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Sample records for administration serial blood

  1. Serial Determinations of Blood Lactate in Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beca, J. P.; Scopes, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Blood lactate was measured 4-hourly in 21 newborn babies with respiratory distress syndrome, of whom 13 survived and 8 died. In general, lactate levels were higher in babies who died than in survivors, but there were inconsistencies which were uninterpretable if only a single estimation were made in a baby. Analysis of serial determinations showed that all patients in whom the lactate level never exceeded 35 mg/100 ml survived, and babies with high but falling values also did well. Only those who had rising lactate values, even if initially normal, died. In most cases a high or normal Pao2 was associated with normal or decreasing lactate level; but babies with Pao2 below 60 mmHg had often also normal or decreasing lactate levels. Some babies had high and increasing lactate levels despite having normal Pao2. In order to use lactate levels for prognosis in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) serial determinations are required. It is concluded that there may be a wide range of hypoxaemia without oxygen deficit in body tissues, so that it is not possible to define a `lower acceptable Pao2' which will define adequate tissue oxygenation. PMID:5046772

  2. Canine bone blood flow measurements using serial microsphere injections.

    PubMed

    McGrory, B J; Moran, C G; Bronk, J; Weaver, A L; Wood, M B

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reproducibility of serial bone blood flow (BBF) quantitation using multiple microsphere injections. Three consecutive estimates of BBF were obtained, using 15-mu radionuclide-labeled microspheres from 21 anesthetized adult dogs. A dose of 3 million spheres/kg was used in seven dogs (Cohort 1); a dose of 0.5 million spheres/kg was used in the remaining 14 dogs (Cohorts 2 and 3). Estimates of BBF were made at an average of 129, 153, and 175 minutes after the animals had been anesthetized in the first two cohorts and 179, 203, and 225 minutes in Cohort 3. The dogs in Cohort 1 had no surgical intervention; the dogs in Cohorts 2 and 3 had increasingly complex surgical interventions. Despite stabilization of cardiovascular status, BBF was found to vary by 33.4% in Cohort 1, 25.7% in Cohort 2, and 42.5% in Cohort 3 over the three injections. Cortical BBF fell by 13.9%, 12.1%, and 12.4% between the first and second, and by 31.0%, 11.2%, and 29.9% between the second and third estimates for Cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Variation in right to left blood flow was used as an overall measure of error caused by technique and did not consistently increase between the first, second, or third BBF estimates in any cohort. Cortical BBF data were found to be significantly more reliable than cancellous data (p < 0.01); error caused by technique was least in the midshaft femoral or midshaft humeral cortical samples. Increasing the dose of spheres administered from 0.5 to 3 million/kg for three serial microsphere injections increased the number of reliable samples and did not lead to increased technical error or shunting. This study demonstrates that there is a significant decrease in BBF over time in the anesthetized dog; therefore, serial estimates of BBF can only be interpreted if the results are normalized or if a control group of animals is included.

  3. Changes in serial blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, S J; Karchmer, S; Schnaas, L; Perroni, E; Zea, F; Fernández Alba, J

    1994-01-01

    The first step in modeling lead kinetics during pregnancy includes a description of sequential maternal blood lead (PbB) during pregnancy and the factors controlling it. We analyzed PbB of 105 women living in the Valley of Mexico from week 12 to week 36 of pregnancy and again at parturition. We also used data from all women contributing blood at any stage of pregnancy to determine antecedents of PbB. Pregnancies were uneventful, and offspring were normal. Although geometric mean PbB level averaged around 7.0 micrograms/dl (0.34 mumol/l), with a range of 1.0-35.5 micrograms/dl throughout pregnancy, analysis of variance revealed a significant decrease in mean PbB from week 12 to week 20 (1.1 micrograms/dl) and various significant increases in mean PbB from week 20 to parturition (1.6 micrograms/dl). Regression analyses confirmed the positive linear PbB trend from 20 weeks to parturition and additional contributions of dietary calcium, reproductive history, lifetime residence of Mexico City, coffee drinking, and use of indigenous lead-glazed pottery. Although decreasing hematocrit has been suggested to explain first-half pregnancy PbB decrease, the time course of hematocrit decrease in the present study did not match the sequential changes in PbB. While hemodilution and organ growth in the first half of pregnancy may account for much of the PbB decrease seen between 12 and 20 weeks, the remaining hemodilution and accelerated organ growth of the last half of pregnancy do not predict the trend toward increasing maternal PbB concentration from 20 weeks to delivery. Mobilization of bone lead, increased gut absorption, and increased retention of lead may explain part of the upward PbB trend in the second half of pregnancy. Reduction of lifetime lead exposure may be required to decrease risk of fetal exposure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9644197

  4. [Automated serial diagnosis of donor blood samples. Ergonomic and economic organization structure].

    PubMed

    Stoll, T; Fischer-Fröhlich, C L; Mayer, G; Hanfland, P

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive computer-aided administration-system for blood-donors is presented. Ciphered informations of barcode-labels allow the automatic and nevertheless selective pipetting of samples by pipetting-robots. Self-acting analysis-results are transferred to a host-computer in order to actualize a donor data-base.

  5. Vascular Access Port Implantation and Serial Blood Sampling in a Gottingen Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Acute Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Coolbaugh, Thea V; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Lombardini, Eric; Moccia, Krinon D; Shelton, Larry J; Nagy, Vitaly; Whitnall, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing, but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. Because of their similarity to humans in regard to physiology and anatomy, we are characterizing Gottingen minipigs as a model to aid the development of radiation countermeasures. Irradiated minipigs exhibit immunosuppression, severe thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and acute inflammation. These complications render serial acquisition of blood samples problematic. Vascular access ports (VAP) facilitate serial sampling, but their use often is complicated by infections and fibrin deposition. We demonstrate here the successful use of VAP for multiple blood samplings in irradiated minipigs. Device design and limited postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before irradiation were key to obtaining serial sampling, reducing swelling, and eliminating infection and skin necrosis at the implantation site. Modifications of previous protocols included the use of polydioxanone sutures instead of silk; eliminating chronic port access; single-use, sterile, antireflux prefilled syringes for flushing; strict aseptic weekly maintenance of the device, and acclimating animals to reduce stress. VAP remained functional in 19 of 20 irradiated animals for as long as 3 mo. The remaining VAP failed due to a small leak in the catheter, leading to clot formation. VAP-related sepsis occurred in 2 minipigs. Blood sampling did not cause detectable stress in nonanesthetized sham-irradiated animals, according to leukograms and clinical signs. PMID:21333166

  6. Blood-component therapy: selection, administration and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chiaramonte, Deirdre

    2004-05-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a frequent necessity in small animal practice. Transfusion medicine has become more sophisticated with increased access to blood components, knowledge of blood types, and cross-matching requirements. Although potentially life saving, this procedure does carry some risk. In addition to selecting the appropriate blood product, several steps need to be completed to prepare the product for administration and the patient for receiving a transfusion. PMID:15179925

  7. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-03-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats--an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques. PMID:27025813

  8. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-01-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague–Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats—an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques. PMID:27025813

  9. INCREASING AND PROLONGING BLOOD PENICILLIN CONCENTRATIONS FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    PubMed

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Favour, C B

    1945-06-29

    (1) Restriction of fluid intake to 1,500 cc and the salt intake to 3 gm a day doubles the penicillin blood level following interrupted intramuscular [See Figure in the PDF file] injections of penicillin. (2) The administration of benzoic acid to a patient on an unrestricted diet Ilay double the penicillin blood level during similar treatment. (3) The combination of these two procedures results in a four- to eight-fold increase in penicillin blood level with a prolonged effective blood concentration.

  10. FDA seeks temporary blood donor changes. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has requested that blood collection agencies exclude donors at risk of Group O HIV, following two cases identified in 1996. Group O is very rare in the United States. Blood donors would be excluded if they were born or lived in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Niger or Nigeria since 1977, or had sexual conduct with anyone traveling to those areas. The number of excluded donors would be minute.

  11. Serial follow-up of repeat voluntary blood donors reactive for anti-HCV ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, N.; Tulsiani, Sunita; Desai, Priti; Shah, Ripal; Mathur, Ankit; Harimoorthy, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Voluntary non-remunerated repeat blood donors are perceived to be safer than the first time blood donors. This study was planned for follow-up of previous hepatitis C virus (HCV) test results of anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactive repeat blood donors. The aim was to suggest a protocol for re-entry of the blood donors who are confirmed HCV negative by nucleic acid test (NAT) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). A group of repeat voluntary donors were followed retrospectively who became reactive on a cross sectional study and showed HCV reactivity while donating blood regularly. Material and Methods: A total of 51,023 voluntary non remunerated blood donors were screened for anti-HCV ELISA routinely. If anybody showed positivity, they were tested by two ELISA kits (screening and confirmatory) and then confirmed infection status by NAT and or RIBA. The previous HCV test results of repeat donors reactive by anti-HCV ELISA were looked back from the records. Data of donors who were repeat reactive with single ELISA kit (in the present study) were analyzed separately from those reactive with two ELISA kits (in the present study). Results: In this study, 140 (0.27%) donors who were reactive by anti HCV ELISA were included. Out of them, 35 were repeat voluntary donors and 16 (11.43%) were reactive with single ELISA kit. All 16 donors were reactive by single ELISA kit occasionally in previous donations. Their present ELISA positive donations were negative for HCV NAT and RIBA. A total of 19 (13.57%) donors were reactive with two ELISA kits. In their previous donations, the donors who were reactive even once with two ELISA kits were consistently reactive by the same two ELISA kits in their next donations also. Conclusion: Donor sample reactive by only single ELISA kit may not be considered as infectious for disposal as they were negative by NAT and or RIBA. One time ELISA positivity was found probably due to ELISA kit specificity and

  12. Quantification of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in conscious mice using serial blood and urine spots.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Theo H; Boer, Theo S; Havinga, Rick; Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2003-11-01

    In vivo studies of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in (genetically modified) conscious mice are hampered by limitations of blood and urine sample sizes. We developed and validated methods to quantify stable isotope dilution and incorporation in small blood and urine samples spotted onto filter paper. Blood glucose and urinary paracetamol-glucuronic acid were extracted from filter paper spots reproducibly and with high yield. Fractional isotopomer distributions of glucose and paracetamol-glucuronic acid when extracted from filter paper spots were almost identical to those isolated from the original body fluids. Rates of infusion of labeled compounds could be adjusted without perturbing hepatic glucose metabolism. This approach was used in mice to find the optimal metabolic condition for the study of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. In fed mice, no isotopic steady state was observed during a 6-h label-infusion experiment. In 9-h-fasted mice, isotopic steady state was reached after 3 h of label infusion and important parameters in hepatic glucose metabolism could be calculated. The rate of de novo glucose-6-phosphate synthesis was 143 +/- 17 micromol kg(-1) min(-1) and partitioning to plasma glucose was 79.0 +/- 5.2%. In 24-h-fasted mice, abrupt changes were noticed in whole body and in hepatic glucose metabolism at the end of the experiment.

  13. Persistent neuroinflammatory effects of serial exposure to stress and methamphetamine on the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Northrop, Nicole A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2012-12-01

    Studies of methamphetamine (Meth)-induced neurotoxicity have traditionally focused on monoaminergic terminal damage while more recent studies have found that stress exacerbates these damaging effects of Meth. Similarities that exist between the mechanisms that cause monoaminergic terminal damage in response to stress and Meth and those capable of producing a disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) suggest that the well-known high co-morbidity of stress and Meth could produce long-lasting structural and functional BBB disruption. The current studies examined the role of neuroinflammation in mediating the effects of exposure to chronic stress and/or Meth on BBB structure and function. Rats were pre-exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and/or challenged with Meth. Twenty-four hours after the treatment of Meth in rats pre-exposed to CUS, occludin and claudin-5 immunoreactivity were decreased while truncation of β-dystroglycan, as well as FITC-dextran and water extravasation was increased. All changes other than β-dystroglycan and edema persisted 7 days later, occurred with increases in GFAP and COX-2, and were blocked by ketoprofen after Meth treatment. In addition, persistent increases in FITC-dextran extravasation were prevented by treatment with an EP1 receptor antagonist after Meth exposure. The results indicate that CUS and Meth synergize to produce long-lasting structural and functional BBB disruptions that are mediated by cyclooxygenase and protracted increases in inflammation. These results suggest that stress and Meth can synergize to produce a long-lasting vulnerability of the brain to subsequent environmental insults resulting from the persistent breach of the BBB.

  14. Failure of acute and chronic administration of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol to affect the repeated acquisition of serial position response in pigeons.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D E

    1988-01-01

    Pigeons were trained to acquire a new four-response position sequence each day by pecking three response keys in a predetermined order. The key color varied after each correct response prior to food delivery. Acute administration of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) up to a dose that completely eliminated responding, had no effect on total acquisition errors, or on within session patterns of error elimination. Chronic administration of delta 9-THC (3-10 mg/kg/day), either before or after the session for 4-7 weeks, also did not affect these error measures, although rates of responding were markedly suppressed and at times no responding occurred. Discontinuation of delta 9-THC administration for periods of 4-6 weeks also was without effect on errors. These experiments suggest that neither acute nor chronic delta 9-THC produce specific effects on the repeated acquisition of serial position responses in pigeons.

  15. The Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Blood Cells: An Efficient Protocol Using Serial Plating of Reprogrammed Cells by Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngkyun; Yi, Hyoju; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated great potential for differentiation into diverse tissues. We report a straightforward and highly efficient method for the generation of iPSCs from PBMCs. By plating the cells serially to a newly coated plate by centrifugation, this protocol provides multiple healthy iPSC colonies even from a small number of PBMCs. The generated iPSCs expressed pluripotent markers and differentiated into all three germ layer lineages. The protocol can also be used with umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). In this study, we present a simple and efficient protocol that improved the yield of iPSCs from floating cells such as PBMCs and CBMCs by serial plating and centrifugation. PMID:27579041

  16. The Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Blood Cells: An Efficient Protocol Using Serial Plating of Reprogrammed Cells by Centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngkyun; Rim, Yeri Alice; Yi, Hyoju; Park, Narae; Park, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated great potential for differentiation into diverse tissues. We report a straightforward and highly efficient method for the generation of iPSCs from PBMCs. By plating the cells serially to a newly coated plate by centrifugation, this protocol provides multiple healthy iPSC colonies even from a small number of PBMCs. The generated iPSCs expressed pluripotent markers and differentiated into all three germ layer lineages. The protocol can also be used with umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). In this study, we present a simple and efficient protocol that improved the yield of iPSCs from floating cells such as PBMCs and CBMCs by serial plating and centrifugation. PMID:27579041

  17. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won Sup; Chon, Sung-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)-1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model.

  18. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)–1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model. PMID:27134507

  19. Could selenium administration alleviate the disturbances of blood parameters caused by lithium administration in rats?

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Lewandowska, Anna; Żelazowska, Renata; Musik, Irena

    2014-06-01

    Lithium is widely used in medicine, but its administration can cause numerous side effects. The present study aimed at the evaluation of the possible application of selenium, an essential and antioxidant element, as a protective agent against lithium toxicity. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control)-treated with saline, II (Li)-treated with lithium (Li2CO3), III (Se)-treated with selenium (Na2SeO3) and IV (Li + Se)-treated with lithium and selenium (Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3) in the form of water solutions by stomach tube for 6 weeks. The following biochemical parameters were measured: concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, total protein and albumin and activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Morphological parameters such as red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, white blood cells, neutrophils as well as lymphocytes were determined. Lithium significantly increased serum calcium and glucose (2.65 ± 0.17 vs. 2.43 ± 0.11; 162 ± 31 vs. 121 ± 14, respectively), whereas magnesium and albumin were decreased (1.05 ± 0.08 vs. 1.21 ± 0.15; 3.85. ± 0.12 vs. 4.02 ± 0.08, respectively). Selenium given with lithium restored these parameters to values similar to those observed in the control (Ca-2.49 ± 0.08, glucose-113 ± 26, Mg-1.28 ± 0.09, albumin-4.07 ± 0.11). Se alone or co-administered with Li significantly increased aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione peroxidase. The obtained outcomes let us suggest that the continuation of research on the application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy seems warranted.

  20. Blood Donor Locator Service--Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    1991-12-24

    We are issuing these final regulations to govern the Blood Donor Locator Service, which we will establish and conduct, as required by section 8008 of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-647). Under these regulations, we will furnish to participating States at their request the last known personal mailing address (residence or post office box) of blood donors whose blood donation shows that they are or may be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome, if the State or an authorized blood donation facility has been unable to locate the donors. If our records or those of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) contain an adequate personal mailing address for the donor, we will provide it to the State so that the State or the blood donation facility can inform the donor that he or she may need medical care and treatment. PMID:10116070

  1. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  2. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume.

  3. Quality Improvement Methodologies Increase Autologous Blood Product Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Ashley B.; Preston, Thomas J.; Fitch, Jill A.; Harrison, Sheilah K.; Hersey, Diane K.; Nicol, Kathleen K.; Naguib, Aymen N.; McConnell, Patrick I.; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Whole blood from the heart–lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients’ charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  4. Investigating the impact of blood pressure increase to the brain using high resolution serial histology and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, F.; Castonguay, A.; Tardif, P. L.; Lefebvre, J.; Li, B.

    2015-09-01

    A combined serial OCT/confocal scanner was designed to image large sections of biological tissues at microscopic resolution. Serial imaging of organs embedded in agarose blocks is performed by cutting through tissue using a vibratome which sequentially cuts slices in order to reveal new tissue to image, overcoming limited light penetration encountered in microscopy. Two linear stages allow moving the tissue with respect to the microscope objective, acquiring a 2D grid of volumes (1x1x0.3 mm) with OCT and a 2D grid of images (1x1mm) with the confocal arm. This process is repeated automatically, until the entire sample is imaged. Raw data is then post-processed to re-stitch each individual acquisition and obtain a reconstructed volume of the imaged tissue. This design is being used to investigate correlations between white matter and microvasculature changes with aging and with increase in pulse pressure following transaortic constriction in mice. The dual imaging capability of the system allowed to reveal different contrast information: OCT imaging reveals changes in refractive indices giving contrast between white and grey matter in the mouse brain, while transcardial perfusion of FITC or pre-sacrifice injection of Evans Blue shows microsvasculature properties in the brain with confocal imaging.

  5. [Experience with a microcomputer-controlled blood bank administration system in the blood bank of the Hannover Medical University].

    PubMed

    Raufmann, W; Stangel, W

    1990-01-01

    During the last three years two components of a modular administration system were implemented in the blood bank of the Medical University of Hannover (MHH). Considering the integration of the blood bank system to the central hospital information system of the clinic the aspect of independence and self-controlling by the blood bank was the most important point. This goal was reached by a couple of PC's which are compounded by a local area network (LAN). This LAN can communicate with the host of the computer center of the MHH. By this way the short staff capacity was not stressed more than absolute necessary by taking over all parameters of the central data base. On the other hand all functions for administrating the blood bank were in self-responsibility of the department. This concept of different modules has the possibility of using single parts like donor- or storage-system in other blood banks without implementing the whole system.

  6. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling.'' FDA is issuing this guidance with labeling recommendations because of concerns that both healthcare providers and patients...

  7. Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis does not explain the intra-administration hyperthermic sign-reversal induced by serial administrations of 60% nitrous oxide to rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Noori, Salwa; Ramsay, Douglas S; Cimpan, Andreas; Maltzer, Zoe; Zou, Jessie; Kaiyala, Karl J

    2016-08-01

    Initial administration of ≥60% nitrous oxide (N2O) to rats promotes hypothermia primarily by increasing whole-body heat loss. We hypothesized that the drug promotes heat loss via the tail and might initially inhibit thermogenesis via brown adipose tissue (BAT), major organs of thermoregulation in rodents. Following repeated administrations, N2O inhalation evokes hyperthermia underlain by increased whole-body heat production. We hypothesized that elevated BAT thermogenesis plays a role in this thermoregulatory sign reversal. Using dual probe telemetric temperature implants and infrared (IR) thermography, we assessed the effects of nine repeated 60% N2O administrations compared to control (con) administrations on core temperature, BAT temperature, lumbar back temperature and tail temperature. Telemetric core temperature, telemetric BAT temperature, and IR BAT temperature were reduced significantly during initial 60% N2O inhalation (p≤0.001 compared to con). IR thermography revealed that acute N2O administration unexpectedly reduced tail temperature (p=0.0001) and also inhibited IR lumbar temperature (p<0.0001). In the 9th session, N2O inhalation significantly increased telemetric core temperature (p=0.007) indicative of a hyperthermic sign reversal, yet compared to control administrations, telemetric BAT temperature (p=0.86), IR BAT temperature (p=0.85) and tail temperature (p=0.47) did not differ significantly. Thus, an initial administration of 60% N2O at 21°C may promote hypothermia via reduced BAT thermogenesis accompanied by tail vasoconstriction as a compensatory mechanism to limit body heat loss. Following repeated N2O administrations rats exhibit a hyperthermic core temperature but a normalized BAT temperature, suggesting induction of a hyperthermia-promoting thermogenic adaptation of unknown origin. PMID:27503733

  8. Serial Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

  9. Blood pressure-lowering effect and duration of action of bedtime administration of doxazosin determined by home blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Gonokami, Kenta; Obara, Taku; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Katada, Sakiko; Hara, Azusa; Metoki, Hirohito; Asayama, Kei; Kikuya, Masahiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    The effects and duration of action of bedtime administration of doxazosin 2 mg for 4 weeks on uncontrolled morning home hypertension were investigated. Morning home blood pressure (HBP) was significantly lowered by bedtime administration of doxazosin. Doxazosin significantly lowered evening HBP only in the subgroup of patients with an uncontrolled evening HBP. The evening (E)/morning (M) ratio was greater in patients with an uncontrolled evening HBP than in those with a controlled evening HBP. The results suggest that bedtime administration of doxazosin effectively suppresses morning HBP in uncontrolled morning hypertensives and lowers evening HBP in uncontrolled evening hypertensives.

  10. Disruption of Performance in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task Induced by Administration of NMDA Receptor Antagonists: Relevance to Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Nurith; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients suffer from cognitive impairments that are not satisfactorily treated by currently available medications. Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia encompasses deficits in several cognitive modalities that can be differentially responsive to different medications and are likely to be mediated by different neurobiological substrates. Translational animal models of cognitive deficits with relevance to schizophrenia are critical for gaining insights into the mechanisms underlying these impairments and developing more effective treatments. The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a cognitive task used in rodents that allows simultaneous assessment of several cognitive modalities, including attention, response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists disrupts multiple 5-CSRTT performance measures in a way that mirrors various cognitive deficits exhibited by schizophrenia patients. Some of these disruptions are partially attenuated by antipsychotic medications that exhibit partial effectiveness on cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, suggesting that the model has predictive validity. Examination of the effects of pharmacological manipulations on 5-CSRTT performance disruptions induced by NMDA antagonists have implicated a range of brain regions, neurotransmitter systems, and specific receptor subtypes in schizophrenia-like impairment of different cognitive modalities. Thus, disruption of 5-CSRTT performance by NMDA antagonists represents a valuable tool for exploring the neurobiological bases of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:20488434

  11. A dramatic drop in blood pressure following prehospital GTN administration.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Malcolm J

    2007-03-01

    A male in his sixties with no history of cardiac chest pain awoke with chest pain following an afternoon sleep. The patient did not self medicate. The patient's observations were within normal limits, he was administered oxygen via a face mask and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Several minutes after the GTN the patient experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure and heart rate, this was rectified by atropine sulphate and a fluid challenge. There was no further deterioration in the patient's condition during transport to hospital. There are very few documented case like this in the prehospital scientific literature. The cause appears to be the Bezold-Jarish reflex, stimulation of the ventricular walls which in turn decreases sympathetic outflow from the vasomotor centre. Prehospital care providers who are managing any patient with a syncopal episode that fails to recover within a reasonable time frame should consider the Bezold-Jarisch reflex as the cause and manage the patient accordingly.

  12. Blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents

    PubMed Central

    OCHIAI, Yuichiro; IWANO, Hidetomo; SAKAMOTO, Takako; HIRABAYASHI, Manabu; KANEKO, Eiji; WATANABE, Toshihiko; YAMASHITA, Kazuto; YOKOTA, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, from the viewpoint of animal welfare, anesthesia or analgesia is required during experimental procedures in animals that are likely to cause pain. A part of these anesthetics have been reported to influence a blood biochemical level. It is important for us to understand the effect of the anesthetic on blood biochemistry when we choose the anesthetic agent to be used in experiments. In this study, we examined the blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a new mixture of three anesthetic agents −medetomidine / midazolam / butorphanol (MMB). We subcutaneously administered two dose combinations of MMB (0.45 / 6 / 7.5 and 0.9 / 12 / 15 mg/kg) in mice, followed by administration of atipamezole, for reversal of anesthetic effects, after 1 hr. Thereafter, blood biochemistry was assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr after MMB administration. We observed that MMB administration caused a transient increase in blood sugar, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and creatine kinase levels. These, however, returned to the reference range 24 hr after MMB administration. In conclusion, MMB changes the levels of some blood biochemical parameters, but not to an extent that would threaten health. However, when using laboratory animals, this effect of MMB may influence the experimental results, depending on the experimental content. Hence, the choice of anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects. PMID:26902544

  13. Blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Yuichiro; Iwano, Hidetomo; Sakamoto, Takako; Hirabayashi, Manabu; Kaneko, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Currently, from the viewpoint of animal welfare, anesthesia or analgesia is required during experimental procedures in animals that are likely to cause pain. A part of these anesthetics have been reported to influence a blood biochemical level. It is important for us to understand the effect of the anesthetic on blood biochemistry when we choose the anesthetic agent to be used in experiments. In this study, we examined the blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a new mixture of three anesthetic agents -medetomidine / midazolam / butorphanol (MMB). We subcutaneously administered two dose combinations of MMB (0.45 / 6 / 7.5 and 0.9 / 12 / 15 mg/kg) in mice, followed by administration of atipamezole, for reversal of anesthetic effects, after 1 hr. Thereafter, blood biochemistry was assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr after MMB administration. We observed that MMB administration caused a transient increase in blood sugar, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and creatine kinase levels. These, however, returned to the reference range 24 hr after MMB administration. In conclusion, MMB changes the levels of some blood biochemical parameters, but not to an extent that would threaten health. However, when using laboratory animals, this effect of MMB may influence the experimental results, depending on the experimental content. Hence, the choice of anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects. PMID:26902544

  14. MRI measurement of oxygen extraction fraction, mean vessel size and cerebral blood volume using serial hyperoxia and hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Germuska, Michael; Bulte, Daniel P

    2014-05-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging measures signal increases arising from a variety of interrelated effects and physiological sources. Recently there has been some success in disentangling this signal in order to quantify baseline physiological parameters, including the resting oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean vessel size. However, due to the complicated nature of the signal, each of these methods relies on certain physiological assumptions to derive a solution. In this work we present a framework for the simultaneous, voxelwise measurement of these three parameters. The proposed method removes the assumption of a fixed vessel size from the quantification of OEF and CBV, while simultaneously removing the need for an assumed OEF in the calculation of vessel size. The new framework is explored through simulations and validated with a pilot study in healthy volunteers. The MRI protocol uses a combined hyperoxia and hypercapnia paradigm with a modified spin labelling sequence collecting multi-slice gradient echo and spin echo data.

  15. Patient Safety with Blood Products Administration Using Wireless and Bar-Code Technology

    PubMed Central

    Porcella, Aleta; Walker, Kristy

    2005-01-01

    Supported by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics interdisciplinary research team created an online data-capture-response tool utilizing wireless mobile devices and bar code technology to track and improve blood products administration process. The tool captures 1) sample collection, 2) sample arrival in the blood bank, 3) blood product dispense from blood bank, and 4) administration. At each step, the scanned patient wristband ID bar code is automatically compared to scanned identification barcode on requisition, sample, and/or product, and the system presents either a confirmation or an error message to the user. Following an eight-month, 5 unit, staged pilot, a ‘big bang,’ hospital-wide implementation occurred on February 7, 2005. Pilot period and preliminary house-wide data indicate improved error capture with the new barcode process over the old manual process. PMID:16779113

  16. Patient safety with blood products administration using wireless and bar-code technology.

    PubMed

    Porcella, Aleta; Walker, Kristy

    2005-01-01

    Supported by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics interdisciplinary research team created an online data-capture-response tool utilizing wireless mobile devices and bar code technology to track and improve blood products administration process. The tool captures 1) sample collection, 2) sample arrival in the blood bank, 3) blood product dispense from blood bank, and 4) administration. At each step, the scanned patient wristband ID bar code is automatically compared to scanned identification barcode on requisition, sample, and/or product, and the system presents either a confirmation or an error message to the user. Following an eight-month, 5 unit, staged pilot, a 'big bang,' hospital-wide implementation occurred on February 7, 2005. Preliminary results from pilot data indicate that the new barcode process captures errors 3 to 10 times better than the old manual process.

  17. The role of the small intestine in ammonia production after gastric blood administration.

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, S P; Revhaug, A; Wilmore, D W

    1987-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the digestion of intraluminal blood by colonic bacteria is the primary cause of increased ammonia production after upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. To evaluate the role of the small intestine in ammonia production, blood, amino acids, or water (5 mL/kg) was administered as a meal or enema to awake dogs with chronic indwelling catheters. After blood meals, intestinal ammonia production increased rapidly to peak at 60 minutes and returned to basal levels. This response was mimicked by the gastric administration of ammoniagenic amino acids. No change in ammonia production occurred with water administration. In contrast, colonic blood administration resulted in a gradual rise in ammonia production, and peaked at 150 minutes. Amino acid enemas resulted in a similar but somewhat more rapid response. No change occurred with water enemas. After gut decontamination, ammonia production did not increase after blood enemas. However, the rapid increase in ammonia production persisted after blood meals. It is concluded that both the small bowel and colon participate in the augmented ammonia production that occurs after upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Gut decontamination reduces ammonia production by altering the colonic microflora, but is not specific therapy directed towards amino acid metabolism by the enterocytes of the small bowel and thus, does not alter the ammonia produced by the small intestine. PMID:3496861

  18. Reactivity of retinal blood flow to 100% oxygen breathing after lipopolysaccharide administration in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kolodjaschna, Julia; Berisha, Fatmire; Lasta, Michael; Polska, Elzbieta; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2008-08-01

    Administration of low doses of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) to humans enables the study of inflammatory mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the retinal vascular reactivity after LPS infusion. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study, 18 healthy male volunteers received 20 IU/kg LPS or placebo as an intravenous bolus infusion. Outcome parameters were measured at baseline and 4h after LPS/placebo administration. At baseline and at 4h after administration a short period of 100% oxygen inhalation was used to assess retinal vasoreactivity to this stimulus. Perimacular white blood cell velocity, density and flux were assessed with the blue-field entoptic technique, retinal branch arterial and venous diameters were measured with a retinal vessel analyzer and red blood cell velocity in retinal branch veins was measured with laser Doppler velocimetry. LPS is associated with peripheral blood leukocytosis and increased white blood cell density in ocular microvessels (p<0.001). In addition, retinal arterial (p=0.02) and venous (p<0.01) diameters were increased. All retinal hemodynamic parameters showed a decrease during 100% oxygen breathing. This decrease was significantly blunted by LPS for all retinal outcome parameters except venous diameter (p=0.04 for white blood cell velocity, p=0.0002 for white blood cell density, p<0.0001 for white blood cell flux, p=0.01 for arterial diameter, p=0.02 for red blood cell velocity and p=0.006 for red blood cell flux). These data indicate that LPS-induced inflammation induces vascular dysregulation in the retina. This may provide a link between inflammation and vascular dysregulation. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether this model may be suitable to study inflammation induced vascular dysregulation in the eye.

  19. [Experiences with a Token Ring Network in blood bank administration of the Hannover medical university].

    PubMed

    Raufmann, W; Stangel, W

    1991-01-01

    The Token Ring Network is a Local Area Network of IBM. It is a very helpful tool for modulating working processes by personal computers. The Token Ring is a network of the third generation and constructed like a star net. The blood bank of the Medical University of Hannover (MHH) is using the Token Ring for the administration of blood storage and donors. Medical data of foreign laboratories are transmitted into the blood bank computer. During the last year, we had no difficulties working with this software tool in response time and data security and it seemed to us a very cheap opportunity for data integration and data collection on decentralized systems.

  20. Blood and liver acetaldehyde concentration in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and intravenous and intragastric ethanol administration

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.; Hobara, N.; Nagashima, H.

    1986-10-01

    Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a highly reactive product of ethanol oxidation. Ethanol might be blended with gasoline and used as a fuel in the future; biohazard of acetaldehyde inhalation must be discussed. Recent improvements in our ability to measure acetaldehyde levels in blood and various tissues have made the assessment of acetaldehyde's role in alcoholic organ intoxication possible. Blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations in rats were reported as being linearly correlated following intragastric ethanol administration. Acetaldehyde was administered by inhalation to study its toxicity. However, liver concentrations following the inhalation was not investigated. The present communication describes the relationship between blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and different routes of ethanol administration.

  1. Prescription Opioids. IV: Disposition of Hydrocodone in Oral Fluid and Blood Following Single-Dose Administration.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; DePriest, Anne Z; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron

    2015-09-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is currently evaluating hydrocodone (HC) for inclusion in the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs. This study evaluated the time course of HC, norhydrocodone (NHC), dihydrocodeine (DHC) and hydromorphone (HM) in paired oral fluid and whole blood specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (limit of quantitation = 1 ng/mL of oral fluid, 5 ng/mL of blood) over a 52-h period. A single dose of HC bitartrate, 20 mg, was administered to 12 subjects. Analyte prevalence was as follows: oral fluid, HC > NHC > DHC; and blood, HC > NHC. HM was not detected in any specimen. HC was frequently detected within 15 min in oral fluid and 30 min in blood. Mean oral fluid to blood (OF : BL) ratios and correlations were 3.2 for HC (r = 0.73) and 0.7 for NHC (r = 0.42). The period of detection for oral fluid exceeded blood at all evaluated thresholds. At a 1-ng/mL threshold for oral fluid, mean detection time was 30 h for HC and 18 h for NHC and DHC. This description of HC and metabolite disposition in oral fluid following single-dose administration provides valuable interpretive guidance of HC test results.

