

    2011-07-01

    Individual and permanent identification of experimental animals is a common and often essential research practice. There is little information available on the short-term effects of these procedures on the animals. In this study, seven rats were implanted with telemetric devices. The effects of three different identification methods (ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo) were compared. Cardiovascular data were collected for 24 h after the procedures. Time periods of 0-1, 1-4, 4-16 h (dark) and 16-24 h after the procedure were analysed separately. The most pronounced differences in measured parameters were observed during the first hour after the procedures were performed. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher (P < 0.012) following the ear tattoo than the microtattoo procedure by a difference of approximately 5 mmHg. Heart rate (HR) was significantly elevated (P < 0.001) after ear tattoo compared with both ear notching (Δ = 31 beats per minute [bpm]) and microtattoo (Δ = 44 bpm). During the 1-4 h period and the following dark period, the MAP was highest in the ear notching group, but no differences were observed in the HRs. During the following dark period (4-16 h) and the next day (16-24 h) differences in MAP and HR were minor. In conclusion, microtattoo appears to cause the mildest changes in HR and blood pressure. Based on these results, ear tattoo and ear notching should be replaced by microtattoo whenever possible. PMID:21504993

  2. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. PMID:26104342

  3. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A M

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesophageal temperature (Tes), taken as the reference for core temperature. Also, the oral and rectal temperatures were monitored. A three-dimensional print of the ear canal was made to determine the ear canal morphology. The core temperature of the subjects was increased by at least 1 degrees C during the experiment in order to investigate the dynamics of the core temperature assessment. Two devices were used to determine the IRTT: the Braun Thermoscan PRO 1 and the predecessor of the Braun IRT3020 (code name IRT3000P). Both IRTT-devices underestimated the core temperature, as measured by Tes, by 0.38 degrees C on average. The difference DeltaT between IRTT and Tes was related to ear canal morphology. The circumference of the ear canal at the distal bend in the ear canal and the visibility of the tympanum were the most important parameters. About 22% of the variance in DeltaT was explained by ear canal morphology for the steady state resting period. Wide ear canals and good visibility of the tympanic membrane were related to a smaller DeltaT. A good visibility of the tympanic membrane was generally found in the absence of cerumen. The IRT3000P showed better results than the PRO 1 (DeltaT: -0.31 +/- 0.27 degrees C and -0.44 +/- 0.30 degrees C respectively). Also, the IRT3000P was less dependent on ear canal morphology. The dynamic response of the measured core temperatures was determined by the decrease or rise in core temperature after the heating period was ended. The oesophageal temperature dropped by 0.22 degrees C. The IRTT and oral temperature showed an identical increase of 0.19 degrees C. The slow reacting rectal temperature had an after rise of 0.49 degrees C. PMID

  4. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Firenzuoli, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology. PMID:18227925

  5. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  6. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Neri, E; Caramella, D; Panconi, M; Berrettini, S; Sellari Franceschini, S; Forli, F; Bartolozzi, C

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. PMID:11194916

  7. Gbx2 is required for the morphogenesis of the mouse inner ear: a downstream candidate of hindbrain signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhengshi; Cantos, Raquel; Patente, Maria; Wu, Doris K

    2005-05-01

    Gbx2 is a homeobox-containing transcription factor that is related to unplugged in Drosophila. In mice, Gbx2 and Otx2 negatively regulate each other to establish the mid-hindbrain boundary in the neural tube. Here, we show that Gbx2 is required for the development of the mouse inner ear. Absence of the endolymphatic duct and swelling of the membranous labyrinth are common features in Gbx2-/- inner ears. More severe mutant phenotypes include absence of the anterior and posterior semicircular canals, and a malformed saccule and cochlear duct. However, formation of the lateral semicircular canal and its ampulla is usually unaffected. These inner ear phenotypes are remarkably similar to those reported in kreisler mice, which have inner ear defects attributed to defects in the hindbrain. Based on gene expression analyses, we propose that activation of Gbx2 expression within the inner ear is an important pathway whereby signals from the hindbrain regulate inner ear development. In addition, our results suggest that Gbx2 normally promotes dorsal fates such as the endolymphatic duct and semicircular canals by positively regulating genes such as Wnt2b and Dlx5. However, Gbx2 promotes ventral fates such as the saccule and cochlear duct, possibly by restricting Otx2 expression. PMID:15829521

  8. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alec N; Hullar, Timothy E

    2010-09-01

    Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit "hearing" to the brain. The sensory stereocilia ("hairs") on the IHC are "fluid coupled" to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear's responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that exposure to the

  9. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  10. [Bone Conduction and Active Middle Ear Implants].

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, S; Thomas, J P; Dazert, S

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss can be supplied with conventional hearing aids depending on severity and cause for hearing loss in a satisfying way. However, some patients either do not benefit enough from conventional hearing aids or cannot wear them due to inflammatory reactions and chronic infections of the external auditory canal or due to anatomical reasons. For these patients there are fully- and semi-implantable middle ear and bone conduction implants available. These devices either directly stimulate the skull (bone conduction devices), middle ear structures (active middle ear implants) or the cochlea itself (direct acoustic stimulation). Patients who failed surgical hearing rehabilitation or do not benefit from conventional hearing aids may achieve a significant better speech understanding and tremendous improvement in quality of life by implantable hearing devices with careful attention to the audiological and anatomical indication criteria. PMID:27135430

  11. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26633349

  12. [Complications Resulting from Taking Ear Impressions].

    PubMed

    Sugiuchi, Tomoko; Kodera, Kazuoki; Zusho, Hiroyuki; Asano, Yoshikazu; Kanesada, Keiko; Hayashida, Mitsuhiro; Kanaya, Koichiro; Tokumaru, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    In 2012, we carried out a study in a large sample to understand the secondary injuries caused during the taking ear impressions for hearing aids. This study is a follow-up of previous research conducted in 1986 (285 medical institutions) and 1999 (98 medical institutions). We posted a questionnaire survey to the otolaryngology departments of 3,257 medical institutions. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62.9% (2,050 of the 3,257 institutions), and the results indicated that 301 of the 2050 institutions (14.7%) had experience with secondary injuries, with a total of 460 cases reported. In 342 of the 460 cases (74.3%), the secondary injuries occurred at hearing-aid dealerships, followed by 67 cases (14.6%) at affiliated medical institutions, and 51 cases (11.1%) in other locations, including other medical institutions, rehabilitation counseling centers, and educational institutions. The most common type of secondary injury (298 cases, 64.8%) was caused by the presence of foreign bodies in the ear, which in turn was a result of complications occurring during the removal of residual ear impression material. Of these 298 cases, 32 required excision of the foreign bodies and surgical intervention under general anesthesia. The remaining 10 cases exhibited isolated tympanic membrane perforation without foreign body-related complications. Furthermore, 146 cases (31.7%) developed bleeding and otitis externa following removal of the ear impression, and there were reports of cases with bleeding that required long-term outpatient care and treatment. Therefore, since retention of a foreign body in the ear and tympanic membrane perforation can occur even in patients without a history of surgery or prior otologic history, adjustment of hearing aids requires prior otorhinolaryngological examination. Furthermore, because of the risk of secondary injury when taking ear impressions, this procedure must be performed with caution under the guidance of an otolaryngologist. PMID

  13. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report.

    PubMed

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-10-01

    Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis--carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna--to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  14. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report

    PubMed Central

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis – carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna – to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  15. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Robert D.; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N.

    2003-01-01

    Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure.