  2. Prescription Opioids. IV: Disposition of Hydrocodone in Oral Fluid and Blood Following Single-Dose Administration.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; DePriest, Anne Z; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron

    2015-09-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is currently evaluating hydrocodone (HC) for inclusion in the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs. This study evaluated the time course of HC, norhydrocodone (NHC), dihydrocodeine (DHC) and hydromorphone (HM) in paired oral fluid and whole blood specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (limit of quantitation = 1 ng/mL of oral fluid, 5 ng/mL of blood) over a 52-h period. A single dose of HC bitartrate, 20 mg, was administered to 12 subjects. Analyte prevalence was as follows: oral fluid, HC > NHC > DHC; and blood, HC > NHC. HM was not detected in any specimen. HC was frequently detected within 15 min in oral fluid and 30 min in blood. Mean oral fluid to blood (OF : BL) ratios and correlations were 3.2 for HC (r = 0.73) and 0.7 for NHC (r = 0.42). The period of detection for oral fluid exceeded blood at all evaluated thresholds. At a 1-ng/mL threshold for oral fluid, mean detection time was 30 h for HC and 18 h for NHC and DHC. This description of HC and metabolite disposition in oral fluid following single-dose administration provides valuable interpretive guidance of HC test results. PMID:25962610

  3. Cocaine and metabolite concentrations in DBS and venous blood after controlled intravenous cocaine administration

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Concheiro, Marta; Anizan, Sebastien; Barnes, Allan J; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-01-01

    Background: DBS are an increasingly common clinical matrix. Methods & results: Sensitive and specific methods for DBS and venous blood cocaine and metabolite detection by LC–HRMS and 2D GC–MS, respectively, were validated to examine correlation between concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration. Linear ranges from 1 to 200 µg/l were achieved, with acceptable bias and imprecision. Authentic matched specimens’ (392 DBS, 97 venous blood) cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations were qualitatively similar, but DBS had much greater variability (21.4–105.9 %CV) and were lower than in blood. Conclusion: DBS offer advantages for monitoring cocaine intake; however, differences between capillary and venous blood and DBS concentration variability must be addressed. PMID:26327184

  4. Characterization of the relationship between dose and blood eosinophil response following subcutaneous administration of mepolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Pouliquen, Isabelle J.; Kornmann, Oliver; Barton, Sharon V.; Price, Jeffrey A.; Ortega, Hector G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mepolizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks human IL-5 from binding to the IL-5 receptor, which is mainly expressed on eosinophils. Eosinophils are key cells in the inflammatory cascade of various diseases, including asthma. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship between exposure of mepolizumab subcutaneous (SC) administration and blood eosinophil reduction compared with intravenous (IV) administration in adult subjects with asthma. Methods: In this multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, repeat-dose study, 70 adult subjects received one of four possible treatment regimens: mepolizumab 12.5, 125, or 250 mg SC or 75 mg IV. In addition to analyzing the dose and PK/PD relationship, absolute bioavailability, safety, tolerability, and incidence of anti-mepolizumab antibodies were evaluated. Results: Blood eosinophil levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner with the lowest (12.5 mg) dose clearly differentiating from the other doses. A non-linear inhibition Imax model based on blood eosinophil levels at week 12 identified that the SC doses providing 50% and 90% of maximal blood eosinophil inhibition were 11 mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.19 – 16.85) and 99 mg (95% CI: 47 – 152), respectively. The route of administration did not affect the exposure-response relationship. The estimated mepolizumab SC absolute bioavailability (arm) was 74% (90% CI: 54 – 102%). The safety profile of mepolizumab was favorable. Conclusions: A dose-dependent reduction in blood eosinophils across all mepolizumab doses investigated was observed. The subcutaneous absolute bioavailability was 74%. The route of administration did not affect the mepolizumab exposure eosinophil response relationship. PMID:26445140

  5. Administration time-dependent effects of combination therapy on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Huangfu, Weizhong; Duan, Peilin; Xiang, Dingcheng; Gao, Ruiying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of combination therapy in different administration time on antihypertensive efficacy and blood pressure variability in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 86 patients with stage II to III essential hypertension were randomly divided into 4 groups: taking indapamide and losartan potassium together in the morning or in the evening 2 to 4 hours before sleep, indapamide in the morning and losartan potassium in the evening, losartan potassium in the morning and indapamide in the evening. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed before and 12 weeks after the medication. The result showed that statistically significant reductions from baseline of systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure occurred in all treatment groups. There was no significant difference of the reductions or SI among the four groups, neither the rate of decline of BP in the night or the circadian rhythm. In group B, the numbers of rapid rise in BP in the morning hours were significantly less after the medication, while not in the other groups. It is concluded that independent of the administration time, both once-daily treatment and component-based dual therapy had significant antihypertensive effect, but the night taken-together combination resulted in reductions of BP, SI and morning blood pressure peak that may have advantages over the other combinations, without the increased incidence of hypotension at night. Medicines should be taken 2 to 4 hours before sleep. PMID:26770548

  6. EFFECTS OF ADMINISTRATION ROUTE, DIETARY CONDITION, AND BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL ON KINETICS AND UPTAKE OF 18F-FDG IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dietary condition and blood glucose level on the kinetics and uptake of 18F-FDG in mice were systematically investigated using intraperitoneal and tail-vein injection. Methods Dynamic PET was performed for 60 min on 23 isoflurane-anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice after intravenous (n = 11) or intraperitoneal (n = 12) injection of 18F-FDG. Five and 6 mice in the intravenous and intraperitoneal groups, respectively, were kept fasting overnight (18 ± 2 h), and the others were fed ad libitum. Serial blood samples were collected from the femoral artery to measure 18F-FDG and glucose concentrations. Image data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with CT-based attenuation correction. The standardized uptake value (SUV) was estimated from the 45- to 60-min image. The metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlu) and 18F-FDG uptake constant (Ki) were derived by Patlak graphical analysis. Results In the brain, SUV and Ki were significantly higher in fasting mice with intraperitoneal injection, but MRGlu did not differ significantly under different dietary states and administration routes. Cerebral Ki was inversely related to elevated blood glucose levels, irrespective of administration route or dietary state. In myocardium, SUV, Ki, and MRGlu were significantly lower in fasting than in nonfasting mice for both routes of injection. Myocardial SUV and Ki were strongly dependent on the dietary state, and Ki did not correlate with the blood glucose level. Similar results were obtained for skeletal muscle, although the differences were not as pronounced. Conclusions Intraperitoneal injection is a valid alternative route, providing pharmacokinetic data equivalent to data from tail-vein injection for small-animal 18F-FDG PET. Cerebral Ki varies inversely with blood glucose level, but the measured cerebral MRGlu does not correlate with blood glucose level or dietary condition. Conversely, the Ki values of the myocardium and skeletal muscle are strongly dependent on

  7. [The distribution of tropicamide in the body of warm-blooded animals after its intragastric administration].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Pravdyuk, M F; Cheked, M V; Barannikova, V V

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the peculiar features of the distribution of N-ethyl-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-N-(piridin-4-yl-methyl)propanamide (tropicamide) in the body of warm-blooded animals (rats) after its intragastric administration. The following methods were employed in the study: TLC, chromogenic reactions, electronic spectrophotometry, and GC-MS. The results of the quantitative analysis of N-ethyl-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-N-(piridin-4-yl-methyl)propanamide in different organs of warm-blooded animals (rats) were compared within 20 minutes, 2.5 and 6 hours after its single intragastric administration at a dose equivalent to 1.5 LD50 of the toxic substance. It was shown that at all time intervals the maximum amount of tropicamide was present in the tissues of the stomach. Small intestines, their contents, brain, lungs, and spleen. PMID:27070036

  8. Acute hemodynamic effects and blood pool kinetics of polystyrene microspheres following intravenous administration

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, J.D.; Kanke, M.; Simmons, G.H.; DeLuca, P.P.

    1981-06-01

    The acute hemodynamic effect of intravenous administration of polystyrene microspheres was investigated and correlated with their distribution pattern and kinetics. Microspheres of three diameters (3.4, 7.4, and 11.6 micrometer) were administered. The 7.4- and 11.6-micrometer diameter microspheres were filtered by the pulmonary capillary network following intravenous administration, the majority during the first pass. There was no significant hemodynamic effect following administrations of the 7.4- and 11.6-micrometer diameter microspheres in doses as high as 3.0 X 10(9) and 6.1 X 10(8) respectively (total cross-sectional area of 1.3 X 10(11) and 6.4 X 10(10) micrometer2, respectively). Intravenous administration of 3.4-micrometer diameter microspheres produced significant dose-dependent systemic hypotension and depression of myocardial performance at dosages as slow as 1.0 X 10(10) (cross-sectional area of 9.1 X 10(10) micrometer2). These differences in acute hemodynamic effect from the 7.4- and 11.6-micrometer diameter microspheres may be due to the differences in distribution kinetics and fate of the 3.4-micrometer diameter microspheres, which readily pass through the lungs to the spleen. Although elimination of the smaller spheres from the blood during the first 6-8 min was rapid, i.e., t 1/2 . 1.62 and 1.72 min from the venous and arterial blood circulation, respectively, levels of 10(3) spheres/g of blood were present in the circulation for greater than 1 hr. These findings must be considered in the planning of intravenous administration of microspheres as a drug delivery system to target organs.

  9. Blood Loss and Transfusion After Topical Tranexamic Acid Administration in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Bin; Zeng, Yi

    2015-11-01

    There has been much debate and controversy about the safety and efficacy of the topical use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate whether there is less blood loss and lower rates of transfusion after topical tranexamic acid administration in primary TKA. A systematic review of the electronic databases PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Embase was undertaken. All randomized, controlled trials and prospective cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid during primary TKA were included. The focus of the analysis was on the outcomes of blood loss results, transfusion rate, and thromboembolic complications. Subgroup analysis was performed when possible. Of 387 studies identified, 16 comprising 1421 patients (1481 knees) were eligible for data extraction and meta-analysis. This study indicated that when compared with the control group, topical application of tranexamic acid significantly reduced total drain output (mean difference, -227.20; 95% confidence interval, -347.11 to -107.30; P<.00001), total blood loss (mean difference, -311.28; 95% confidence interval, -404.94 to -217.62; P<.00001), maximum postoperative hemoglobin decrease (mean difference, -0.73; 95% confidence interval, -0.96 to -0.50; P<.00001), and blood transfusion requirements (risk ratios, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.43; P=.14). The authors found a statistically significant reduction in blood loss and transfusion rates when using topical tranexamic acid in primary TKA. Furthermore, the currently available evidence does not support an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism due to tranexamic acid administration. Topical tranexamic acid was effective for reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements without increasing the prevalence of thromboembolic complications. PMID:26558665

  10. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Safranal on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, exhibits different pharmacological activities. In this study, the effects of safranal, on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) - salt induced hypertensive rats in chronic administration were investigated. Three doses of safranal (1, 2 and 4 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) were administrated to the different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) for Five weeks. Then the effects of safranal on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of effect of safranal on SBP, was also evaluated. Our results indicated that chronic administration of safranal could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. Safranal did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of safranal did not persist. In summary, our results showed that safranal exhibits antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:25901167

  11. Effect of oral magnesium sulfate administration on blood pressure and lipid profile in streptozocin diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Nepton; Keshavarz, Manssor; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2007-04-10

    Approximately one-third of patients with type 1 diabetes develop a variety of complications as a result of mechanisms that are not completely understood. However, insufficient metabolic control seems to play a major role. Other factors such as magnesium (Mg) could also be of importance. We designed this study to elucidate the effect of oral magnesium administration on plasma lipid profile and mesenteric fat in male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups (n=10 in each group): one group served as control, while the other groups were made diabetic with a single i.v. injection of 40 mg/kg streptozocin. Animals in which the diabetic state lasted for 10 days were referred as acute diabetic rats, whereas those in which the diabetes lasted for 8 weeks were defined as chronic diabetics. Mg-treated chronic diabetic received 10 g/l of MgSO(4) added to the drinking water (0.46 g/24 h) for eight weeks following which the left common carotid artery was cannulated for continuous recording of blood pressure. Blood glucose, magnesium and lipid profiles levels were also determined. Diabetes induction caused plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations to increase, however plasma Mg level was decreased. Administration of MgSO(4) for eight weeks caused the return of the above factors to their normal levels. Mg concentrations also increased but failed to reach normal levels. Diabetes induction caused mesenteric fat/body weight ratio to increase, but administration of MgSO(4) reduced the ratio to normal levels. In addition, Mg administration returned systolic blood pressure to the normal level. Our results support the hypothesis that Mg may play a part in the management of diabetes and the prevention of its vascular complications in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and it may be useful in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia in diabetic case. PMID:17292879

  12. In vitro efficacy of lufenuron against filamentous fungi and blood concentrations after PO administration in horses.

    PubMed

    Scotty, Nicole C; Evans, Tim J; Giuliano, Elizabeth; Johnson, Philip J; Rottinghaus, George E; Fothergill, Annette W; Cutler, Tim J

    2005-01-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylphenyl urea-derived insecticide that has been recently introduced as a novel treatment for fungal infections in horses. The purposes of this study were to determine (1) the in vitro efficacy of lufenuron against Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. and (2) the ability of lufenuron to reach efficacious blood concentrations after PO administration in horses. Fungal colonies isolated from diseased equine corneas were tested against lufenuron solutions up to 700 microg/mL. Twenty-one adult horses received 1 of 3 PO lufenuron treatment regimens: 5 mg/kg body weight (BW) q24h for 3 days, 20 mg/kg BW q24h for 3 days, or 60 mg/ kg BW q24h for 1 day. Blood samples were collected up to 96 hours after drug administration and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Statistical analyses of lufenuron blood concentrations were performed by analysis of variance and Fischer's Least Significant Difference test, with statistical significance set at P < .05. Lufenuron showed no effect on the in vitro growth of Aspergillus or Fusarium spp. Lufenuron was detected in the blood of all but 1 horse and showed no adverse effects. The maximum blood lufenuron concentration (83.5 +/- 58.7 microg/L) was lower than the concentrations proven to be ineffective in vitro in this study. Further therapeutic use of lufenuron as an antifungal agent in horses should be based on proven efficacy against specific strains of clinically relevant fungi with pharmacokinetic data demonstrating sufficient lufenuron concentrations in target tissues. PMID:16355684

  13. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Roşca, A E; Stoian, I; Badiu, C; Gaman, L; Popescu, B O; Iosif, L; Mirica, R; Tivig, I C; Stancu, C S; Căruntu, C; Voiculescu, S E; Zăgrean, L

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme.

  14. [Ejaculatory disorder caused by doxazosin administration for blood pressure control in patient with pheochomocytoma].

    PubMed

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Imao, Tetsuya; Takemae, Katsuro; Yamauchi, Keishi

    2009-06-01

    A 29-year-old man had been treated for hypertension for 10 years. He suffered from speech disturbance caused by cerebral infarction, and further examinations were performed. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left adrenal tumor 6 cm in size. The radioisotope (MIBG) accumulated in the left adrenal gland. The serum noradrenalin levels were high. Thus, the diagnosis of pheochomocytoma in left adrenal tumor was made. He noticed ejaculation disturbance 5 days after starting administration of doxazosin at the dose of 3 mg/day for pre-operative blood pressure control. Sperm was observed in the urine sampling obtained after masturbation, thus his ejaculation disturbance was considered to be retrograde ejaculation. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. After the operation, his blood pressure normalized and the administration of doxazosin has not been necessary. He could perform ejaculation without any trouble after stopping doxazosin intake. The bladder neck conditions measured by ultrasonography were the same before and after the administration of doxazosin. The present case is a very rare case of ejaculation disturbance caused by non-selective alpha 1 blocker doxazosin.

  15. Oxidative stress in blood and testicle of rat following intraperitoneal administration of aluminum and indium.

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, S; Clichici, Simona; Ayadi, A; Login, C; Moldovan, R; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Mureşan, A; Tekaya, L

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

  16. Nickel-induced blood biochemistry alterations in hens after an experimental peroral administration.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, Adriana; Capcarova, Marcela; Arpasova, Henrieta; Kalafova, Anna; Massanyi, Peter; Lukac, Norbert; Kovacik, Jaroslav; Schneidgenova, Monika

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine certain blood biochemical parameters in hens of Isa Brown breed (n = 20) after nickel administration. Animals were divided into four groups (K, P1, P2, P3). Experimental hens (n = 5; in each group) received nickel (NiCl2) as peroral administration in drinking water in various doses (P1 - 0.02 g NiCl2/L; P2 - 0.2 g NiCl2/L; P3 - 2.0 g NiCl2/L of drinking water) for 28 days. The last group - K (n = 5) was the control, receiving no nickel. Biochemical parameters of mineral profile (calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; sodium; potassium) and of energy and enzymatic profile [(glucose; total cholesterol; total proteins; triglycerides; alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH)] were analyzed in blood serum on Day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experiment. Average levels of mineral metabolism parameters were relatively stable apart from calcium. The evaluation registered a significant decrease in calcium during the experiment mainly in the group with highest nickel concentration in drinking water. No significant differences were detected between groups in energy and enzymatic profile apart from the concentrations of ALT on Day 7. In conclusion, there were significant associations between nickel levels and calcium and ALT in blood serum of the hens. No significant differences were detected in other biochemical parameters of mineral profile (P, Mg, Na, K) and energy and enzymatic profile (glucose, total cholesterol, total proteins, triglycerides, AST, GGT and GLDH) after nickel administration. Our results may contribute to an evaluation of reference levels of analyzed parameters, to monitor the health and nutritional status of hens. In this study also the negative effect of nickel mainly on calcium metabolism was detected.

  17. Persistent penile prolapse associated with acute blood loss and acepromazine maleate administration in a horse.

    PubMed

    Nie, G J; Pope, K C

    1997-09-01

    Prolonged penile prolapse in horses has been reported in association with administration of phenothiazine tranquilizers, trauma, neuropathies, severe general debilitation or exhaustion, starvation, rabies, herpes myeloencephalitis, equine infectious anemia, and purpura hemorrhagica. A 5-year-old gelding was admitted for treatment of prolonged penile prolapse of 12 days' duration that developed after acepromazine maleate was administered to allow examination of a laceration that had resulted in severe blood loss. The horse was sedated, and the penis was replaced in the preputial cavity by use of a combination of massage and bandaging. Treatment was successful, and recovery was complete.

  18. Developments in Serials: 1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  19. Effects of Topical Administration of Nimodipine on Cerebral Blood Flow following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Yin, Yu-hua; Jia, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We sought to explore whether topical administration of nimodipine improves the abnormal cerebral perfusion following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups: sham (n=4), SAH (n=5), or SAH + nimodipine (n=5). The SAH model was established by injecting fresh autologous nonheparinized arterial blood into the suprasellae cistern. Nimodipine or saline placebo (0.04 g/mL) were administered to the operative area on the fourth day after the SAH model was established. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured 60 min after topical administration of nimodipine by cranial SPECT/CT scans with 5 mCi 99mTc-ECD injected intravenously. The CCR (corticocebellar ratio) was calculated by dividing the counts/voxel of the whole cerebral hemisphere by the average count/voxel in the cerebellar region of reference and RD (relative dispersion). A predictor for impaired autoregulation of CBF was calculated by dividing standard deviation (SD) of regional perfusion by mean perfusion (RD=SD/Mean). CCR and RD were applied to describe hemisphere CBF and perfusion heterogeneity. Cerebral perfusion significantly decreased in the SAH group (CCR: 1.382±0.192, RD: 0.417±0.015) compared to sham (CCR: 1.988±0.346, RD 0.389±0.015) (p<0.05). Abnormal cerebral perfusion status, however, was not significantly improved in the nimodipine + SAH group (CCR: 1.503±0.107, RD: 0.425±0.018) compared to the SAH group (p>0.05). Topical administration of nimodipine did not significantly improve CBF following SAH. These findings were not consistent with our previous data demonstrating that the topical administration of nimodipine significantly alleviates cerebral vasospasm following SAH detected by TCD. Potential mechanisms governing these disparate outcomes require further investigation. PMID:19558207

  20. Effects of topical administration of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow following subarachnoid hemorrhage in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yin, Yu-hua; Jia, Feng; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2013-04-01

    We sought to explore whether topical administration of nimodipine improves the abnormal cerebral perfusion following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups: sham (n=4), SAH (n=5), or SAH + nimodipine (n=5). The SAH model was established by injecting fresh autologous nonheparinized arterial blood into the suprasellae cistern. Nimodipine or saline placebo (0.04 g/mL) were administered to the operative area on the fourth day after the SAH model was established. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured 60 min after topical administration of nimodipine by cranial SPECT/CT scans with 5 mCi 99mTc-ECD injected intravenously. The CCR (corticocebellar ratio) was calculated by dividing the counts/voxel of the whole cerebral hemisphere by the average count/voxel in the cerebellar region of reference and RD (relative dispersion). A predictor for impaired autoregulation of CBF was calculated by dividing standard deviation (SD) of regional perfusion by mean perfusion (RD=SD/Mean). CCR and RD were applied to describe hemisphere CBF and perfusion heterogeneity. Cerebral perfusion significantly decreased in the SAH group (CCR: 1.382±0.192, RD: 0.417±0.015) compared to sham (CCR: 1.988±0.346, RD 0.389±0.015) (p<0.05). Abnormal cerebral perfusion status, however, was not significantly improved in the nimodipine + SAH group (CCR: 1.503±0.107, RD: 0.425±0.018) compared to the SAH group (p>0.05). Topical administration of nimodipine did not significantly improve CBF following SAH. These findings were not consistent with our previous data demonstrating that the topical administration of nimodipine significantly alleviates cerebral vasospasm following SAH detected by TCD. Potential mechanisms governing these disparate outcomes require further investigation.

  1. Uptake and biodistribution of rizatriptan to blood and brain following different routes of administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Quan, Li-Hui; Guo, Yi; Liu, Chun-Yu; Liao, Yong-Hong

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the biodistribution profiles of rizatriptan in the blood and brain of Wistar rats after peroral, subcutaneous, intranasal and intratracheal administration with a particular view to determining the applicability of inhalation delivery to achieve rapid and high availability of the drug in both blood and the brain. Following the intratracheal administration of the drug (4.0mg/kg) to the rats, the absolute bioavailability was found to be 91.2%, significantly higher than those from intranasal or peroral routes, and T(max) in plasma and brain was attained within 2 min, significantly shorter than the T(max) of intranasal ( approximately 10 min in both plasma and brain), subcutaneous (16.7 min in plasma and 22.5 min in brain) and peroral (30.0 min in plasma and 45.0 min in brain) administration. In addition, other pharmacokinetic parameters associated with rapid onset of action including AUC(plasma/brain) and C(max), of intratracheal instillated rizatriptan appeared also to be comparable or superior to those of other delivered routes. Although AUC(brain)/AUC(plasma) ratios after intranasal delivery (43.4%) differed significantly from the ratios shown after intratracheal instillation (23.2%), the AUC(brain 0-120 min) via the latter routes was slightly but not significantly higher than that from the former routes. The results in the present study indicated that pulmonary delivery of rizatriptan may achieve maximum plasma and brain concentrations significantly more rapidly compared with intranasal, subcutaneous and peroral administration and be a promising delivery method with extremely rapid onset of action in the pain relief of migraine. PMID:17267150

  2. Accelerated blood clearance phenomenon upon cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunling; Cheng, Xiaobo; Su, Yuqing; Pei, Ying; Song, Yanzhi; Jiao, Jiao; Huang, Zhenjun; Ma, Yanfei; Dong, Yinming; Yao, Ying; Fan, Jingjing; Ta, Han; Liu, Xinrong; Xu, Hui; Deng, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    The cross-administration of nanocarriers modified by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), named PEGylated nanocarriers, a type of combination therapy, is becoming an increasingly important method of long-term drug delivery, to decrease side effects, avoid multidrug resistance, and increase therapeutic efficacy. However, repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers induces the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon, prevents long circulation, and can cause adverse effects owing to alterations in the biodistribution of the drug. Although the nature of the ABC phenomenon that is induced by repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers has already been studied in detail, there are few reports on the immune response elicited by the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers. In this study, we investigated the ABC phenomenon induced by the intravenous cross-administration of various PEGylated nanocarriers, including PEGylated liposomes (PL), PEG micelles (PM), PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles (PSLN), and PEGylated emulsions (PE), in beagle dogs. The results indicated that the magnitude of the immune response elicited by the cross-administration was in the following order (from the strongest to the weakest): PL, PE, PSLN, PM. It is specifically PEG in the brush structure that elicits a significant immune response, in both the induction phase and the effectuation phase. Furthermore, the present study suggests that there is a considerable difference between the effect of repeated injections and cross-administration, depending on the colloidal structure. This work is a preliminary investigation into the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers, and our observations can have serious implications for the design of combination therapies that use PEGylated vectors. PMID:25999716

  3. Serials in Review: 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Daisy

    1973-01-01

    Major trends in the processing and acquisition of serials during 1972 are reviewed. Principal events were the Williams and Wilkins controversy, the tripling of serials cataloging production at the Library of Congress and progress towards a machine-readable source of serial cataloging information. (23 references) (SM)

  4. The adaptation of lipid nanocapsule formulations for blood administration in animals.

    PubMed

    Hureaux, J; Lagarce, F; Gagnadoux, F; Clavreul, A; Benoit, J-P; Urban, T

    2009-09-11

    In many cell-culture and animal models, the therapeutic effects of the entrapped drugs in lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) were preserved with low toxicity. These results allow foreseeing further preclinical efficiency and toxicity studies in animals. In this article, preliminary studies were performed to check the genetically modified organism (GMO) status of the LNCs components and to determine the effects of the acidity of the LNCs dispersions in acid-base balance in rats. Then, several freezing protocols to store paclitaxel-loaded LNCs dispersions for a 6-month period were compared. Results indicate that the Lipoïd S75-3 could not be certified GMO-free. The same soya bean lecithin certified to be GMO-free permitted to produce LNCs with expected characteristics. The blood administration of blank LNCs dispersions in rats induced no modifications of blood acidity, but a significant decrease of the base excess was observed. Injections of LNCs dispersions in animals might induce iatrogenic acidosis. We finally demonstrated that the best protocol to store LNCs dispersion for a 6-month period is by freezing in liquid nitrogen. This protocol minimized the characteristics modifications and interrupted the drug-release phenomenon. These original data are expected to prepare of LNCs dispersions well adapted for i.v. administration in animals.

  5. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Roşca, A.E.; Stoian, I.; Badiu, C.; Gaman, L.; Popescu, B.O.; Iosif, L.; Mirica, R.; Tivig, I.C.; Stancu, C.S.; Căruntu, C.; Voiculescu, S.E.; Zăgrean, L.

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme. PMID:27254659

  6. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Roşca, A E; Stoian, I; Badiu, C; Gaman, L; Popescu, B O; Iosif, L; Mirica, R; Tivig, I C; Stancu, C S; Căruntu, C; Voiculescu, S E; Zăgrean, L

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme. PMID:27254659

  7. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus.

  8. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity alters blood pressure response to angiotensin II administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinic, which is accompanied with nephrotoxicity. CP may also disturb hemodynamics of the circulation system. We have tested the role of CP in mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to graded angiotensin (Ang) II infusion in rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female rats were treated with CP (2.5 mg/kg/day) for a period of 1-week and compared with the vehicle-treated animals. The blood pressure response to Ang II (100–1000 ng/kg/min) was determined under the anesthesia condition. Endothelial permeability of aorta was measured according to the Evans blue uptake. The kidney tissue was also subjected to histological investigation. Results: Significant increase in serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and pathological findings in CP-treated rats verified CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Significant difference in percentage of change in MAP response to Ang II between male and female rats was detected in vehicle-treated groups (P < 0.05) while in CP-treated animals this response difference was not observed. The groups were not significantly different with regard to the endothelial permeability of aorta while the serum level of nitrite in male rats increased significantly following administration of CP (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It seems the different response in percentage of change of MAP to graded Ang II infusion between male and female indicates the effect of CP on renin Ang system parameters. PMID:27110550

  9. Preterm white matter brain injury is prevented by early administration of umbilical cord blood cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingang; Yawno, Tamara; Sutherland, Amy; Loose, Jan; Nitsos, Ilias; Bischof, Robert; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; McDonald, Courtney A; Wong, Flora Y; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2016-09-01

    Infants born very preterm are at high risk for neurological deficits including cerebral palsy. In this study we assessed the neuroprotective effects of umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs) and optimal administration timing in a fetal sheep model of preterm brain injury. 50 million allogeneic UCBCs were intravenously administered to fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) at 12h or 5d after acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induced by umbilical cord occlusion. The fetal brains were collected at 10d after HI. HI (n=7) was associated with reduced number of oligodendrocytes (Olig2+) and myelin density (CNPase+), and increased density of activated microglia (Iba-1+) in cerebral white matter compared to control fetuses (P<0.05). UCBCs administered at 12h, but not 5d after HI, significantly protected white matter structures and suppressed cerebral inflammation. Activated microglial density showed a correlation with decreasing oligodendrocyte number (P<0.001). HI caused cell death (TUNEL+) in the internal capsule and cell proliferation (Ki-67+) in the subventricular zone compared to control (P<0.05), while UCBCs at 12h or 5d ameliorated these effects. Additionally, UCBCs at 12h induced a significant systemic increase in interleukin-10 at 10d, and reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) following HI (P<0.05). UCBC administration at 12h after HI reduces preterm white matter injury, via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. PMID:27317990

  10. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  11. Estimation of Some Oxidative Stress Parameters and Blood Pressure After Administration of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Kowalczyk, Agata; Ciesla, Wlodzimierz; Goraca, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the plasma antioxidative activity and in lipid peroxidation after administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin receptor blockers and additionally, to estimate blood pressure. The study was performed on male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group) divided into 4 groups which received: (1) saline, (2) endothelin-1 (ET-1) (3 μg/kg b.w.) + saline, (3) BQ123 (1 mg/kg) + ET-1 (3 μg/kg), and (4) BQ788 (3 mg/kg) + ET-1 (3 μg/kg b.w.). The endothelin receptor antagonist was injected intravenously 30 min before ET-1 administration. Blood pressure was monitored, and the blood was collected before the saline or ET-1 administration as well as 60 and 300 min after their administration. The antioxidative properties were examined by FRAP method (ferric reducing ability of plasma), and the concentration of lipid peroxidation products was examined by the reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBARS). It was estimated that intravenous administration of endothelin receptor blocker ETA increases plasma antioxidative properties (p < 0.01) and parallelly decreases the process of lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05 vs. ET-1) and blood pressure (p < 0.05).

  12. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  13. Automated Serials Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Elizabeth

    In 1967, the New York State Library at Albany (NYSL) developed a tape-oriented, off-line serials control system for 10,000 active titles. The system would perform all the serials control functions: bibliographic control, check-in of current receipts, claiming for gaps in receipts and late issues, binding notification for completed sets,…

  14. The food and drug administration is now preparing to establish tighter performance requirements for blood glucose monitors.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2010-05-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) Tight Glycemic Control. Many officials from the Center for Devices and Radiologic Health and the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices, which are the parts of FDA that regulate approval of blood glucose monitors, either spoke on the agenda or attended in the audience. Approximately 300 people attended; they were mostly clinicians (such as adult endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, internists, clinical chemists, intensivists, surgeons, nurses, and diabetes educators) or industry officials from companies involved in glucose monitoring, pharmaceutical products, data analysis, or regulatory consulting. PMID:20513313

  15. Correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow simultaneously measured before and after acetazolamide administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroichiro; Yamauchi, Hideto; Hazama, Shiro; Hamamoto, Hirotsugu; Inoue, Nobuhiro

    1999-10-01

    The cerebral circulation and metabolism of ten preoperative cardiac surgery patients were assessed. Alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), measured by 123I-N- isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography, and in cerebral oxygen metabolism, simultaneously detected by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) before and after acetazolamide administration, were investigated. The rCBF (ml/min/100 g) increased significantly from 40.21 +/- 7.65 to 56.24 +/- 13.69 (p equals 0.001), and a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) of 13.9% (p equals 0.0022) and total hemoglobin (Total-Hb) of 5.7% (0.0047) along with a significant decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) of 8.9% (p equals 0.0414) were observed concomitantly. Thus, the Oxy-Hb/Total- Hb ratio (%Oxy-Hb) rose significantly from 67.26 +/- 9.82% to 72.98 +/- 8.09% (p equals 0.0022). Examination of the relationships between individual parameters showed that the percentage changes in rCBF and Oxy-Hb were significantly correlated (r equals 0.758, p equals 0.011). The percentage changes in rCBF and %Oxy-Hb were also correlated significantly (r equals 0.740, p equals 0.014). In conclusion, this evidence suggested that NIRS is able to detect relative changes in cerebral hemodynamics and reflect luxury perfusion induced by acetazolamide.

  16. Antihypertensive effect of celery seed on rat blood pressure in chronic administration.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Maryam Hassanpour; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of different celery (Apium graveolens) seed extracts on blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-induced hypertensive rats. The hexanic, methanolic, and aqueous-ethanolic extracts were administered intraperitoneally and their effects on BP and heart rate (HR) were evaluated in comparison with spirnolactone as a diuretic and positive control. Also, the amount of n-butylphthalide (NBP), as an antihypertensive constituent, in each extract was determined by HPLC. The results indicated that all extracts decreased BP and increased the HR in hypertensive rats, but had no effect on normotensive rats. The data showed that administration of 300 mg/kg of hexanic, methanolic, and aqueous-ethanolic (20/80, v/v) extracts of the celery seed caused 38, 24, and 23 mmHg reduction in BP and 60, 25, and 27 beats per minute increase in the HR, respectively. Also, the HPLC analysis data revealed that the content of NBP in the hexanic extract was 3.7 and 4 times greater than methanolic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. It can be concluded that celery seed extracts have antihypertensive properties, which appears to be attributable to the actions of its active hydrophobic constitutes such as NBP and can be considered as an antihypertensive agent in chronic treatment of elevated BP.

  17. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. Objectives In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive rats, in chronic exposure was evaluated. Materials and Methods Five weeks administration of three doses saffron aqueous extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of the effect of saffron on systolic blood pressure (SBP), was also evaluated. Results Our results indicated that chronic administration of saffron aqueous extract could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. This compound did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of saffron did not persist. Conclusions It is concluded that saffron aqueous extract possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:24624210

  18. HIPPI/Serial-HIPPI

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E. ); Halvorson, M.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) is a simple high-performance, point-to-point channel for transmitting digital data at peak data rates of 800 or 1600 Mbit/S. The transmission distance between data processing equipment using copper cabling can be up to 25 meters. This distance may be increased by using a Serial-HIPPI extender. This paper describes the HIPPI channel, the choices considered for a serial extender, and the resulting agreement for the Serial-HIPPI specification. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Phenytoin blood concentrations in hospitalized geriatric patients: oral versus nasogastric feeding tube administration.

    PubMed

    Lubart, Emilia; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Leibovitz, Arthur; Orly, Dafni; Segal, Refael

    2010-04-01

    Many medications administered to frail geriatric patients are not in a liquid form, but are crushed and dissolved in water before their administration through a nasogastric tube (NGT). Some medications are enteric coated and others are extended release. Only sparse information is available on their pharmacokinetics when administered through NGT. The aim of our study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin administered through an NGT and to compare these with the pharmacokinetics of a group of patients receiving the drug orally. Twenty patients were studied in a stable clinical condition, from the long-term care ward of the Geriatric Medical Center Shmuel Harofeh. They were consistently treated with phenytoin for the prevention of seizure disorders. Patients in group 1 (n = 12) had oropharyngeal dysphagia and received feeding and medications by NGT. Group 2 (n = 8), included age-matched orally fed patients from the same department, who received phenytoin orally. Blood samples for phenytoin concentration were taken at baseline, time 0, and at 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 hours postdrug administration; phenytoin was measured using the AxSYM assay. The mean daily dose was not statistically different between the 2 groups: 291 +/- 28 (200-300) mg/d and 300 +/- 53 (200-400) mg/d, in the NGT, and the orally fed group, respectively, in one dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin were not significantly different between the 2 groups; trough concentrations, 1.9 +/- 1.7 (0.5-4.9) versus 2.2 +/- 1.8 (1.0-6.5) microg/mL; Cmax, 6.6 +/- 3.4 (2.5-9.1) versus 7.3 +/- 6.7 (2.7-8.4) microg/mL; tmax, 5.1 +/- 3.1 (3.1-8.2) versus 4.6 +/- 2.7 (2.3-8.4) hours; area under the curve, 52.2 +/- 40.1 (41.1-61.2) versus 62.3 +/- 84.7 (30.2-77.2) microg/h/mL, in the NGT fed versus the oral fed, respectively. Phenytoin pharmacokinetic parameters are not significantly different between patients receiving the drug through NGT as compared with those who received it orally, but the implication

  20. Classifying serial killers.

    PubMed

    Promish, D I; Lester, D

    1999-11-01

    We attempted to match the appearance and demeanor of 27 serial killers to the postmortem 'signatures' found on their victims' bodies. Our results suggest that a link may exist between postmortem signatures and two complementary appearance-demeanor types.