  16. Acinetobacter and similar organisms in ear infections.

    PubMed

    Dadswell, J V

    1976-08-01

    Fifty-seven strains of acinetobacter-like organisms were isolated over a period of 26 months from the ears of 55 patients with acute or chronic otitis media, or otitis externa, and one strain was isolated in a survey of 50 normal ears. After comparison with eight reference strains, 32 of the isolates were identified as Acinetobacter anitratus, 22 as Acinetobacter Iwoffii, three as Moraxella spp. and one as Achromobacter sp. Analysis of the clinical findings suggests that although most of these organisms played little part in the disease process, a few strains were probably pathogenic in this situation. PMID:957420

  17. Genetic variations associated with six-white-point coat pigmentation in Diannan small-ear pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Meng-Die; Han, Xu-Man; Ma, Yun-Fei; Irwin, David M.; Gao, Yun; Deng, Jia-Kun; Adeola, Adeniyi C.; Xie, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A common phenotypic difference among domestic animals is variation in coat color. Six-white-point is a pigmentation pattern observed in varying pig breeds, which seems to have evolved through several different mechanistic pathways. Herein, we re-sequenced whole genomes of 31 Diannan small-ear pigs from China and found that the six-white-point coat color in Diannan small-ear pigs is likely regulated by polygenic loci, rather than by the MC1R locus. Strong associations were observed at three loci (EDNRB, CNTLN, and PINK1), which explain about 20 percent of the total coat color variance in the Diannan small-ear pigs. We found a mutation that is highly differentiated between six-white-point and black Diannan small-ear pigs, which is located in a conserved noncoding sequence upstream of the EDNRB gene and is a putative binding site of the CEBPB protein. This study advances our understanding of coat color evolution in Diannan small-ear pigs and expands our traditional knowledge of coat color being a monogenic trait. PMID:27270507

  18. Apaf1-dependent programmed cell death is required for inner ear morphogenesis and growth.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Francesco; Roth, Kevin A; Dolgov, Oleg; Munarriz, Eliana; Anokhin, Konstantin; Gruss, Peter; Salminen, Marjo

    2004-05-01

    During inner ear development programmed cell death occurs in specific areas of the otic epithelium but the significance of it and the molecules involved have remained unclear. We undertook an analysis of mouse mutants in which genes encoding apoptosis-associated molecules have been inactivated. Disruption of the Apaf1 gene led to a dramatic decrease in apoptosis in the inner ear epithelium, severe morphogenetic defects and a significant size reduction of the membranous labyrinth, demonstrating that an Apaf1-dependent apoptotic pathway is necessary for normal inner ear development. This pathway most probably operates through the apoptosome complex because caspase 9 mutant mice suffered similar defects. Inactivation of the Bcl2-like (Bcl2l) gene led to an overall increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis but did not cause any major morphogenetic defects. In contrast, decreased apoptosis was observed in specific locations that suffered from developmental deficits, indicating that proapoptotic isoform(s) produced from Bcl2l might have roles in inner ear development. In Apaf1(-/-)/Bcl2l(-/-) double mutant embryos, no cell death could be detected in the otic epithelium, demonstrating that the cell death regulated by the anti-apoptotic Bcl2l isoform, Bcl-X(L) in the otic epithelium is Apaf1-dependent. Furthermore, the otic vesicle failed to close completely in all double mutant embryos analyzed. These results indicate important roles for both Apaf1 and Bcl2l in inner ear development. PMID:15105372

  19. Genetic variations associated with six-white-point coat pigmentation in Diannan small-ear pigs.

    PubMed

    Lü, Meng-Die; Han, Xu-Man; Ma, Yun-Fei; Irwin, David M; Gao, Yun; Deng, Jia-Kun; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Xie, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A common phenotypic difference among domestic animals is variation in coat color. Six-white-point is a pigmentation pattern observed in varying pig breeds, which seems to have evolved through several different mechanistic pathways. Herein, we re-sequenced whole genomes of 31 Diannan small-ear pigs from China and found that the six-white-point coat color in Diannan small-ear pigs is likely regulated by polygenic loci, rather than by the MC1R locus. Strong associations were observed at three loci (EDNRB, CNTLN, and PINK1), which explain about 20 percent of the total coat color variance in the Diannan small-ear pigs. We found a mutation that is highly differentiated between six-white-point and black Diannan small-ear pigs, which is located in a conserved noncoding sequence upstream of the EDNRB gene and is a putative binding site of the CEBPB protein. This study advances our understanding of coat color evolution in Diannan small-ear pigs and expands our traditional knowledge of coat color being a monogenic trait. PMID:27270507

  20. Eosinophilic otitis media: a new middle ear disease entity.

    PubMed

    Iino, Yukiko

    2008-11-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is intractable otitis media characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellow effusion containing eosinophils. It occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma and is resistant to conventional treatments for otitis media. Here we discuss the clinical features, pathogenesis, and management of EOM. EOM predominantly affects women and presents most often in patients in their 50s. The clinical features of the middle ear in EOM are roughly divided into the otitis media with effusion type and chronic otitis media type. The latter is further divided into two subtypes: simple perforation and granulation tissue formation. EOM is often complicated by rhinosinusitis (eosinophilic sinusitis). High-tone loss is more frequently found and more severe in EOM patients than in chronic otitis media control patients, and EOM patients sometimes become deaf suddenly. Systemic or topical steroid administration is the most effective treatment for patients with EOM. The instillation of triamcinolone acetonide, a suspension of steroids, into the middle ear is very effective for controlling eosinophilic inflammation. It is very important to explain to patients with EOM that the disease may last for a long period and that progressive and sudden hearing loss may occur. PMID:18940145

  1. Histopathology of the inner ear in unoperated acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Mohd Ridzo; Khan, Aayesha M; Nadol, Joseph B

    2003-11-01

    Although hearing loss is the most common presenting symptom in patients with acoustic neuroma, the pathophysiology of hearing loss associated with acoustic neuroma is unknown. Although primary dysfunction of the auditory nerve is intuitively logical, available histopathologic and clinical data suggest that although neural degeneration is common, it alone does not adequately account for hearing loss in many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 11 cases of unoperated unilateral acoustic neuromas. Temporal bones were identified by means of a search mechanism provided by the National Temporal Bone, Hearing, and Balance Pathology Resource Registry and were prepared for light microscopy by standard techniques. Quantification of spiral ganglion cells, hair cells, stria vascularis, and spiral ligament was accomplished for each specimen. In addition, the maximum diameter and volume of each tumor were calculated from histopathologic sections. Increasing tumor size did predict a reduced spiral ganglion count. However, although there was a tendency for decreasing spiral ganglion cell count and for increasing tumor size to predict a higher pure tone average and lower speech discrimination score, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. In tumor ears in which the speech discrimination score was 50% or less, there was always significant degeneration of other structures of the inner ear in addition to neurons, including hair cells, the stria vascularis, and the spiral ligament. Endolymphatic hydrops and eosinophilic precipitate in the perilymphatic spaces were found in 2 of 3 such cases. It is concluded that acoustic neuromas appear to cause hearing loss, not only by causing degeneration of the auditory nerve, but also by inducing degenerative changes in the inner ear. It is hypothesized that the proteinaceous material seen histologically may represent the products of up-regulated genes in acoustic neuroma, some of which may interfere with normal

  2. Results of bone conduction following surgery for chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, E; Seppä, J

    1997-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative bone conduction thresholds were compared in 181 chronic ears operated on over a 5-year period between 1990 to 1994. In the majority (92%) of cases the bone conduction thresholds remained unchanged (+/-10 dB). Nine ears (5%) showed better thresholds after surgery, with improvements ranging from 11 dB to 25 dB. This improvement was especially noted in ears with severe tympanic pathology. One ear with a large labyrinthine fistula became totally deaf after surgery. In 5 ears (3%) bone-conduction thresholds deteriorated, but remained measurable at all frequencies tested. In these latter cases this impairment ranged from 11 dB to 27 dB. Cholesteatomatous ears having intact ossicular chains were found to be at the highest risk of inner ear damage when "canal wall-down" mastoidectomies were performed. Methods for prevention of sensorineural hearing loss following chronic ear surgery are discussed. PMID:9332894

  3. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000220.htm Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor To ... enable JavaScript. Your child is being evaluated for ear tube insertion. This is the placement of tubes ...