  1. Oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vasodilation by binding to endothelial ATP-selective P2Y2 receptors; a phenomenon, which is posited to be accelerated during exercise. Herein, we used a rat model to examine how different dosages of acute oral ATP administration affected the femoral blood flow response prior to, during, and after an exercise bout. In addition, we performed a single dose chronic administration pilot study in resistance trained athletes. Methods Animal study: Male Wistar rats were gavage-fed the body surface area, species adjusted human equivalent dose (HED) of either 100 mg (n=4), 400 mg (n=4), 1,000 mg (n=5) or 1,600 mg (n=5) of oral ATP as a disodium salt (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT). Rats that were not gavage-fed were used as controls (CTL, n=5). Blood flow was monitored continuously: a) 60 min prior to, b) during and c) 90 min following an electrically-evoked leg-kicking exercise. Human Study: In a pilot study, 12 college-aged resistance-trained subjects were given 400 mg of ATP (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT) daily for 12 weeks, and prior to an acute arm exercise bout at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. Ultrasonography-determined volumetric blood flow and vessel dilation in the brachial artery was measured at rest, at rest 30 minutes after supplementation, and then at 0, 3, and 6 minutes after the exercise. Results Animal Study: Rats fed 1,000 mg HED demonstrated significantly greater recovery blood flow (p < 0.01) and total blood flow AUC values (p < 0.05) compared to CTL rats. Specifically, blood flow was elevated in rats fed 1,000 mg HED versus CTL rats at 20 to 90 min post exercise when examining 10-min blood flow intervals (p < 0.05). When examining within-group differences relative to baseline values, rats fed the 1,000 mg and 1,600 mg HED exhibited the most robust increases in blood flow during exercise and into the recovery period. Human study: At weeks 1, 8, and 12, ATP supplementation significantly increased

  2. Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, W.J. ); Moore, R.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Ethanol and Acetaldehyde After Intraperitoneal Administration to Aldh2-Knockout Mice-Reflection in Blood and Brain Levels.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Ito, Asuka; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, on the analysis of ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (AcH) concentrations in the blood and brains of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) and C57B6/6J (WT) mice. Animals were administrated EtOH (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg) or 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP, 82 mg/kg) plus AcH (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. During the blood tests, samples from the orbital sinus of the eye were collected. During the brain tests, dialysates were collected every 5 min (equal to a 15 µl sample) from the striatum using in vivo brain microdialysis. Samples were collected at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 min intervals post-EtOH and -AcH injection, and then analyzed by head-space GC. In the EtOH groups, high AcH levels were found in the blood and brains of Aldh2-KO mice, while only small traces of AcH were seen in the blood and brains of WT mice. No significant differences in EtOH levels were observed between the WT and the Aldh2-KO mice for either the EtOH dose. EtOH concentrations in the brain were comparable to the EtOH concentrations in the blood, but the AcH concentrations in the brain were four to five times lower compared to the AcH concentrations in the blood. In the AcH groups, high AcH levels were found in both WT and Aldh2-KO mice. Levels reached a sharp peak at 5 min and then quickly declined for 60 min. Brain AcH concentrations were almost equal to the concentrations found in the blood, where the AcH concentrations were approximately two times higher in the Aldh2-KO mice than in the WT mice, both in the blood and the brain. Our results suggest that systemic EtOH and AcH administration can cause a greater increase in AcH accumulation in the blood and brains of Aldh2-KO mice, where EtOH concentrations in the Aldh2-KO mice were comparable to the EtOH concentrations in the WT mice. Furthermore, detection of EtOH and AcH in the blood and brain was found to be dose-dependent in both genotypes. PMID:26646001

  4. Hematological, Biochemical, and Serological Findings in Healthy Canine Blood Donors after the Administration of CaniLeish® Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Starita, Chiara; Gavazza, Alessandra; Lubas, George

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate hematological, biochemical, and serological findings in healthy canine blood donors after the administration of CaniLeish® vaccine. Twenty-seven client-owned dogs were included in the study and arranged into 3 groups according to the vaccination stage. Complete blood count (CBC) with blood smear examination, serum biochemical profile (SBP), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), and serological tests for L. infantum were performed at different times. Additionally, in a subgroup of dogs IgA, IgM, and IgG were quantified. No statistical significance for CBC and SBP was found. In 10.7% of cases slight hyperproteinemia occurred. In SPE absolute values β-1-globulins (Group 2 and Group 2-3) and β-2-globulins (Group 3) were found modified (P < 0.05). IgG values were statistically different (P < 0.05) 6-8 months after the third immunisation (Group 2) and IgM and IgG values were statistically different after 2 months (Group 3). IFAT positive samples were 20.8% (Group 1), 15.0% (Group 2), and 52.8% (Group 3). Speed Leish K™ tests were always negative. The modifications found were probably attributed to the development of immune or inflammatory response due to the vaccine. Administration of CaniLeish vaccine in canine blood donors could be a safe practice and did not affect their health status. PMID:27313949

  5. Hematological, Biochemical, and Serological Findings in Healthy Canine Blood Donors after the Administration of CaniLeish® Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Starita, Chiara; Gavazza, Alessandra; Lubas, George

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate hematological, biochemical, and serological findings in healthy canine blood donors after the administration of CaniLeish® vaccine. Twenty-seven client-owned dogs were included in the study and arranged into 3 groups according to the vaccination stage. Complete blood count (CBC) with blood smear examination, serum biochemical profile (SBP), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), and serological tests for L. infantum were performed at different times. Additionally, in a subgroup of dogs IgA, IgM, and IgG were quantified. No statistical significance for CBC and SBP was found. In 10.7% of cases slight hyperproteinemia occurred. In SPE absolute values β-1-globulins (Group 2 and Group 2-3) and β-2-globulins (Group 3) were found modified (P < 0.05). IgG values were statistically different (P < 0.05) 6–8 months after the third immunisation (Group 2) and IgM and IgG values were statistically different after 2 months (Group 3). IFAT positive samples were 20.8% (Group 1), 15.0% (Group 2), and 52.8% (Group 3). Speed Leish K™ tests were always negative. The modifications found were probably attributed to the development of immune or inflammatory response due to the vaccine. Administration of CaniLeish vaccine in canine blood donors could be a safe practice and did not affect their health status. PMID:27313949

  6. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-01

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2).

  7. Serial interprocessor communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-04-03

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

  8. Effects of Administration of Fostamatinib on Blood Concentrations of an Oral Contraceptive in Healthy Female Subjects

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-02-17

    Scientific Terminology Rheumatoid Arthritis, Healthy Female Volunteers, Pharmacokinetics, Oral Contraceptive, Drug-drug Interaction; Laymen Terminology Level of Oral Contraceptive in Blood, Oral Contraceptive, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Drug -Drug Interaction

  9. Serial Services 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroyer, Andrew; Nanna, Laura

    1992-01-01

    This 1992 price index for serial services presents data on the number of titles, average price, percent of price change, and price indexed to 1977 for the following areas: business; general and humanities; law; science and technology; social sciences; U.S. documents; and H.W. Wilson services. (MES)

  10. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  11. The Serials Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Jane; Ketcham, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the results of a national survey of libraries, publishers, and subscription agents that was conducted by the American Library Association (ALA) to address concerns about serials prices. Highlights include library budget trends; resource sharing; selection decisions; library automation; pricing practices of publishers; publisher services;…

  12. Suicide in serial killers.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  13. Serial Radiohippurate Renal Scintiphotography

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthall, Leonard; Greyson, N. David; Martin, Robert H.

    1970-01-01

    The results of serial radiohippurate scintiphotography in 222 patients are analyzed. The findings in various renal diseases are discussed and compared with those obtained from the excretory urogram, BUN, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4aFIG. 4bFIG. 5aFIG. 5b PMID:5536740

  14. Second premolar serial extraction.

    PubMed

    Joondeph, D R; Riedel, R A

    1976-02-01

    Serial extraction of mandibular second premolars should be considered if they are impacted or in cases with moderate arch length deficiency combined with an absence of dentofacial protrusion. The favorable dental changes associated with this approach greatly minimize future orthodontic treatment complexity and time.

  15. Suicide in serial killers.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested. PMID:20402450

  16. Classifying serial killers.

    PubMed

    Promish, D I; Lester, D

    1999-11-01

    We attempted to match the appearance and demeanor of 27 serial killers to the postmortem 'signatures' found on their victims' bodies. Our results suggest that a link may exist between postmortem signatures and two complementary appearance-demeanor types. PMID:10643649

  17. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  18. Metabolomic Analysis of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of N-acetyl-d-Glucosamine in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Tomohiro; Kurozumi, Seiji; Sato, Kimihiko; Terashi, Taro; Azuma, Kazuo; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-08-01

    N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4)-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism. PMID:26262626

  19. Metabolomic Analysis of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of N-acetyl-d-Glucosamine in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Tomohiro; Kurozumi, Seiji; Sato, Kimihiko; Terashi, Taro; Azuma, Kazuo; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4)-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism. PMID:26262626

  20. Metabolomic Analysis of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of N-acetyl-d-Glucosamine in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Tomohiro; Kurozumi, Seiji; Sato, Kimihiko; Terashi, Taro; Azuma, Kazuo; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-08-07

    N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4)-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism.

  1. Daily rhythms in blood and milk lead toxicokinetics following intravenous administration of lead acetate to dairy cows in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, S. E.; Scaglione, M. C.; Acosta, P.; Coronel, J. E.; Beldomenico, H. R.; Boggio, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate circadian variations of blood and milk lead toxicokinetics in dairy cows in summer. Twenty lactating Holstein animals were randomly assigned to four treatments corresponding to different hours after onset of light (HALO): 2, 8, 14, and 20. Cows received a single intravenous administration of 2.5 mg/kg lead as lead acetate. Blood and milk samples were taken and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each toxicokinetic parameter, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to outline the existence of daily variations. Significant blood differences as a function of HALO were found for the hybrid constant of distribution (α), hybrid constant of elimination (β), elimination half-life ({text{t}}_{{{text{1/2 β }}}} ), area under the curve (AUC), volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) and clearance (ClB) ( p<0.05). Half-life of elimination presented two peaks at 2 and 14 HALO. Milk data showed significant differences for maximum concentration and AUC ( p<0.05). The ratio AUCmilk/AUCblood was utilized to estimate penetration of lead in milk. It differed significantly throughout the day ( p<0.05). Milk data for the significant parameters could be fitted to circadian rhythms. No circadian rhythms were detected in blood parameters or in the ratio AUCmilk/AUCblood.

  2. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  3. Association of blood products administration during cardiopulmonary bypass and excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Hemant S; Barrett, Sarah S; Barry, Kristen; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Donahue, Brian S; Harris, Zena L; Bichell, David P

    2015-03-01

    Our objectives were to study risk factors and post-operative outcomes associated with excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgeries performed using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support. A retrospective observational study was undertaken, and all consecutive pediatric heart surgeries over 1 year period were studied. Excessive post-operative bleeding was defined as 10 ml/kg/h of chest tube output for 1 h or 5 ml/kg/h for three consecutive hours in the first 12 h of pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) stay. Risk factors including demographics, complexity of cardiac defect, CPB parameters, hematological studies, and post-operative morbidity and mortality were evaluated for excessive bleeding. 253 patients were studied, and 107 (42 %) met the criteria for excessive bleeding. Bayesian model averaging revealed that greater volume of blood products transfusion during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding. Multiple logistic regression analysis of blood products transfusion revealed that increased volume of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) administration for CPB prime and during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding (p = 0.028 and p = 0.0012, respectively). Proportional odds logistic regression revealed that excessive bleeding was associated with greater time to achieve negative fluid balance, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and duration of PCICU stay (p < 0.001) after adjusting for multiple parameters. A greater volume of blood products administration, especially PRBCs transfusion for CPB prime, and during the CPB period is associated with excessive post-operative bleeding. Excessive bleeding is associated with worse post-operative outcomes.

  4. Infantile Refsum disease: serial evaluation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakirer, Sinan; Savas, Mahmut R

    2005-02-01

    Refsum disease is a rare metabolic disorder, which is characterized by the accumulation of phytanic acid in the blood and tissues, including the brain. A variant of this condition that occurs in young children is called infantile Refsum disease. The MRI findings of symmetrical signal change involving the corticospinal tracts, cerebellar dentate nuclei, and corpus callosum are characteristic. We report the serial MRI findings of a child with this rare metabolic disorder.

  5. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide. PMID:11137350

  6. Composition during serial learning: a serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Frensch, P A

    1994-03-01

    Composition is a computational learning mechanism that merges serially performed elementary processes into hierarchically organized knowledge structures. The main goals of this research were to explore (a) the role of serial position in composition and (b) the relation between degree of composition and explicit serial recall in serial learning. In 3 experiments, Ss performed a rule-based serial reaction time task in which they had to categorize a sequence of 12 stimuli shown simultaneously on a video monitor. A procedure based on the comparison of reaction times to random sequences and a repeating sequence identified a serial position effect of composition that was, however, moderated by Ss' explicit, postexperimental recall of the repeating sequence. A production-system-based computational model of composition is described that qualitatively reproduces the empirical findings. Implications for the mechanisms governing serial learning are discussed.

  7. Delaware's first serial killer.

    PubMed

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  8. Delaware's first serial killer.

    PubMed

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992. PMID:11125664

  9. Improved red blood cell survival after cardiac operations with administration of urea during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.; Bake, B.; William-Olsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma hemoglobin and red blood cell survival (half-life of /sup 51/Cr) was studied in 48 patients undergoing single valve replacement or coronary artery bypass graft. Urea or placebo was administered during cardiopulmonary bypass in a prospective, randomized, double-blind manner to test the potential effect on mechanical hemolysis. The mean plasma hemoglobin level at the end of extracorporeal circulation was significantly lower in the urea-treated groups (coronary artery bypass 342 mg/L; valve replacement 364 mg/L) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 635 mg/L, valve replacement 518 mg/L. The half-life of /sup 51/Cr was significantly longer in the urea-treated patients (coronary artery bypass 18 days; valve replacement 16 days) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 12.4 days; valve replacement 12.7 days) but still below the normal reference value (29 +/- 4 days). The plasma hemoglobin returned to near normal values (50 mg/L) the day after operation (day 1) and remained low with no differences between control and urea-treated groups. The total blood hemoglobin was followed for 2 weeks after operation and showed significantly less anemia in the urea-treated group. The lowest mean blood hemoglobin level was noted between days 5 and 9-114 (coronary artery bypass) and 107 (valve replacement) gm/L in the urea-treated patients compared to 92.3 gm/L in the control subjects. The reduction in the severity of the anemia led to less transfusion in the urea-treated patients (approximately 0.5 unit/patient) than in the control subjects (approximately 1 unit/patient) between days 3 and 14.

  10. The morphological changes in lymphoid organs and peripheral blood indicators in rats after peroral administration of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucharskaya, A. B.; Pakhomy, S. S.; Zlobina, O. V.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Navolokin, N. A.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Bogatyrev, V. A.; Khlebtsov, N. G.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The wide application of nanotechnologies in medicine requires the careful study of various aspects of their potential safety. The effects of prolonged peroral administration of gold nanoparticles on morphological changes in lymphoid organs and indicators of peripheral blood of laboratory animals were investigated in experiment. The gold nanospheres functionalized with thiolated polyethylene glycol sizes 2, 15 and 50 nm were administered orally for 15 days to outbred white rats at a dosage of 190 μg/kg of animal body weight. The standard histological and hematological staining were used for morphological study of lymphoid organs and bone marrow smears. The size-dependent decrease of the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was noted in the study of peripheral blood, especially pronounced after administration of gold nanoparticles with size of 50 nm. The stimulation of myelocytic germ of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The signs of strengthening of the processes of differentiation and maturation of cellular elements were found in lymph nodes, which were showed as the increasing number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes. The quantitative changes of cellular component morphology of lymphoid organs due to activation of migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells indicate the presence of immunostimulation effect of gold nanoparticles.

  11. Milk and Blood Pharmacokinetics of Tylosin and Tilmicosin following Parenteral Administrations to Cows

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Tulay; Elmas, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetics of tylosin and tilmicosin in serum and milk in healthy Holstein breed cows (n = 12) and reevaluate the amount of residue in milk. Following the intramuscular administration of tylosin, the maximum concentrations (Cmax) in serum and milk were found to be 1.30 ± 0.24 and 4.55 ± 0.23 µg/mL, the time required to reach the peak concentration (tmax) was found to be 2nd and 4th h, and elimination half-lives (t1/2β) were found to be 20.46 ± 2.08 and 26.36 ± 5.55 h, respectively. Following the subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin, the Cmax in serum and milk were found to be 0.86 ± 0.20 and 20.16 ± 1.13 µg/mL, the tmax was found to be 1st and 8th h, and the t1/2β were found to be 29.94 ± 6.65 and 43.02 ± 5.18 h, respectively. AUCmilk/AUCserum and Cmax-milk/Cmax-serum rates, which are indicators for determining the rate of drugs that pass into milk, were, respectively, calculated as 5.01 ± 0.72 and 3.61 ± 0.69 for tylosin and 23.91 ± 6.38 and 20.16 ± 1.13 for tilmicosin. In conclusion, it may be stated that milk concentration of tylosin after parenteral administration is higher than expected like tilmicosin and needs more withdrawal period for milk than reported. PMID:25177733

  12. Milk and blood pharmacokinetics of tylosin and tilmicosin following parenteral administrations to cows.

    PubMed

    Avci, Tulay; Elmas, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetics of tylosin and tilmicosin in serum and milk in healthy Holstein breed cows (n = 12) and reevaluate the amount of residue in milk. Following the intramuscular administration of tylosin, the maximum concentrations (C max) in serum and milk were found to be 1.30 ± 0.24 and 4.55 ± 0.23 µg/mL, the time required to reach the peak concentration (t max) was found to be 2nd and 4th h, and elimination half-lives (t 1/2β ) were found to be 20.46 ± 2.08 and 26.36 ± 5.55 h, respectively. Following the subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin, the C max in serum and milk were found to be 0.86 ± 0.20 and 20.16 ± 1.13 µg/mL, the t max was found to be 1st and 8th h, and the t 1/2β were found to be 29.94 ± 6.65 and 43.02 ± 5.18 h, respectively. AUCmilk/AUCserum and C max-milk/C max-serum rates, which are indicators for determining the rate of drugs that pass into milk, were, respectively, calculated as 5.01 ± 0.72 and 3.61 ± 0.69 for tylosin and 23.91 ± 6.38 and 20.16 ± 1.13 for tilmicosin. In conclusion, it may be stated that milk concentration of tylosin after parenteral administration is higher than expected like tilmicosin and needs more withdrawal period for milk than reported.

  13. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Seifert, John G; Nelson, Aaron; Devonish, Julia; Burke, Edmund R; Stohs, Sidney J

    2011-01-01

    Confusion and controversy exist regarding the cardiovascular effects of dietary supplements containing caffeine and Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. The primary protoalkaloidal ingredient in bitter orange extract is p-synephrine which has some structural similarities to ephedrine and nor-epinephrine, but exhibits markedly different pharmacokinetic and receptor binding properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of a product containing caffeine, bitter orange extract (p-synephrine) and green tea extract in mildly overweight individuals. Fourteen female and nine male subjects (age 24.7 ±7.4 yrs, BMI: 26.6 ±3.8) volunteered in this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind designed study. On day one, subjects entered the laboratory following an overnight fast. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at 60 min. Expired air was analyzed for the next 10 min of the session. At each of three meals, subjects ingested one capsule that was either a non-caloric placebo or a dietary supplement that contained 13 mg p-synephrine and 176 mg caffeine. On the following day, the subjects returned and repeated the protocol for data collection beginning 60 min after consuming one capsule of the placebo or the dietary supplement. No effects of the dietary supplement on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure or mean arterial pressure were observed. No between or within group differences were observed when data were analyzed for gender and caffeine usage. A small but significant decrease in resting respiratory exchange ratio was observed for the low caffeine user group in response to the product containing caffeine and p-synephrine. The results of this study indicate that ingestion of a product containing bitter orange extract, caffeine and green tea extract does not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation may increase in certain populations. PMID:21448304

  14. Corticosteroid administration modifies ozone-induced increases in sheep airway blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, R.A.; Yousef, M.A.; Schelegle, E.S.; Cross, C.E. )

    1992-09-01

    Recently, we have shown that exposure of intubated conscious sheep to 3 to 4 ppm ozone (O3) for 3 h increases bronchial blood flow (Qbr). The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential role of corticosteroids in modulating this increase. Six nasally intubated sheep were exposed to filtered room air, 3.5 ppm O3 on two separate occasions, and 3.5 ppm O3 plus methyl-prednisone, for 3 h. Qbr was measured using a chronically implanted 20 MHz pulsed Doppler flow probe. Qbr, mean aortic pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary artery pressure, arterial blood gases, and core temperature were monitored. After 3 h of 3.5 ppm O3, Qbr increased from 3.2 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SEM) to 8.5 +/- 1.6 KHz, whereas bronchial vascular resistance (BVR) decreased from the baseline value of 43.6 +/- 8.0 to 15.0 +/- 3 mm Hg/KHz. With corticosteroids, baseline Qbr was 3.2 +/- 0.6 and BVR was 44.2 +/- 9.7; after 3 h of 3.5 ppm O3, Qbr was 3.3 +/- 0.5 KHz and BVR was 39.0 +/- 8.0 mm Hg/KHz. The two 3.5-ppm O3 exposures without corticosteroids were impressively reproducible. Except for Qbr and BVR, no other measured cardiovascular parameters were affected by O3. The results indicate that corticosteroids are capable of interfering with mediator, neurohumoral, or inflammatory cell mechanisms responsible for vasodilation of the airway microcirculation after O3 exposure, but do not specifically address the specific processes whereby this attenuation occurs.

  15. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Seifert, John G; Nelson, Aaron; Devonish, Julia; Burke, Edmund R; Stohs, Sidney J

    2011-03-02

    Confusion and controversy exist regarding the cardiovascular effects of dietary supplements containing caffeine and Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. The primary protoalkaloidal ingredient in bitter orange extract is p-synephrine which has some structural similarities to ephedrine and nor-epinephrine, but exhibits markedly different pharmacokinetic and receptor binding properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of a product containing caffeine, bitter orange extract (p-synephrine) and green tea extract in mildly overweight individuals. Fourteen female and nine male subjects (age 24.7 ±7.4 yrs, BMI: 26.6 ±3.8) volunteered in this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind designed study. On day one, subjects entered the laboratory following an overnight fast. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at 60 min. Expired air was analyzed for the next 10 min of the session. At each of three meals, subjects ingested one capsule that was either a non-caloric placebo or a dietary supplement that contained 13 mg p-synephrine and 176 mg caffeine. On the following day, the subjects returned and repeated the protocol for data collection beginning 60 min after consuming one capsule of the placebo or the dietary supplement. No effects of the dietary supplement on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure or mean arterial pressure were observed. No between or within group differences were observed when data were analyzed for gender and caffeine usage. A small but significant decrease in resting respiratory exchange ratio was observed for the low caffeine user group in response to the product containing caffeine and p-synephrine. The results of this study indicate that ingestion of a product containing bitter orange extract, caffeine and green tea extract does not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation may increase in certain populations.

  16. Comparison of blood glucose concentrations after administration of a glucose solution via the jugular vein and portal vein in cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Heusmann, B; Camenzind, D; Haessig, M

    2007-10-01

    The goals of the present study were to determine whether the infusion of a glucose solution into the portal vein is tolerated in cows and whether the glucose concentration differs after administration of glucose into the jugular vein and portal vein. Fifteen healthy Swiss Braunvieh cows were used. An indwelling catheter was placed in both jugular veins and a balloon-tipped indwelling catheter with a diameter of 2 mm was placed in the portal vein under the guidance of ultrasonography. Three cows received 500 ml of 20% glucose solution over 60 min via the left jugular vein. Three other cows received the same solution over 60 min via the portal vein. Blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein before and for 24 h after the infusion of glucose for the determination of the concentrations of glucose and bilirubin and the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Infusion via the portal vein did not result in abnormalities in the general condition of the cows or increases in the concentration of bilirubin or the activities of liver enzymes. The blood glucose concentration increased to the same extent after both intraportal and intrajugular infusion. Over a 12-h period, three cows received 10 l of 20% glucose solution via the left jugular vein and three others received the same solution over a 12-h period via the portal vein. Blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein before and for 30 h after the start of infusion. Infusion via the portal vein did not affect the general condition of the cows or the activities of the liver enzymes. There was no significant difference in the blood glucose concentration between the two groups throughout the study.

  17. Superselective intra-arterial umbilical cord blood administration to BM in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Arnberg, F; Lundberg, J; Kenne, E; Jaff, N; Müller, P; Nava, S; Kaipe, H; Ringdén, O; Holmin, S

    2014-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation is limited by the low number of cells and delayed engraftment. UCB cells are infused i.v. for transplantation, although only a proportion of the cells reach the BM. We investigated whether UCB could be administered safely using superselective intra-arterial (i.a.) injection. We injected human UCB (5 × 106) into the aorta in rats, into the iliac artery in mice and into the femoral nutrient artery (FNA) in rabbits. We used angiography, immunohistochemistry, intravital microscopy and qPCR to assess safety end points and the distribution of injected cells. All animals showed normal behavior. No evidence of organ infarction was noted. UCB injected into the FNA of rabbits did not change the flow rates, measured by angiography. By qPCR, we found significantly higher fold-change values in the injected BM compared with i.v. injection (P=0.0087). Using intravital microscopy we visualized the mouse capillary bed during i.a. injection without cellular congestion. In summary, we show that i.a. infusion of UCB is safe and reaches an eightfold increase in engraftment in the BM compared with i.v. infusion. These studies lay the foundation for clinical trials. PMID:25198791

  18. Multiple Intravenous Administrations of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Benefit in a Mouse Model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Rodrigues, Maria C. O.; Mirtyl, Santhia; Turner, Shanna; Mitha, Shazia; Sodhi, Jasmine; Suthakaran, Subatha; Eve, David J.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Background A promising therapeutic strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the use of cell-based therapies that can protect motor neurons and thereby retard disease progression. We recently showed that a single large dose (25×106 cells) of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood (MNC hUCB) administered intravenously to pre-symptomatic G93A SOD1 mice is optimal in delaying disease progression and increasing lifespan. However, this single high cell dose is impractical for clinical use. The aim of the present pre-clinical translation study was therefore to evaluate the effects of multiple low dose systemic injections of MNC hUCB cell into G93A SOD1 mice at different disease stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice received weekly intravenous injections of MNC hUCB or media. Symptomatic mice received 106 or 2.5×106 cells from 13 weeks of age. A third, pre-symptomatic, group received 106 cells from 9 weeks of age. Control groups were media-injected G93A and mice carrying the normal hSOD1 gene. Motor function tests and various assays determined cell effects. Administered cell distribution, motor neuron counts, and glial cell densities were analyzed in mouse spinal cords. Results showed that mice receiving 106 cells pre-symptomatically or 2.5×106 cells symptomatically significantly delayed functional deterioration, increased lifespan and had higher motor neuron counts than media mice. Astrocytes and microglia were significantly reduced in all cell-treated groups. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that multiple injections of MNC hUCB cells, even beginning at the symptomatic disease stage, could benefit disease outcomes by protecting motor neurons from inflammatory effectors. This multiple cell infusion approach may promote future clinical studies. PMID:22319620

  19. Azithromycin Concentrations in Blood and Gingival Crevicular Fluid after Systemic Administration

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pin-Chuang; Ho, Weiting; Jain, Nidhi; Walters, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that is active against several periodontal pathogens. Macrolides are taken up and concentrated inside gingival fibroblasts, which could influence their pharmacokinetics. This study tested the hypothesis that steady-state levels of azithromycin are higher and more sustained in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) than in serum. Methods Four healthy subjects received an initial dose of 500 mg azithromycin followed by 250 mg doses on each of the next 2 days. Serum and GCF samples were obtained 2 hours after the last dose (day 2) and on days 4 and 7. GCF samples were collected from maxillary posterior sites with paper strips. The strips were pooled and eluted with high purity water. After extraction, the azithromycin content of the serum samples and GCF eluates was determined with an agar diffusion bioassay. Results On days 2, 4 and 7, the concentrations of azithromycin in blood serum were 0.22 ± 0.02, 0.08 ± 0.02 and 0.04 ± 0.01 μg/ml, respectively. The concentrations in GCF were 8.82 ± 1.25, 7.90 ± 1.72 and 7.38 ± 1.15 μg/ml, respectively. Mean GCF levels were significantly higher than mean serum levels (P ≤ 0.02, paired t-test). Conclusion The findings demonstrate that the pharmacokinetic profiles of azithromycin are different in GCF and serum. At steady state, azithromycin concentrations in GCF were higher and more sustained than those in serum. Based on previous studies, the levels observed in GCF were above the MIC for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia. PMID:21417585

  20. Short-term effects of oral dronedarone administration on cardiac function, blood pressure and electrocardiogram in conscious telemetry dogs

    PubMed Central

    SAENGKLUB, Nakkawee; YOUNGBLOOD, Brad; DEL RIO, Carlos; SAWANGKOON, Suwanakiet; HAMLIN, Robert L.; KIJTAWORNRAT, Anusak

    2016-01-01

    Dronedarone is a multichannel blocking antiarrhythmic drug that has been used for management of atrial fibrillation in humans, but the data in veterinary medicine are inadequate. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effects of oral dronedarone on cardiac inotropy and lusitropy, blood pressure and electrocardiogram (ECG) in healthy dogs. A total of 6 beagle dogs were instrumented with telemetry units and sono-micrometry crystals to obtain left ventricular pressure-volume relationship, mean blood pressure (MBP) and ECG. Dogs were given orally dronedarone (20 mg/kg, twice per day) for 7 days. All parameters were obtained hourly at 4–8 hr after the first dose and at 12-, 96- (day 4) and 168-hr (day 7) after dosing. The results showed that dronedarone had no effect on inotropy and lusitropy, while it significantly lengthened PQ interval (P<0.001) and lowered MBP (P<0.05). Dronedarone also tended to reduce cardiac output (P=0.237) and heart rate (P=0.057). These results suggested that short-term effects of oral dronedarone administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg, twice per day, produced negative dromotropy with minimal effect on cardiac function in conscious dogs. PMID:26922916

  1. Intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers containing CNS acting drug: pharmacodynamic studies and estimation in blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Alam, M Intakhab; Baboota, Sanjula; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Mushir; Ali, Javed; Sahni, Jasjeet K

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of duloxetine (DLX) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) with DLX solution pharmacodynamically following intranasal administration. The study was further conducted to estimate DLX concentration in brain and blood. DLX was administered to albino Wistar rats either intranasally or orally in solution form (DLX solution) or encapsulated in NLC (DLX-NLC). These were evaluated in-vivo for pharmacodynamic studies for depression by forced swimming test and locomotor activity test. Intranasal DLX-NLC treatment exhibited improved behavioural analysis results (swimming, climbing, and immobility) than the DLX solution after 24 h of study. Furthermore, DLX-NLC significantly increased the total swimming and climbing time when compared with control and significantly reduced the immobility period. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated improved locomotor activity when compared with DLX solution. Amount of DLX was quantified in blood and brain after the forced swimming test. The intranasal DLX-NLC demonstrated higher concentration in brain compared with DLX solution. Thus, intranasal DLX-NLC was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of depression.

  2. Serial replica exchange.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Morten; Kim, Byungchan; Liu, Pu; Friesner, Richard A; Berne, B J

    2007-02-15

    Parallel tempering (or the replica exchange method (REM)) is a powerful method for speeding up the sampling of conformational states of systems with rough energy landscapes, like proteins, where stable conformational states can be separated by large energy barriers. The usual implementation of the REM is performed on local computer clusters (or parallel processors) where the different replicas must be run synchronously. Here, we present serial replica exchange (SREM), a method that is equivalent to the standard REM in terms of efficiency yet runs asynchronously on a distributed network of computers. A second advantage is the method's greatly enhanced fault tolerance, which enables the study of biological systems on worldwide distributed computing environments, such as Folding@Home. For proof of concept, we apply the SREM to a single alanine dipeptide molecule in explicit water. We show that the SREM reproduces the thermodynamic and structural properties determined by the REM.

  3. Serial Replica Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Morten; Kim, Byungchan; Liu, Pu; Friesner, Richard A.; Berne, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    Parallel tempering (or the replica exchange method (REM)) is a powerful method for speeding up the sampling of conformational states of systems with rough energy landscapes, like proteins, where stable conformational states can be separated by large energy barriers. The usual implementation of the REM is performed on local computer clusters (or parallel processors) where the different replicas must be run synchronously. Here, we present serial replica exchange (SREM), a method that is equivalent to the standard REM in terms of efficiency yet runs asynchronously on a distributed network of computers. A second advantage is the method’s greatly enhanced fault tolerance, which enables the study of biological systems on worldwide distributed computing environments, such as Folding@Home.1 For proof of concept, we apply the SREM to a single alanine dipeptide molecule in explicit water. We show that the SREM reproduces the thermodynamic and structural properties determined by the REM. PMID:17249714

  4. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  5. Time-course effects of intravenously administrated silica nanoparticles on blood coagulation and endothelial function in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Among the most used inorganic nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles (NPs) have been considered as either drug carriers or contrast agents. Though the distribution of silica NPs via the circulation appears highly probable, to date, there are few studies investigating the vascular effects of silica NPs in vivo. This study was designed specifically to investigate whether silica NPs with intravenous injection could lead to blood coagulation disorder and endothelium dysfunction in vivo. The time-course effect of silica NPs on blood coagulation, oxidative stress and the expression of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and tissue factor (TF) in the plasma of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were presented. Our data showed that a shortened prothrombin time (PT) was observed on 1 day after exposure to silica NPs, while activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was not affected at any time-points. After the post-injection respectively, the levels of fibrinogen (Fbg) were increased by silica NPs from 1 day to 3 days, and returned to normal value on the 7th day. Meanwhile, a sustained increase in the levels of TF and sE-selectin was elicited by silica NPs during 7 days after the injection. In addition, after 7 days of intravenously injection of silica NPs, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in the plasma of SD rats were decreased significantly, whereas the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was not changed obviously. In conclusion, intravenously administration of silica NPs could shorten PT but not APTT increase TF and sE-selectin release and reduce GSH-px and SOD activity in the plasma of SD rats, indicating exposure to silica NPs could early activate coagulation cascade via the extrinsic pathway, and may be dependent on endothelium dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  6. Effects of intravenous administration of umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells in a mouse model of neonatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, M; Taguchi, A; Ohshima, M; Kasahara, Y; Sato, Y; Tsuda, H; Otani, K; Yamahara, K; Ihara, M; Harada-Shiba, M; Ikeda, T; Matsuyama, T

    2014-03-28

    Neonatal stroke occurs in approximately 1/4000 live births and results in life-long neurological impairments: e.g., cerebral palsy. Currently, there is no evidence-based specific treatment for neonates with stroke. Several studies have reported the benefits of umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell treatment in rodent models of neonatal brain injury. However, all of the studies examined the effects of administering either the UCB mononuclear cell fraction or UCB-derived mesenchymal stem cells in neonatal rat models. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of human UCB CD34(+) cells (hematopoietic stem cell/endothelial progenitor cells) in a mouse model of neonatal stroke, which we recently developed. On postnatal day 12, immunocompromized (SCID) mice underwent permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Forty-eight hours after MCAO, human UCB CD34(+) cells (1×10(5)cells) were injected intravenously into the mice. The area in which cerebral blood flow (CBF) was maintained was temporarily larger in the cell-treated group than in the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated group at 24h after treatment. With cell treatment, the percent loss of ipsilateral hemispheric volume was significantly ameliorated (21.5±1.9%) compared with the PBS group (25.6±5.1%) when assessed at 7weeks after MCAO. The cell-treated group did not exhibit significant differences from the PBS group in either rotarod (238±46s in the sham-surgery group, 175±49s in the PBS group, 203±54s in the cell-treated group) or open-field tests. The intravenous administration of human UCB CD34(+) cells modestly reduced histological ischemic brain damage after neonatal stroke in mice, with a transient augmentation of CBF in the peri-infarct area. PMID:24444827

  7. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  8. [The effectiveness of intravaginal administration of estrumate for cows in silent heat in relation to the progesterone concentration in the blood].

    PubMed

    Zdunczyk, S; Andresen, P; Janowski, T; Chmielewski, A

    1994-11-01

    In 22 silent heat cows with functional corpus luteum the blood progesterone concentrations and appearance of oestrus after administration of Estrumate were examined. 2 ml Estrumate (500 micrograms cloprostenol) were given intravaginally to 12 cows and intramuscularly to 10 cows respectively. Progesterone concentrations declined 32 hrs after application to levels below 3, 18 nmol/l in all animals. Within 10 days 66.6% of the cows after intravaginal administration of Estrumate and 70% after intramuscular administration came into oestrus. The results indicate that intravaginal application of Estrumate in silent cows with functional corpus luteum induced luteolysis and oestrus identical with intramuscular application. PMID:7895624

  9. Prescription opioids. III. Disposition of oxycodone in oral fluid and blood following controlled single-dose administration.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; DePriest, Anne Z; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Oxycodone (OC) is recommended to be included as an analyte tested in the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA's) Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs using Oral Fluid (OF) Specimens. This study demonstrates the time course of OC and metabolites, noroxycodone (NOC), oxymorphone (OM) and noroxymorphone (NOM), in near-simultaneous paired OF and whole blood (BL) specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) (limit of detection = 1 ng/mL OF, 5 ng/mL BL). A single dose of OC 20 mg controlled-release was administered to 12 healthy subjects followed by specimen collections for 52 h. Analyte prevalence was as follows: OF, OC > NOC > OM; and BL, OC > NOC > NOM. OC and NOC were frequently detected within 15-30 min in OF and 30 min to 2 h in BL. NOM and OM appeared between 1.5-5 h post-dose. The mean OF-to-BL (OF:BL) ratios and correlations were 5.4 for OC (r = 0.719) and 1.0 for NOC (r = 0.651). The period of detection for OF exceeded BL by ∼2-fold at similar cutoff concentrations. At a 1 ng/mL cutoff for OF, the mean detection time was 34 h for OC and NOC. These data provide new information that should facilitate interpretation of OC test results.

  10. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of route of administration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on DNA adduction and cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice and rats

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic
    aromatic hydrocarbons (PA...