  4. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  5. Neuronal feedback between brain and inner ear for growth of otoliths in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, R. H.; Edelmann, E.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations revealed that fish inner ear otolith growth (concerning otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was unilaterally transected in neonate swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated.

  6. Neuronal feedback between brain and inner ear for growth of otoliths in fish.

    PubMed

    Anken, R H; Edelmann, E; Rahmann, H

    2002-01-01

    Previous investigations revealed that fish inner ear otolith growth (concerning otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was unilaterally transected in neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated. PMID:12530397

  7. Endoscopic Management of Middle Ear and Temporal Bone Lesions.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Brandon; Nogueira, João Flávio

    2016-10-01

    Tantamount to the management of temporal bone neoplasms is the ability to visualize the pathology and its relationship with the numerous critical structures housed therein. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery provides the surgeon with an unparalleled view of the entire middle ear. This article presents the latest information on the usefulness of transcanal endoscopic ear surgery in the management of middle ear and temporal bone neoplasms. PMID:27468636

  8. The Role of Immittance Audiometry in Detecting Middle Ear Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, John T.

    1981-01-01

    Immittance audiometry is an objective technique which evaluates middle ear function by three procedures: static immittance, tympanometry, and the measurement of acoustic reflex threshold sensitivity. This article discusses the technique's ability to identify middle ear effusion, the single leading ear disease in children. A comparison of immittance screening and traditional pure tone audiometry was conducted on 311 school aged children. The results of this study reveal the superiority of immittance audiometry in detecting middle ear pathology. PMID:21289666

  9. How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Children's Health Ear Infections Water Safety (Recreational) About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  10. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  11. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  12. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability. PMID:27554653

  13. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

  14. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) ... moyenne - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Middle Ear Infection 中耳炎 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual ...

  15. The formation and management of middle ear granulation tissue in chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Roland, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Granulation tissue is an important pathogenic feature of all types of chronic ear disease, and it can be controlled and treated with good aural toilet, appropriate antibiotic therapy, topical steroids, and chemical cautery or surgical debridement. PMID:14986396

  16. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  17. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  18. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  19. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  20. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  1. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  2. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  3. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  4. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  5. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  6. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  7. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  8. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  9. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  10. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  11. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  12. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  13. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  14. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  15. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  16. 7 CFR 301.52-2 - Authorization for Deputy Administrator to list regulated areas and suppressive or generally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2... States, territories, or districts, or portions thereof, in which pink bollworm has been found or in which there is reason to believe that pink bollworm is present, or which it is deemed necessary to...

  17. 7 CFR 301.52-2 - Authorization for Deputy Administrator to list regulated areas and suppressive or generally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2... States, territories, or districts, or portions thereof, in which pink bollworm has been found or in which there is reason to believe that pink bollworm is present, or which it is deemed necessary to...

  18. 7 CFR 301.52-2 - Authorization for Deputy Administrator to list regulated areas and suppressive or generally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2... States, territories, or districts, or portions thereof, in which pink bollworm has been found or in which there is reason to believe that pink bollworm is present, or which it is deemed necessary to...

  19. 7 CFR 301.52-2 - Authorization for Deputy Administrator to list regulated areas and suppressive or generally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2... States, territories, or districts, or portions thereof, in which pink bollworm has been found or in which there is reason to believe that pink bollworm is present, or which it is deemed necessary to...

  20. 7 CFR 301.52-2 - Authorization for Deputy Administrator to list regulated areas and suppressive or generally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2... States, territories, or districts, or portions thereof, in which pink bollworm has been found or in which there is reason to believe that pink bollworm is present, or which it is deemed necessary to...

  1. Striatal regulation of ΔFosB, FosB, and cFos during cocaine self-administration and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erin B; Akkentli, Fatih; Edwards, Scott; Graham, Danielle L; Simmons, Diana L; Alibhai, Imran N; Nestler, Eric J; Self, David W

    2010-10-01

    Chronic drug exposure induces alterations in gene expression profiles that are thought to underlie the development of drug addiction. The present study examined regulation of the Fos-family of transcription factors, specifically cFos, FosB, and ΔFosB, in striatal subregions during and after chronic intravenous cocaine administration in self-administering and yoked rats. We found that cFos, FosB, and ΔFosB exhibit regionally and temporally distinct expression patterns, with greater accumulation of ΔFosB protein in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core after chronic cocaine administration, whereas ΔFosB increases in the caudate-putamen (CPu) remained similar with either acute or chronic administration. In contrast, tolerance developed to cocaine-induced mRNA for ΔFosB in all three striatal subregions with chronic administration. Tolerance also developed to FosB expression, most notably in the NAc shell and CPu. Interestingly, tolerance to cocaine-induced cFos induction was dependent on volitional control of cocaine intake in ventral but not dorsal striatal regions, whereas regulation of FosB and ΔFosB was similar in cocaine self-administering and yoked animals. Thus, ΔFosB-mediated neuroadaptations in the CPu may occur earlier than previously thought with the initiation of intravenous cocaine use and, together with greater accumulation of ΔFosB in the NAc, could contribute to addiction-related increases in cocaine-seeking behavior. PMID:20633205

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Results Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that ‘cold’ can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. Conclusion General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka. PMID:26816922

  3. Better-ear glimpsing in hearing-impaired listeners

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald; Iyer, Nandini; Brungart, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    When competing speech sounds are spatially separated, listeners can make use of the ear with the better target-to-masker ratio. Recent studies showed that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently make use of this “better-ear,” even when it alternates between left and right ears at different times in different frequency bands, which may contribute to the ability to listen in spatialized speech mixtures. In the present study, better-ear glimpsing in listeners with bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, who perform poorly in spatialized speech mixtures, was investigated. The results suggest that this deficit is not related to better-ear glimpsing. PMID:25698053

  4. Treatment of Prominent Ears and Otoplasty: A Contemporary Review.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sachin S; Koch, Cody A; Murakami, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Prominent ears affect approximately 5% of the population and can have a significant psychological impact on patients. A wide variety of otoplasty techniques have been described, all sharing the goal of re-creating the normal appearance of the ear and achieving symmetry between the 2 sides. Recent trends in otoplasty techniques have consistently moved toward less invasive options, ranging from nonsurgical newborn ear molding to cartilage-sparing surgical techniques and even incisionless, office-based procedures. Herein, we review anatomy of the external ear, patient evaluation, the evolution of nonsurgical and surgical otoplasty techniques, otoplasty outcomes, and future trends for treatment of prominent ears. PMID:26158729

  5. The individual mandate as healthcare regulation: what the Obama Administration should have said in NFIB v. Sebelius.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Abigail R

    2013-01-01

    There was an argument that the Obama Administration's lawyers could have made--but didn't--in defending Obamacare's individual mandate against constitutional attack. That argument would have highlighted the role of comprehensive health insurance in steering individuals' healthcare savings and consumption decisions. Because consumer-directed healthcare, which reaches its apex when individuals self-insure, suffers from several known market failures and because comprehensive health insurance policies play an unusually aggressive regulatory role in attempting to correct those failures, the individual mandate could be seen as an attempt to eliminate inefficiencies in the healthcare market that arise from individual decisions to self-insure. This argument would done a better job than the Obama Administration's of aligning the individual mandate with existing Commerce Clause and Necessary and Proper Clause precedent, and it would have done a better job of addressing the conservative Justices' primary concerns with upholding the mandate. This Article lays out this forgone defense of the individual mandate. PMID:24494443

  6. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    SciTech Connect

    Johri, M.M.; Coe, E.H. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies.

  7. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  8. Subarachnoid space: middle ear pathways and recurrent meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barcz, D V; Wood, R P; Stears, J; Jafek, B W; Shields, M

    1985-03-01

    Congenital bony abnormalities of the inner ear may result in a communication between the middle ear and the subarachnoid space. Patients with this anomaly often present with recurrent meningitis associated with acute otitis media or with middle ear fluid. This article presents three cases of recurrent meningitis with open middle ear--subarachnoid space connections. The first two cases involve a cerebrospinal fluid leak into the middle ear via the oval window, both patients having a Mondini-type of inner ear deformity. The pathway in the third case opened into the middle ear along the horizontal portion of the facial nerve. Computed tomography (CT) scanning with metrizamide and differential density calculations helped to identify the abnormal pathway and to confirm that the leak has been closed postoperatively. Use of the CT scanner in these cases can be helpful in planning the surgical closure and in postoperative follow-up. PMID:4039111

  9. Structures that Contribute to Middle-Ear Admittance in Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Songer, Jocelyn E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements of the admittance of the air spaces reveal that the high-degree of segmentation of these spaces has only a small effect on the admittance. Draining the cochlea further increases the middle-ear admittance at low frequencies and removes a low-frequency (less than 300 Hz) level dependence in the admittance. Spontaneous or sound-driven contractions of the middle-ear muscles in deeply anesthetized animals were associated with significant changes in middle-ear admittance. PMID:16944166

  10. The in ovo administration of L-trans pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid regulates small intestinal growth in chicks.

    PubMed

    Li, X-G; Sui, W-G; Yan, H-C; Jiang, Q-Y; Wang, X-Q

    2014-10-01

    Glutamate, which is one of the most important contributors to oxidative metabolism in the intestinal mucosa, is mainly transported by the excitatory amino acids transporters (EAATs) that are expressed in enterocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in ovo administration of l-trans pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (l-trans-PDC), a potent competitive inhibitor of glutamate uptake by EAATs, on the growth of the small intestine in chicks. Two series of experiments were conducted with hatching eggs; 100 μl of various l-trans-PDC solutions (0, 0.075 or 0.225 mg/egg for the Control group, low-dose l-trans pyrrolidine 2,4-dicarboxylic acid group (L-PDC) or high-dose l-trans pyrrolidine 2,4-dicarboxylic acid group (H-PDC), respectively) was injected into the albumen sac of these hatching eggs before incubation. Hatchlings were sacrificed by cervical dislocation to determine the embryonic development in Experiment I, whereas the birds in Experiment II were raised or sampled at hatching, days 7 and 14 (D7 and D14) for further study. Gene expression in the small intestines was determined by real-time RT-PCR; and serum concentration of free amino acids was determined by an amino acid analyzer. The results showed that the hatchability was decreased by in ovo administration of l-trans-PDC. The small intestinal weights of the H-PDC group were decreased (P<0.05) at hatching and increased (P<0.05) on D7 and D14 compared with those in the Control group. In addition, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the completed or segmental small intestines was not changed (P>0.05); EAAT3 gene expression in the duodenum (P<0.05), jejunum (P=0.084) and ileum (P=0.060) on D14 was lower in the H-PDC group than in the Control group. Furthermore, the serum concentrations of free proline, threonine and phenylalanine but not glutamate or aspartate were increased (P<0.06) in H-PDC group. In conclusion, this paper is the first to report that in ovo administration of l

  11. Sex differences in nicotine self-administration in rats during progressive unit dose reduction: Implications for nicotine regulation policy

    PubMed Central

    Grebenstein, Patricia; Burroughs, Danielle; Zhang, Yan; LeSage, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products is being considered by the FDA as a policy to reduce the addictiveness of tobacco products. Understanding individual differences in response to nicotine reduction will be critical to developing safe and effective policy. Animal and human research demonstrating sex differences in the reinforcing effects of nicotine suggests that males and females may respond differently to nicotine-reduction policies. However, no studies have directly examined sex differences in the effects of nicotine unit-dose reduction on nicotine self-administration (NSA) in animals. The purpose of the present study was to examine this issue in a rodent self-administration model. Male and female rats were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.06 mg/kg) under an FR 3 schedule during daily 23 h sessions. Rats were then exposed to saline extinction and reacquisition of NSA, followed by weekly reductions in the unit dose (0.03 to 0.00025 mg/kg) until extinction levels of responding were achieved. Males and females were compared with respect to baseline levels of intake, resistance to extinction, degree of compensatory increases in responding during dose reduction, and the threshold reinforcing unit dose of nicotine. Exponential demand-curve analysis was also conducted to compare the sensitivity of males and females to increases in the unit price (FR/unit dose) of nicotine (i.e., elasticity of demand or reinforcing efficacy). Females exhibited significantly higher baseline intake and less compensation than males. However, there were no sex differences in the reinforcement threshold or elasticity of demand. Dose–response relationships were very well described by the exponential demand function (r2 values > 0.96 for individual subjects). These findings suggest that females may exhibit less compensatory smoking in response to nicotine reduction policies, even though their nicotine reinforcement threshold and elasticity of demand may not differ from

  12. Sex differences in nicotine self-administration in rats during progressive unit dose reduction: implications for nicotine regulation policy.

    PubMed

    Grebenstein, Patricia; Burroughs, Danielle; Zhang, Yan; LeSage, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products is being considered by the FDA as a policy to reduce the addictiveness of tobacco products. Understanding individual differences in response to nicotine reduction will be critical to developing safe and effective policy. Animal and human research demonstrating sex differences in the reinforcing effects of nicotine suggests that males and females may respond differently to nicotine-reduction policies. However, no studies have directly examined sex differences in the effects of nicotine unit-dose reduction on nicotine self-administration (NSA) in animals. The purpose of the present study was to examine this issue in a rodent self-administration model. Male and female rats were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.06mg/kg) under an FR 3 schedule during daily 23h sessions. Rats were then exposed to saline extinction and reacquisition of NSA, followed by weekly reductions in the unit dose (0.03 to 0.00025mg/kg) until extinction levels of responding were achieved. Males and females were compared with respect to baseline levels of intake, resistance to extinction, degree of compensatory increases in responding during dose reduction, and the threshold reinforcing unit dose of nicotine. Exponential demand-curve analysis was also conducted to compare the sensitivity of males and females to increases in the unit price (FR/unit dose) of nicotine (i.e., elasticity of demand or reinforcing efficacy). Females exhibited significantly higher baseline intake and less compensation than males. However, there were no sex differences in the reinforcement threshold or elasticity of demand. Dose-response relationships were very well described by the exponential demand function (r(2) values>0.96 for individual subjects). These findings suggest that females may exhibit less compensatory smoking in response to nicotine reduction policies, even though their nicotine reinforcement threshold and elasticity of demand may not differ from males

  13. Administration of Lactobacillus evokes coordinated changes in the intestinal expression profile of genes regulating energy homeostasis and immune phenotype in mice.