  11. Salutary effect of adjunctive intracoronary nicorandil administration on restoration of myocardial blood flow and functional improvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Y; Kodama, K; Komamura, K; Lim, Y J; Ishikura, F; Hirayama, A; Kitakaze, M; Masuyama, T; Hori, M

    1997-06-01

    Salutary effect of nicorandil, a K+ adenosine triphosphate channel opener, on restoration of myocardial blood flow and functional improvement after coronary revascularization was investigated in 20 patients with first anterior acute myocardial infarction. Ten patients received intracoronary administration of nicorandil (2 mg) after coronary revascularization; the other 10 patients received coronary revascularization only and served as control subjects. Myocardial contrast echocardiography and two-dimensional echocardiography were performed to assess microvascular integrity and regional function in the infarcted area. Nicorandil improved peak contrast intensity ratio (p < 0.001), calculated as the ratio of peak contrast intensity in the infarcted and noninfarcted areas, indicating the restoration of myocardial blood flow to the infarcted myocardium. Regional wall motion improved more significantly in 1 month in patients who received nicorandil (p < 0.01). Thus our results suggested the usefulness of intracoronary nicorandil administration after coronary revascularization for restoring blood flow and functional improvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:9200388

  12. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  13. Human cord blood cells and myocardial infarction: effect of dose and route of administration on infarct size.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Burgos, Jose D; Vasko, Mark; Alvarado, Felipe; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sanberg, Paul R; Morgan, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal dose of stem cells or the optimal route of administration for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Bone marrow cells, containing hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, in doses of 0.5 x 10(6) to >30 x 10(6) have been directly injected into the myocardium or into coronary arteries or infused intravenously in subjects with myocardial infarctions to reduce infarct size and improve heart function. Therefore, we determined the specific effects of different doses of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, on infarct size. In order to determine the optimal technique for stem cell administration, HUCBC were injected directly into the myocardium (IM), or into the LV cavity with the ascending aorta transiently clamped to facilitate coronary artery perfusion (IA), or injected intravenously (IV) in rats 1-2 h after the left anterior coronary artery was permanently ligated. Immune suppressive therapy was not given to any rat. One month later, the infarct size in control rat hearts treated with only Isolyte averaged 23.7 +/- 1.7% of the LV muscle area. Intramyocardial injection of HUCBC reduced the infarct size by 71% with 0.5 x 10(6) HUCBC and by 93% with 4 x 10(6) HUCBC in comparison with the controls (p < 0.001). Intracoronary injection reduced the infarction size by 47% with 0.5 x 10(6) HUCBC and by 80% with 4 x 10(6) HUCBC (p < 0.001), and IV HUCBC reduced infarct size by 51% with 0.5 x 10(6) and by 75-77% with 16-32 million HUCBC (p < 0.001) in comparison with control hearts. With 4 x 10(6) HUCBC, infarction size was 65% smaller with IM HUCBC than with IA HUCBC and 78% smaller than with IV HUCBC (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, IM, IA, and IV HUCBC all produced significant reductions in infarct size in comparison with Isolyte-treated infarcted hearts without requirements for host immune suppression. The present experiments demonstrate that the optimal dose

  14. Impaired cerebral vasoreactivity after embolization of arteriovenous malformations: assessment with serial acetazolamide challenge xenon CT

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, R.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Horton, J.A.; Yonas, H.; Pentheny, S.; Durham, S.; Jungreis, C.A.; Hecht, S.T. )

    1991-05-01

    Embolization of a portion of the nidus of an arteriovenous malformation not only may alter hemodynamics within the nidus, but also may change blood flow dynamics in adjacent normal vessels. Sequential acetazolamide-challenge xenon CT cerebral blood flow studies were performed in eight patients before and after embolization of arteriovenous malformations to assess the hemodynamic effects on the major vascular territories supplying the malformation. Acetazolamide is a potent cerebral vasodilator, and its administration combined with cerebral blood flow studies allows assessment of cerebral vasoreactivity. In seven of the eight patients, one or more parenchymal areas exhibited a normal cerebral blood flow augmentation response to acetazolamide before embolization, but diminished acetazolamide flow augmentation was seen after embolization, indicating abnormal vasoreactivity. We found that the decrease in vasoreactivity peaked 6-10 days after embolization. In one of the eight patients, a temporary delayed neurologic deficit developed during a period of impaired cerebral vasoreactivity following embolization. Our results suggest that embolization of an arteriovenous malformation can induce vasoreactivity changes in adjacent normal vessels. Because these changes appear to be somewhat time-dependent, an appropriate interval should be observed between embolization stages or before surgical resection of an arteriovenous malformation following embolization to allow hemodynamic equilibration to occur. Acetazolamide challenge combined with serial cerebral blood flow studies following embolization enables determination of this hemodynamic equilibration.

  15. How often should a red blood cell administration set be changed while a patient is being transfused? A commentary and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Blest, A; Roberts, M; Murdock, J; Watson, D; Brunskill, S

    2008-04-01

    Current recommendations vary with regard to the frequency of change of a red blood cell (RBC) administration set. A full review was undertaken to evaluate the recommendations for how often a RBC administration set should be changed while a patient is being transfused. Comprehensive searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, handsearching of transfusion journals, guidelines and websites and contact with administration set manufacturers identified 32 relevant papers: 11 clinical updates; 11 guidelines; 5 manufacturer data sheets; 3 standards; 1 Department of Health report and 1 expert opinion. Recommendations varied widely across papers. There was no pattern in recommendation by paper type, date or country of origin. Recommendations were based on change of RBC administration set either after a given number of hours or number of RBC units. The recommendations varied widely and ranged from 4 to 48 h and from 'every unit' to 'several units'. The most frequent recommendations were change of RBC administration set after 12 h or 4 units. Methodological quality of the included papers is poor. There is no formal evidence base on which to support current recommendations or challenge the current British Committee for Standards in Haematology guideline. Targeted research aimed at establishing an evidence base may be warranted and would need to document other variables that can impact frequency of change, including type of filter, age of blood and duration of RBC transfusion. PMID:18399846

  16. Effects of L-carnitine administration on growth performance, carcass traits, blood serum parameters and abdominal fatty acid composition of ducks.

    PubMed

    Arslan, C; Citil, M; Saatci, M

    2003-10-01

    Effects of L-carnitine administration via drinking water on growth performance, carcass traits, blood serum parameters and abdominal fatty acid composition of ducks was examined. One hundred day-old Turkish native duck chicks were divided into two groups, each with five replicates and given the same diets with 0 and 200 mg/l carnitine chlorhydrate via drinking water. The study lasted 8 weeks, with the first 4 weeks as a starter and the last 4 weeks as grower period. At the end of the study five ducks were randomly selected from each subgroup for slaughter. Growth performance parameters of ducks were not affected significantly by L-carnitine administration. Live weight, daily weight gain, cumulative feed consumption and average feed conversion efficiency were found to be 1490 and 1621 g, 26.0 and 28.1 g, 5386 and 5662 g, 3.75 and 3.54 kg/kg in the control and in the carnitine groups respectively. L-carnitine administration did not effect carcass traits and serum cholesterol, total lipid, triglyceride and glucose levels. Total saturated fatty acid content of abdominal fat significantly decreased, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid content were not affected by L-carnitine administration. In conclusion, L-carnitine administration by drinking water did not affect growth performance, carcass traits and blood parameters in ducks.

  17. Pharmacokinetic comparison of ferulic acid in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong and their combination.

    PubMed

    Li, Weixia; Guo, Jianming; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Huang, Meiyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2012-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC) combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA), a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC((0-) (t) ()) and C(max) of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05), while clearance (CL) decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t(1/2α), V(d), AUC((0-) (t) ()) and AUC((0-∞)) all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome. PMID:22489169

  18. Pharmacokinetics of new nootropic acylprolyldipeptide and its penetration across the blood-brain barrier after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Boiko, S S; Ostrovskaya, R U; Zherdev, V P; Korotkov, S A; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2000-04-01

    Pharmacokinetics of GVS-111, a new acylprolyldipeptide with nootropic properties and its penetration across the blood-brain barrier were studied in rats using HPLC. It was found that the dipeptide is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, enters the circulation, and penetrates through the blood-brain barrier in an unmodified state. PMID:10977920

  19. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  20. [Depression of an increase of fatty acids in the blood of monkeys during stress by means of the administration of prostaglandin].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlov, M L; Beger, Kh M; Gnauk, G

    1975-04-01

    In examining the level and composition of free fatty acids in the blood plasma of monkeys there were revealed distinct shifts following stress (immobilization) which were prevented by a single administration of prostaglandine E2 directly before the stress. The authors analyze the role of prostaglandines in the capacity of a factor participating in the mechanism of a reverse association, and thus, limiting the lipolytic effect of neuromediators and hormones markedly secreted in case of stress.

  1. Effects of combined administration of captopril and DMSA on arsenite induced oxidative stress and blood and tissue arsenic concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Kiran; Narula, Gagan Deep; Kannan, G M; Flora, S J S

    2007-01-01

    We compared the therapeutic efficacy of captopril and a thiol chelating agent, meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) either individually or in combination against arsenite induced oxidative stress and mobilization of metal in rats. Animals were exposed to 100 ppm arsenite as sodium arsenite in drinking water for six weeks followed by treatment with DMSA (50 mg/kg, orally), captopril (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) either alone or in combination, once daily for 5 consecutive days. Arsenite exposure led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, glutathione and platelet levels while significantly increased the level of reactive oxygen species (in RBCs). Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) level showed a significant decrease while, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels increased on arsenite exposure indicating arsenite induced hepatic oxidative stress. Kidney GSH, GSSG, catalase and TBARS remained unchanged on arsenite exposure. Treatment with DMSA was effective in increasing ALAD activity while, captopril was ineffective when given alone. Captopril when co-administered with DMSA also provided no additional beneficial effect on blood ALAD activity but significant brought altered platelet counts back to the normal value. In contrast, administration of captopril alone provided significant beneficial effects on hepatic oxidative stress, and in combination with DMSA provided a more pronounced recovery in the TBARS level compared to the individual effect of DMSA and captopril. Renal biochemical variables remained insensitive to arsenite and any of the treatments. Interestingly, combined administration of captopril with DMSA had a remarkable effect in depleting total arsenic concentration from blood and soft tissues. These results lead us to conclude that captopril administration during chelation treatment had some beneficial effects particularly on the protection of inhibited blood ALAD activity, and depletion

  2. Effects of administration of subtoxic doses of acetaminophen on liver and blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Durgul; Aksu, Ilkay; Baykara, Basak; Ates, Mehmet; Sisman, Ali Riza; Kiray, Muge; Buyuk, Arzu; Uysal, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is widely used in the treatment of pain. Toxic doses of APAP cause acute liver failure, but therapeutic doses are believed to be safe. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of administration of subtoxic doses of APAP on liver and blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in rats. Low dose (100 mg/kg) and high dose (250 mg/kg) of APAP were intraperitoneally injected into Wistar albino rats. Following administration of therapeutic doses of APAP, there were no significant changes in serum transaminases and liver glutathione levels. Both doses of APAP induced a decrease in liver and blood levels of IGF-1 when compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in liver IGF-1 levels between the high-dose and low-dose APAP groups; however, there was a significant difference in blood IGF-1 levels between both the groups. The histological examination showed that low dose of APAP induced mild degree of structural change, while high dose of APAP induced severe structural damage. In conclusion, these results suggest that blood IGF-1 levels may have a value in predicting hepatic damage resulting from therapeutic doses of APAP.

  3. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Shaun M.; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg-1 BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg-1, p < 0.05). Magnitude inference analysis reported a likely benefit (81% likelihood) of the CHO mouth rinse on PPO. In the CHO trial, mean power output (MPO) showed a trend for being greater in the first 5 seconds of the sprint and lower for the remainder of the sprint compared with the PLA trial (p > 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key points The paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint. The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors. The significant increase in peak power

  4. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg(-1) BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg(-1), p < 0.05). Magnitude inference analysis reported a likely benefit (81% likelihood) of the CHO mouth rinse on PPO. In the CHO trial, mean power output (MPO) showed a trend for being greater in the first 5 seconds of the sprint and lower for the remainder of the sprint compared with the PLA trial (p > 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key pointsThe paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint.The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors.The significant increase in peak power

  5. Implementing a Serials Barcoding Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennertz, Lora L.; Conway, Cheryl L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of planning and implementing a barcode project for library serials based on experiences at the University of Arkansas Fayetteville library. Topics include dumb versus smart barcodes, cataloging, classification, application rate of barcode labels, and library staff participation. (Author/LRW)

  6. The Serial Process in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilden, David L.; Thornton, Thomas L.; Marusich, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions for serial search are described. A multiple target search methodology (Thornton & Gilden, 2007) is used to home in on the simplest target/distractor contrast that effectively mandates a serial scheduling of attentional resources. It is found that serial search is required when (a) targets and distractors are mirror twins, and (b)…

  7. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  8. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  10. Administration of Tranexamic Acid Reduces Postoperative Blood Loss in Calcaneal Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bing; Tian, Jing; Zhou, Da-peng

    2015-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on reducing postoperative blood loss in calcaneal fractures. A total of 90 patients with a unilateral closed calcaneal fracture were randomized to the TXA (n = 45) and control (n = 45) groups. The corresponding groups received 15 mg/kg body weight of TXA or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution) intravenously before the skin incision was made. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed for all patients and selective bone grafting was performed. The patients were examined 3 months after surgery. The intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, blood test results, and wound complications were compared between the 2 groups. The complications of TXA were also investigated. No statistically significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics between the TXA and control groups. Also, no significant difference was noted in the intraoperative blood loss between the 2 groups. However, in the TXA group, the postoperative blood loss during the first 24 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (110.0 ± 160.0 mL versus 320.0 ± 360.0 mL; p < .001). The incidence of wound complications was also reduced compared with that in the control group (7.3% versus 23.8%; p = .036). No significant difference was found in the incidence of thromboembolic events or adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups. We concluded that preoperative single-dose TXA can effectively reduce postoperative blood loss and wound complications in patients with calcaneal fractures and that no significant side effects developed compared with the control group.

  11. Serial dependence in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2014-05-01

    Visual input often arrives in a noisy and discontinuous stream, owing to head and eye movements, occlusion, lighting changes, and many other factors. Yet the physical world is generally stable; objects and physical characteristics rarely change spontaneously. How then does the human visual system capitalize on continuity in the physical environment over time? We found that visual perception in humans is serially dependent, using both prior and present input to inform perception at the present moment. Using an orientation judgment task, we found that, even when visual input changed randomly over time, perceived orientation was strongly and systematically biased toward recently seen stimuli. Furthermore, the strength of this bias was modulated by attention and tuned to the spatial and temporal proximity of successive stimuli. These results reveal a serial dependence in perception characterized by a spatiotemporally tuned, orientation-selective operator-which we call a continuity field-that may promote visual stability over time.

  12. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'.

  13. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

  14. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min{sup −1} to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min{sup −1} and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

  15. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2006-11-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  16. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2008-01-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  17. Comparison of early reactions of the blood system in rats to immobilization, the action of hypoxia and the administration of erythopoietin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorizontov, P. D.; Fedotova, M. I.; Gudim, V. I.; Belousova, O. I.

    1980-01-01

    Three series of experiments were simultaneously carried on rats with the purpose of studying the action of different stimulants on the blood system; rats were subjected to immobilization, hypoxic hypoxia and erythropoietin administration. Changes in various cellular forms in the bone marrow, the thymus and the spleen were studied. A unitypical reaction, as in stress, was noted during the first hours; a reduction of the cell count in the lymphoid organs, a reduction of granulocytes and an increase of lymphoid cells in the bone marrow. The differences were chiefly quantitative. This was followed by stimulation of myelo and erythropoiesis determined by the specific features of the action applied. Nonspecific blood reaction was apparently due to activation of the adaptation mechanisms.

  18. The combined effect of administration of intravenous and topical tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion rate in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Z. F.; Yin, H.; Xing, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent used as a blood-sparing technique in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and is routinely administered by intravenous (IV) or intra-articular (IA) injection. Recently, a novel method of TXA administration, the combined IV and IA application of TXA, has been applied in TKA. However, the scientific evidence of combined administration of TXA in TKA is still meagre. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of combined IV and IA TXA in patients undergoing TKA. Materials and Methods A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, the Cochrane Clinical Trial Register (Issue12 2015), Embase, Web of Science and the Chinese Biomedical Database. Only randomised controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy and safety of combined use TXA in TKA were identified. Two authors independently identified the eligible studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software. Results A total of ten RCTs (1143 patients) were included in this study. All the included studies were randomised and the quality of included studies still needed improvement. The results indicated that, compared with either placebo or the single-dose TXA (IV or IA) group, the combination of IV and IA TXA group had significantly less total blood loss, hidden blood loss, total drain output, a lower transfusion rate and a lower drop in haemoglobin level. There were no statistically significant differences in complications such as wound infection and deep vein thrombosis between the combination group and the placebo or single-dose TXA group. Conclusions Compared with placebo or the single-dose TXA, the combined use of IV and IA TXA provided significantly better results with respect to all outcomes related to post-operative blood loss without increasing the risk of thromboembolic complications in TKA. Cite this article: Z. F. Yuan, H. Yin, W. P. Ma

  19. Kinetic profiles of tianeptine and its MC5 metabolite in plasma, blood and brain after single and chronic intraperitoneal administration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Couet, W; Girault, J; Latrille, F; Salvadori, C; Fourtillan, J B

    1990-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine kinetic profiles of the antidepressant tianeptine and its main metabolite (named MC5) in plasma, blood and brain after single (10 mg.kg-1) and chronic (10 mg.kg-1.day-1 and 2 x 10 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 15 days) intraperitoneal administration in Wistar rats. In plasma, tianeptine and MC5 reached a peak very quickly (5 and 15 min post administration respectively). Following the peak, disappearance of tianeptine was faster than that of MC5 with terminal half-lives close to 2.5 and 6.5 h respectively. During chronic treatment, accumulation of tianeptine was negligible, that of MC5 was slight as indicated by accumulation ratios equal to 1.28 (once daily administration) and 1.73 (twice daily administration). Tianeptine and MC5 rapidly appeared in brain tissue but at concentrations less than those observed in plasma. Peak concentrations of tianeptine in brain were higher than those of MC5. A very low penetration of tianeptine and MC5 into erythrocytes was observed.

  20. Preterm Birth Prevention: Effects of Vaginal Progesterone Administration on Blood Flow Impedance in Uterine-Fetal Circulation by Doppler Sonography

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Homeira; Zamanpour, Tarlan; Shahraki, Hadi Raeisi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of vaginal progesterone administration on maternal and fetal circulation to prevent preterm birth. Methods: The present prospective study was conducted on 35 women with singleton pregnancy at 18–33 weeks of gestation, who presented with at least one episode of preterm labor or asymptomatic short cervix, or past medical history of preterm birth. Doppler flow and Pulsatility Index (PI) assessment of the umbilical artery, fetal middle cerebral artery, uterine arteries, and ductusvenosus were performed before and 72 h after vaginal progesterone administration. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in the PI of the uterine artery following progesterone administration. Nevertheless, no significant changes were observed in the PI of other vessels. No significant difference was found in Doppler flow parameters in any of the examined vessels before or after progesterone treatment in women with Preterm Labor Pain (PLP). Yet, a statistically significant association was observed between short cervix complication in the current pregnancy and medical history of PLP in the previous pregnancy. Conclusion: Treatment with vaginal progesterone reduced the PI in the uterine arteries in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Thus, this medication may have useful vasodilatory effects on uterine-fetal vessels. PMID:26925899

  1. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2006-11-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill. PMID:17199622

  2. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing. PMID:8914287

  3. Serial analysis of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Velculescu, V E; Zhang, L; Vogelstein, B; Kinzler, K W

    1995-10-20

    The characteristics of an organism are determined by the genes expressed within it. A method was developed, called serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), that allows the quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large number of transcripts. To demonstrate this strategy, short diagnostic sequence tags were isolated from pancreas, concatenated, and cloned. Manual sequencing of 1000 tags revealed a gene expression pattern characteristic of pancreatic function. New pancreatic transcripts corresponding to novel tags were identified. SAGE should provide a broadly applicable means for the quantitative cataloging and comparison of expressed genes in a variety of normal, developmental, and disease states. PMID:7570003

  4. Application specific serial arithmetic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, K.; Mathews, D.; Thompson, T.

    1990-01-01

    High performance systolic arrays of serial-parallel multiplier elements may be rapidly constructed for specific applications by applying hardware description language techniques to a library of full-custom CMOS building blocks. Single clock pre-charged circuits have been implemented for these arrays at clock rates in excess of 100 Mhz using economical 2-micron (minimum feature size) CMOS processes, which may be quickly configured for a variety of applications. A number of application-specific arrays are presented, including a 2-D convolver for image processing, an integer polynomial solver, and a finite-field polynomial solver.

  5. Lipid-Core Nanocapsules Act as a Drug Shuttle Through the Blood Brain Barrier and Reduce Glioblastoma After Intravenous or Oral Administration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Fiel, Luana A; Shimada, Ana L; Pereira, Natalia R; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Farsky, Sandra H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) are formed by an organogel surrounded by poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and stabilized by polysorbate 80. LNCs increase the concentration of drugs in the brain after oral or intravenous administration. We proposed to determine whether the drug is released from the LNC to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) or the drug-loaded LNCs can cross the BBB to release the drug. We synthesized a Rhodamine B-polymer conjugate to prepare a fluorescent-labeled LNC formulation, and intravital microscopy was used to determine the ability of the LNCs to cross the brain barrier using different administration routes in C57BI/6 mice. A glioblastoma model was used to determine the impact of the LNC as a shuttle for treatment. After pial vessel exposure, intense fluorescence was detected inside the vessels 10 min after intravenous or 20 min after intraperitoneal injections of fluorescent-labeled LNC. The fluorescence was observed in the perivascular tissue after 30 and 60 min, respectively. Increased tissue fluorescence was detected 240 min after oral administration. The integrity of the barrier was determined during the experiments. Normal leukocyte and platelet adhesion to the vessel wall indicated that Rhodamine B-labeled LNC did not cause pial vessel alterations. After intravenous or oral administration, Rhodamine B-labeled LNC-containing co-encapsulated indomethacin and indomethacin ethyl ester exhibited similar behavior in pial vessels, being more efficient in the treatment of mice with glioblastoma than indomethacin in solution. Therefore, we demonstrated that LNCs act as drug shuttles through the BBB, delivering drugs in brain tissue with high efficiency and reducing glioblastoma after intravenous or oral administration.

  6. Lipid-Core Nanocapsules Act as a Drug Shuttle Through the Blood Brain Barrier and Reduce Glioblastoma After Intravenous or Oral Administration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Fiel, Luana A; Shimada, Ana L; Pereira, Natalia R; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Farsky, Sandra H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) are formed by an organogel surrounded by poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and stabilized by polysorbate 80. LNCs increase the concentration of drugs in the brain after oral or intravenous administration. We proposed to determine whether the drug is released from the LNC to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) or the drug-loaded LNCs can cross the BBB to release the drug. We synthesized a Rhodamine B-polymer conjugate to prepare a fluorescent-labeled LNC formulation, and intravital microscopy was used to determine the ability of the LNCs to cross the brain barrier using different administration routes in C57BI/6 mice. A glioblastoma model was used to determine the impact of the LNC as a shuttle for treatment. After pial vessel exposure, intense fluorescence was detected inside the vessels 10 min after intravenous or 20 min after intraperitoneal injections of fluorescent-labeled LNC. The fluorescence was observed in the perivascular tissue after 30 and 60 min, respectively. Increased tissue fluorescence was detected 240 min after oral administration. The integrity of the barrier was determined during the experiments. Normal leukocyte and platelet adhesion to the vessel wall indicated that Rhodamine B-labeled LNC did not cause pial vessel alterations. After intravenous or oral administration, Rhodamine B-labeled LNC-containing co-encapsulated indomethacin and indomethacin ethyl ester exhibited similar behavior in pial vessels, being more efficient in the treatment of mice with glioblastoma than indomethacin in solution. Therefore, we demonstrated that LNCs act as drug shuttles through the BBB, delivering drugs in brain tissue with high efficiency and reducing glioblastoma after intravenous or oral administration. PMID:27305820

  7. Estimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Nathalie; Hallet, Claude; Seidel, Laurence; Demaret, Isabelle; Luppens, David; Ansseau, Marc; Rozet, Eric; Albert, Adelin; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2-4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1-2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0-1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and <2 h for all metabolites present. The 'jackknife' correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8-9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites.

  8. Reconciling rising serials costs, the serials budget, and reference needs in a medical library serials retrenchment program: a methodology.

    PubMed

    Spang, L

    1995-01-01

    Devising a coherent serials retrenchment plan while maintaining quality reference service is a dilemma faced by increasing numbers of medical librarians. In 1991, the staff of the Shiffman Medical Library, Wayne State University, began to address increasing serials budget reductions that by 1994 amounted to a projected 20% maximum cut. The resulting retrenchment plan combined an ongoing serials use study, faculty and librarian reviews of cancellation lists, and systematic refinements in interlibrary cooperation and document delivery service. The Shiffman plan provides a constructive framework that can be adapted to other medical libraries facing immediate, major serials retrenchment.

  9. Effects of terahertz radiation at atmospheric oxygen frequency of 129 GHz on blood nitrite concentrations under conditions of different types of stress against the background of administration of nonselective inhibitor of constitutive NO-synthases.

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Tsymbal, A A

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effect of terahertz radiation at atmospheric oxygen frequency 129 GHz on blood nitrite concentration in different types of experimental stress against the background of administration of nonselective inhibitor of constitutive NO-synthases. Normalizing effects of radiation on blood nitrite dynamics in animals with acute stress was shown after 15-min exposure and in animals with chronic stress after 30-min exposure. No positive effect of terahertz radiation was observed on altered blood nitrite concentration in male rats after preliminary administration of nonselective constitutive NO-synthase isoform inhibitor L-NAME.

  10. Effects of terahertz radiation at atmospheric oxygen frequency of 129 GHz on blood nitrite concentrations under conditions of different types of stress against the background of administration of nonselective inhibitor of constitutive NO-synthases.

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Tsymbal, A A

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effect of terahertz radiation at atmospheric oxygen frequency 129 GHz on blood nitrite concentration in different types of experimental stress against the background of administration of nonselective inhibitor of constitutive NO-synthases. Normalizing effects of radiation on blood nitrite dynamics in animals with acute stress was shown after 15-min exposure and in animals with chronic stress after 30-min exposure. No positive effect of terahertz radiation was observed on altered blood nitrite concentration in male rats after preliminary administration of nonselective constitutive NO-synthase isoform inhibitor L-NAME. PMID:22803105

  11. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  12. Evolution of human serial pairbonding.

    PubMed

    Fisher, H E

    1989-03-01

    Data on divorce taken for all available years between 1947 and 1981 from the Demographic Yearbooks of the United Nations on 58 peoples illustrate that divorce has a consistent pattern. Divorces exhibit a skewed distribution, characterized by the occurrence of the mode early in marriage (with a divorce peak on or around the fourth year) and a gradual, long-tailed decline following this peak. Divorce risk peaks in age category 25-29 for males and age categories 20-24 and 25-29 for females, the height of reproductive and parenting years, and divorce counts peak among couples with two or fewer children. These properties of divorce are unrelated to divorce rate; they occur in societies with both high and low divorce rates. Data on available horticultural and gathering/hunting societies illustrate that divorce also peaks among young couples early in marriage. Remarriage by divorced and widowed individuals of reproductive age is also common cross-culturally. It is proposed that the above four-year modal marriage duration among couples of reproductive age who divorce reflects a hominid reproductive strategy that probably evolved some time after the appearance of Homo in response to increased female "reproductive burden" and functioned to ensure the survival of the hominid infant through weaning. Serial pairbonding during the female's reproductive years had ancestral adaptive advantages, producing the modern cross-cultural pattern of serial pairbonding. PMID:2929738

  13. Levels of heroin and its metabolites in blood and brain extracellular fluid after i.v. heroin administration to freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Gottås, A; Øiestad, E L; Boix, F; Vindenes, V; Ripel, Å; Thaulow, C H; Mørland, J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Heroin, with low affinity for μ-opioid receptors, has been considered to act as a prodrug. In order to study the pharmacokinetics of heroin and its active metabolites after i.v. administration, we gave a bolus injection of heroin to rats and measured the concentration of heroin and its metabolites in blood and brain extracellular fluid (ECF). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH After an i.v. bolus injection of heroin to freely moving Sprague–Dawley rats, the concentrations of heroin and metabolites in blood samples from the vena jugularis and in microdialysis samples from striatal brain ECF were measured by ultraperformance LC-MS/MS. KEY RESULTS Heroin levels decreased very fast, both in blood and brain ECF, and could not be detected after 18 and 10 min respectively. 6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) increased very rapidly, reaching its maximal concentrations after 2.0 and 4.3 min, respectively, and falling thereafter. Morphine increased very slowly, reaching its maximal levels, which were six times lower than the highest 6-MAM concentrations, after 12.6 and 21.3 min, with a very slow decline during the rest of the experiment and only surpassing 6-MAM levels at least 30 min after injection. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS After an i.v. heroin injection, 6-MAM was the predominant opioid present shortly after injection and during the first 30 min, not only in the blood but also in rat brain ECF. 6-MAM might therefore mediate most of the effects observed shortly after heroin intake, and this finding questions the general assumption that morphine is the main and most important metabolite of heroin. PMID:23865556

  14. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  15. Effects of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells in 3-Acetylpyridine-Lesioned Rats

    PubMed Central

    Calatrava-Ferreras, Lucía; Gonzalo-Gobernado, Rafael; Herranz, Antonio S.; Reimers, Diana; Montero Vega, Teresa; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano; Richart López, Luis Alberto; Bazán, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxias include a heterogeneous group of infrequent diseases characterized by lack of motor coordination caused by disturbances in the cerebellum and its associated circuits. Current therapies are based on the use of drugs that correct some of the molecular processes involved in their pathogenesis. Although these treatments yielded promising results, there is not yet an effective therapy for these diseases. Cell replacement strategies using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HuUCBMCs) have emerged as a promising approach for restoration of function in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential therapeutic activity of HuUCBMCs in the 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) rat model of cerebellar ataxia. Intravenous administered HuUCBMCs reached the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. Grafted cells reduced 3-AP-induced neuronal loss promoted the activation of microglia in the brain stem, and prevented the overexpression of GFAP elicited by 3-AP in the cerebellum. In addition, HuUCBMCs upregulated the expression of proteins that are critical for cell survival, such as phospho-Akt and Bcl-2, in the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. As all these effects were accompanied by a temporal but significant improvement in motor coordination, HuUCBMCs grafts can be considered as an effective cell replacement therapy for cerebellar disorders. PMID:23150735

  16. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  17. The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on tissue and blood levels of benzene metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, R F; Sabourin, P J; Bechtold, W E; Griffith, W C; Medinsky, M A; Birnbaum, L S; Lucier, G W

    1989-01-01

    Studies were completed in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to determine the effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and rodent species on formation of total and individual benzene metabolites. Oral doses of 50 mg/kg or higher saturated the capacity for benzene metabolism in both rats and mice, resulting in an increased proportion of the administered dose being exhaled as benzene. The saturating air concentration for benzene metabolism during 6-hr exposures was between 130 and 900 ppm. At the highest exposure concentration, rats exhaled approximately half of the internal dose retained at the end of the 6-hr exposure as benzene; mice exhaled only 15% as benzene. Mice were able to convert more of the inhaled benzene to metabolites than were rats. In addition, mice metabolized more of the benzene by pathways leading to the putative toxic metabolites, benzoquinone and muconaldehyde, than did rats. In both rats and mice, the effect of increasing dose, administered orally or by inhalation, was to increase the proportion of the total metabolites that were the products of detoxification pathways relative to the products of pathways leading to putative toxic metabolites. This indicates low-affinity, high-capacity pathways for detoxification and high-affinity, low-capacity pathways leading to putative toxic metabolites. If the results of rodent studies performed at high doses were used to assess the health risk at low-dose exposures to benzene, the toxicity of benzene would be underestimated. PMID:2792053

  18. [Effects of the long-term administration of methamphetamine on body weight, food intake, blood biochemistry and estrous cycle in rats].

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Terada, M; Saito, T R; Takahashi, K W

    1995-10-01

    We have a big problem with the abuse of amphetamine and its close relative, methamphetamine (MAP) in Japan. As an animal model of people who abuse MAP, male and female rats were treated with MAP (0.1-10.0 mg/kg/day) for a long time. The results obtained in the present study were as follows. 1. Body weights in MAP-treated groups showed a dose-dependent decrease with loss of food intake. 2. Food intake in rats treated with MAP decreased, compared with the control, but when treatment with MAP was discontinued, food intake increased dramatically. 3. In a blood biochemistry assay, the turnover of protein and lipid was suppressed in rats after MAP. 4. The administration of MAP appeared to disturb the estrous cycle in female rats.

  19. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10−7-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P < 0.0001) and was greater on the back versus other sites (P < 0.05), but LDF was similar between sites (P = 0.343). RSR and SkBF showed a strong relation during initial (arm: r = 0.77 ± 0.09, thigh: r = 0.81 ± 0.08, abdomen: r = 0.89 ± 0.04, back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF. PMID:23389110

  20. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281). PMID:26839476

  1. Effects of pre-shipping marbofloxacin administration on fever and blood properties in healthy Thoroughbreds transported a long distance.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yoshiro; Tsuchiya, Takeru; Omura, Takaya; Nakai, Kenji; Korosue, Kenji; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Hobo, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 ml, IV, once; control group) ≤1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 males, 8 females). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1°C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation.

  2. Effects of pre-shipping marbofloxacin administration on fever and blood properties in healthy Thoroughbreds transported a long distance

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, Yoshiro; TSUCHIYA, Takeru; OMURA, Takaya; NAKAI, Kenji; KOROSUE, Kenji; ISHIMARU, Mutsuki; ISHIKAWA, Yuhiro; HOBO, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 ml, IV, once; control group) ≤1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 males, 8 females). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1°C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation. PMID:25720808

  3. Comparative observations of fever and associated clinical hematological and blood biochemical changes after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and F (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Van Miert, A S; Van Duin, C T; Schotman, A J

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to examine the characteristics of purified toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (staphylococcal enterotoxin F) given intravenously to dwarf goats (dose, 0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1). Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and hematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (dose, 0.02 to 0.5 micrograms kg-1). Similar changes such as fever, tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed. In contrast to the effects of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin B induced colic, watery diarrhea with pseudomembranes, hemoconcentration, and a more pronounced increase in blood urea nitrogen. The results obtained demonstrate that (i) in the goat staphylococcal enterotoxin B is much more potent than toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and (ii) the goat is a useful model to study the gastro-intestinal effects caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The present finding that no clear relationship could be found between the temperature response and the alterations in zinc and iron levels in plasma support the theory that the febrile reactions and the changes in plasma trace metals are mediated by different polypeptides released by activated macrophages. PMID:6500695

  4. A Case of Severe Chlorite Poisoning Successfully Treated With Early Administration of Methylene Blue, Renal Replacement Therapy, and Red Blood Cell Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardtova, Andrea; Vavrinec, Peter; Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Seelen, Mark; Dobisova, Anna; Flassikova, Zora; Cikova, Andrea; Henning, Robert H.; Yaghi, Aktham

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The case of a 55-year-old man who attempted suicide by ingesting <100 mL of 28% sodium chlorite solution is presented. On arrival in the intensive care unit, the patient appeared cyanotic with lowered consciousness and displayed anuria and chocolate brown serum. Initial laboratory tests revealed 40% of methemoglobin. The formation of methemoglobin was effectively treated with methylene blue (10% after 29 hours). To remove the toxin, and because of the anuric acute renal failure, the patient received renal replacement therapy. Despite these therapeutic measures, the patient developed hemolytic anemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which were treated with red blood cell transfusion and intermittent hemodialysis. These interventions led to the improvement of his condition and the patient eventually fully recovered. Patient gave written informed consent. This is the third known case of chlorite poisoning that has been reported. Based upon this case, we suggest the management of sodium chlorite poisoning to comprise the early administration of methylene blue, in addition to renal replacement therapy and transfusion of red blood cells. PMID:25144325

  5. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…

  6. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  7. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  8. Serials standards work: the next frontier.

    PubMed

    Tseng, S C; Arcand, J L; Brugger, J M; Finn, M; Olson, A J; Somers, S

    1990-04-01

    Serials, one of the more complicated areas of library technical endeavors, has lacked the benefit of standards for a long time. Even now, with standards beginning to be available, the majority of institutions are not working within standard serials formats. A survey to determine the use of serials standards in libraries was conducted in 1988 by the American Library Association, Resources and Technical Services Division, Serials Section, Committee to Study Serials Standards. In the spring of 1988 a survey was sent to a group encompassing the Association of Research Libraries members, CONSER participants, United States Newspaper Program participants, Microform Project libraries, and some vendors and librarians who attended the Committee meetings on a regular basis. The survey questionnaire assessed the current level of serials standards awareness of librarians and vendors. Topics included the type of serials systems used, standards relevant to serials control and union listing and whether or not they are implemented, types and levels of training staff received in the application of standards, benefits of the standards, and areas where standards are most needed. PMID:10104416

  9. [Guided tooth eruption via serial extraction].