    PubMed

    Nerstedt, Annika; Nilsson, Elisabeth C; Ohlson, Kajsa; Håkansson, Janet; Thomas Svensson, L; Löwenadler, Björn; Svensson, Ulla K; Mahlapuu, Margit

    2007-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are probiotics widely used in functional food products, with a variety of beneficial effects reported. Recently, intense research has been carried out to provide insight into the mechanism of the action of probiotic bacteria. We have used gene array technology to map the pattern of changes in the global gene expression profile of the host caused by Lactobacillus administration. Affymetrix microarrays were applied to comparatively characterize differences in gene transcription in the distal ileum of normal microflora (NMF) and germ-free (GF) mice evoked by oral administration of two Lactobacillus strains used in fermented dairy products today - Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (L. F19) or Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFB 1748. We show that feeding either of the two strains caused very similar effects on the transcriptional profile of the host. Both L. F19 and L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 evoked a complex response in the gut, reflected by differential regulation of a number of genes involved in essential physiological functions such as immune response, regulation of energy homeostasis and host defence. Notably, the changes in intestinal gene expression caused by Lactobacillus were different in the mice raised under GF v. NMF conditions, underlying the complex and dynamic nature of the host-commensal relationship. Differential expression of an array of genes described in this report evokes novel hypothesis of possible interactions between the probiotic bacteria and the host organism and warrants further studies to evaluate the functional significance of these transcriptional changes on the metabolic profile of the host. PMID:17433125

  14. Regulations for the administration and enforcement of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the Act is to protect the public from unnecessary exposure to radiation from electronic products, including ionizing, nonionizing, electromagnetic, or particulate radiation, or any sonic, infrasonic, or ultrasonic wave. The regulations in the publication cover general provisions, statements of policy and interpretation, radiation protection recommendations, recordkeeping and reporting requirements for manufacturers, dealers, and distributors; notification requirements for defects or failure to comply; repurchase, repairs, or replacement of electronic products; importation of products; and performance standards for television receivers, cathode ray tubes, diagnostic x-ray equipment, radiographic equipment, fluoroscopic equipment, computer aided tomography equipment, microwave ovens, laser products, sunlamps, ultraviolet lamps, mercury lamps, and ultrasonic therapy products.

  15. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal.

    PubMed

    Binnetoglu, Adem; Baglam, Tekin; Tokuc, Gulnur; Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  16. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  17. An Ear-Worn Vital Signs Monitor.

    PubMed

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a wearable vital signs monitor at the ear. The monitor measures the electrocardiogram (ECG), ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to obtain pre-ejection period (PEP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and pulse transit time (PTT). The ear is demonstrated as a natural anchoring point for the integrated sensing of physiological signals. All three signals measured can be used to obtain heart rate (HR). Combining the ECG and BCG allows for the estimation of the PEP, while combining the BCG and PPG allows for the measurement of PTT. Additionally, the J-wave amplitude of the BCG is correlated with the SV and, when combined with HR, yields CO. Results from a clinical human study on 13 subjects demonstrate this proof-of-concept device. PMID:26208264

  18. The inner ear and the neurologist

    PubMed Central

    Agrup, Charlotte; Gleeson, Michael; Rudge, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Inner ear disorders are common and patients with vestibular failure often present to a neurology clinic because of their dizziness, gait unsteadiness and oscillopsia. Vestibular disorders can be divided into peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Most of the peripheral vestibular disorders have a clinical diagnosis, and a thorough history and examination will often provide a clear direction as to the diagnosis. Correct diagnosis allows treatment for many of the peripheral and central vestibular disorders. As inner ear damage is generally irreversible, early diagnosis allowing prompt treatment is important. The aim of this review is to discuss some audiovestibular conditions that may well appear in a neurology clinic, and to discuss some recent advances within the audiovestibular field that may be of interest to neurologists. Some of the most common audiovestibular conditions will be discussed along side more uncommon conditions. PMID:17229743

  19. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  20. New prospects in the diagnosis and treatment of immune-mediated inner ear disease

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, David R; García-Berrocal, Jose Ramon; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) represents a very fertile research field and the advancements in the understanding of this disease have a direct application not only in patients affected with this condition but also in other inner ear disorders that share the same injury mechanism, damage to the inner ear hair cells. AIED also presents many challenges that have still to be overcome. Firstly, access to the inner ear is limited, as many interventions such as biopsies can result in great irreversible damage. Secondly, there are no completely specific markers for AIED. Lack of a definitive diagnosis can result in the treatment of patients not affected with the disease and, therefore, no response. Finally, some patients become refractory to glucocorticoids and new therapies are needed. This review offers an overview of the animal models that have contributed to the understanding of AIED pathophysiology, the value of currently available diagnostic tests, and therapeutic options, with a special focus on new therapies for non responders or patients refractory to glucocorticoids. Among these new options for therapy, biological agents have been tested recently, whereas gene and stem cell therapy may have a role in the future. The intratympanic route of administration avoids the systemic side effects associated with currently used drugs, and may become a more frequent approach in the future. PMID:25332908

  1. Morphology of the seagull's inner ear.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A; Tsao, P

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of the seagull ear was investigated and found to be generally similar to that of other Aves. Several specific outer middle and inner ear features were found to be sufficiently different as to be remarkable. Most notably, the dual membranes of the external auditory meatus: one, a collecting (and possibly amplifying and reflecting) parabolic membrane chamber situated immediately anterior to the slightly deeper tympanic membrane. The convex tympanic membrane attaches a cartilagenous extracolumella and a thick osseous columella, which is less thin and fragile than that observed in domestic fowl of comparable body size. The columella footplate and round window are completely covered with a second middle ear membrane which apparently serves as an H2O seal and hydrostatic pressure matcher. The short, hard seagull cochlea houses an elaborate basilar papilla which contains thousands of short and tall hair cells, each with a systematic arrangement of stereocilia bundles. In the seagull, the length of the basilar papilla and the length, width, and number of stereocilia, features which affect the transduction process and frequency resolution, are different from those reported for certain other Aves. PMID:3962648

  2. The glue ear 'epidemic': a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured 'epidemic'. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on the practice of medicine, consumerism, science and standardisation, rationing and the nature of 'truth' all affect the way that we see this period. Technological advances clearly allowed better diagnosis and more effective treatment, but these did not appear to drive an 'epidemic', rather they were developed to meet the pre-existing challenges of otological practice. The proposition that an 'epidemic' was created does not appear to have any solid grounding. Society's perception of what constitutes disease and what needs treatment may have evolved, but the prevalence of other important diseases changed dramatically over this time period, and a real change in the epidemiology of glue ear cannot be dismissed. In defining the case for and against surgical treatment, a solely positivist, quantitative worldview cannot give us a complete picture of benefit and risk to individuals, families and society at large. PMID:21653931

  3. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  4. Ear Recognition from One Sample Per Person

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  5. Analytical model of internally coupled ears.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2010-08-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude differences in the tympanic membrane vibrations. Both cues show strong directionality. The work presented herein sets out the derivation of a three dimensional analytical model of internally coupled ears that allows for calculation of a complete vibration profile of the membranes. The analytical model additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example, data demonstrating an asymmetrical spatial pattern of membrane vibration. As the analytical calculations show, the internally coupled ears increase the directional response, appearing in large directional internal amplitude differences (iAD) and in large internal time differences (iTD). Numerical simulations of the eigenfunctions in an exemplary, realistically reconstructed mouth cavity further estimate the effects of its complex geometry. PMID:20707461

  6. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. PMID:27034341

  7. Rabbit's ear in cold acclimation studied on the change in ear temperature.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Kanno, T

    1975-03-01

    The role of the rabbit's ear in cold acclimation was studied by varying the temperature of a climatic room in the range from -10 to +30 degrees C; The skin temperature in a nonanesthetized rabbit's ear showed a characteristic response to changes in ambient temperatures; plotting the ear temperature against the ambient temperature yielded an S-shaped curve. The mean ambient temperature corresponding to the inflection point on the S-shaped curve shifted significantly from about 13 degrees C to about 8 degrees C after cold acclimated of a group fed for 7 wk at -10 degrees C. The shift of the S-shaped curve after cold acclimation may not be due to the change in the norepinephrine sensitivity of the vascular beds of the ear: the effect of norepinephrine on the pressure-flow curve in the isolated rabbit's ear was almost unchanged between the control and the cold-acclimated groups. It is proposed that the shift of the inflection point gives a qualitative index of the acclimated state of the rabbit at a particular temperature. PMID:1150550

  8. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women. PMID:23851770

  9. Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The functional morphology of Swiftlets' middle ears.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E

    2007-03-01

    The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, morphological adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the functional morphology of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in functional morphological analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its function. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No morphological adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain. PMID:17229537

  10. Muscarinic receptor plasticity in the brain of senescent rats: down-regulation after repeated administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Pintor, A.; Fortuna, S.; Volpe, M.T.; Michalek, H.

    1988-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of Fischer 344 rats to subchronic treatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in terms of brain cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition and muscarinic receptor sites. Male 3- and 24-month old rats were sc injected with sublethal doses of DFP for 2 weeks and killed 48 hrs after the last treatment. In the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of control rats a significant age-related reduction of ChE and of maximum number of /sup 3/H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) was observed. The administration of DFP to senescent rats resulted in more pronounced and longer lasting syndrome of cholinergic stimulation, with marked body weight loss and 60% mortality. The percentage inhibition of brain ChE induced by DFP did not differ between young and senescent rats. As expected, in young rats DFP caused a significant decrease of Bmax, which in the cerebral cortex reached about 40%. In the surviving senescent rats, the percentage decrease of Bmax due to DFP with respect to age-matched controls was very similar to that of young animals, especially in the cerebral cortex. Thus there is great variability in the response of aged rats to DFP treatment, from total failure of adaptive mechanisms resulting in death to considerable muscarinic receptor plasticity.

  11. State child health; implementing regulations for the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2001-01-11

    Section 4901 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) amended the Social Security Act (the Act) by adding a new title XXI, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Title XXI provides funds to States to enable them to initiate and expand the provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children in an effective and efficient manner. To be eligible for funds under this program, States must submit a State plan, which must be approved by the Secretary. This final rule implements provisions related to SCHIP including State plan requirements and plan administration, coverage and benefits, eligibility and enrollment, enrollee financial responsibility, strategic planning, substitution of coverage, program integrity, certain allowable waivers, and applicant and enrollee protections. This final rule also implements the provisions of sections 4911 and 4912 of the BBA, which amended title XIX of the Act to expand State options for coverage of children under the Medicaid program. In addition, this final rule makes technical corrections to subparts B, and F of part 457. PMID:11503759

  12. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974; rules and regulations for administration and enforcement; claims procedure--Department of Labor. Notice of proposed rulemaking.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This document contains a proposed regulation revising the minimum requirements for benefit claims procedures of employee benefit plans covered by Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act). This proposed regulation would establish new standards for the processing of group health disability, pension, and other employee benefit plan claims filed by participants and beneficiaries. In the case of group health plans, as well as certain plans providing disability benefits, the new standards are intended to ensure more timely benefit determinations, improved access to information on which a benefit determination is made, and greater assurance that participants and beneficiaries will be afforded a full and fair review of denied claims. If adopted as final, the proposed regulation would affect participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans, plan, fiduciaries, and others who assist in the provision of plan benefits, such as third-party benefits administrators and health service providers or health maintenance organizations that provide benefits to participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans. PMID:10185189

  13. Endoscopic Ear Surgery: Critical Review of Anatomy and Physiology of Normal and Reconstructive Middle Ear.

    PubMed

    Udagatti, Vithal D; Dinesh Kumar, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Middle ear anatomy is complex hence it is difficult to study the microscopic vibration of tympanic membrane and ossicles. The basic research has been done in few centres. Our experience is based on clinical data. The lack of quantitative understanding of structural and functional relationship in the mechanical response of the normal and reconstructed middle ear is major factor in poor hearing results after surgery (Merchant et al. in J Laryngol Otol 112:715-731, 1998). The vibration pattern of tympanic membrane changes with different frequencies. It depends upon shape, position and tension of tympanic membrane. Sometimes reconstructed tympanic membrane loses its shape and tension and thus its vibratory response (Pusalkar and Steinbach in Transplants and implants in otology II, 1992). Then what should be the shape, position, tension of the tympanic membrane and the ossicles. In order to have a serviceable hearing, dry and safe ear, there is a necessity of answering all these queries by us. PMID:27340629

  14. Ear Cubes for local controlled drug delivery to the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, M; Sircoglou, J; Gnansia, D; Tourrel, G; Willart, J-F; Danede, F; Lacante, E; Vincent, C; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2016-07-25

    A new type of advanced drug delivery systems is proposed: Miniaturized implants, which can be placed into tiny holes drilled into (or close to) the oval window. They consist of two parts: 1) A cylinder, which is inserted into the hole crossing the oval window. The cylinder (being longer than the depth of the hole) is partly located within the inner ear and surrounded by perilymph. This provides direct access to the target site, and at the same time assures implant fixation. 2) A cuboid, which is located in the middle ear, serving as a drug reservoir. One side of the cuboid is in direct contact with the oval window. Drug release into the cochlea occurs by diffusion through the cylindrical part of the Ear Cubes and by diffusion from the cuboid into and through the oval window. High precision molds were used to prepare two differently sized Ear Cubes by injection molding. The miniaturized implants were based on silicone and loaded with different amounts of dexamethasone (10 to 30 % w/w). The systems were thoroughly characterized before and upon exposure to artificial perilymph at 37°C. Importantly, drug release can effectively be controlled and sustained during long time periods (up to several years). Furthermore, the implants did not swell or erode to a noteworthy extent during the observation period. Drug diffusion through the polymeric matrix, together with limited dexamethasone solubility effects, seem to control the resulting drug release kinetics, which can roughly be estimated using mathematical equations derived from Fick's second law. Importantly, the proposed Ear Cubes are likely to provide much more reliable local long term drug delivery to the inner ear compared to liquid or semi-solid dosage forms administered into the middle ear, due to a more secured fixation. Furthermore, they require less invasive surgeries and can accommodate higher drug amounts compared to intracochlear implants. Thus, they offer the potential to open up new horizons for innovative

  15. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 Is an AT-Hook Protein Required for the Formation of Maize Ears[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Malcomber, Simon; Gaines, Craig; Stanfield, Sharon; Whipple, Clinton; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Ears are the seed-bearing inflorescences of maize (Zea mays) plants and represent a crucial component of maize yield. The first step in the formation of ears is the initiation of axillary meristems in the axils of developing leaves. In the classic maize mutant barren stalk fastigiate1 (baf1), first discovered in the 1950s, ears either do not form or, if they do, are partially fused to the main stalk. We positionally cloned Baf1 and found that it encodes a transcriptional regulator containing an AT-hook DNA binding motif. Single coorthologs of Baf1 are found in syntenic regions of brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), suggesting that the gene is likely present in all cereal species. Protein–protein interaction assays suggest that BAF1 is capable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the AT-hook family. Another transcriptional regulator required for ear initiation is the basic helix-loop-helix protein BARREN STALK1 (BA1). Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Baf1 is required to reach a threshold level of Ba1 expression for the initiation of maize ears. We propose that Baf1 functions in the demarcation of a boundary region essential for the specification of a stem cell niche. PMID:21540434