    PubMed

    Luyten, C

    1995-01-01

    Crowding of teeth is the result of arch length discrepancy (ALD). Minimal crowding can be solved with slice-technique, more severe crowding (ALD > or = 5 mm) can be intercepted with a serial extraction procedure. In this paper a sequence of serial extraction will be explained and illustrated with case reports.

  10. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi. PMID:9621726

  11. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  12. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  13. Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Qian, Zhenchao

    2008-01-01

    Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of "serial cohabitors." Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15%-20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low…

  14. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  15. Administration-time-dependent effects of hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Juan J; Piñeiro, Luis; Otero, Alfonso; Castiñeira, Carmen; Ríos, María T; Regueiro, Antonio; Mojón, Artemio; Lorenzo, Sonia; Ayala, Diana E; Hermida, Ramón C

    2013-03-01

    Many published prospective trials have reported clinically meaningful morning-evening, treatment-time differences in the blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy, duration of action, and safety of most classes of hypertension medications. Most important, it was recently documented that routine ingestion of the full daily dose of ≥1 hypertension medications at bedtime, compared with ingestion of all of them upon awakening, significantly reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping (<10% decline in the asleep relative to the awake BP mean), as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), are frequent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and both are associated with increased CVD risk. Here, we investigated the influence of hypertension treatment time on the circadian BP pattern and degree of BP control of hypertensive patients with CKD evaluated by 48-h ABPM. This cross-sectional study evaluated 2659 such patients (1585 men/1074 women), 64.9 ± 13.2 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project, involving primary care centers of northwest Spain and designed to evaluate prospectively CVD risk by ABPM; 1446 were ingesting all BP-lowering medications upon awakening, whereas 1213 patients were ingesting ≥1 medications at bedtime. Among the latter, 359 patients were ingesting all medications at bedtime, whereas 854 were ingesting the full daily dose of some medications upon awakening and the others at bedtime. Those ingesting all medications upon awakening had significantly higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol than those ingesting ≥1 medications at bedtime. Moreover, patients ingesting all medications at bedtime had the lowest fasting glucose, serum creatinine, and uric acid. Ingestion of ≥1 medications at bedtime was significantly associated with lower asleep systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP means than treatment with all medications upon awakening. The sleep-time relative SBP

  16. The Effect of Donor-Dependent Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Woo; Chang, Jong Wook; Yang, Yoon Sun; Oh, Wonil; Hwang, Jae Ha; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha

    2015-12-01

    Stroke is an ischemic disease caused by clotted vessel-induced cell damage. It is characterized by high morbidity and mortality and is typically treated with a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this therapy is limited by temporal constraints. Recently, several studies have focused on cell therapy as an alternative treatment. Most researches have used fixed donor cell administration, and hence, the effect of donor-dependent cell administration is unknown. In this study, we administered 3 types of donor-derived human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in the ischemic boundary zone of the ischemic stroke rat model. We then performed functional and pathological characterization using rotarod, the limb placement test, and immunofluorescent staining. We observed a significant decrease in neuron number, and notable stroke-like motor dysfunction, as assessed by the rotarod test (~40% decrease in time) and the limb placement test (4.5 point increase) in control rats with ischemic stroke. The neurobehavioral performance of the rats with ischemic stroke that were treated with hUCB-MSCs was significantly better than that of rats in the vehicle-injected control group. Regardless of which donor cells were used, hUCB-MSC transplantation resulted in an accumulation of neuronal progenitor cells, and angiogenic and tissue repair factors in the ischemic boundary zone. The neurogenic and angiogenic profiles of the 3 types of hUCB-MSCs were very similar. Our results suggest that intraparenchymal administration of hUCB-MSCs results in significant therapeutic effects in the ischemic brain regardless of the type of donor. PMID:26713083

  17. Serial killers with military experience: applying learning theory to serial murder.

    PubMed

    Castle, Tammy; Hensley, Christopher

    2002-08-01

    Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanatory research topic. This article examines the possible link between serial killers and military service. Citing previous research using social learning theory for the study of murder, this article explores how potential serial killers learn to reinforce violence, aggression, and murder in military boot camps. As with other variables considered in serial killer research, military experience alone cannot account for all cases of serial murder. Future research should continue to examine this possible link.

  18. Serial killers with military experience: applying learning theory to serial murder.

    PubMed

    Castle, Tammy; Hensley, Christopher

    2002-08-01

    Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanatory research topic. This article examines the possible link between serial killers and military service. Citing previous research using social learning theory for the study of murder, this article explores how potential serial killers learn to reinforce violence, aggression, and murder in military boot camps. As with other variables considered in serial killer research, military experience alone cannot account for all cases of serial murder. Future research should continue to examine this possible link. PMID:12150084

  19. Effects of clozapine administration on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in male C57BL/6 mice: A parallel controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Yan; Liang, Hai-Xia; Liang, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Li, Huan-De

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clozapine has been associated with metabolic adverse events (AEs) (eg, elevated body weight, blood glucose concentrations, cholesterol, triglycerides [TG]), all of which have deleterious effects on health and medication compliance. However, little focus has been directed toward finding a suitable experimental model to study the metabolic AEs associated with clozapine. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clozapine administration for 28 days on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were grouped and treated with clozapine 2 or 10 mg/kg or vehicle intraperitoneally QD for 28 days. Body weight was assessed on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, and 28, and glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, insulin (calculated by insulin resistance index [IRI]), and plasma lipids (including total cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed on day 29. Results: Sixty 10-week-old, male C57BL/6 mice were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups (20 mice per group). The body weight significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg-treated group on days 14, 21, and 28 compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD] body weight: 21.61 [1.05] vs 22.79 [1.11], 22.53 [1.05] vs 24.17 [1.24], and 22.21 [1.07] vs 24.99 [1.39] g, respectively; all, P < 0.05). In the clozapine 10-mg/kg group, blood glucose concentrations significantly increased 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD]: 6.67 [1.25], 25.34 [5.85], 12.68 [3.39], and 7.52 [1.45] mmol/L, respectively, vs 4.61 [0.78], 21.54 [6.55], 11.46 [3.46], and 6.55 [1.42] mmol/L, respectively; all P < 0.05). The clozapine 10-mg/kg group also had significant increases in plasma insulin concentrations compared with the vehicle group (12.70 [5.27] vs 7.62 [4.54] μIU/mL; P < 0.05) and

  20. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  1. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. PMID:24076576

  2. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  3. Serials Librarianship, 1981-85: A Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clack, Mary Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Reviews nine significant publications in serials librarianship published from 1981 through 1985. Topics covered include publishing and electronic publishing, cataloging, acquisitions, and serials automation. (Author/EM)

  4. Prediction of blood levels following oral administration of weakly acidic drug particles such as sulfa drugs in rabbits from the in vitro dissolution behavior.

    PubMed

    Watari, N; Kaneniwa, N

    1984-06-01

    Prediction of blood levels following oral administration of weakly acidic drug particles such as sulfa drugs from data obtained in in vitro dissolution tests of drug suspensions was studied in the rabbit. The relationship between in vivo and in vitro dissolution rates or between absorption rate and in vitro dissolution rate was investigated. The drug absorption from aqueous solution was suggested to be rate-limited by the gastric emptying rate because the initial absorption rate constant in a biexponential time course of aqueous solution for the amount unabsorbed vs. time plot was almost the same among 9 of the 10 drugs tested, except for sulfacetamide. This indicated that when the in vivo dissolution rate constant is much slower than the initial absorption rate constant of aqueous solution, the time course of blood levels for the solid drug will deviate from that of aqueous solution. Based on the consideration, the critical in vitro dissolution rate constant corresponding to the initial absorption rate constants of aqueous solution was calculated by means of statistical analysis using the relationship between in vivo and in vitro parameters. The validity of this prediction was examined using four high-solubility drugs, and it was found that the prediction could be done whether the in vitro dissolution medium was distilled water or 0.1 N HCl solution. Although in the present study, the experiment was done using an aqueous suspension form in the rabbit, the applicability of this prediction method to other dosage forms and to the case of humans is discussed.

  5. Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin 1-7 versus Hypertonic Sodium Chloride 7.5% Administration after Acute Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) plays an important role in renal circulation. Hemorrhagic shock (HS) may cause kidney circulation disturbance, and this study was designed to investigate the renal blood flow (RBF) response to Ang1-7 after HS. Methods. 27 male Wistar rats were subjected to blood withdrawal to reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 45 mmHg for 45 min. The animals were treated with saline (group 1), Ang1-7 (300 ng·kg(-1) min(-1)), Ang1-7 in hypertonic sodium chloride 7.5% (group 3), and hypertonic solution alone (group 4). Results. MAP was increased in a time-related fashion (P time < 0.0001) in all groups; however, there was a tendency for the increase in MAP in response to hypertonic solution (P = 0.09). Ang1-7, hypertonic solution, or combination of both increased RBF in groups 2-4, and these were significantly different from saline group (P = 0.05); that is, Ang1-7 leads to a significant increase in RBF to 1.35 ± 0.25 mL/min compared with 0.55 ± 0.12 mL/min in saline group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although Ang1-7 administration unlike hypertonic solution could not elevate MAP after HS, it potentially could increase RBF similar to hypertonic solution. This suggested that Ang1-7 recovers RBF after HS when therapeutic opportunities of hypertonic solution are limited.

  6. Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin 1-7 versus Hypertonic Sodium Chloride 7.5% Administration after Acute Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) plays an important role in renal circulation. Hemorrhagic shock (HS) may cause kidney circulation disturbance, and this study was designed to investigate the renal blood flow (RBF) response to Ang1-7 after HS. Methods. 27 male Wistar rats were subjected to blood withdrawal to reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 45 mmHg for 45 min. The animals were treated with saline (group 1), Ang1-7 (300 ng·kg−1 min−1), Ang1-7 in hypertonic sodium chloride 7.5% (group 3), and hypertonic solution alone (group 4). Results. MAP was increased in a time-related fashion (Ptime < 0.0001) in all groups; however, there was a tendency for the increase in MAP in response to hypertonic solution (P = 0.09). Ang1-7, hypertonic solution, or combination of both increased RBF in groups 2-4, and these were significantly different from saline group (P = 0.05); that is, Ang1-7 leads to a significant increase in RBF to 1.35 ± 0.25 mL/min compared with 0.55 ± 0.12 mL/min in saline group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although Ang1-7 administration unlike hypertonic solution could not elevate MAP after HS, it potentially could increase RBF similar to hypertonic solution. This suggested that Ang1-7 recovers RBF after HS when therapeutic opportunities of hypertonic solution are limited. PMID:27073699

  7. Transcriptome modification of white blood cells after dietary administration of curcumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in osteoarthritic affected dogs.

    PubMed

    Colitti, M; Gaspardo, B; Della Pria, A; Scaini, C; Stefanon, Bruno

    2012-06-30

    The dietary effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or curcumin on the gene expression of peripheral white blood cells in osteoarthritis (OA) affected dogs was investigated using a 44K oligo microarray. Two groups of OA dogs and one group of healthy dogs (6 dogs each) were clinically evaluated and blood was sampled before (T0) and after 20days (T20) of dietary administration of NSAID (NSAID group) or curcumin (CURCUMIN group). Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) in comparison to the control group were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). After 20days of treatment, the differentially expressed transcripts significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 475 to 173 in NSAID group and from 498 to 141 in CURCUMIN group. Genes involved in "inflammatory response" and in "connective tissue development and function" dramatically decreased at T20. Other genes, included in "cellular movement", "cellular compromise" and "immune cell trafficking", were differentially expressed at T0 but not at T20 in both groups. Specific molecular targets of CURCUMIN, not observed for NSAID, were the IkB up regulation in the "TNRF1 signaling pathway" and IL18 down regulation in the "role of cytokines in mediating communication between immune cells". The activity of CURCUMIN was also evidenced from the inhibition of macrophages proliferation (HBEGF), related to a strong down regulation of TNFα and to activation of fibrinolysis (SERPINE1). The results would suggest that curcumin offers a complementary antinflammatory support for OA treatment in dogs. PMID:22591841

  8. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters of blood in rats after subchronic administration of vanadium and/or magnesium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Zaporowska, Halina; Ostrowski, Jarosław

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of selected vanadium and magnesium doses on certain haematological and biochemical blood parameters in rats. Outbred 2-month-old, albino male Wistar rats received for a period of 6 weeks, as a sole drinking liquid, the following water solutions: group II, sodium metavanadate (SMV) at a concentration of 0.125 mg V/mL; group III, magnesium sulphate (MS) at a concentration of 0.06 mg Mg/mL; and group IV, SMV-MS solution at the same concentrations. The control group received at this time deionized water to drink. It was calculated that group II ingested with drinking water about 10.7 mg V/kg b. w./24 h, group III 6 mg Mg/kg b. w./24 h, and group IV about 9 mg V and 4.5 mg Mg/kg b. w./24 h. The exposure to vanadium alone (group II) led to a statistically significant decrease in body weight gain, food and fluid intakes. Moreover, in the same group of rats a statistically significant decrease in the RBC count, Hb concentration, MCV, and MCH values was demonstrated. Additionally, a statistically significant decrease in the plasma L-ascorbic acid concentration and a significant increase in MDA concentration in blood in this group were found. Instead, after the administration of magnesium alone (group III), a statistically significant decrease in the fluid intake and in the L-ascorbic acid concentration in plasma was noted. Furthermore, in the same group of rats a statistically significant increase in Hb level and in the plasma magnesium concentration was demonstrated. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal the interactions between V and Mg.

  9. Body weight, meat quality and blood metabolite responses to carbohydrate administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kop-Bozbay, C; Ocak, N

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine weights of body (BW), carcass (CW), gastrointestinal tract (GTW), meat quality and some blood metabolite responses to corn starch, saccharose or glucose administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal (FW) in broilers. On day 42 of age, 200 broilers (Ross 308) were allocated randomly to five treatments with four replicates. During a 10-h FW, control broilers (C) were provided with non-treated water and the standard finisher diet ad libitum, whereas fasted broilers provided with non-treated (NFW) or treated water, 3 g glucose (G), saccharose (S) or corn starch (CS)/L. Eight birds (four males and four females) per treatment were slaughtered. Birds receiving non-treated or treated water had lower BW and higher carcass yield than the full-fed broilers. The full-fed broilers had higher absolute and relative GTW than the fasted birds. Broilers consumed more readily treated water compared with non-treated water. While the a* value of breast meat from CS birds was higher than that from NFW, the b* value of that was higher than S and C birds. The c* values of breast meat from S birds were lower compared with that from the CS treatment. The thigh meat from NFW broilers had higher h* value than that from C and G broilers. The thigh meats of C and CS broilers had higher c* value than that of G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma triglyceride concentration than NFW, S and G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma uric acid and uric acid nitrogen concentrations than S birds. These results show that carbohydrate administration in the drinking water cannot be a good alternative for the FW period before slaughter due to the fact that the carbohydrates do not reduce BW losses and do not lead to increases in meat quality.

  10. Administration of microparticles from blood of the lipopolysaccharide-treated rats serves to induce pathologic changes of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongxia; Meng, Xiangyu; Liang, Xiaoyan; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of intratracheal and intravenous administration of microparticles (MPs) on developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The blood MPs from lipopolysaccharide-treated rats were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular source of the MPs was identified by fluorescent-labeled antibodies after the circulating MPs were delivered to naïve rats. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 productions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were determined 24 h after the rats received intratracheal and intravenous administration of the MPs. Histopathologic examination of lungs was performed by light microscope. A TEM image of MPs showed spherical particles at a variable diameter from 0.1 to 0.5 µm. Endothelial- and leukocyte-derived vesicles were abundant in the investigated samples. Treatment with MPs may lead to significant increases in MPO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 productions in BALF and plasma of the rats (all P < 0.001). Morphological observation indicated that alveolar structures were destroyed with a large amount of neutrophil infiltration in the lungs of the MP-treated rats. Perivascular and/or intra-alveolar hemorrhage were serious and hyaline membrane formed in the alveoli. Intratracheal and intravenous approaches to delivery of the circulating MPs to naïve recipient rats may induce ARDS. This presents an inducer of the onset of ARDS and provides potential therapeutic targets for attenuating lung injury. PMID:26088862

  11. Angiogenesis and Improved Cerebral Blood Flow in the Ischemic Boundary Area Detected by MRI after Administration of Sildenafil to Rats with Embolic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Guangliang; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Li, Qingjiang; Ewing, James R.; Lu, Mei; Panda, Swayamprava; Ledbetter, Karyn A.; Whitton, Polly A.; Chopp, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To dynamically investigate the long-term response of an ischemic lesion in rat brain to the administration of sildenafil, male Wistar rats subjected to embolic stroke were treated with sildenafil (n=11) or saline (n=10) at a dose of 10mg/Kg administered subcutaneously 24-hours after stroke and daily for an additional 6-days. Magnetic resonance images were acquired and functional performance was measured in all animals at 1-day, 2-days and weekly for 6-weeks post-stroke. All rats were sacrificed 6-weeks after stroke and endothelial barrier antigen immunostaining was employed for morphological analysis and quantification of cerebral vessels. Map-ISODATA was computed from T1, T2 and T1sat maps. ISODATA derived tissue signatures characterize the degree of ischemic injury. Based on the map-ISODATA calculated at 6-weeks, the ischemic lesion for each animal was divided into two specific regions, the ischemic boundary and ischemic core. The temporal profiles of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue signature were retrospectively tracked in these two regions and were compared with histological evaluation and functional outcome. After 1-week of sildenafil treatment, the ischemic lesion exhibited two significantly different regions, with higher CBF level and correspondingly, lower tissue signature value in the boundary region than in the core region. Sildenafil treatment did not significantly reduce the lesion size, but did enhance angiogenesis. Functional performance was significantly increased after sildenafil treatment compared with the control group. Administration of sildenafil to rats with embolic stroke enhances angiogenesis and selectively increases the CBF level in the ischemic boundary, and improves neurological functional recovery compared to saline-treated rats. PMID:17188664

  12. Serial order in spatial immediate memory.

    PubMed

    Smyth, M M; Scholey, K A

    1996-02-01

    Serial order effects in spatial memory are investigated in three experiments. In the first an analysis of errors in recall data suggested that immediate transpositions were the most common error and that order errors over 2 or 3 adjacent items accounted for the majority of errors in recall. The first and last serial positions are less error-prone than is the middle position in sets of six and seven items. A second experiment investigated recognition of transpositions and found that immediate transpositions were hardest to recognize but that a traditional serial position effect was not found. This may be due to the difficulty of maintaining one set of spatial items when another set is presented for comparison. A probe experiment, in which subjects were asked to recognize whether a single item came from a memory set and then to assign it to its position in the set indicated that the first and last positions were remembered more accurately than were central positions. The combination of serial order data in recall and position data suggests that there are similarities between serial order and position effects in the verbal and spatial domains and that serial order in spatial sequences is position-based.

  13. Serial position functions in general knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2015-11-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age; animals and weight; basketball players and height; countries and area; and planets and diameter. In all cases, a serial position function was observed: People were more accurate to order the youngest and oldest actors, the lightest and heaviest animals, the shortest and tallest basketball players, the smallest and largest countries, and the smallest and largest planets, relative to intermediate items. The results support an explanation of serial position functions based on relative distinctiveness, which predicts that serial position functions will be observed whenever a set of items can be sensibly ordered along a particular dimension. The serial position function arises because the first and last items enjoy a benefit of having no competitors on 1 side and therefore have enhanced distinctiveness relative to mid-dimension items, which suffer by having many competitors on both sides.

  14. Analyzing Current Serials in Virginia: An Application of the Ulrich's Serials Analysis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gasser, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    VIVA (the Virtual Library of Virginia) was one of the first subscribers to R. R. Bowker's Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (USAS). Creating a database that combined a union report of current serial subscriptions within most academic libraries in the state with the data elements present in Ulrich's made possible a comprehensive analysis designed…

  15. Blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow negatively affects in vitro fertilization by disturbing spermatozoa function.

    PubMed

    González, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2015-04-15

    Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns.

  16. [The serial murder: a few theoretical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Leistedt, S; Linkowski, P

    2011-01-01

    Despite numbers of publications and effort to try to establish the definition, the classification, the epidemiology, the clinical aspects and the psychopathology of serial killers, a universal consensus seems to say the least. Crime, though reduced in some countries, appears to impact more and more consistent worldwide, generating controversial ideas and a multitude of possible explanations. The serial killer usually presents as a caucasian man, aged between 20 and 40 years, often embedded socially and in his family, but with serious psychiatric, personal and especially family history. Usually acting alone, the serial killer plans a crime well in advance, but sometimes within the scope of impulsivity for a minority, the victim not being previously selected. In the latter case, an actual mental illness like psychosis is found. It is clear from numerous psychopathological studies conducted so far that most serial killers are defined as psychopathic sexual sadists, whose childhood was difficult, if not flouted, punctuated by physical and psychological violence situations. In addition, pervasive fantasies combined with thoughts of death, sex and violence are as much in common with the original acts of which they are the instigators. Beyond a relentless media that is constantly watering the public with stories and pictures depicting them as such, serial killers remain an enigma. We can therefore attempt to answer the various questions raised by this phenomenon, the way these people operate and how we can curb the rise, thanks to the neurobiological and neurophysiological approaches that science offers us.

  17. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    PubMed

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis.

  18. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, M.V.; Roychowdhury, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during twelve years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of “Devil’s staircase” type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. PMID:24721476

  19. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Soo Bin; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a commonly used resuscitation fluid, has the property to induce hyperglycemia as it contains large ethyl starch, which can be metabolized to produce glucose. We evaluated the effect of 6% HES-130 on the blood glucose levels in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo elective lower limb surgery were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups according to the type of the main intravascular fluid used before spinal anesthesia (Group LR: lactated Ringer's solution, n = 30 vs. Group HES: 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, n = 28). Blood glucose levels were measured at the following time points: 0 (baseline), 20 min (T1), 1 h (T2), 2 h (T3), 4 h (T4), and 6 h (T6). Results Mean blood glucose levels at T5 in the LR group and T4, T5 in the HES group, increased significantly compared to baseline. There were no significant changes in the serial differences of mean blood glucose levels from baseline between the two groups. Conclusions Administration of 6% HES-130 increased blood glucose levels within the physiologic limits, but the degree of glucose increase was not greater than that caused by administration of lactated Ringer's solution. In conclusion, we did not find evidence that 6% HES-130 induces hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:27482311

  20. Standardization and adult norms for the sequential subtracting tasks of serial 3's and 7's.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Thomas; Jih, Chwan-Shyang; Slabich, Artrina; Gunn, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The Serial 3's and 7's subtraction tasks are traditionally used in mental status examinations. The usefulness of these tasks is based upon the assumption that they measure attention and mental concentration. However, there is no uniform method of administration, and there are no recognized norms for these subtraction tasks, which has led some in the field of psychiatry and neuropsychology to conclude that the tests are not useful. The purpose of this research had three goals: (a) to create a standardization of the administration, (b) to provide a structured and consistent framework for the data evaluation, and (c) to create adult norms as a frame of reference for interpretation. The study investigated normal control subjects (N = 204) and specific variables of interest included both efficiency and accuracy of performance. The results demonstrated that when used conjointly, Serial 3's and Serial 7's are an efficient and accurate measure of sequential subtracting, but even more importantly, the study revealed the hierarchical increase in cognitive demand when the performances between 3's and 7's were compared. With standardization and norms, serial subtraction becomes a more effective screening technique within the context of a mental status examination. Similarly, the conjoint administration of these tasks yields synergistic data that can be useful in determining deficits in the cognitive domains of attention and working memory. PMID:27218700

  1. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  2. Serial multiplier arrays for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, Kel

    1990-01-01

    Arrays of systolic serial-parallel multiplier elements are proposed as an alternative to conventional SIMD mesh serial adder arrays for applications that are multiplication intensive and require few stored operands. The design and operation of a number of multiplier and array configurations featuring locality of connection, modularity, and regularity of structure are discussed. A design methodology combining top-down and bottom-up techniques is described to facilitate development of custom high-performance CMOS multiplier element arrays as well as rapid synthesis of simulation models and semicustom prototype CMOS components. Finally, a differential version of NORA dynamic circuits requiring a single-phase uncomplemented clock signal introduced for this application.

  3. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides.

  4. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. PMID:25682709

  5. Advantages and disadvantages of phonological similarity in serial recall and serial recognition of nonwords.

    PubMed

    Lian, Arild; Karlsen, Paul Johan

    2004-03-01

    The phonological similarity effect (PSE) was studied with lists of nonwords in one task of serial recall and one task of serial recognition. PSE was critically affected by the scoring procedure and the type of phonological similarity involved, and the effect diverged in several ways from the findings of previous studies on words. PSE was absent in serial recall, regardless of scoring procedure, when phonologically similar items that shared the midvowel were compared with phonologically distinct items. PSE was reversed when serial recall and item recall scores of rhyme items and consonant frame items were compared with distinct items, but it was present in the position accuracy score of rhyme lists. In serial recognition, PSE was absent when rhyme lists were compared with distinct lists. Recognition was better for consonant frame lists than for rhyme lists, and there was a marginally significant reversal of PSE when consonant frame lists were compared with distinct lists. In the view of Fallon, Groves, and Tehan's (1999) study and the present study, rhyming improves item recall and serial recall but diminishes position accuracy, regardless of lexicality. But consonant frame lists with differing midvowels have higher item recall, serial recall, and position accuracy scores than do rhyme lists.

  6. Does the preoperative administration of tranexamic acid reduce perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements after head neck cancer surgery? A randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anjan; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Mandal, Debabrata; Chhaule, Subinay; Mitra, Tapobrata; Mukherjee, Anindya; Mandal, Subrata Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Background: Head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery is associated with high intraoperative blood loss which may require urgent blood transfusion. Many strategies have been recommended to decrease the need for allogenic transfusion. Use of perioperative tranexamic acid (TA) has a promising role. Aims: This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of single preoperative bolus dose of TA on blood loss prevention and red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing HNC surgery. Study Design: A prospective, double-blind, and randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: From 2007 July to 2010 January; 80 patients, aged (35–55), of American Society of Anesthesiologists II-III scheduled for unilateral HNC surgeries were randomly received either TA (Group T) in a dose of 20 mg/kg diluted to 25 cc with normal saline or an equivalent volume of normal saline (Group C) in a tertiary care hospital. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, platelet count, packed cell volume, fibrinogen level, D-dimer level were measured pre- and post-operatively. Results: Saline (C) Group required more blood, colloid, crystalloid for blood loss. In Group T, 32 patients did not require transfusion of any blood products compared to five patients in Group C (P < 0.0001) and only eight units of blood was transfused in Group T, whereas a total of 42 units of blood was transfused in Group C. Even after numerous transfusions, Hb% after 6 h and 24 h in Group C were significantly low in comparison with Group T (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Thus, TA significantly reduces blood loss and chances of colloid, blood, and crystalloid transfusion caused by HNC surgery. PMID:26712979

  7. A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

  8. Cooperative Serials Review: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Library Consortium, MA.

    This report describes a 1980/81 project concerned with the formulation and validation of a model for determining whether cancellation and/or consolidation of serial subscriptions and holdings should be recommended to maximize the cost-effective use of combined collections and staff resources in the Boston Library Consortium (BLC). The publication…

  9. Inverting the modality effect in serial recall.

    PubMed

    Beaman, C Philip

    2002-04-01

    Differences in recall ability between immediate serial recall of auditorily and visually presented verbal material have traditionally been considered restricted to the end of to-be-recalled lists, the recency section of the serial position curve (e.g., Crowder & Morton, 1969). Later studies showed that--under certain circumstances--differences in recall between the two modalities can be observed across the whole of the list (Frankish, 1985). However in all these studies the advantage observed is for recall of material presented in the auditorily modality. Six separate conditions across four experiments demonstrate that a visual advantage can be obtained with serial recall if participants are required to recall the list in two distinct sections using serial recall. Judged on a list-wide basis, the visual advantage is of equivalent size to the auditory advantage of the classical modality effect. The results demonstrate that differences in representation of auditory and visual verbal material in short-term memory persist beyond lexical and phonological categorization and are problematic for current theories of the modality effect.

  10. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  11. Supporting the Serial in the SERIOL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that orthographical lexical access in visual word recognition takes place in parallel, with all letters activated at the same time. In contrast, in the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, letters fire sequentially (Whitney, 2001). I present further support for such seriality on several fronts. (1) The reasons that led…

  12. Statistical inference for serial dilution assay data.

    PubMed

    Lee, M L; Whitmore, G A

    1999-12-01

    Serial dilution assays are widely employed for estimating substance concentrations and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The Poisson-Bernoulli model for such assays is appropriate for count data but not for continuous measurements that are encountered in applications involving substance concentrations. This paper presents practical inference methods based on a log-normal model and illustrates these methods using a case application involving bacterial toxins.

  13. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  14. Serial Position Effects in Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, P.; Lipinski, J.; Abbs, B.; Lin, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of research has emphasized the linkage between performance in immediate serial recall of lists, nonword repetition, and word learning. Recently, it has been reported that primacy and recency effects are obtained in repetition of individual syllables within nonwords (Gupta, in press). Five experiments examined whether such…

  15. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND......

  16. Notes for Serials Cataloging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Beverley, Ed.; Caraway, Beatrice L., Ed.

    Notes are indispensable to serials cataloging. Researchers, reference librarians, and catalogers regularly use notes on catalog records and, as the audience for these notes has expanded from the local library community to the global Internet community, the need for notes to be cogent, clear, and useful is greater than ever. This book is a…

  17. Proposal for a National Serials Data System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Scott

    A hypothetical model is given for a National Serials Data System based on the best educated guesses of what the system should do and how, therefore, it should function. The model focuses attention on the ultimate goal rather than on the decision-making processes relating to choice of data elements, unique identification codes, etc. This conceptual…

  18. Parallel and Serial Processes in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Thomas L.; Gilden, David L.

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing issue in the study of how people acquire visual information centers around the scheduling and deployment of attentional resources: Is the process serial, or is it parallel? A substantial empirical effort has been dedicated to resolving this issue. However, the results remain largely inconclusive because the methodologies that have…

  19. Statistical design for a small serial dilution series.

    PubMed

    Zelterman, Daniel; Tulupyev, Alexander; Heimer, Robert; Abdala, Nadia

    2010-02-10

    We describe statistical plans for a serial dilution series designed to detect and estimate the number of viral particles in a solution. The design addresses a problem when a very limited number of aliquots are available for proliferation. A gamma prior distribution on the number of viral particles allows us to describe the marginal probability distribution of all experimental outcomes. We examine a design that minimizes the expected reciprocal information and compare this with the maximum entropy design. We argue that the maximum entropy design is more useful from the point of view of the laboratory technician. The problem and design are motivated by our study of the viability of human immunodeficiency virus in syringes and other equipment that might mediate blood-borne viral transmission.

  20. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Saito, Satoru; Morita, Aiko; Varma, Samarth; Norris, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers of English recalled visually presented words. In all experiments, items varied in visual similarity and were controlled for phonological similarity. For Kanji and for English, performance on lists comprising visually similar items was overall poorer than for lists of visually distinct items across all serial positions. For mixed lists in which visually similar and visually distinct items alternated through the list, a clear "zig-zag" pattern appeared with better recall of the visually distinct items than for visually similar items. This is the first time that this zig-zag pattern has been shown for manipulations of visual similarity in serial-ordered recall. These data provide new evidence that retaining a sequence of visual codes relies on similar principles to those that govern the retention of a sequence of phonological codes. We further illustrate this by demonstrating that the data patterns can be readily simulated by at least one computational model of serial-ordered recall, the Primacy model (Page and Norris, Psychological Review, 105(4), 761-81, 1998). Together with previous evidence from neuropsychological studies and experimental studies with healthy adults, these results are interpreted as consistent with two domain-specific, limited-capacity, temporary memory systems for phonological material and for visual material, respectively, each of which uses similar processes that have evolved to be optimal for retention of serial order.

  1. Blood oxygenation during hyperpressure intraperitoneal fluid administration in a rabbit model of severe liver injury: Evaluation of a novel concept for control of pre-hospital liver bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Azizi, Saeed; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Maham, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen is an essential part of the most important metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. Oxygen delivery is merely dependent on blood, rendering blood loss a devastating event. Traumatic pre-hospital liver bleeding is a major cause of early trauma deaths in human and animals, with no established therapeutic method yet. Increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been shown to reduce liver bleeding by half. Although reduction of blood loss could be in favor of blood oxygen delivery, however, the complex interaction between increased IAP and respiratory mechanics during severe hemorrhagic shock remained unclear. We used a novel model of liver trauma in 16 rabbits and randomly assigned them to either normotensive abdomen group or increased IAP by fluid infusion (HA) groups (n=8 each). Liver size and the amount of liver injury were evaluated. Various blood oxygenation parameters were recorded. Both groups were identical in terms of the liver size and injury. The HA group had significantly lower shock index. Arterial oxygen capacity and oxygen content were higher in the HA group. No significant statistical difference was seen between groups in terms of abdominal perfusion pressure; alveolar pressure of oxygen; dissolved oxygen in blood plasma; alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient; arterial to alveolar oxygen pressure ratio; the ratio between partial pressure of arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen; and respiratory index. In conclusion, the novel therapeutic method of increasing IAP by fluid infusion in a rabbit model of liver hemorrhage preserved blood oxygenation better than the classic therapeutic method. PMID:25653758

  2. Cementable implant-supported prosthesis, serial extraction, and serial implant installation: case report.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Harry; Gornitsky, Mervyn

    2004-12-01

    Cement-retained implant-supported prostheses are particularly indicated where access for screw placement is limited or impossible like in posterior locations or where there is limited jaw opening. The patient in this case report suffered from limited jaw opening as a result of a long history of temporomandibular joint ankylosis related to hemophilia. Cement-retained implant-supported prostheses coupled with serial extraction, serial implant installations, and chairside provisional restorations made uneventful treatment possible.

  3. Serial Recall and the Modality Effect: Effects of Word Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Olga C.; Watkins, Michael J.

    1977-01-01

    Serial position curves for the immediate serial recall of supraspan word lists were investigated as a joint function of input modality and the frequency with which the list words occur in everyday usage. (Editor)

  4. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels

  5. National Serials Data Program; Phase I, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Information Systems Office.

    The primary objective of the National Serials Data Program is the design and implementation of a national serials information system. The goals of this system are the provisions of timely, accurate, and comprehensive information about serial publications within a framework of quantitative efficiency and agreed upon cost effectiveness. The intent…

  6. English Literature: A Student's Guide to Serial Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This selected guide to serial bibliographies covering English language literature is based on an essay bibliography by David E. Pownall. Other bibliographies of serial bibliographies which were consulted include "A Reference Guide to English Studies,""Periodicals Containing Reviews and Bibliographies,""Serial Bibliographies in the Humanities and…

  7. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  8. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  9. Reduction in renal blood flow following administration of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in septic rats treated with Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive and KCa1.1 calcium-activated K+ channel blockers.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Maggi Sant'Helena, Bruna; Guarido, Karla L; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo

    2015-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of K+ channel blockers in the vascular reactivity of in vitro perfused kidneys, as well as on the influence of vasoactive agents in the renal blood flow of rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Both norepinephrine and phenylephrine had the ability to increase the vascular perfusion pressure reduced in kidneys of rats subjected to CLP at 18 h and 36 h before the experiments. The non-selective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the Kir6.1 blocker glibenclamide, normalized the effects of phenylephrine in kidneys from the CLP 18 h group. Systemic administration of tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, or the KCa1.1 blocker iberiotoxin, did not change the renal blood flow in control or septic rats. Norepinephrine or phenylephrine also had no influence on the renal blood flow of septic animals, but its injection in rats from the CLP 18 h group previously treated with either glibenclamide or iberiotoxin resulted in an exacerbated reduction in the renal blood flow. These results suggest an abnormal functionality of K+ channels in the renal vascular bed in sepsis, and that the blockage of different subtypes of K+ channels may be deleterious for blood perfusion in kidneys, mainly when associated with vasoactive drugs.