  16. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: High-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of YTM, the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. YTM appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of YTM decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ∼0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz. PMID:23039439

  17. Computer-integrated finite element modeling of human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Gan, R Z; Chang, K-H; Dormer, K J

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to produce an improved finite element (FE) model of the human middle ear and to compare the model with human data. We began with a systematic and accurate geometric modeling technique for reconstructing the middle ear from serial sections of a freshly frozen temporal bone. A geometric model of a human middle ear was constructed in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment with particular attention to geometry and microanatomy. Using the geometric model, a working FE model of the human middle ear was created using previously published material properties of middle ear components. This working FE model was finalized by a cross-calibration technique, comparing its predicted stapes footplate displacements with laser Doppler interferometry measurements from fresh temporal bones. The final FE model was shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of the human middle ear. PMID:14595544

  18. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Paul J; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5-2.5 mg per kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg per kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg per kg per infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg per kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 microM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1-10 ng per side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug. PMID:18418357

  19. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  20. Characterization of cytokines present in middle ear effusions.

    PubMed

    Yellon, R F; Leonard, G; Marucha, P T; Craven, R; Carpenter, R J; Lehmann, W B; Burleson, J A; Kreutzer, D L

    1991-02-01

    Retention of inflammatory mediators and cells in the middle ear cleft during chronic otitis media with effusion (COME), results in ongoing inflammation with the potential for pathologic changes and hearing loss. Cytokines are glycoproteins produced by macrophages and other cells. Activities of cytokines include fever production, osteoclast, fibroblast, phagocyte and cytotoxic cell activation, regulation of antibody formation, and inhibition of cartilage, bone and endothelial cell growth. Using enzyme-linked immunospecific assays we measured levels of six cytokines in middle ear effusions (MEE) from children with COME. Significant levels of four cytokines: interleukin-1-beta (greater than 50 pg/ml), interleukin-2 (greater than 300 pg/ml), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (greater than 40 pg/ml), and gamma-interferon (greater than 6.25 pg/ml) were found in 51%, 54%, 63%, and 19% of MEE, respectively. In contrast, levels of a fifth cytokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and a sixth cytokine, interleukin-4, were undetectable. Age was observed to have a significant effect on the levels of specific cytokines. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) correlated inversely (P less than .02) with age such that the younger the child, the higher the level of IL-1 in MEE. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) correlated directly (P less than .005) with age such that the older the child, the higher the level of TNF in MEE. Children undergoing tympanostomy on multiple occasions had average MEE TNF levels (234.2 +/- 109.1 pg/mg total protein) that were nearly 14 times higher (P less than .005) than those from children undergoing their first tympanostomy (16.9 +/- 3.0 pg/mg total protein). Thus IL-1 correlated with the early stages of COME, while TNF correlated with persistence of disease. The presence of these cytokines in MEE may be responsible for the mucosal damage, bone erosion, fibrosis, and resulting hearing loss seen in some cases of COME. PMID:1992267

  1. Molecular evolution of the vertebrate mechanosensory cell and ear

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Beisel, Kirk W.; Pauley, Sarah; Soukup, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of mechanosensation, mechanosensory cell development and mechanosensory organ development is reviewed with an emphasis on its evolution. In contrast to eye evolution and development, which apparently modified a genetic program through intercalation of genes between the master control genes on the top (Pax6, Eya1, Six1) of the hierarchy and the structural genes (rhodopsin) at the bottom, the as yet molecularly unknown mechanosensory channel precludes such a firm conclusion for mechanosensors. However, recent years have seen the identification of several structural genes which are involved in mechanosensory tethering and several transcription factors controlling mechanosensory cell and organ development; these warrant the interpretation of available data in very much the same fashion as for eye evolution: molecular homology combined with potential morphological parallelism. This assertion of molecular homology is strongly supported by recent findings of a highly conserved set of microRNAs that appear to be associated with mechanosensory cell development across phyla. The conservation of transcription factors and their regulators fits very well to the known or presumed mechanosensory specializations which can be mostly grouped as variations of a common cellular theme. Given the widespread distribution of the molecular ability to form mechanosensory cells, it comes as no surprise that structurally different mechanosensory organs evolved in different phyla, presenting a variation of a common theme specified by a conserved set of transcription factors in their cellular development. Within vertebrates and arthropods, some mechanosensory organs evolved into auditory organs, greatly increasing sensitivity to sound through modifications of accessory structures to direct sound to the specific sensory epithelia. However, while great attention has been paid to the evolution of these accessory structures in vertebrate fossils, comparatively less attention has

  2. The effects of fibrin tissue adhesive on the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Katzke, D; Pusalkar, A; Steinbach, E

    1983-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of fibrin glue ('Tissucol', Immuno Pty. Ltd.) in the middle and inner ear. Small amounts of the adhesive were used in 36 operations performed on 18 rabbits. The light microscopic examination of these ears four, eight and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the adhesive was well tolerated and that it did not have any toxic effect on the middle ear or membranous labyrinth. The fibrin tissue adhesive can therefore safely be used to facilitate reconstructive middle-ear surgery and, with the aid of fascia, also for the closure of labyrinthine fistulae; or to achieve a definite seal of oval window niche after stapes surgery. PMID:6600776

  3. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  4. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  5. EARS, MARS combined radio observations - 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomezzoli, Giancarlo

    2014-02-01

    The Lyrid meteor shower was generated on 21-22 April 2014 by the passage of the Earth through the path of the debris of the comet C/1861 G1 (Thatcher). The Camelopardalids meteor shower was generated on 23-24 May 2014 by the passage of the Earth through the path of the debris of the comet 209P/Linear. The EurAstro Radio Station (EARS) and the Malta Astro Radio Station (MARS) were operated in parallel for two combined radio observation campaigns. The campaigns revealed that further combined radio observation campaigns are necessary to solve the problem of estimating the number of lost radio meteor echoes.

  6. Morphometric study of the external and middle ear anatomy in sheep: a possible model for ear experiments.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Valter Alberto Ayres; Lavinsky, Luiz; De Oliveira, José Alfredo Preto

    2006-09-01

    Sheep are a potentially useful model for otologic surgical training and experimentation, currently limited by the scarcity of morphological comparisons between the structure of the ear in sheep and in humans. A detailed morphometric study of the ear in sheep was carried out using computed tomography. Measurements made with AutoCAD Release 14 were compared with measurements for the human ear reported in the literature. In general, ear structures in sheep are two-thirds the size of those in humans. The important anatomical similarities found in this study between the ear in sheep and in humans suggest that sheep may be a useful model for surgical training and experimentation in some middle ear procedures. PMID:16287111

  7. Protective effect of small molecule analogues of the Acanthocheilonema viteae secreted product ES-62 on oxazolone-induced ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Rodgers, David T.; Rzepecka, Justyna; Pineda, Miguel A.; Suckling, Colin J.; Harnett, Margaret M.; Harnett, William