  10. Reduction in renal blood flow following administration of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in septic rats treated with Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive and KCa1.1 calcium-activated K+ channel blockers.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Maggi Sant'Helena, Bruna; Guarido, Karla L; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo

    2015-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of K+ channel blockers in the vascular reactivity of in vitro perfused kidneys, as well as on the influence of vasoactive agents in the renal blood flow of rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Both norepinephrine and phenylephrine had the ability to increase the vascular perfusion pressure reduced in kidneys of rats subjected to CLP at 18 h and 36 h before the experiments. The non-selective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the Kir6.1 blocker glibenclamide, normalized the effects of phenylephrine in kidneys from the CLP 18 h group. Systemic administration of tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, or the KCa1.1 blocker iberiotoxin, did not change the renal blood flow in control or septic rats. Norepinephrine or phenylephrine also had no influence on the renal blood flow of septic animals, but its injection in rats from the CLP 18 h group previously treated with either glibenclamide or iberiotoxin resulted in an exacerbated reduction in the renal blood flow. These results suggest an abnormal functionality of K+ channels in the renal vascular bed in sepsis, and that the blockage of different subtypes of K+ channels may be deleterious for blood perfusion in kidneys, mainly when associated with vasoactive drugs. PMID:26277325

  11. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  12. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage. PMID:27553240

  13. Serial correlation in the Italian futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Reno, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    We study the serial correlation of high-frequency intraday returns on the Italian stock index futures (FIB30) in the period 2000-2002. We adopt three different methods of analysis: the spectral density via Fast Fourier Transform, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the Variance Ratio test. We find that intraday autocorrelation is mostly negative for time scales lower than 20 minutes, but we support the efficiency of the Italian futures market.

  14. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Linda C; Arnlund, David; White, Thomas A; Katona, Gergely; DePonte, Daniel P; Weierstall, Uwe; Doak, R Bruce; Shoeman, Robert L; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Nass, Karol; Liang, Mengning; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Robert; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Hunter, Mark S; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A; Maia, Filipe R N C; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Sierra, Raymond G; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wunderer, Cornelia; Fromme, Petra; Chapman, Henry N; Spence, John C H; Neutze, Richard

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron laser (X-feL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-feL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet. PMID:22286383

  15. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Linda C; Arnlund, David; White, Thomas A; Katona, Gergely; Deponte, Daniel P; Weierstall, Uwe; Doak, R Bruce; Shoeman, Robert L; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Nass, Karol; Liang, Mengning; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Robert; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Hunter, Mark S; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A; Maia, Filipe R N C; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Sierra, Raymond G; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wunderer, Cornelia; Fromme, Petra; Chapman, Henry N; Spence, John C H; Neutze, Richard

    2012-03-01

    X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-FEL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet.

  16. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Linda C; Arnlund, David; White, Thomas A; Katona, Gergely; Deponte, Daniel P; Weierstall, Uwe; Doak, R Bruce; Shoeman, Robert L; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Nass, Karol; Liang, Mengning; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Robert; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Hunter, Mark S; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A; Maia, Filipe R N C; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Sierra, Raymond G; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wunderer, Cornelia; Fromme, Petra; Chapman, Henry N; Spence, John C H; Neutze, Richard

    2012-03-01

    X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-FEL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet. PMID:22286383

  17. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  18. Serial reversal learning in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    PubMed

    Strang, Caroline G; Sherry, David F

    2014-05-01

    Bumblebees are capable of rapidly learning discriminations, but flexibility in bumblebee learning is less well understood. We tested bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) on a serial reversal learning task. A serial reversal task requires learning of an initial discrimination between two differentially rewarded stimuli, followed by multiple reversals of the reward contingency between stimuli. A reduction in errors with repeated reversals in a serial reversal task is an indicator of behavioural flexibility. Bees were housed in a large indoor environment and tested during foraging flights. Testing free-flying bees allowed for large numbers of trials and reversals. All bees were trained to perform a simultaneous discrimination between two colours for a nectar reward, followed by nine reversals of this discrimination. Results showed that bumblebees reduced errors and improved their performance across successive reversals. A reduction in perseverative errors was the major cause of the improvement in performance. Bees showed a slight increase in error rate in their final trials, perhaps as a consequence of increasing proactive interference, but proactive interference may also have contributed to the overall improvement in performance across reversals. Bumblebees are thus capable of behavioural flexibility comparable to that of other animals and may use proactive interference as a mechanism of behavioural flexibility in varying environments.

  19. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  20. Effect of vanadate administration on blood glucose and insulin levels as well as on the exocrine pancreatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bendayan, M; Gingras, D

    1989-08-01

    In the present study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with their corresponding controls, were treated orally with sodium metavanadate. A gradual increase of the vanadate concentration up to 0.8 mg/ml in the drinking water, lowered the blood glucose levels of the diabetic animals to normal values without changing the insulin levels. On the other hand, vanadate did not affect the blood glucose levels of the non-diabetic animals; it did however induce lower levels of circulating insulin in these animals. The lowering of the glycaemic values of the diabetic animals was closely related to the consumption of vanadate. When the treatment was ceased, the blood glucose levels rose rapidly. The diabetic animals responded to the vanadate treatment with two sensitivities; while the large majority of the diabetic animals displayed stable normoglycaemic values, others had fluctuating values. Amylase content in the exocrine pancreas of these two subgroups of animals was studied separately and compared to that from the non-treated control and diabetic animals. The presence of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells was assessed by the protein A-gold immunocytochemical approach and biochemical determinations. Amylase was found to be very low in the non-treated diabetic animals. Lowering of the blood glucose levels induced by the vanadate treatment restored the amylase to levels similar to those of the controls. However, vanadate-treated diabetic animals with fluctuating levels of blood glucose, demonstrated only a partial recovery of amylase. Thus, vanadate treatment was found to have a normalizing effect on blood glucose levels in diabetic animals as well as restoring amylase content in the pancreas of diabetic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach.

    PubMed

    Hori, Motohide; Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Wakamori, Minoru; Masuo, Yoshinori; Shioda, Seiji; Rakwal, Randeep

    2016-06-01

    Lavender oil (LO) is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg) in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation. PMID:27330992

  2. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach.

    PubMed

    Hori, Motohide; Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Wakamori, Minoru; Masuo, Yoshinori; Shioda, Seiji; Rakwal, Randeep

    2016-06-01

    Lavender oil (LO) is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg) in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  3. Serial murder and the case of Aileen Wuornos: attachment theory, psychopathy, and predatory aggression.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Bruce A; Griffin, Ayanna

    2004-01-01

    The extant research on female homicide has yet to offer any systematic assessment of why women murder serially. Part of the explanation is attributed to existing literature focusing on justifiable and excusable homicide, or women who kill their abusive partners because they have been battered, fear that their lives are in danger, or are otherwise victimized. Thus, predatory homicide perpetrated by women has not received extensive attention in the relevant literature. This article aims to address this deficiency by providing a detailed case study analysis of Aileen Wuornos, a convicted serial murderer executed at Broward Correctional Institution in Pembroke Pines, FL, on October 9, 2002. By linking the literature on attachment theory with the research on psychopathy and predatory aggression, this article argues that Aileen Wuornos was a cold blooded and calculated killer: a serial offender responsible for her delinquent and criminal behavior. Generalizing from the case of Aileen Wuornos, several tentative recommendations are proposed as linked to clinical and forensic prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, as well as future research on women, psychopathy, and predatory serial homicide.

  4. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  5. In vitro antigenic stimulation of peripheral blood and lymph node lymphocytes of sensitized guinea-pigs: the effect of a second administration of antigen in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Housley, J.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Stimulation of DNA synthesis by a guinea-pig albumin—orthanilic acid conjugate (AO) and by tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) was obtained in in vitro cultures of peripheral blood and lymph node lymphocytes from guinea-pigs with delayed hypersensitivity to these antigens. Animals sensitized to both AO and PPD were given a further injection of 5 μg AO, intravenously, 8 hours before killing for in vitro studies. In these guinea-pigs, peripheral blood cultures, but not lymph node cultures, showed greater DNA synthesis in response to both AO and PPD than cultures from controls not given a further injection of AO. It is suggested that the further increase in DNA synthesis was due to non-specific lymphocyte `activation' following the interaction of antigen and specifically sensitized lymphocytes. PMID:5352364

  6. High-dose carboplatin, etoposide and melphalan (CEM) with peripheral blood progenitor cell support as late intensification for high-risk cancer: non-haematological, haematological toxicities and role of growth factor administration.

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti Panici, P.; Pierelli, L.; Scambia, G.; Foddai, M. L.; Salerno, M. G.; Menichella, G.; Vittori, M.; Maneschi, F.; Caracussi, U.; Serafini, R.; Leone, G.; Mancuso, S.

    1997-01-01

    The present report describes the non-haematological toxicity and the influence of growth factor administration on haematological toxicity and haematopoietic recovery observed after high-dose carboplatin (1200 mg m(-2)), etoposide (900 mg m(-2)) and melphalan (100 mg m(-2)) (CEM) followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation (PBPCT) in 40 patients with high-risk cancer during their first-line treatment. PBPCs were collected during the previous outpatient induction chemotherapy programme by leukaphereses. CEM administration with PBPCT was associated with low non-haematological toxicity and the only significant toxicity consisted of a reversible grade III/IV increase in liver enzymes in 32% of the patients. Haematopoietic recovery was very fast in all patients and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus erythropoietin (EPO) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus EPO after PBPCT significantly reduced haematological toxicity, abrogated antibiotic administration during neutropenia and significantly reduced hospital stay and patient's hospital charge compared with patients treated with PBPCT only. None of the patients died early of CEM plus PBPCT-related complications. Low non-haematological toxicity and accelerated haematopoietic recovery renders CEM with PBPC/growth factor support an acceptable therapeutic approach in an adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting. PMID:9099971

  7. A spatial modality effect in serial memory.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sébastien; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Guérard, Katherine; Nicholls, Alastair P; Jones, Dylan M

    2006-09-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors tested whether the classical modality effect-that is, the stronger recency effect for auditory items relative to visual items-can be extended to the spatial domain. An order reconstruction task was undertaken with four types of material: visual-spatial, auditory-spatial, visual-verbal, and auditory-verbal. Similar serial position curves were obtained regardless of the nature of the to-be-remembered sequences, with the exception that a modality effect was found with spatial as well as with verbal materials. The results are discussed with regard to a number of models of short-term memory.

  8. Serial Femtosecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lan; Weierstall, Uwe; Cherezov, Vadim; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), constitute the most important drug targets. The increasing number of targets requires new structural information, which has proven tremendously challenging due to the difficulties in growing diffraction-quality crystals. Recent developments of serial femtosecond crystallography at X-ray free electron lasers combined with the use of membrane-mimetic gel-like matrix of lipidic cubic phase (LCP-SFX) for crystal growth and delivery hold significant promise to accelerate structural studies of membrane proteins. This chapter describes the development and current status of the LCP-SFX technology and elaborates its future role in structural biology of membrane proteins. PMID:27553241

  9. CAR-T cells are serial killers

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours. PMID:26587330

  10. Serial cholinesterase estimation in carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pinakini, K S; Kumar, T S Mohan

    2006-07-01

    Poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries like India. Anticholinesterase compounds like organophosphates (OP) and carbamates account for the majority of these poisoning cases because of their easy availability and agricultural use. Carbamates are as popular as OPs as insecticides that often go undiagnosed. A fatal case of carbofuran poisoning is presented where serial cholinesterase estimation played a major role in the diagnosis of the same. The pertinent medical literature on carbofuran poisoning is reviewed. The establishment of poison information center in each state is needed for proper diagnosis and management of poisoning cases.

  11. Automated Serial Sectioning for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jen; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of an apparatus and method for automated serial sectioning of a specimen of a solder, aluminum, or other relatively soft opaque material are discussed. The apparatus includes a small milling machine (micromiller) that takes precise, shallow cuts (increments of depth as small as 1 micron) to expose successive sections. A microscope equipped with an electronic camera, mounted in a fixed position on the micromiller, takes pictures of the newly exposed specimen surface at each increment of depth. The images are digitized, and the resulting data are subsequently processed to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) features of the specimen.

  12. Fast serial link using optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    In virtue of offering complete immunity from EMI, fiber-optics links for digital data are useful in the isolation of sensitive detecting apparatus from noisy digital computers. Attention is presently given to one such serial data link employing commercially available transmitter, receiver, cable and connector components together with an encoder/decoder circuit employing standard TTL digital logic components. Although designed for high speed fiber-optic operation, the circuit is equally well suited to medium- or low-speed operation over wires and does not have to transmit a separate clock. A data error rate is measured through operation of the link for a lengthy period of time.

  13. Report of the ARL Serials Prices Project. A Compilation of Reports Examining the Serials Prices Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    The rising prices of journals and serials--major information sources for academic and research communities--are explored in this work, which presents two contractor reports on the topic. These two reports are introduced by an overview and summary together with recommendations for further Association of Research Libraries (ARL) action, short…

  14. Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements ("violation elements"). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain-stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of…

  15. Malingering, coaching, and the serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The normal pattern of performance on list-learning tasks is to recall more words from the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list. This pattern is also seen in patients with closed head injury, but malingerers tend to recall less words from the beginning of word lists, leading to a suppressed primacy effect. The present study examined this pattern on both learning trials and delayed recall of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in 34 persons performing with normal effort, 38 naive malingerers, 33 warned malingerers, and 29 head-injured patients. Both malingering groups had lower scores on the primacy portion of the list during learning trials, while normals and head-injured patients had normal serial position curves. During delayed recall, normals and head-injured patients did better than the two malingering groups on middle and recency portions of the list. Findings suggest that the serial position effect during learning trials may be a useful pattern of performance to watch for when suspicious of malingering.

  16. Estimation method for serial dilution experiments.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2014-12-01

    Titration of microorganisms in infectious or environmental samples is a corner stone of quantitative microbiology. A simple method is presented to estimate the microbial counts obtained with the serial dilution technique for microorganisms that can grow on bacteriological media and develop into a colony. The number (concentration) of viable microbial organisms is estimated from a single dilution plate (assay) without a need for replicate plates. Our method selects the best agar plate with which to estimate the microbial counts, and takes into account the colony size and plate area that both contribute to the likelihood of miscounting the number of colonies on a plate. The estimate of the optimal count given by our method can be used to narrow the search for the best (optimal) dilution plate and saves time. The required inputs are the plate size, the microbial colony size, and the serial dilution factors. The proposed approach shows relative accuracy well within ±0.1log10 from data produced by computer simulations. The method maintains this accuracy even in the presence of dilution errors of up to 10% (for both the aliquot and diluent volumes), microbial counts between 10(4) and 10(12) colony-forming units, dilution ratios from 2 to 100, and plate size to colony size ratios between 6.25 to 200.

  17. Serial dilution microchip for cytotoxicity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyunwoo; Lim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-08-01

    Today's pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges resulting from the vast increases in sample numbers produced by high-throughput screening (HTS). In addition, the bottlenecks created by increased demand for cytotoxicity testing (required to assess compound safety) are becoming a serious problem. We have developed a polymer PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device that can perform a cytotoxicity test in a rapid and reproducible manner. The concept that the device includes is well adjustable to automated robots in huge HTS systems, so we can think of it as a potential dilution and delivery module. Cytotoxicity testing is all about the dilution and dispensing of a drug sample. Previously, we made a PDMS based microfluidic device which automatically and precisely diluted drugs with a buffer solution with serially increasing concentrations. This time, the serially diluted drug solution was directly delivered to 96 well plates for cytotoxicity testing. Cytotoxic paclitaxel solution with 2% RPMI 1640 has been used while carrying out cancerous cell based cytotoxicity tests. We believe that this rapid and robust use of the PDMS microchip will overcome the growing problem in cytotoxicity testing for HTS.

  18. [Linkage analysis of serial sex crimes].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kaeko; Watanabe, Kazumi; Wachi, Taeko; Otsuka, Yusuke; Kuraishi, Hiroki; Fujita, Goro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to create an index for a behavioral linkage analysis of serial sex crimes, and second, to construct a predictive model for the analysis. Data on 720 sex crimes (rape, indecent assault) committed by 360 offenders arrested between 1993 and 2005 throughout Japan were collected. The following seven behaviors were examined during a series of analyses aimed at illustrating the effectiveness of crime linkage in serial sex crimes: victim age group, area type, publicness of offense site, weapon, time, contact method, and day of the week. The results indicated that six of the seven behaviors (excluding "day of the week") significantly distinguished between linked and unlinked crime pairs. Under a logistic regression of these six variables, which were dichotomously coded in terms of the concordance or discordance between each pair of incidents, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.87), indicating a high level of discriminative accuracy in identifying disparate sex crimes committed by the same person. PMID:26402952

  19. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a set of tools allowing experimentalists insight into the variation present within large serial data sets. Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the ‘diffraction before destruction’ nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography data sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.

  20. Breaking the indexing ambiguity in serial crystallography.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Wolfgang; Diederichs, Kay

    2014-01-01

    In serial crystallography, a very incomplete partial data set is obtained from each diffraction experiment (a `snapshot'). In some space groups, an indexing ambiguity exists which requires that the indexing mode of each snapshot needs to be established with respect to a reference data set. In the absence of such re-indexing information, crystallographers have thus far resorted to a straight merging of all snapshots, yielding a perfectly twinned data set of higher symmetry which is poorly suited for structure solution and refinement. Here, two algorithms have been designed for assembling complete data sets by clustering those snapshots that are indexed in the same way, and they have been tested using 15,445 snapshots from photosystem I [Chapman et al. (2011), Nature (London), 470, 73-77] and with noisy model data. The results of the clustering are unambiguous and enabled the construction of complete data sets in the correct space group P63 instead of (twinned) P6322 that researchers have been forced to use previously in such cases of indexing ambiguity. The algorithms thus extend the applicability and reach of serial crystallography.

  1. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  2. [Linkage analysis of serial sex crimes].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kaeko; Watanabe, Kazumi; Wachi, Taeko; Otsuka, Yusuke; Kuraishi, Hiroki; Fujita, Goro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to create an index for a behavioral linkage analysis of serial sex crimes, and second, to construct a predictive model for the analysis. Data on 720 sex crimes (rape, indecent assault) committed by 360 offenders arrested between 1993 and 2005 throughout Japan were collected. The following seven behaviors were examined during a series of analyses aimed at illustrating the effectiveness of crime linkage in serial sex crimes: victim age group, area type, publicness of offense site, weapon, time, contact method, and day of the week. The results indicated that six of the seven behaviors (excluding "day of the week") significantly distinguished between linked and unlinked crime pairs. Under a logistic regression of these six variables, which were dichotomously coded in terms of the concordance or discordance between each pair of incidents, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.87), indicating a high level of discriminative accuracy in identifying disparate sex crimes committed by the same person.

  3. Serial Cognition and Personality in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Drew M.; Terrace, Herbert S.; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between serial cognition and personality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Nine macaques were tested on a simultaneous chaining task to assess their cognitive abilities. They were also rated for personality traits and scored according to a previously extracted six component structure derived from free-ranging rhesus macaques. Friendliness and Openness were positively associated with good performance on three measures of accuracy on the serial learning task: Progress, Error, and Rewarded (i.e., correctly completed) Trials. Faster Reaction Times were associated with lower Friendliness and higher Confidence, as well as higher Openness when only correct responses were analyzed. We also used regularized exploratory factor analysis to extract two, three, four, five, and six factor structures, and found consistent associations between accuracy and single factors within each of these structures. Prior results on intelligence in other nonhuman primate species have focused on basic intelligence tests; this study demonstrates that more complex, abstract cognitive tasks can be used to assess intelligence and personality in nonhuman primates. PMID:27158661

  4. [Local blood circulation, uptake of 45Ca, 85Sr and 3H-proline and mineral levels in the tibia of female rats: comparison and changes after administration of estradiol].

    PubMed

    Kapitola, J; Andrle, J; Kubícková, J

    1993-01-01

    After six weeks' administration of estradiol benzoate (Agofollin Depot, 1 mg s.c. once a week) we determined in the first part of 70 days old female rats the uptake of 85Sr-microspheres and local blood flow in the tibia, in the second part 24 hours' incorporation of 45Ca and 3H-proline and in the third part 2 hours' uptake of 85Sr, bone density and ash weight related to 1 ml of bone volume. We observed the following statistically significant changes: decrease in the uptake of 85Sr-microspheres and local blood flow, decrease in the incorporation of 45Ca, 3H-proline and 85Sr, increase in the density and ash weight of the tibia. The rise of bone mineral content simultaneously with reduced indicators of bone formation and particularly of the mineralization seems to be in the connection with the suppression of bone resorption under the influence of estrogen. Qualitatively identical reactions of circulatory and metabolic indicators to the administration of estradiol may be a reflection of mutual physiological interconnections. PMID:7973417

  5. H2S concentrations in the arterial blood during H2S administration in relation to its toxicity and effects on breathing

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Trushin, Neil; Prokopczyk, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to establish in spontaneously breathing urethane-anesthetized rats, the relationship between the concentrations of H2S transported in the blood and the corresponding clinical manifestations, i.e., breathing stimulation and inhibition, during and following infusion of NaHS at increasing rates. The gaseous concentration of H2S (CgH2S, one-third of the total soluble form) was computed from the continuous determination of H2S partial pressure in the alveolar gas, while H2S, both dissolved and combined to hemoglobin, was measured at specific time points by sulfide complexation with monobromobimane (CMBBH2S). We found that using a potent reducing agent in vitro, H2S added to the whole blood had little interaction with the plasma proteins, as sulfide appeared to be primarily combined and then oxidized by hemoglobin. In vivo, H2S was undetectable in the blood in its soluble form in baseline conditions, while CMBBH2S averaged 0.7 ± 0.5 μM. During NaHS infusion, H2S was primarily present in nonsoluble form in the arterial blood: CMBBH2S was about 50 times higher than CgH2S at the lowest levels of exposure and 5 or 6 times at the levels wherein fatal apnea occurred. CgH2S averaged only 1.1 ± 0.7 μM when breathing increased, corresponding to a CMBBH2S of 11.1 ± 5.4 μM. Apnea occurred at CgH2S above 5.1 μM and CMBBH2S above 25.4 μM. At the cessation of exposure, CMBBH2S remained elevated, at about 3 times above baseline for at least 15 min. These data provide a frame of reference for studying the putative effects of endogenous H2S and for testing antidotes against its deadly effects. PMID:23904109

  6. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    PubMed

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  7. CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, N.H.

    1980-04-03

    A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface.

  8. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    PubMed

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario. PMID:11783573

  9. Malignant sex and aggression: an overview of serial sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Myers, W C; Reccoppa, L; Burton, K; McElroy, R

    1993-01-01

    Serial murderers have attracted considerable attention in the popular press and criminal justice field, but scientific literature about these individuals is limited. This article provides an overview, from a psychiatric perspective, of serial sexual homicide, one type of serial killing. Characteristics of this type of murder and of these offenders are discussed. Defining qualities and diagnoses applicable to serial sexual killers are reviewed. Various etiologic theories are discussed, with emphasis on the role of fantasy and psychodynamic explanations. Governmental agencies involved in combating this type of crime, along with the role of mental health professionals in criminal profiling, are presented. Finally, the authors explore the reaction of society to this phenomenon.

  10. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  11. Malignant sex and aggression: an overview of serial sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Myers, W C; Reccoppa, L; Burton, K; McElroy, R

    1993-01-01

    Serial murderers have attracted considerable attention in the popular press and criminal justice field, but scientific literature about these individuals is limited. This article provides an overview, from a psychiatric perspective, of serial sexual homicide, one type of serial killing. Characteristics of this type of murder and of these offenders are discussed. Defining qualities and diagnoses applicable to serial sexual killers are reviewed. Various etiologic theories are discussed, with emphasis on the role of fantasy and psychodynamic explanations. Governmental agencies involved in combating this type of crime, along with the role of mental health professionals in criminal profiling, are presented. Finally, the authors explore the reaction of society to this phenomenon. PMID:8054674

  12. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer. PMID:23115894

  13. Repeated administrations of human umbilical cord blood cells improve disease outcomes in a mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNCs) into Naglu knockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglu mice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media-only group or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups--single low dose (3 × 10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8 × 10(7) cells), or multiple doses (3 × 10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously; cyclosporine was injected intraperitoneally to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild-type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition in an active avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation, and decreased microglial activation, particularly in the hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations. PMID:25565636

  14. Comparing Administrative and Clinical Data for Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jory; Issa, Mohamed; Nasrallah, Ali; Bahroloomi, Sheena; Blackwood, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU). Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011). The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD-10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  15. Effect of the administration of Solanum nigrum fruit on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to phenylephrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used in Asia to manage, control, and treat diabetes but there is no scientific evidence of the efficacy of Solanum nigrum fruit in treatment of diabetes. We designed this study to investigate the effect of the administration of oral doses of aqueous extract from Solanum nigrum fruit on plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and the sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to Phenylephrine in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Material/Methods Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=10): 2 groups served as non-diabetic controls (NDC), and the other groups had diabetes induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Solanum nigrum-treated chronic diabetic (CD-SNE) and Solanum nigrum-treated controls (ND-SNE) received 1g/l of Solanum nigrum added to drinking water for 8 weeks. The mesenteric vascular beds were prepared using the McGregor method. Results Administration of Solanum nigrum caused Ca/Mg ratio, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations to return to normal levels, and was shown to decrease alteration in vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that Solanum nigrum could play a role in the management of diabetes and the prevention of vascular complications in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23660828

  16. Structure of the Angiotensin receptor revealed by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Unal, Hamiyet; Gati, Cornelius; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Wei; Zatsepin, Nadia A; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Nelson, Garrett; Weierstall, Uwe; Sawaya, Michael R; Xu, Qingping; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Boutet, Sébastien; Yefanov, Oleksandr M; White, Thomas A; Wang, Chong; Ishchenko, Andrii; Tirupula, Kalyan C; Desnoyer, Russell; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E; Fromme, Petra; Stevens, Raymond C; Katritch, Vsevolod; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT(1)R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT(1)R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing high-quality crystals for structure determination using synchrotron radiation. By applying the recently developed method of serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser, we successfully determined the room-temperature crystal structure of the human AT(1)R in complex with its selective antagonist ZD7155 at 2.9-Å resolution. The AT(1)R-ZD7155 complex structure revealed key structural features of AT(1)R and critical interactions for ZD7155 binding. Docking simulations of the clinically used ARBs into the AT(1)R structure further elucidated both the common and distinct binding modes for these anti-hypertensive drugs. Our results thereby provide fundamental insights into AT(1)R structure-function relationship and structure-based drug design.

  17. Structure of the Angiotensin Receptor Revealed by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haitao; Unal, Hamiyet; Gati, Cornelius; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Wei; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Nelson, Garrett; Weierstall, Uwe; Sawaya, Michael R.; Xu, Qingping; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Yefanov, Oleksandr M.; White, Thomas A.; Wang, Chong; Ishchenko, Andrii; Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Desnoyer, Russell; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Fromme, Petra; Stevens, Raymond C.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Karnik, Sadashiva S.; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-05-07

    We report that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT1R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT1R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing high quality crystals for structure determination using synchrotron radiation. By applying the recently developed method of serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser, we successfully determined the room-temperature crystal structure of the human AT1R in complex with its selective antagonist ZD7155 at 2.9 Å resolution. The AT1R-ZD7155 complex structure revealed key structural features ofAT1R and critical interactions for ZD7155 binding. Finally, docking simulations of the clinically used ARBs into the AT1R structure further elucidated both the common and distinct binding modes for these anti-hypertensive drugs. Our results thereby provide fundamental insights into AT1R structure-function relationship and structure-based drug design.

  18. Structure of the Angiotensin Receptor Revealed by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Haitao; Unal, Hamiyet; Gati, Cornelius; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Wei; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Nelson, Garrett; Weierstall, Uwe; et al

    2015-05-07

    We report that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT1R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT1R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing high quality crystals for structure determination using synchrotron radiation. By applying the recently developed method of serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser, we successfully determined the room-temperature crystal structure of the human AT1R in complex with its selective antagonist ZD7155 at 2.9 Å resolution. Themore » AT1R-ZD7155 complex structure revealed key structural features ofAT1R and critical interactions for ZD7155 binding. Finally, docking simulations of the clinically used ARBs into the AT1R structure further elucidated both the common and distinct binding modes for these anti-hypertensive drugs. Our results thereby provide fundamental insights into AT1R structure-function relationship and structure-based drug design.« less

  19. A nanoliter microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Yue; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial culture is a basic technique in both fundamental and applied microbiology. The excessive reagent consumption and laborious maintenance of bulk bioreactors for microbial culture have prompted the development of miniaturized on-chip bioreactors. With the minimal choice of two compartments (N = 2) and discrete time, periodic dilution steps, we realize a microfluidic bioreactor that mimics macroscopic serial dilution transfer culture. This device supports automated, long-term microbial cultures with a nanoliter-scale working volume and real-time monitoring of microbial populations at single-cell resolution. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, the device also operates as an effective biofilm-flow reactor to support cogrowth of planktonic and biofilm populations. We expect that such devices will open opportunities in many fields of microbiology.

  20. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-01-23

    Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the 'diffraction before destruction' nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography datamore » sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.« less

  1. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Zhou, Qiangjun; Zhao, Minglei; Weis, William I.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the ‘diffraction before destruction’ nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography data sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing. PMID:25664746

  2. Serial murder by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C

    2004-01-01

    Six cases of serial murder by children and adolescents spanning the past 150 years are presented. The available literature pertaining to this area is reviewed. Each of these six offenders committed sexually homicidal behavior as demonstrated by their expression of erotic interest or engagement in overt sexual behavior at the crime scenes. From a DSM-IV-TR perspective they all exhibited signs of sexual sadism, and their crime characteristics reflected behavior of a more predatory than affective nature. Hands on methods of killing were preferred, i.e., cutting, stabbing, or strangulation. These crimes are extremely rare. Case reports in this area are encouraged to advance our knowledge of these youths. PMID:15211557

  3. Serial Endosymbiotic Theory (set): the biosemiotic update.

    PubMed

    Witzany, Günther

    2006-01-01

    The Serial Endosymbiotic Theory explains the origin of nucleated eukaryotic cells by a merging of archaebacterial and eubacterial cells. The paradigmatic change is that the driving force behind evolution is not ramification but merging. Lynn Margulis describes the symbiogenetic processes in the language of mechanistic biology in such terms as "merging", "fusion", and "incorporation". Biosemiotics argues that all cell-cell interactions are (rule-governed) sign-mediated interactions, i.e., communication processes. As the description of plant communication demonstrates, the biosemiotic approach is not limited to the level of molecular biology, but is also helpful in examining all sign-mediated interactions between organisms on the phenotypic level. If biosemiotics also uses the notions of "language" and "communication" to describe non-human sign-mediated interactions, then the underlying scientific justification of such usage should be critically considered. Therefore, I summarize the history of this discussion held between 1920 and 1980 and present its result, the pragmatic turn.

  4. Effect of Chronic Administration of Estradiol on Responsiveness of Isolated Systemic and Pulmonary Blood Vessels from Ovariectomized Wistar Rats with Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Artem'eva, M M; Kovaleva, Yu O; Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2015-08-01

    The long-term (4 weeks) administration of estradiol (15 μg/kg/day) to ovariectomized female Wistar rats induced hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and significantly (p<0.05) diminished relaxation of perfused serotonin-preconstricted isolated vascular segments of the pulmonary artery in response to estradiol (10(-6) M). At the same time, the isolated segments of systemic popliteal artery demonstrated a diminished response to serotonin and increased relaxation induced by acetylcholine (10(-5) M) or estradiol (10(-5) M) in comparison with preconstricted control vessels. Moderation of responsiveness to estradiol in pulmonary circulation can be one of the factors underlying the pro-hypertensive action of estradiol in female rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  5. Price Index for U.S. Serial Services 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroyer, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Presents the annual survey of prices for U.S. serial services for 1991 which was compiled in conjunction with the Faxon Company. Comparative data for 1977-91 are included for the areas of business, humanities, law, science and technology, social science, and documents, as well as serial services from the H.W. Wilson Company. (LRW)

  6. Serials Control and Deselection Projects. SPEC Kit 147.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) Kit on serials control and deselection projects provides a timely review of the efforts of research libraries to control the increasing costs of serial subscriptions. This kit contains documents from 13 libraries: University of California at Los Angeles and Riverside; Universities of Florida,…

  7. A Management Information System for Serials and Continuations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Nancy B.; Lester, Daniel W.

    Cutbacks in funding and personnel required the Mankato State College Library to gain more effective control over its serials collection. The task was to integrate the various data, some unrecorded, on standing orders and serials holdings and to produce for the library directors specialized lists of many types: all titles ordered from a specific…

  8. Serial Rapid Naming Skills in Children with Reading Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lynn S.; Downey, Doris M.

    1995-01-01

    This study found that 30 children with reading disability (RD) performed more poorly than 30 children with normal reading achievement on tasks of serial rapid naming, verbal fluency, letter-based word retrieval, and articulatory speed. RD children had significantly longer reaction times and production durations on the serial naming task. Findings…

  9. Speech and Language Processing Mechanisms in Verbal Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Hulme, Charles

    2006-01-01

    We report two experiments examining the role of concreteness and word phonological neighborhood characteristics on immediate serial recall. In line with previous findings concreteness, word frequency, and larger neighborhood size are associated with better serial recall. Both concreteness and word neighborhood size were also positively associated…

  10. Infants' Memory Processing of a Serial List: List Length Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulya, Michele; Sweeney, Becky; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that increasing the length of a mobile serial list impaired 6-month olds' memory for serial order. Findings indicated that the primacy effect was absent on a 24-hour delayed recognition test and was exhibited on a reactivation test, adding to growing evidence that young infants possess two functionally distinct…

  11. List Onset and Isolation in Continuous Serial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Louis G.

    1974-01-01

    This experiment attempted to obtain an estimate of perceptual isolation effects when the isolated item was the only distinctive feature in the list and to obtain data on continuous serial learning in order that isolation and serial-position effects could be compared directly. (Author/RK)

  12. Listening to French and the Serial Position Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    This study sought to determine the extent of the serial position effect in listening to French and to specify the relationship between problem areas in listening to French and the position effect. The study addressed three hypotheses relative to the serial position effect and listening to French: (1) Was there a significant difference between the…

  13. Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

  14. Serials Information on CD-ROM: A Reference Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Ulrich's PLUS (a CD-ROM version of Ulrich's serials directories) and EBSCO's CD-ROM version of "The Serials Directory," and compares the two in terms of their use as reference tools. Areas discussed include database content, user aids, system features, search features, and a comparison of search results. Equipment requirements for both…

  15. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main characters,…

  16. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    PubMed

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  17. Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

  18. Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

  19. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    PubMed

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior. PMID:8988574

  20. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  1. Using a Text-Processing Language for Serial Record Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrey, James R.; Hardiman, Paul V.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the automation of the machine-readable library serials file at Golda Meir Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Highlights include purchase of the PERLINE/BOOKLINE system including a MARC interface module called MICA, five main aspects of the problem posed by the library serials conversion project, and use of the text-processing…

  2. Multiple Serial List Learning with Two Mnemonic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Paul T.; Young, Robert K.

    The classic mnemonic for learning serial lists, the method of loci, and its modern counterpart, the peg system, were compared by having subjects learn three 20-item serial lists. In addition to the type of mnemonic training, list imagery was either high (rated 6-7) or medium (rated 4-5), and instructions were either progressive elaboration (e.g.,…

  3. The repopulation of lymph nodes of dogs after 1200 R whole-body x-irradiation and intravenous administration of mononuclear blood leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, B.; Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T. M.; Herbst, E.; Bruch, C.; Schnappauf, H. P.; Flad, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Fresh and cryopreserved autologous or allogeneic mononuclear blood cells (MBCs) intravenously injected in 1200 R total-body x-irradiated dogs repopulated lymph nodes within 10 days after tranfusion. Several parameters of the lymphopoietic regeneration were correlated with the number of cells transfused and with the number of colony-forming units contained in the cell suspension when they were cultured in agar (CFUc). Values within the normal or close to normal range were reached in the mesenteric nodes of most of the animals transfused with 10 X 10(9) MBC or more. These values were obtained when 5 X 10(5) CFUc or more were transfused. Axillary nodes showed lower values than mesenteric nodes. They were mostly under the normal range but well over those of the irradiated controls. Frozen and thawed MBCs seem to be as effective as fresh cells for lymphopoietic restoration. The mesenteric nodes of dogs transfused with allogeneic MBCs showed higher cellularity and larger cortical-paracortical areas than those of dogs tranfused with approximately the same number of autologous cells. The repopulation of lymph nodes parallels that of the marrow. Images Figure 3 Text-Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:941979

  4. Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived AC133+ Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Rat Stroke Model Reduces Infarct Volume: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Iskander, Asm; Knight, Robert A.; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Ewing, James R.; Shankar, Adarsh; Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S.; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Ali, Meser M.; Arbab, Ali S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) hold enormous therapeutic potential for ischemic vascular diseases. Previous studies have indicated that stem/progenitor cells derived from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) improve functional recovery in stroke models. Here, we examined the effect of hUCB AC133+ EPCs on stroke development and resolution in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) rat model. Since the success of cell therapies strongly depends on the ability to monitor in vivo the migration of transplanted cells, we also assessed the capacity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo the magnetically labeled cells that were administered. Animals were subjected to transient MCAo and 24 hours later injected intravenously with 107 hUCB AC133+ EPCs. MRI performed at days 1, 7, and 14 after the insult showed accumulation of transplanted cells in stroke-affected hemispheres and revealed that stroke volume decreased at a significantly higher rate in cell-treated animals. Immunohistochemistry analysis of brain tissues localized the administered cells in the stroke-affected hemispheres only and indicated that these cells may have significantly affected the magnitude of endogenous proliferation, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis. We conclude that transplanted cells selectively migrated to the ischemic brain parenchyma, where they exerted a therapeutic effect on the extent of tissue damage, regeneration, and time course of stroke resolution. PMID:23934909

  5. Gender Difference in Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin II Administration after Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats: The Role of AT2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of kidney failure, and it may interact with renin angiotensin system while angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression is gender dependent. We examined the role of AT2R blockade on vascular response to Ang II after I/R in rats. Methods. Male and female rats were subjected to 30 min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Two groups of rats received either vehicle or AT2R antagonist, PD123319. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and renal blood flow (RBF) responses were assessed during graded Ang II (100, 300, and 1000 ng/kg/min, i.v.) infusion at controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Results. Vehicle or antagonist did not alter MAP, RPP, and RBF levels significantly; however, 30 min after reperfusion, RBF decreased insignificantly in female treated with PD123319 (P = 0.07). Ang II reduced RBF and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) in a dose-related fashion (Pdose < 0.0001), and PD123319 intensified the reduction of RBF response in female (Pgroup < 0.005), but not in male rats. Conclusion. The impact of the AT2R on vascular responses to Ang II in renal I/R injury appears to be sexually dimorphic. PD123319 infusion promotes these hemodynamic responses in female more than in male rats. PMID:27034657

  6. Union List Development: Control of the Serial Literature *

    PubMed Central

    Sawyers, Elizabeth J.

    1972-01-01

    The discussion covers the development of a national union list or finding tool for biomedical serial holdings and its integration into the National Serials Data Program, which is being developed under the auspices of the three National Libraries. Specific topics which are covered include: (1) Selection of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals (UCMP) as the basis for a biomedical list and the status of that activity; (2) discussion of the various methods of recording holdings; (3) status of the National Serials Data Program and a discussion of its relationship to the UCMP file; and (4) status of the Standard Serial Number and its relationship to other existing coding schemes for serial titles. PMID:5054307

  7. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  8. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect ...

  9. Histidine and other amino acids in blood and urine after administration of Bretschneider solution (HTK) for cardioplegic arrest in patients: effects on N-metabolism.

    PubMed

    Teloh, Johanna K; Dohle, Daniel-Sebastian; Petersen, Miriam; Verhaegh, Rabea; Waack, Indra N; Roehrborn, Friederike; Jakob, Heinz; de Groot, Herbert

    2016-06-01

    Bretschneider (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate, HTK) solution employed for induction of cardioplegic arrest possesses a high histidine concentration (198 mM). Due to the large volume administered, massive amounts of histidine are incorporated. The aim of the study was to evaluate alterations in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism originating from histidine degradation. Between 07/2014 and 10/2014, a total of 29 consecutive patients scheduled for elective isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The patients received 1.6 L cardioplegic Bretschneider solution on average. Blood gas and urine samples obtained were analyzed for amino acid as well as urea and ammonium concentrations. After CPB initiation, plasma histidine concentration greatly increased to 21,000 µM to reach 8000 µM at the end. Within the operative period, plasma concentrations of aspartate, glutamate, asparagine, alanine, and glutamine increased variable in magnitude. During the same time, urinary analysis revealed histidine excretion of 19,500 µmol in total and marked elevations in glutamate and glutamine excretion. The absolute amounts of urea and ammonium excreted additionally were 3 mmol and 8 mmol, respectively. Already during CPB, distinct amounts of the histidine administered are metabolized, mainly to other amino acids, but only small amounts to urea and ammonia. Thus, the impact of the histidine incorporated on acid-base status in the intraoperative phase is minor. On the other hand, intraoperative provision of several amino acids arising from histidine metabolism might mitigate postaggression syndrome. PMID:26922473

  10. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR), bradykinin (BK), and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF) response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779) and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE) or vehicle (OV) for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg−1 min−1) were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF) in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (P < 0.05). Infusion of 300 ng kg−1 min−1 Ang 1-7 increased RBF by 6.9 ± 1.9% in OVE group versus 0.9 ± 1.8% in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats. PMID:26421009

  11. Conversion of the Minnesota Union List of Serials (MULS) To National Serials Data Program (NSDP) Requirements: A Proposal. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosch, Audrey N., Comp.

    The methodologies and costs of converting the Minnesota Union List of Serials (MULS) to the National Serials Data Program (NSDP) requirements are outlined in this document. The conversion is considered under four logical areas: 1) providing quantitative estimates of the amount of computer analysis and programing manpower required to perform a…

  12. The concordance of serial ANA tests in an Australian tertiary hospital pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adrian Y S; Hudspeth, Andrew R; Adelstein, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The antinuclear antibody (ANA) tests are some of the more frequently requested tests for the diagnosis of autoimmunity. Although they are used primarily as diagnostic blood tests, multiple requests on the same patient continue to be encountered in the laboratory. This retrospective analysis of serial ANA testing at one pathology laboratory in Australia is the first study that examines the statistical concordance and possible implications of this on clinical practice. High-titred ANA have quite good repeatability for titre and pattern, and low-titred ANA, which can be non-specific, have poor repeatability. Staining patterns are, in general, almost random in nature on serial tests when compared to the first-obtained ANA pattern for each patient. This study confirms that there is little benefit in serial ANA testing, and only if there is a clear change in the patient's clinical picture would repeat of an initial low-titred ANA be useful. The findings reinforce the need for pathology stewardship to minimise costs, wasted resources and unnecessary referrals. PMID:27600602

  13. [Behavior of blood glucose level with the administration of micronutrients vitamin d3 and calcium in nondiabetic patients with hyperglycemia in adult intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Rueda Páez, Elsy Victoria; Moncada Parada, Esperanza; Figueroa Melgarejo, Jairo; Ascencio Higuera, Ana Airé

    2015-05-01

    La hiperglucemia sin antecedentes previos de diabetes mellitus (DM) se observa en un alto porcentaje en pacientes de unidades de cuidado intensivo (UCI). Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento de cifras de glucemia en pacientes no diabéticos con hiperglucemia mediante la administración de 2 micronutrientes. Metodología: se realizó un ensayo clínico a 32 pacientes, 16 en el grupo a intervenir y 16 en el grupo control. Al grupo intervenido se le administró desde su ingreso los micronutrientes vitamina D3 en dosis de 1.000 unidades internacionales (UI) y calcio en dosis de 1.000 mg cada 24 horas por un periodo de 72 horas. Resultados: no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la glucemia de ingreso entre los grupos intervenidos y control (152,6 y 153,3 mg/dl respectivamente (p= 0,922), sin embargo a las 72 horas el comportamiento de las glucemias disminuyó significativamente en el grupo intervenido comparado con el grupo control (98,41 y 141,66 mg/dl respectivamente p= < 0,000). Así mismo, se evidenció que la intervención con vitamina D3 y Calcio redujo el riesgo (47%) de desarrollo del evento indeseado (glucemia > 100 mg/dl), mostrando que se deben tratar 2.29 pacientes para disminuir el evento indeseable (NNT). Conclusión: la utilización de los micronutrientes analizados en pacientes críticos sin diagnóstico previo de diabetes requiere de más investigaciones que contemplen las limitaciones aquí planteadas. Dada la poca literatura encontrada de estudios similares, esta investigación proporcionaría otra alternativa en la disminución de la hiperglucemia de éstos pacientes.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of flavonoids in blood plasma by a high-performance liquid chromatography method after oral administration of Blumea balsamifera leaf extracts in rats.

    PubMed

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Ismail, Zhari; Mohamed, Nornisah; Karupiah, Sundram

    2013-03-01

    The leaves of Blumea balsamifera are used as a folk medicine in kidney stone diseases in South-East Asia. Phytochemical investigation revealed leaves contained a number of flavonoids. In view of these, the present work was aimed to quantify and preliminary pharmacokinetic investigation of five flavonoids viz. dihydroquercetin-7,4¢-dimethyl ether (I), dihydroquercetin-4¢-methyl ether (II), 5,7,3¢,5¢-tetrahydroxyflavanone (III), blumeatin (IV) and quercetin (V) in rat plasma following oral administration (0.5g/Kg) of B. balsamifera leaf extract in rats. Quantification was achieved by using a validated, reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The mean recoveries of I, II, III, IV and V were 90.6, 93.4, 93.5, 91.2 and 90.3% respectively. The limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL for I and IV, 10 ng/mL for II and III and 100 ng/mL for V respectively. The within day and day-to-day precision for all the compounds were < 10%. The validated HPLC method herein was applied for pharmacokinetic studies and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were: t1/2 (hr) 5.8, 4.3, 2.9, 5.7 and 7.3, Cmax (ng/mL) 594.9, 1542.9 1659.9, 208.9 and 3040.4; Tmax (hr) 4.7, 1.0, 1.0, 3.5 and 2.3; AUC0-oo (ng hr/mL) 5040, 5893, 9260, 1064 and 27233 for I, II, III, IV and V respectively. The developed method was suitable for pharmacokinetic studies and this preliminary study also revealed significant absorption after oral dosing in rats. PMID:23455210

  15. Effects of Leukoreduction and Premedication With Acetaminophen and Diphenhydramine in Minimizing Febrile Nonhemolytic Transfusion Reactions and Allergic Transfusion Reactions During and After Blood Product Administration: A Literature Review With Recommendations for Practice.

    PubMed

    Duran, Joana; Siddique, Sulman; Cleary, Myra

    2014-05-01

    Transfusion-related reactions cause unwanted interruptions in blood-product administration and potential complications for patients. The most common reactions are febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) and allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs). The presence of leukocytes in blood products has been associated with these reactions, and efficacy of leukoreduction in minimizing FNHTRs and ATRs has recently been investigated. In addition, premedication with acetaminophen and diphenhydramine is the most widely used practice in minimizing FNHTRs and ATRs, yet the benefit of this is not supported by research. The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate the potential benefits of both of these interventions in minimizing FNHTRs and ATRs and provide recommendations for practice. We found moderate quality evidence with strong recommendations for the practice of leukoreduction in minimizing FNHTRs but not ATRs. We did not find evidence to support the use of premedications in minimizing transfusion-related reactions, and we question the need for this practice in settings where leukoreduction is used.

  16. The Impact of International Standardization on the Rules of Entry for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannan, Judith Proctor

    1975-01-01

    The major provisions of the International Serials Data System and International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials are presented and related to present rules of entry for serials as detailed in the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. (Author)

  17. Passive serialization in a multitasking environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, J.P.; Osisek, D.L.; Seigh, J.W. II

    1989-02-28

    In a multiprocessing system having a control program in which data objects are shared among processes, this patent describes a method for serializing references to a data object by the processes so as to prevent invalid references to the data object by any process when an operation requiring exclusive access is performed by another process, comprising the steps of: permitting the processes to reference data objects on a shared access basis without obtaining a shared lock; monitoring a point of execution of the control program which is common to all processes in the system, which occurs regularly in the process' execution and across which no references to any data object can be maintained by any process, except references using locks; establishing a system reference point which occurs after each process in the system has passed the point of execution at least once since the last such system reference point; requesting an operation requiring exclusive access on a selected data object; preventing subsequent references by other processes to the selected data object; waiting until two of the system references points have occurred; and then performing the requested operation.

  18. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2014-07-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops.

  19. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, Dario B.

    1994-01-01

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  20. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  1. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops. PMID:25379096

  2. Serial pattern learning during skilled walking.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas G; Winter, Shawn S; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2012-03-01

    Rats possess a rich repertoire of sequentially organized, natural behaviors. It is possible that these natural behaviors may reflect implicit learning or relatively fixed movement patterns. The present study was conducted to determine whether factors known to influence implicit learning produce similar effects on the acquisition of skilled walking. Three groups of rats were trained to cross a horizontal ladder with rungs spaced according to three different levels of complexity. All training and testing were performed under dark conditions to assess the influence of non-visual modalities on skilled walking. Although all groups' performance improved throughout training, pattern complexity influenced the rate of improvement. In addition, performance during a probe session provided further evidence that each group encoded the rung spacing pattern experienced during training to create an internal representation. These observations demonstrate that the engram established during repetitive training represents either the temporal or spatial characteristics of rung spacing. These findings indicate that implicit learning contributes to the acquisition of natural sequential behaviors. Furthermore, serial pattern learning of rung spacing provides a novel task to determine sensory and motor contributions to the consolidation of skilled movement. PMID:22744781

  3. Serial femtosecond crystallography: the first five years

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-01-01

    Protein crystallography using synchrotron radiation sources has had a tremendous impact on biology, having yielded the structures of thousands of proteins and given detailed insight into their mechanisms. However, the technique is limited by the requirement for macroscopic crystals, which can be difficult to obtain, as well as by the often severe radiation damage caused in diffraction experiments, in particular when using tiny crystals. To slow radiation damage, data collection is typically performed at cryogenic temperatures. With the advent of free-electron lasers (FELs) capable of delivering extremely intense femtosecond X-ray pulses, this situation appears to be remedied, allowing the structure determination of undamaged macromolecules using either macroscopic or microscopic crystals. The latter are exposed to the FEL beam in random orientations and their diffraction data are collected at cryogenic or room temperature in a serial fashion, since each crystal is destroyed upon a single exposure. The new approaches required for crystal growth and delivery, and for diffraction data analysis, including de novo phasing, are reviewed. The opportunities and challenges of SFX are described, including applications such as time-resolved measurements and the analysis of radiation damage-prone systems. PMID:25866661

  4. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  5. Infants' memory processing of a serial list: list length effects.

    PubMed

    Gulya, M; Sweeney, B; Rovee-Collier, C

    1999-05-01

    Six-month-olds, trained with a three-mobile serial list, exhibit a primacy effect 24 h later. In three experiments, we demonstrated that increasing list length impairs their memory for serial order. In all experiments, 6-month-olds were trained with a five-mobile list. In Experiment 1, infants failed to exhibit a primacy effect on a 24-h delayed recognition test, recognizing mobiles from all serial positions. In Experiment 2, infants did exhibit a primacy effect on a reactivation (priming) test, suggesting that they may originally have encoded serial-order information. Experiment 3 confirmed that serial-order information was represented in infants' training memory. After the reactivation treatment, infants were precued with one list member and tested for recognition of another. When precues specified valid order information, infants recognized test mobiles from the later serial positions. The memory dissociation for serial order on delayed recognition and reactivation tests adds to the growing evidence that young infants possess two functionally distinct memory systems.

  6. Charge-coupled-device parallel-to-serial converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A CCD parallel-to-serial converter comprising two successions of charge transfer stages, recurrently side-loaded with respective ones of parallelly supplied charge packets, then serially unloaded by time-interleaved respective shift register operations. The charge packets converted to time-division-multiplexed serial form are supplied to a shared electrometer, and the electrometer response is de-multiplexed. Preferably, shift register operations are carried forward concurrently at the same rate, but with the final charge transfer stages clocked in phases staggered in time.

  7. Serial Analgesic Consumptions and Predictors of Intravenous Patient-controlled Analgesia with Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elucidate the dynamics of analgesic consumption regarding intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IVPCA) during postoperative period is rather complex partly due to between-patient variation and partly due to within-patient variation. A statistical method was proposed to classify serial analgesic consumption into different classifications that were further taken as the multiple outcomes on which to explore the associated predictors. Methods: We retrospectively included 3284 patients administrated by IVPCA for 3 days after surgery. A repeated measurement design corresponding to serial analgesic consumption variables defined as six-hour total analgesic consumptions was adopted. After determining the numbers of clusters, serial analgesic consumptions were classified into several homogeneous subgroups. Factors associated with new classifications were identified and quantified with a multinominal logistic regression model. Results: Three distinct analgesic classifications were aggregated, including “high”, ”middle” and “low” level of analgesic consumption of IVPCA. The mean analgesic consumptions on 12 successive analgesic consumptions at 6-hour interval of each classification consistently revealed a decreasing trend. As the trends were almost parallel with time, this suggests the time-invariant proportionality of analgesic consumption between the levels of analgesic consumption of IVPCA. Patient’s characteristics, like age, gender, weight, height, and cancer status, were significant factors associated with analgesic classifications. Surgical sites had great impacts on analgesic classifications. Discussion: The serial analgesic consumptions were simplified into 3 analgesic consumptions classifications. The identified predictors are useful to recognize patient’s analgesic classifications before using IVPCA. This study explored a new approach to analysing dynamic changes of postoperative analgesic consumptions. PMID:26710218

  8. Hematologic and plasma biochemical changes associated with fenbendazole administration in Hermann's tortoises (testudo hermanni).

    PubMed

    Neiffer, Donald L; Lydick, Dianna; Burks, Kyle; Doherty, Donna

    2005-12-01

    Toxicosis associated with benzimidazole anthelmintics has been reported with increasing frequency in zoologic collections. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, and gross and histologic lesions are primarily the result of damage to the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems. Profound leukopenia, especially granulocytopenia, is the most common and severe clinicopathologic change associated with benzimidazole administration. Death usually occurs from overwhelming systemic bacterial and/or fungal infections secondary to severe immunosuppression. In this 125-day study, six male Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni) were treated orally with two 5-day courses of fenbendazole 2 wk apart at a dosage of 50 mg/kg. Serial blood samples were used to assess hematologic and plasma biochemical changes before, during, and following the treatment period. Although the tortoises remained healthy, blood sampling indicated an extended heteropenia with transient hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and equivocal hyperproteinemia/hyperglobulinemia, which were considered to be in response to fenbendazole administration. Changes in several other clinicopathologic parameters appeared to correlate with fenbendazole administration. The hematologic and biochemical changes seen in the healthy animals in this study should be considered when treating compromised tortoises with fenbendazole. Hematologic and plasma biochemical status of tortoises/reptiles should be determined before treatment and monitored during the treatment period. The risk of mortality of an individual from nematode infection should be assessed relative to the potential for metabolic alteration and secondary septicemia following damage to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal systems by fenbendazole.

  9. Hematologic and plasma biochemical changes associated with fenbendazole administration in Hermann's tortoises (testudo hermanni).

    PubMed

    Neiffer, Donald L; Lydick, Dianna; Burks, Kyle; Doherty, Donna

    2005-12-01

    Toxicosis associated with benzimidazole anthelmintics has been reported with increasing frequency in zoologic collections. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, and gross and histologic lesions are primarily the result of damage to the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems. Profound leukopenia, especially granulocytopenia, is the most common and severe clinicopathologic change associated with benzimidazole administration. Death usually occurs from overwhelming systemic bacterial and/or fungal infections secondary to severe immunosuppression. In this 125-day study, six male Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni) were treated orally with two 5-day courses of fenbendazole 2 wk apart at a dosage of 50 mg/kg. Serial blood samples were used to assess hematologic and plasma biochemical changes before, during, and following the treatment period. Although the tortoises remained healthy, blood sampling indicated an extended heteropenia with transient hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and equivocal hyperproteinemia/hyperglobulinemia, which were considered to be in response to fenbendazole administration. Changes in several other clinicopathologic parameters appeared to correlate with fenbendazole administration. The hematologic and biochemical changes seen in the healthy animals in this study should be considered when treating compromised tortoises with fenbendazole. Hematologic and plasma biochemical status of tortoises/reptiles should be determined before treatment and monitored during the treatment period. The risk of mortality of an individual from nematode infection should be assessed relative to the potential for metabolic alteration and secondary septicemia following damage to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal systems by fenbendazole. PMID:17312724

  10. Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections

    SciTech Connect

    Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-04-13

    We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

  11. Serial Position and Isolation Effects in a Classroom Lecture Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Michael C.; Oaster, Thomas R.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evidence of the existence of serial position and isolation effects in a classroom lecture simulation involving extended meaningful discourse. Isolating an item facilitated learning of that item. (Author/DEP)

  12. An isolation effect in serial memory for spatial information.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Katherine; Hughes, Robert W; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports the first demonstration of an isolation effect or von Restorff effect (von Restorff, 1933) in the context of a spatial-memory task: Short-term serial recall was enhanced for both the location and the serial position of one red dot presented amongst a sequence of otherwise black dots. When the serial position of the isolate was fixed, the spatial isolation effect only emerged when participants received a control block of trials before the block of isolation trials (Experiment 1). However, when the serial position of the isolate was varied across isolation trials, an isolation effect was still produced regardless of condition order (Experiment 2). It is suggested that both temporal grouping strategies and greater item-specific processing may have contributed to the enhanced retention of the isolate.

  13. Pauses and durations exhibit a serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Karl; Lawrence, Holly; Krohn, Talia; Bower, Katherine; Thomas, J Graham

    2005-02-01

    This article reports evidence of two kinds of serial position effects in immediate serial recall: One involves interresponse pauses, and the other response durations. In forward and backward recall, responding was faster at initial and final positions than at center positions, exhibitinga bow-shaped function relative to serial position. These data were obtained in a spoken recall study in which ungrouped lists of four to six words and postcuing of recall direction were used. The pause pattern is consistent with several models of serial memory, including a distinctiveness model (Brown, Neath, & Chater, 2002) and a version of the ACT-R model augmented with a spontaneous grouping strategy (Maybery, Parmentier, & Jones, 2002). The duration pattern suggests that response articulation depends on the processing context, rather than being modular.

  14. Within-List Serial Position Effects in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorfein, David S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The present article reports six studies that both extend the range of conditions that produce within-list serial position effects and attempt to unravel three possible theoretical explanations for these functions. (Editor)

  15. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  16. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  17. Effect of serial extraction alone on crowding: spontaneous changes in dentition after serial extraction.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, T; Matsumoto, Y; Suzuki, J; Sato, N; Oguchi, H

    2000-12-01

    We examined changes in dentition after serial extraction in subjects who wore no appliances to determine the relationships between changes in dentition and improvement in dental crowding. Mandibular dental casts and lateral cephalograms from 31 subjects who had undergone serial extraction without orthodontic treatment were analyzed at 3 stages: before extraction of the deciduous canines (T1), after extraction of first premolars (T2), and at the end of the observation period (T3). Although movements of the first molar cusp and apex from T2 to T3 were significantly greater than from T1 to T2, movements of the incisor cusp and apex from T1 to T2 were significantly greater than from T2 to T3. The first molar tipped mesially from T1 to T2 but tipped distally from T2 to T3. The distal tipping of the incisor from T1 to T2 was significantly greater than from T2 to T3. These results suggest that the main changes in dentition from T1 to T2 are different from those from T2 to T3. The correlations between the annual change in the canine movement or tipping from T2 to T3 and the annual change in the irregularity index at the same time were significant. These results suggest that the canine movement or tipping contributed to the correction of the anterior crowding from T2 to T3.

  18. Butterfly eyespot serial homology: enter the Hox genes.

    PubMed

    Hombría, James Castelli-Gair

    2011-01-01

    Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots also appear in a serial homologous pattern that, in certain species, is subject to local modification. A paper in EvoDevo reports the Hox gene Antp is the earliest known gene to have eyespot-specific expression; however, not all Lepidoptera express Antp in eyespots, suggesting some developmental flexibility. PMID:21527048

  19. [A serial killer as exemplified by T. R. Bundy].

    PubMed

    Gałeska-Sliwka, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The question of serial homicides and their perpetrators poses a considerable problem of both a definitional and practical nature. T R. Bundy is the first perpetrator who was officially termed a "serial killer". Since that time, this concept has been commonly used and sometimes even overused, e.g. in reference to mass murderers. However, the definitions established for Bundy's case have been preserved and continue to be used in practice.

  20. Butterfly eyespot serial homology: enter the Hox genes.

    PubMed

    Hombría, James Castelli-Gair

    2011-01-01

    Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots also appear in a serial homologous pattern that, in certain species, is subject to local modification. A paper in EvoDevo reports the Hox gene Antp is the earliest known gene to have eyespot-specific expression; however, not all Lepidoptera express Antp in eyespots, suggesting some developmental flexibility.

  1. Serial reversal learning of position discrimination in developing rats.

    PubMed

    Watson, Deborah J; Sullivan, Jesse R; Frank, Julie G; Stanton, Mark E

    2006-01-01

    The current study established a procedure to evaluate the capability of rats on postnatal days (PND) 21, 26, and 30 to perform a spatial serial reversal task using a T-maze. Training consisted of an acquisition session followed by a series of six reversal sessions. To examine the role of proactive interference in the serial reversal effect, the point of reversal was manipulated so that it occurred at the start of each session (between-sessions) or the midpoint of each session (within-sessions). Performance was initially impaired during the first reversal but improved dramatically across the series. Reversal between-sessions enhanced this serial reversal effect in comparison to reversal within-sessions. Experiment 1 showed that rats of all ages learned the between-sessions serial reversal task at a comparable rate. However, on the within-sessions task, PND21 rats were impaired relative to the PND26 and 30 rats, which did not differ. Experiment 2 revealed that the addition of a tactile cue that is correlated with each phase of reversal eliminated age and task differences in serial reversal performance. These findings suggest that higher-order cognitive processes underlying serial reversal are present during the weanling period, but there is some improvement with age under conditions involving high memory interference and/or difficulty in detecting the transition between reversal phases.

  2. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory.

  3. Development of serial processing in reading and rapid naming.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K

    2013-12-01

    Serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) is more strongly related to reading fluency than naming of isolated words, suggesting that the implementation of serial processing may underlie the RAN-reading relationship. In this study, 107 Greek children from Grade 2 and 107 from Grade 6 were tested with discrete and serial naming of digits, objects, and words in 50-item arrays. The correlation between discrete and serial word reading was very high in Grade 2 but only moderate in Grade 6. In confirmatory factor analysis, a reading-naming latent structure fit the Grade 2 data best; in contrast, a serial-discrete structure fit the Grade 6 data. Thus, the superficial longitudinal stability of RAN-reading correlations belies vastly different patterns of interrelations, indicative of changes in the developing cognitive processes underlying both naming and reading. Word fluency tasks in Grade 2 are apparently accomplished largely as a series of isolated individual word naming trials even though multiple individual letters in each word may be processed in parallel. In contrast, specifically serial procedures are applied in Grade 6, presumably via simultaneous processing of multiple individual words at successive levels. It is proposed that this feat requires endogenous control of cognitive cascades.

  4. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure.

    PubMed

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR.

  5. Development of serial processing in reading and rapid naming.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K

    2013-12-01

    Serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) is more strongly related to reading fluency than naming of isolated words, suggesting that the implementation of serial processing may underlie the RAN-reading relationship. In this study, 107 Greek children from Grade 2 and 107 from Grade 6 were tested with discrete and serial naming of digits, objects, and words in 50-item arrays. The correlation between discrete and serial word reading was very high in Grade 2 but only moderate in Grade 6. In confirmatory factor analysis, a reading-naming latent structure fit the Grade 2 data best; in contrast, a serial-discrete structure fit the Grade 6 data. Thus, the superficial longitudinal stability of RAN-reading correlations belies vastly different patterns of interrelations, indicative of changes in the developing cognitive processes underlying both naming and reading. Word fluency tasks in Grade 2 are apparently accomplished largely as a series of isolated individual word naming trials even though multiple individual letters in each word may be processed in parallel. In contrast, specifically serial procedures are applied in Grade 6, presumably via simultaneous processing of multiple individual words at successive levels. It is proposed that this feat requires endogenous control of cognitive cascades. PMID:24077466

  6. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory. PMID:23263860

  7. The Assessment of Experimental Methods of Serial Number Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Mackenzie

    Serial number restoration is a common and successful process of revealing obliterated serial numbers on firearms. In a crime laboratory setting, obliterated serial numbers are commonly processed in order to tie a person to a crime scene or provide an investigative lead for officers. Currently serial numbers are restored using a chemical etchant method that can eat away at the metal on the firearm even after the examination is complete. It can also take several hours to complete and only provide an examiner with a partial number. There are other nondestructive options however little to no literature is available. The purpose of this study is to discover new methods for nondestructive serial number restoration and to compare them to the traditional chemical method used. Metal bars of premeasured obliteration depths and different compositions were examined using three proposed experimental methods: near infrared imaging, cold frost, and scanning acoustic microscopy. Results did not indicate significant difference in the median number of visible digits recovered for each of the three proposed methods compared to the traditional chemical method. There were significant results in the median number of composition utilized and depth of obliteration. This indicates that different firearm compositions and depth of obliteration has an effect on serial number restoration.

  8. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  9. Simultaneous determination of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and 2-methoxy cinnamic acid in rat whole blood after oral administration of volatile oil of Cinnamoni Ramulus by UHPLC-MS/MS: An application for a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Zhao, Yunli; Zhang, Qili; Wang, Pei; Guan, Jiao; Rong, Rong; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-09-15

    A simple and rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and 2-methoxy cinnamic acid in rat whole blood. It was the first time to study the pharmacokinetics of 2-methoxy cinnamic acid in rat whole blood. Samples were processed by a one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile-37% formaldehyde (90:10, v:v). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Thermo Scientific C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.9μm) at room temperature. The total run time was 4min. The detection was accomplished by using positive and negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all of the analytes over 1000 times concentration range with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.1ng/mL for cinnamaldehyde, 5.8ng/mL for cinnamic acid, and 10ng/mL for 2-methoxy cinnamic acid, respectively. To our knowledge, this was the first time that the LLOQ for cinnamaldehyde in validated methods for biological samples was as low as 0.1ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within ±9% for all of the analytes during the assay validation. Assay recoveries were higher than 80% and the matrix effects were minimal. The half-life were 8.7±0.7h for cinnamaldehyde, 1.0±0.5h for cinnamic acid, and 1.4±0.4h for 2-methoxy cinnamic acid, respectively. The validated assay was firstly applied to the simultaneous quantification of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and 2-methoxy cinnamic acid, especially for 2-methoxy cinnamic acid in rat whole blood after oral administration of 15mg/kg essential oil of Cinnamoni Ramulus. It was observed that the Cmax and AUC of 2-methoxy cinnamic acid (0.01% in essential oil of Cinnamoni Ramulus) were greater than those of cinnamaldehyde (83.49% in essential oil of Cinnamoni Ramulus), which implied that 2-methoxy cinnamic acid might

  10. 75 FR 56916 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Expiration Date Required for Serials and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... serials or subserials are released for marketing before the first production serials reach the end of... of production serials beginning on the day of filling into final containers or the date final... filed Outline of Production; and Require the periodic testing of serials or subserials to monitor...

  11. UFLC-Q-TOF/MS based screening and identification of the metabolites in plasma, bile, urine and feces of normal and blood stasis rats after oral administration of hydroxysafflor yellow A.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Wu, Liang; Tang, Yuping; Cao, Yujie; Li, Shujiao; Shen, Juan; Yue, Shijun; Qu, Cheng; Shan, Chenxiao; Cui, Xiaobing; Zhang, Li; Duan, Jin-ao

    2016-02-15

    The dried flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. (honghua) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine in clinics to treat coronary heart disease, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease due to its functions of ameliorating circulation and removing blood stasis. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is an active marker component of honghua. In this paper, ultra-flow liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (UFLC-Q-TOF/MS) was established and successfully applied to the detection and identification of the metabolites in bile, urine, plasma and feces samples of normal and model rats with orally administrated HSYA. A total of 8 metabolites were observed in normal rats, while 7 metabolites were detected in model rats. The distribution of metabolites in the plasma, bile, urine and feces of normal and model rats had obvious differences. The major in vivo metabolic pathways for HSYA included hydroxylation, hydroxylation+methylation, acetylation and glucuronidation, and there were also dehydration, hydrogenation, hydration, and hydroxylation+glucuronidation. All of these metabolites were reported for the first time, and these results are valuable and important for the understanding of the metabolic process and therapeutic mechanism of HSYA and some other pigments in honghua.

  12. UFLC-Q-TOF/MS based screening and identification of the metabolites in plasma, bile, urine and feces of normal and blood stasis rats after oral administration of hydroxysafflor yellow A.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Wu, Liang; Tang, Yuping; Cao, Yujie; Li, Shujiao; Shen, Juan; Yue, Shijun; Qu, Cheng; Shan, Chenxiao; Cui, Xiaobing; Zhang, Li; Duan, Jin-ao

    2016-02-15

    The dried flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. (honghua) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine in clinics to treat coronary heart disease, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease due to its functions of ameliorating circulation and removing blood stasis. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is an active marker component of honghua. In this paper, ultra-flow liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (UFLC-Q-TOF/MS) was established and successfully applied to the detection and identification of the metabolites in bile, urine, plasma and feces samples of normal and model rats with orally administrated HSYA. A total of 8 metabolites were observed in normal rats, while 7 metabolites were detected in model rats. The distribution of metabolites in the plasma, bile, urine and feces of normal and model rats had obvious differences. The major in vivo metabolic pathways for HSYA included hydroxylation, hydroxylation+methylation, acetylation and glucuronidation, and there were also dehydration, hydrogenation, hydration, and hydroxylation+glucuronidation. All of these metabolites were reported for the first time, and these results are valuable and important for the understanding of the metabolic process and therapeutic mechanism of HSYA and some other pigments in honghua. PMID:26827279

  13. Recurrent Intrathecal Methotrexate Induced Neurotoxicity in an Adolescent with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Serial Clinical and Radiologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Brugnoletti, Fulvia; Morris, E. Brannon; Laningham, Fred H.; Patay, Zoltán; Pauley, Jennifer L; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima; Inaba, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    Systemic and intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) are integral components of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy, but can be associated with neurotoxicity. We describe here the case of an adolescent male with T-cell ALL who developed recurrent episodes of subacute neurotoxicity characterized by slurred speech, emotional lability, and hemiparesis after intrathecal MTX administration. Serial magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging showed recurrent areas of restricted diffusion within cerebral hemispheric white matter, which correlated chronologically with the administration of intrathecal therapy and severity of clinical symptoms. Resolution of diffusion abnormalities did not preclude further toxicity and a large lesion could cause persisting symptoms. PMID:18831032

  14. Hardware Implementation of Serially Concatenated PPM Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Barsoum, Maged; Cheng, Michael; Nakashima, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A prototype decoder for a serially concatenated pulse position modulation (SCPPM) code has been implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). At the time of this reporting, this is the first known hardware SCPPM decoder. The SCPPM coding scheme, conceived for free-space optical communications with both deep-space and terrestrial applications in mind, is an improvement of several dB over the conventional Reed-Solomon PPM scheme. The design of the FPGA SCPPM decoder is based on a turbo decoding algorithm that requires relatively low computational complexity while delivering error-rate performance within approximately 1 dB of channel capacity. The SCPPM encoder consists of an outer convolutional encoder, an interleaver, an accumulator, and an inner modulation encoder (more precisely, a mapping of bits to PPM symbols). Each code is describable by a trellis (a finite directed graph). The SCPPM decoder consists of an inner soft-in-soft-out (SISO) module, a de-interleaver, an outer SISO module, and an interleaver connected in a loop (see figure). Each SISO module applies the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm to compute a-posteriori bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) from apriori LLRs by traversing the code trellis in forward and backward directions. The SISO modules iteratively refine the LLRs by passing the estimates between one another much like the working of a turbine engine. Extrinsic information (the difference between the a-posteriori and a-priori LLRs) is exchanged rather than the a-posteriori LLRs to minimize undesired feedback. All computations are performed in the logarithmic domain, wherein multiplications are translated into additions, thereby reducing complexity and sensitivity to fixed-point implementation roundoff errors. To lower the required memory for storing channel likelihood data and the amounts of data transfer between the decoder and the receiver, one can discard the majority of channel likelihoods, using only the remainder in

  15. [Transcriptomes for serial analysis of gene expression].