    2015-01-01

    ES-62 is the major secreted protein of the rodent filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae. The molecule contains covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues, which confer anti-inflammatory properties on ES-62, underpinning the idea that drugs based on this active moiety may have therapeutic potential in human diseases associated with aberrant inflammation. Here we demonstrate that two synthetic small molecule analogues (SMAs) of ES-62 termed SMA 11a and SMA 12b are protective in the oxazolone-induced acute allergic contact dermatitis mouse model of skin inflammation, as measured by a significant reduction in ear inflammation following their administration before oxazolone sensitisation and before oxazolone challenge. Furthermore, it was found that when tested, 12b was effective at reducing ear swelling even when first administered before challenge. Histological analysis of the ears showed elevated cellular infiltration and collagen deposition in oxazolone-treated mice both of which were reduced by treatment with the two SMAs. Likewise, the oxazolone-induced increase in IFNγ mRNA in the ears was reduced but no effect on other cytokines investigated was observed. Finally, no influence on the mast cell populations in the ear was observed. PMID:25836375

  8. RABBIT EARS IS A SECOND-WHORL REPRESSOR OF AGAMOUS THAT MAINTAINS SPATIAL BOUNDARIES IN ARABIDOPSIS FLOWERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The RABBIT EARS (RBE) gene has been identified as a regulator of petal development in Arabidopsis thaliana. We find that second-whorl petals in rbe mutants can be replaced with staminoid organs, stamens or filaments and that some rbe flowers have increased numbers of sepals and exhibit fusion of sep...

  9. Notch signaling is active in normal mouse middle ear epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIANG; SHENG, HAI-BIN; MA, RUI; YANG, JUAN-MEI; LUO, WEN-WEI; YANG, XIAO-YU; REN, DONG-DONG; CHI, FANG-LU

    2016-01-01

    Mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia in the middle ear epithelium is associated with the occurrence of otitis media with effusion during infections. However, the mechanism by which Notch signaling regulates cell fate in the middle ear epithelium is unclear. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this mechanism by investigating the localization of Notch receptors, such as Notch1 and Notch2, and Notch ligands, such as Jagged1, in the normal mouse middle ear epithelium (NMMEE) using immunofluorescence. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of Notch receptors and ligands were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The effects of the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT) on epithelial cell proliferation were determined using 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining and immunofluorescence staining of the apoptosis marker caspase-3 and the epithelial proliferation marker pan-cytokeratine. In addition, the differentiation of the NMMEE cells was characterized by evaluating the mRNA expression levels of the mucous cell-associated genes Arg2, Muc2, Spdef, Spink4 and Tff1 using quantitative PCR. Notch1, Notch2 and Jagged1 were observed to be co-localized throughout the mouse middle ear epithelium. Furthermore, Notch1-4, Jagged1, Jagged2, Dll1 and Dll4 mRNAs were expressed in the NMMEE cells. The inhibition of Notch by DAPT resulted in fewer EdU-positive cells and the upregulation of the expression levels of various mucous cell-associated genes. The results indicate that DAPT suppresses the proliferation of NMMEE cells while promoting their differentiation into mucous cells. Therefore, DAPT may provide a specific therapeutic strategy for the reversal of multiple pathological processes that are associated with epithelium thickening in the middle ear. PMID:27168786

  10. Gabapentinoid Insensitivity after Repeated Administration is Associated with Down-Regulation of the α(2)δ-1 Subunit in Rats with Central Post-Stroke Pain Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Yang, Fei; Yang, Fan; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Yan; Li, Zhen; Lu, Yun-Fei; Yu, Yao-Qing; Fu, Han; He, Ting; Sun, Wei; Wang, Rui-Rui; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The α2δ-1 subunit of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) is a molecular target of gabapentin (GBP), which has been used as a first-line drug for the relief of neuropathic pain. GBP exerts its anti-nociceptive effects by disrupting trafficking of the α2δ-1 subunit to the presynaptic membrane, resulting in decreased neurotransmitter release. We previously showed that GBP has an anti-allodynic effect in the first two weeks; but this is followed by insensitivity in the later stage after repeated administration in a rat model of central post-stroke pain (CPSP) hypersensitivity induced by intra-thalamic hemorrhage. To explore the mechanisms underlying GBP insensitivity, the cellular localization and time-course of expression of the α2δ-1 subunit in both the thalamus and spinal dorsal horn were studied in the same model. We found that the α2δ-1 subunit was mostly localized in neurons, but not astrocytes and microglia. The level of α2δ-1 protein increased in the first two weeks after injury but then decreased in the third week, when GBP insensitivity occurred. Furthermore, the α2δ-1 down-regulation was likely caused by later neuronal loss in the injured thalamus through a mechanism other than apoptosis. In summary, the present results suggest that the GBP receptor α2δ-1 is mainly expressed in thalamic neurons in which it is up-regulated in the early stage of CPSP but this is followed by dramatic down-regulation, which is likely associated with GBP insensitivity after long-term use. PMID:26781878

  11. Vasopressin induces endolymphatic hydrops in mouse inner ear, as evaluated with repeated 9.4 T MRI.

    PubMed

    Degerman, Eva; In 't Zandt, René; Pålbrink, Ann-Ki; Magnusson, Måns

    2015-12-01

    From histopathological specimens, endolymphatic hydrops has been demonstrated in association with inner ear disorders. Recent studies have observed findings suggestive of hydrops using MRI in humans. Previous studies suggest that vasopressin may play a critical role in endolymph homeostasis and may be involved in the development of Ménière's disease. In this study we evaluate the effect of vasopressin administration in vivo in longitudinal studies using two mouse strains. High resolution MRI at 9.4 T in combination with intraperitoneally delivered Gadolinium contrast, was performed before and after chronic subcutaneous administration of vasopressin via mini-osmotic pumps in the same mouse. A development of endolymphatic hydrops over time could be demonstrated in C57BL6 mice (5 mice, 2 and 4 weeks of administration) as well as in CBA/J mice (4 mice, 2 weeks of administration; 6 mice, 3 and 4 weeks of administration). In most C57BL6 mice hydrops developed first after more than 2 weeks while CBA/J mice had an earlier response. These results may suggest an in vivo model for studying endolymphatic hydrops and corroborates the future use of MRI as a tool in the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear diseases, such as Ménière's disease. MRI may also be developed as a critical tool in evaluating inner ear homeostasis in genetically modified mice, to augment the understanding of human disease. PMID:26048336

  12. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the

  13. CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Thong Ho; Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O.

    1996-03-01

    A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  14. [Significance of the ear in the determination of age].

    PubMed

    Röhm, E; Adam, E

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

  15. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  16. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  17. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  18. Alternative Ear-Canal Measures Related to Absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. SIL and FPL have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared to sound pressure level (SPL) because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. TDR may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle-ear pathology. CR reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation. PMID:23900185

  19. Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

    2008-01-01

    Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed. PMID:18061545

  20. SoxC transcription factors are essential for the development of the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells, the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear, underlie the senses of hearing and balance. Adult mammals cannot adequately replenish lost hair cells, whose loss often results in deafness or balance disorders. To determine the molecular basis of this deficiency, we investigated the development of a murine vestibular organ, the utricle. Here we show that two members of the SoxC family of transcription factors, Sox4 and Sox11, are down-regulated after the epoch of hair cell development. Conditional ablation of SoxC genes in vivo results in stunted sensory organs of the inner ear and loss of hair cells. Enhanced expression of SoxC genes in vitro conversely restores supporting cell proliferation and the production of new hair cells in adult sensory epithelia. These results imply that SoxC genes govern hair cell production and thus advance these genes as targets for the restoration of hearing and balance. PMID:26504244