    PubMed

    Marti, Jacques; Piquemal, David; Manchon, Laurent; Commes, Thérèse

    2002-01-01

    The availability of the sequences for whole genomes is changing our understanding of cell biology. Functional genomics refers to the comprehensive analysis, at the protein level (proteome) and at the mRNA level (transcriptome) of all events associated with the expression of whole sets of genes. New methods have been developed for transcriptome analysis. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is based on the massive sequential analysis of short cDNA sequence tags. Each tag is derived from a defined position within a transcript. Its size (14 bp) is sufficient to identify the corresponding gene and the number of times each tag is observed provides an accurate measurement of its expression level. Since tag populations can be widely amplified without altering their relative proportions, SAGE may be performed with minute amounts of biological extract. Dealing with the mass of data generated by SAGE necessitates computer analysis. A software is required to automatically detect and count tags from sequence files. Criterias allowing to assess the quality of experimental data can be included at this stage. To identify the corresponding genes, a database is created registering all virtual tags susceptible to be observed, based on the present status of the genome knowledge. By using currently available database functions, it is easy to match experimental and virtual tags, thus generating a new database registering identified tags, together with their expression levels. As an open system, SAGE is able to reveal new, yet unknown, transcripts. Their identification will become increasingly easier with the progress of genome annotation. However, their direct characterization can be attempted, since tag information may be sufficient to design primers allowing to extend unknown sequences. A major advantage of SAGE is that, by measuring expression levels without reference to an arbitrary standard, data are definitively acquired and cumulative. All publicly available data can thus

  16. Positional and temporal clustering in serial order memory.

    PubMed

    Solway, Alec; Murdock, Bennet B; Kahana, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The well-known finding that responses in serial recall tend to be clustered around the position of the target item has bolstered positional-coding theories of serial order memory. In the present study, we show that this effect is confounded with another well-known finding--that responses in serial recall tend to also be clustered around the position of the prior recall (temporal clustering). The confound can be alleviated by conditioning each analysis on the positional accuracy of the previously recalled item. The revised analyses show that temporal clustering is much more prevalent in serial recall than is positional clustering. A simple associative chaining model with asymmetric neighboring, remote associations, and a primacy gradient can account for these effects. Using the same parameter values, the model produces reasonable serial position curves and captures the changes in item and order information across study-test trials. In contrast, a prominent positional coding model cannot account for the pattern of clustering uncovered by the new analyses.

  17. Visual similarity effects in immediate verbal serial recall.

    PubMed

    Logie, R H; Della Sala, S; Wynn, V; Baddeley, A D

    2000-08-01

    The role of visual working memory in temporary serial retention of verbal information was examined in four experiments on immediate serial recall of words that varied in visual similarity and letters that varied in the visual consistency between upper and lower case. Experiments 1 and 2 involved words that were either visually similar (e.g. fly, cry, dry; hew, new, few) or were visually distinct (e.g. guy, sigh, lie; who, blue, ewe). Experiments 3 and 4 involved serial recall of both letter and case from sequences of letters chosen such that the upper- and lower-case versions were visually similar, for example Kk, Cc, Zz, Ww, or were visually dissimilar, for example Dd, Hh, Rr, Qq. Hence in the latter set, case information was encoded in terms of both the shape and the size of the letters. With both words and letters, the visually similar items resulted in poorer recall both with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. This visual similarity effect was robust and was replicated across the four experiments. The effect was not restricted to any particular serial position and was particularly salient in the recall of letter case. These data suggest the presence of a visual code for retention of visually presented verbal sequences in addition to a phonological code, and they are consistent with the use of a visual temporary memory, or visual "cache", in verbal serial recall tasks.

  18. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-01

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides.

  19. Genetic programming and serial processing for time series classification.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Cid, Eva; Sharman, Ken; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I

    2014-01-01

    This work describes an approach devised by the authors for time series classification. In our approach genetic programming is used in combination with a serial processing of data, where the last output is the result of the classification. The use of genetic programming for classification, although still a field where more research in needed, is not new. However, the application of genetic programming to classification tasks is normally done by considering the input data as a feature vector. That is, to the best of our knowledge, there are not examples in the genetic programming literature of approaches where the time series data are processed serially and the last output is considered as the classification result. The serial processing approach presented here fills a gap in the existing literature. This approach was tested in three different problems. Two of them are real world problems whose data were gathered for online or conference competitions. As there are published results of these two problems this gives us the chance to compare the performance of our approach against top performing methods. The serial processing of data in combination with genetic programming obtained competitive results in both competitions, showing its potential for solving time series classification problems. The main advantage of our serial processing approach is that it can easily handle very large datasets. PMID:24032750

  20. Hemodynamics in Coronary Arterial Tree of Serial Stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Jia, Xinwei; Zhong, Liang; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Tan, Wenchang

    2016-01-01

    Serial segmental narrowing frequently occurs in humans, which alters coronary hemodynamics and further affects atherosclerotic progression and plaque formation. The objective of this study was to understand the distribution of hemodynamic parameters in the epicardial left main coronary arterial (LMCA) tree with serial stenoses reconstructed from patient computer tomography angiography (CTA) images. A finite volume method was used in conjunction with the inlet pressure wave and outlet flow resistance. The time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were determined from the flow field. A stenosis at a mother vessel mainly deteriorated the hemodynamics near the bifurcation while a stenosis at a daughter vessel affected the remote downstream bifurcation. In comparison with a single stenosis, serial stenoses increased the peak pressure gradient along the main trunk of the epicardial left anterior descending arterial tree by > 50%. An increased distance between serial stenoses further increased the peak pressure gradient. These findings have important implications on the diagnosis and treatment of serial coronary stenoses. PMID:27685989

  1. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-01

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides. PMID:17980531

  2. Genetic programming and serial processing for time series classification.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Cid, Eva; Sharman, Ken; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I

    2014-01-01

    This work describes an approach devised by the authors for time series classification. In our approach genetic programming is used in combination with a serial processing of data, where the last output is the result of the classification. The use of genetic programming for classification, although still a field where more research in needed, is not new. However, the application of genetic programming to classification tasks is normally done by considering the input data as a feature vector. That is, to the best of our knowledge, there are not examples in the genetic programming literature of approaches where the time series data are processed serially and the last output is considered as the classification result. The serial processing approach presented here fills a gap in the existing literature. This approach was tested in three different problems. Two of them are real world problems whose data were gathered for online or conference competitions. As there are published results of these two problems this gives us the chance to compare the performance of our approach against top performing methods. The serial processing of data in combination with genetic programming obtained competitive results in both competitions, showing its potential for solving time series classification problems. The main advantage of our serial processing approach is that it can easily handle very large datasets.

  3. Serial ovarian ultrasonography in wild-caught wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    McCorkell, Robert B; Woodbury, Murray R; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of daily examination of wild-caught wood bison and to characterize the ovarian function using serial transrectal ultrasonography and blood hormone analysis. Ten 2-year-old wood bison heifers obtained from Elk Island National Park were placed in a corral adjacent to a handling system designed for restraining bison. The handling system was left open to the corral allowing the bison to explore it freely for 2 months. Active acclimation followed for a 2-week period, during which the bison were herded daily through the handling system and rewarded with whole oats. Finally, the bison were restrained in the handling system and rewarded with whole oats upon release. Once conditioned, daily transrectal examination of the ovaries was completed in 100% of attempts for 30 days (January-February) using a B-mode scanner with a 5 to 10-MHz linear array. Follicle size and numbers were recorded, and individual follicles were identified serially. Blood samples were collected daily and the serum was analyzed for FSH concentrations. Nonrandom changes were detected in the number of follicles ≥ 4 mm in diameter per day (P < 0.05). Each peak in follicle numbers was associated with the development of a single dominant follicle. The interval between the emergence of successive dominant follicles was 6.8 ± 0.6 days (mean ± SEM). The maximum diameter of the dominant follicle was 9.9 ± 0.4 mm. In conclusion, wild-caught wood bison were amenable to daily examination and blood sampling, and ovarian dynamics were characterized by wave-like development of anovulatory antral follicles. The demonstrated success of this approach to the study of ovarian function will be useful for characterizing the annual reproductive pattern in wood bison, which is necessary for the development of bison-specific protocols for controlling ovarian function for species conservation.

  4. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 115 millimeters of ... pressure reading of 140 over 90, he would be evaluated for having high blood pressure. If left ...

  5. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  6. Small cell carcinoma of the brain without extracranial involvement by serial CT, MRI and PET.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2010-01-28

    The author reports herein a case of small cell carcinoma of the brain without extracranial tumors by serial imaging modalities. A 75-year-old man presented with headache. Brain CT and MRI revealed a solitary cystic tumor (5 x 6 x 7 cm) in the left occipital lobe. Blood laboratory test revealed no significant findings. Preoperative diagnosis was a primary or metastatic brain tumor. Preoperative systemic examinations including CT, MRI and PET revealed no extracranial tumors. Tumorectomy was performed. Pathologically, the tumor was small cell carcinoma positive for four types of pancytokeratins, cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK 18, thyroid transcriptional factor-1 (TTF-1), CD56, chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, p53 protein, KIT, PDGFRA, and Ki-67 antigen (labeling = 100%). It was negative for high molecular weight CK, CK5/6, CK14, CK19, CK20, PE10, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, CEA, desmin, S100 protein, CA19-9, alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD34, p63, and CD68. The pathologic examination strongly suggested primary small cell lung carcinoma. However, repeated serial imaging modalities including systemic CT, MRI and PET revealed no extracranial tumors. The serial sputum cytology was always negative. The patient was treated with radiation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and no tumors were found seven months after the operation. The present case suggests that there are small cell carcinomas with a solitary brain metastasis without a radiologically detected primary site. In the present case, primary small cell brain carcinoma cannot be excluded completely, although such a case has not been reported in the literature.

  7. Serial position effects in implicit and explicit tests of memory.

    PubMed

    Gershberg, F B; Shimamura, A P

    1994-11-01

    The effects of serial position at study on implicit and explicit tests of memory were investigated. Both primary and recency effects were observed in implicit tests of word-stem completion. These effects, however, were transient. No serial position effects were found in the second half of testing (Experiments 1 and 3) or when testing followed a 1-min, filled delay (Experiment 2). Serial position effects were also examined in explicit tests of cued recall. When performance on explicit cued recall was below ceiling levels, a primacy effect persisted throughout testing (Experiment 3). Similarly, in explicit tests of free recall, primacy effects were consistently observed, both with immediate testing (Experiments 1 and 3) and when testing followed a filled delay (Experiment 2).

  8. Serial processing in reading aloud: reply to Zorzi (2000).

    PubMed

    Rastle, K; Coltheart, M

    2000-06-01

    K. Rastle and M. Coltheart (1999; see also M. Coltheart & K. Rastle, 1994) reported data demonstrating that the cost of irregularity in reading aloud low-frequency exception words is modulated by the position of the irregularity in the word. They argued that these data implicated a serial process and falsified all models of reading aloud that operate solely in parallel, a conclusion that M. Zorzi (2000) challenged by successfully simulating the position of irregularity effect with such a model. Zorzi (2000) further claimed that a reanalysis of K. Rastle and M. Coltheart's (1999) data demonstrates sensitivity to grapheme-phoneme consistency (which he claimed was confounded across the position of irregularity manipulation) rather than the use of a serial process. Here, the authors argue that M. Zorzi's (2000) reanalyses were inappropriate and reassert that K. Rastle and M. Coltheart's (1999) findings are evidence for serial processing.

  9. A combination strategy for tracking the serial criminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuan; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Wan, Jiadi; Yu, Wenjing

    2010-08-01

    We build a Geographic Profiling Model to generate the criminal's geographical profile, by combining two complementary strategies: the Spatial Distribution Strategy and the Probability Distance Strategy. In the first strategy, we designate the mean of all the known crime sites as the anchor point, and build a Standard Deviational Ellipse Model, considering the effect of landscape. In the second strategy, we take many factors such as the buffer zone and distance decay theory into consideration and calculate the probability of the offender's residence in a certain area by using the Bayesian Theorem and the Rossmo Algorithm. Then, we combine the result of two strategies and get three search areas suit different conditions of the police to track the serial criminal. Apply the model to the English serial killer Peter Sutcliffe's case, the calculation result shows that the model can effectively be used to track serial criminal.

  10. The simultaneous chain: a new approach to serial learning.

    PubMed

    Terrace, Herbert S

    2005-04-01

    Recent advances have allowed the application of behaviorism's rigor to the control of complex cognitive tasks in animals. This article examines recent research on serially organized behavior in animals. 'Chaining theory', the traditional approach to the study of such behavior, reduces intelligent action to sequences of discrete stimulus-response units in which each overt response is evoked by a particular stimulus. However, such theories are too weak to explain many forms of serially organized cognition, both in humans and animals. By training non-human primates to produce arbitrary sequences that cannot be learned as chains of particular motor responses, the simultaneous chaining paradigm has overcome limitations of chaining theory in experiments on serial expertise, the use of numerical rules, knowledge of ordinal position, and distance and magnitude effects.

  11. Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-03-01

    This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

  12. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Pawate, Ashtamurthy S; Šrajer, Vukica; Schieferstein, Jeremy; Guha, Sudipto; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Schmidt, Marius; Ren, Zhong; Kenis, Paul J A; Perry, Sarah L

    2015-07-01

    Serial methods for crystallography have the potential to enable dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. The use of serial data-collection strategies can circumvent challenges associated with radiation damage and repeated reaction initiation. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for the serial time-resolved Laue diffraction analysis of macroscopic crystals of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Reaction initiation was achieved via pulsed laser illumination, and the resultant electron-density difference maps clearly depict the expected pR(1)/pR(E46Q) and pR(2)/pR(CW) states at 10 µs and the pB1 intermediate at 1 ms. The strategies presented here have tremendous potential for extension to chemical triggering methods for reaction initiation and for extension to dynamic, multivariable analyses.

  13. Information transfer rate with serial and simultaneous visual display formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, Ethel; Boff, Kenneth R.

    1988-04-01

    Information communication rate for a conventional display with three spatially separated windows was compared with rate for a serial display in which data frames were presented sequentially in one window. For both methods, each frame contained a randomly selected digit with various amounts of additional display 'clutter.' Subjects recalled the digits in a prescribed order. Large rate differences were found, with faster serial communication for all levels of the clutter factors. However, the rate difference was most pronounced for highly cluttered displays. An explanation for the latter effect in terms of visual masking in the retinal periphery was supported by the results of a second experiment. The working hypothesis that serial displays can speed information transfer for automatic but not for controlled processing is discussed.

  14. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Šrajer, Vukica; Schieferstein, Jeremy; Guha, Sudipto; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Schmidt, Marius; Ren, Zhong; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Perry, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Serial methods for crystallography have the potential to enable dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. The use of serial data-collection strategies can circumvent challenges associated with radiation damage and repeated reaction initiation. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for the serial time-resolved Laue diffraction analysis of macroscopic crystals of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Reaction initiation was achieved via pulsed laser illumination, and the resultant electron-density difference maps clearly depict the expected pR1/pRE46Q and pR2/pRCW states at 10 µs and the pB1 intermediate at 1 ms. The strategies presented here have tremendous potential for extension to chemical triggering methods for reaction initiation and for extension to dynamic, multivariable analyses. PMID:26144226

  15. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePlus

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  16. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  17. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  18. Serial control of phonology in speech production: a hierarchical model.

    PubMed

    Vousden, J I; Brown, G D; Harley, T A

    2000-09-01

    A dynamic oscillator-based model of the sequencing of phonemes in speech production (OSCAR) is described. An analysis of phoneme movement errors (anticipations, perseverations, and exchanges) from a large naturalistic speech error corpus provides a new set of data suitable for quantitative modeling and is used to derive a set of constraints that any speech-production model must address. The new computational model is shown to account for error type proportions, movement error distance gradients, the syllable-position effect, and phonological similarity effects. The model provides an alternative to frame-based accounts, serial buffer accounts, and associative chaining theories of serial order processing in speech.

  19. Serial murder in America: case studies of seven offenders.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James O

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes and compares information on seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project designed to study similarities and differences among these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder by examining the perpetrators' backgrounds, as well as the unique ways in which they view themselves and the world around them. Although qualitative interview research alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior, it is useful in many ways. Some of the information discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the strengths and limitations of each type of research are discussed.

  20. Serial murder in America: case studies of seven offenders.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James O

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes and compares information on seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project designed to study similarities and differences among these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder by examining the perpetrators' backgrounds, as well as the unique ways in which they view themselves and the world around them. Although qualitative interview research alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior, it is useful in many ways. Some of the information discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the strengths and limitations of each type of research are discussed. PMID:15211559

  1. In situ serial Laue diffraction on a microfluidic crystallization device

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Sarah L.; Guha, Sudipto; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Srajer, Vukica; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ren, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in room-temperature diffraction has been prompted by the desire to observe structural dynamics of proteins as they function. Serial crystallography, an experimental strategy that aggregates small pieces of data from a large uniform pool of crystals, has been demonstrated at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for serial Laue diffraction from macroscopic crystals and proposes that a collection of small slices of Laue data from many individual crystals is a realistic solution to the difficulties in dynamic studies of irreversible biochemical reactions. PMID:25484843

  2. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  3. Tumoral calcinosis: Serial images to monitor successful dietary therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Manaster, B.J.; McDowell Anderson, T. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Tumoral calcinosis involves formation of periarticular calcified soft tissue masses. Experimental evidence suggests a metabolic etiology with dietary restriction of calcium and phosphorus as beneficial therapy. We prospectively monitored serum levels of calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) while successfully treating a patient with tumoral calcinosis. The values were compared with changes on serial radiographic and radionuclide bone and gallium images. Our work suggests using serial serum phosphate levels and the ESR as the most sensitive indications of progress in dietary treatment of tumoral calcinosis.

  4. Segmentation of vessel structures in serial whole slide sections using region-based context features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, Michael; Hahn, Horst K.; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for the automatic segmentation of vascular structures in stacks of serial sections. It was initially motivated within the Virtual Liver Network research project that aims at creating a multi-scale virtual model of the liver. For this the vascular systems of several murine livers under different conditions need to be analyzed. To get highly detailed datasets, stacks of serial sections of the whole organs are prepared. Due to the huge amount of image data an automatic approach for segmenting the vessels is required. After registering the slides with an established method we use a set of Random Forest classifiers to distinguish vessels from tissue. Instead of a pixel-wise approach we perform the classification on small regions. This allows us to use more meaningful features. Besides basic intensity and texture features we introduce the concept of context features, which allow the classifiers to also consider the neighborhood of a region. Classification is performed in two stages. In the second stage the previous classification result of a region and its neighbors is used to refine the decision for a particular region. The context features and two stage classification process make our method very successful. It can handle different stainings and also detect vessels in which residue like blood cells remained. The specificity reaches 95%-99% for pure tissue, depending on staining and zoom level. Only in the direct vicinity of vessels the specificity declines to 88%-96%. The sensitivity rates reach between 89% and 98%.

  5. Rapid three-dimensional segmentation of the carotid bifurcation from serial MR images.

    PubMed

    Ladak, H M; Milner, J S; Steinman, D A

    2000-02-01

    The current trend in computational hemodynamics is to employ realistic models derived from ex vivo or in vivo imaging. Such studies typically produce a series of images from which the lumen boundaries must first be individually extracted (i.e., two-dimensional segmentation), and then serially reconstructed to produce the three-dimensional lumen surface geometry. In this paper, we present a rapid three-dimensional segmentation technique that combines these two steps, based on the idea of an expanding virtual balloon. This three-dimensional technique is demonstrated in application to finite element meshing and CFD modeling of flow in the carotid bifurcation of a normal volunteer imaged with black blood MRI. Wall shear stress patterns computed using a mesh generated with the three-dimensional technique agree well with those computed using a mesh generated from conventional two-dimensional segmentation and serial reconstruction. In addition to reducing the time required to extract the lumen surface from hours to minutes, our approach is easy to learn and use and requires minimal user intervention, which can potentially increase the accuracy and precision of quantitative and longitudinal studies of hemodynamics and vascular disease. PMID:10790835

  6. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  11. Within-word serial order control: Adjacent mora exchange and serial position effects in repeated single-word production.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masataka; Saito, Satoru

    2014-06-01

    An essential function of language processing is serial order control. Computational models of serial ordering and empirical data suggest that plan representations for ordered output of sound are governed by principles related to similarity. Among these principles, the temporal distance and edge principles at a within-word level have not been empirically demonstrated separately from other principles. Specifically, the temporal distance principle assumes that phonemes that are in the same word and thus temporally close are represented similarly. This principle would manifest as phoneme movement errors within the same word. However, such errors are rarely observed in English, likely reflecting stronger effects of syllabic constraints (i.e., phonemes in different positions within the syllable are distinctly represented). The edge principle assumes that the edges of a sequence are represented distinctly from other elements/positions. This principle has been repeatedly observed as a serial position effect in the context of phonological short-term memory. However, it has not been demonstrated in single-word production. This study provides direct evidence for the two abovementioned principles by using a speech-error induction technique to show the exchange of adjacent morae and serial position effects in Japanese four-mora words. Participants repeatedly produced a target word or nonword, immediately after hearing an aurally presented distractor word. The phonologically similar distractor words, which were created by exchanging adjacent morae in the target, induced adjacent-mora-exchange errors, demonstrating the within-word temporal distance principle. There was also a serial position effect in error rates, such that errors were mostly induced at the middle positions within a word. The results provide empirical evidence for the temporal distance and edge principles in within-word serial order control.

  12. An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

  13. 77 FR 67013 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To... links: December 4, 2012: Blood Products Advisory Committee Day 1:...

  14. 76 FR 39405 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To... available at the following links. Blood Products Advisory Committee Day 1:...

  15. Picture Detection in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation: Features or Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Pandav, Rijuta; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A pictured object can be readily detected in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence when the target is specified by a superordinate category name such as "animal" or "vehicle". Are category features the initial basis for detection, with identification of the specific object occurring in a second stage (Evans & Treisman, 2005), or is…

  16. 10 CFR 32.201 - Serialization of nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serialization of nationally tracked sources. 32.201 Section 32.201 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER... nationally tracked sources. Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source after February 6,...

  17. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  18. Auditory Word Serial Recall Benefits from Orthographic Dissimilarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Lafontaine, Helene; Morais, Jose; Kolinsky, Regine

    2010-01-01

    The influence of orthographic knowledge has been consistently observed in speech recognition and metaphonological tasks. The present study provides data suggesting that such influence also pervades other cognitive domains related to language abilities, such as verbal working memory. Using serial recall of auditory seven-word lists, we observed…

  19. The Primacy Model: A New Model of Immediate Serial Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Michael P. A.; Norris, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    The primacy model is presented as a new model of serial recall. This model stores order information by means of the assumption that the strength of activation of successive list items decreases across list position to form a primary gradient. The model produces accurate simulation of the effects of word length, list length, and phonological…

  20. Modelling Transposition Latencies: Constraints for Theories of Serial Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Several competing theories of short-term memory can explain serial recall performance at a quantitative level. However, most theories to date have not been applied to the accompanying pattern of response latencies, thus ignoring a rich and highly diagnostic aspect of performance. This article explores and tests the error latency predictions of…

  1. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    PubMed Central

    Dilanian, Ruben A.; Williams, Sophie R.; Martin, Andrew V.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Quiney, Harry M.

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used. PMID:27006776

  2. When Temporal Isolation Benefits Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Nimmo, Lisa M.; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2008-01-01

    According to temporal distinctiveness models, items that are temporally isolated from their neighbors during list presentation are more distinct and thus should be recalled better. Contrary to that expectation of distinctiveness views, much recent evidence has shown that forward short-term serial recall is unaffected by temporal isolation. We…

  3. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  4. Upper and lower bounds for a serial dilution test.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    A Poisson-binomial model estimates the concentration of a target microbe from a serial dilution test. The maximum likelihood procedure gives an equation whose solution equals the estimate of the concentration. This paper gives bounds for the solution to this equation that require only minimal calculations.

  5. Serials Pricing and the Role of the Electronic Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gherman, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    This third in a series of articles on scholarly communications and serials prices focuses on the possible role of electronic journals. Highlights include the increase in scientific and scholarly productivity; price differentials between private and for-profit journals; publisher's costs and profits; copyright issues; and the role of libraries and…

  6. Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Serial Dilutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Candace L.; McGill, Michael T.; Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E model of inquiry-based learning was incorporated into a sophomore-level microbiology laboratory to increase student understanding of serial dilutions, a concept that is often difficult for most students to comprehend. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted during the semester to determine the value of this approach for…

  7. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  8. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    PubMed

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission.

  9. Union List of Serials in Pacific Island Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene G., Comp.; Yoshida, Patricia, Comp.

    This union list contains the serial holdings from Pacific Island libraries, including the University of the South Pacific Library (Fiji), the University of Guam Robert F. Kennedy Library, Guam Public Library, College of Micronesia-FSM Library, College of the Marshall Islands Library, Micronesian Seminar Library, Palau Community College Library,…

  10. Guidelines for the Compilation of Union Catalogues of Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, London (England).

    Intended for use in countries planning the establishment of new union catalogs, as well as in countries with long established traditions of library resource sharing, this document provides guiding principles and outlines standard methods and practices for the compilation of union catalogs of serials. Following definitions of relevant terminology…

  11. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  12. Nymphalid eyespot serial homologues originate as a few individualized modules.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jeffrey C; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Gall, Lawrence F; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

    2014-07-22

    Serial homologues are repeated traits that share similar development but occur in different parts of the body. Variation in number of repeats accounts for substantial diversity in animal form and considerable work has focused on identifying the factors accounting for this variation. Little is known, however, about how serial homologues originally become repeated, or about the relative timing of repeat individuation relative to repeat origin. Here, we show that the serially repeated eyespots on nymphalid butterfly wings most likely arose as a small cluster of units on the ventral hindwing that were later co-opted to the dorsal and anterior wing surfaces. Based on comparative analyses of over 400 species, we found support for a model of eyespot origin followed by redeployment, rather than by the conventional model, where eyespots arose as a complete row of undifferentiated units that later gained individuation. In addition, eyespots most likely evolved from simpler pattern elements, single-coloured spots, which were already individuated among different wing sectors. Finally, the late appearance of eyespots on the dorsal, hidden wing surface further suggests that these novel complex traits originally evolved for one function (thwarting predator attacks) and acquired a second function (sexual signalling) when moved to a different body location. This broad comparative analysis illustrates how serial homologues may initially evolve as a few units serving a particular function and subsequently become repeated in novel body locations with new functions. PMID:24870037

  13. Fitting a Serial Correlation Pattern to Repeated Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lynne K.

    1991-01-01

    When repeated observations are taken at equal time intervals, a simple form of a stationary time series structure may be fitted to the observations. Use of correction factors is discussed. A computer simulation method is used to investigate power advantages of fitting a serial correlation pattern to repeated observations. (TJH)

  14. Analysis of aging in lager brewing yeast during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Bühligen, Franziska; Lindner, Patrick; Fetzer, Ingo; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2014-10-10

    Serial repitching of brewing yeast inoculates is an important economic factor in the brewing industry, as their propagation is time and resource intensive. Here, we investigated whether replicative aging and/or the population distribution status changed during serial repitching in three different breweries with the same brewing yeast strain but different abiotic backgrounds and repitching regimes with varying numbers of reuses. Next to bud scar numbers the DNA content of the Saccharomyces pastorianus HEBRU cells was analyzed. Gene expression patterns were investigated using low-density microarrays with genes for aging, stress, storage compound metabolism and cell cycle. Two breweries showed a stable rejuvenation rate during serial repitching. In a third brewery the fraction of virgin cells varied, which could be explained with differing wort aeration rates. Furthermore, the number of bud scars per cell and cell size correlated in all 3 breweries throughout all runs. Transcriptome analyses revealed that from the 6th run on, mainly for the cells positive gene expression could be seen, for example up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes. Additionally, the cells' settling in the cone was dependent on cell size, with the lowest and the uppermost cone layers showing the highest amount of dead cells. In general, cells do not progressively age during extended serial repitching. PMID:25026460

  15. 10 CFR 32.201 - Serialization of nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Serialization of nationally tracked sources. 32.201 Section 32.201 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER... nationally tracked sources. Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source after February 6,...

  16. Process to restore obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Parker, B.; Chisum, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Metal smeared into grooves of serial numbers by grinding or filing can be cleaned out by process called cavitation. Ultrasonic vibrator generates very high frequency vibrations in water which create millions of microscopic bubbles. Cavitation bubbles impact metal surface at thousands of pounds per square inch pressure. Metal particles filling grooves are broken away.

  17. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  18. 27 CFR 24.260 - Serial numbers or filling date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serial numbers or filling date. 24.260 Section 24.260 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine...

  19. 27 CFR 24.260 - Serial numbers or filling date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serial numbers or filling date. 24.260 Section 24.260 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine...

  20. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    PubMed

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission. PMID:11685995

  1. Forensic sexology: paraphilic serial rape (biastophilia) and lust murder (erotophonophilia).

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1990-01-01

    Forensic sexology is not synonymous with either forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology. It is a specialty in its own right, and is needed in the courtroom. Paraphilic sex offenders on trial are misrepresented as being, by their own choice, psychopathic or sociopathic deviates. They are unable to explain their paraphilic criminality to either themselves or society. In a case of serial rape and serial lust murder here presented, the contributory causes are examined and differentiated as hereditary predisposition, hormonal functioning; pathological relationships, sexual abuse; and syndrome overlap with bipolar disorder, schizoid disorder, antisocial personality disorder, epilepsy, and multiple personality. The precipitating causes were differentiated as childhood head injuries, and adult head injury at age 20. Left impact trauma and sexological trauma were sequelae of the adult injury. The full range of diagnostic resources was not available for a prisoner on death row. Capital punishment has not prevented the reemergence in each new generation of serial rape and serial lust murder as an epidemiological, public health problem. Punishment is an ineffectual substitute for epidemiological research into cause, effect, and prevention.

  2. Serials Standards in Convergence: ISBD(S) Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Ingrid

    This paper provides an update on the revision process undertaken to produce a new, relevant, and useful ISBD(S) (International Standard Bibliographic Description) standard for describing serial publications in both print and electronic formats. Highlights include: the concept of "integrating resource," i.e., a bibliographic resource that is added…

  3. Dyslexia: The Effects of Visual Memory and Serial Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Thomas C.

    Research on the role of visual memory and serial recall in dyslexia is reviewed. Findings touch on feature theory, which proposes that information is held in the form of "features," and that students for example learn to discriminate letters by marking certain identifiable aspects. Other studies are described which focus on speed of processing…

  4. Nymphalid eyespot serial homologues originate as a few individualized modules.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jeffrey C; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Gall, Lawrence F; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

    2014-07-22

    Serial homologues are repeated traits that share similar development but occur in different parts of the body. Variation in number of repeats accounts for substantial diversity in animal form and considerable work has focused on identifying the factors accounting for this variation. Little is known, however, about how serial homologues originally become repeated, or about the relative timing of repeat individuation relative to repeat origin. Here, we show that the serially repeated eyespots on nymphalid butterfly wings most likely arose as a small cluster of units on the ventral hindwing that were later co-opted to the dorsal and anterior wing surfaces. Based on comparative analyses of over 400 species, we found support for a model of eyespot origin followed by redeployment, rather than by the conventional model, where eyespots arose as a complete row of undifferentiated units that later gained individuation. In addition, eyespots most likely evolved from simpler pattern elements, single-coloured spots, which were already individuated among different wing sectors. Finally, the late appearance of eyespots on the dorsal, hidden wing surface further suggests that these novel complex traits originally evolved for one function (thwarting predator attacks) and acquired a second function (sexual signalling) when moved to a different body location. This broad comparative analysis illustrates how serial homologues may initially evolve as a few units serving a particular function and subsequently become repeated in novel body locations with new functions.

  5. Serial Back-Plane Technologies in Advanced Avionics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta

    2005-01-01

    Current back plane technologies such as VME, and current personal computer back planes such as PCI, are shared bus systems that can exhibit nondeterministic latencies. This means a card can take control of the bus and use resources indefinitely affecting the ability of other cards in the back plane to acquire the bus. This provides a real hit on the reliability of the system. Additionally, these parallel busses only have bandwidths in the 100s of megahertz range and EMI and noise effects get worse the higher the bandwidth goes. To provide scalable, fault-tolerant, advanced computing systems, more applicable to today s connected computing environment and to better meet the needs of future requirements for advanced space instruments and vehicles, serial back-plane technologies should be implemented in advanced avionics architectures. Serial backplane technologies eliminate the problem of one card getting the bus and never relinquishing it, or one minor problem on the backplane bringing the whole system down. Being serial instead of parallel improves the reliability by reducing many of the signal integrity issues associated with parallel back planes and thus significantly improves reliability. The increased speeds associated with a serial backplane are an added bonus.

  6. Nymphalid eyespot serial homologues originate as a few individualized modules

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jeffrey C.; Beaulieu, Jeremy M.; Gall, Lawrence F.; Piel, William H.; Monteiro, Antónia

    2014-01-01

    Serial homologues are repeated traits that share similar development but occur in different parts of the body. Variation in number of repeats accounts for substantial diversity in animal form and considerable work has focused on identifying the factors accounting for this variation. Little is known, however, about how serial homologues originally become repeated, or about the relative timing of repeat individuation relative to repeat origin. Here, we show that the serially repeated eyespots on nymphalid butterfly wings most likely arose as a small cluster of units on the ventral hindwing that were later co-opted to the dorsal and anterior wing surfaces. Based on comparative analyses of over 400 species, we found support for a model of eyespot origin followed by redeployment, rather than by the conventional model, where eyespots arose as a complete row of undifferentiated units that later gained individuation. In addition, eyespots most likely evolved from simpler pattern elements, single-coloured spots, which were already individuated among different wing sectors. Finally, the late appearance of eyespots on the dorsal, hidden wing surface further suggests that these novel complex traits originally evolved for one function (thwarting predator attacks) and acquired a second function (sexual signalling) when moved to a different body location. This broad comparative analysis illustrates how serial homologues may initially evolve as a few units serving a particular function and subsequently become repeated in novel body locations with new functions. PMID:24870037

  7. Building a Virtual National Serials Collection Using the MEADS System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Edward

    1998-01-01

    The Australian university system can fund the creation of a scholarly collection of serials for use by the nation by increasing the average expenditure on libraries from 5.1% to 5.3% of total university expenditure. Once the national collection has been built, virtual access can be provided using a Web-based model called MEADS (Monash Electronic…

  8. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  9. Reconstruct: a free editor for serial section microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiala, J C

    2005-04-01

    Many microscopy studies require reconstruction from serial sections, a method of analysis that is sometimes difficult and time-consuming. When each section is cut, mounted and imaged separately, section images must be montaged and realigned to accurately analyse and visualize the three-dimensional (3D) structure. Reconstruct is a free editor designed to facilitate montaging, alignment, analysis and visualization of serial sections. The methods used by Reconstruct for organizing, transforming and displaying data enable the analysis of series with large numbers of sections and images over a large range of magnifications by making efficient use of computer memory. Alignments can correct for some types of non-linear deformations, including cracks and folds, as often encountered in serial electron microscopy. A large number of different structures can be easily traced and placed together in a single 3D scene that can be animated or saved. As a flexible editor, Reconstruct can reduce the time and resources expended for serial section studies and allows a larger tissue volume to be analysed more quickly.

  10. INTERPRETATIONS OF ELECTRON MICROGRAPHS OF SINGLE AND SERIAL SECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robley C.; Kallman, Frances

    1955-01-01

    A method of securing serial sections for electron microscopy is described. Serial sections present certain anomalies of interpretation of a nature such that a complete and detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of the sectioned tissue cannot be made. These anomalies are discussed, as well as those which have been encountered in the interpretation of single sections. Observations of the following kinds have been made in an attempt to elucidate the interpretation of single and serial sections: differing methods of mounting adjacent sections, observation of the same section by high-angle stereoscopy, and examination of sections which have been shadowed prior to and subsequent to electron microscopy. It is found that the appearance of sections is independent of the choice of side to be placed against the formvar films. Stereoscopy shows that the appearance of fine structures is strongly dependent upon the direction of the penetrating electron beam with respect to the plane of the structures. Stereoscopy, combined with shadowing, shows quantitatively that extensive sublimation of polymer occurs upon normal exposure in the electron microscope. Observation of sections shadowed prior to electron microscopy indicates that varying amounts of material are removed between sections by the action of microtomy; i.e., it is probable that the sum of the thicknesses of several serial sections is considerably less than the total thickness of material removed from the block. It is believed that this effect, combined with the effect of sublimation, aids in explaining the failure of adjacent sections to exhibit continuity in their detailed structures. PMID:13242595

  11. Problems of the National Library of Medicine Classification for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophanodorn, Kanchana

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the development of serial classification patterns from the National Library of Medicine scheme is followed by the enumeration of some of the difficulties encountered by medical libraries attempting to use the scheme. Solutions to the problems utilized by five large medical libraries are described in detail. (6 references)…

  12. Gene expression profiling of human erythroid progenitors by micro-serial analysis of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Fujishima, Naohito; Hirokawa, Makoto; Aiba, Namiko; Ichikawa, Yoshikazu; Fujishima, Masumi; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Kawabata, Yoshinari; Miura, Ikuo; Sawada, Ken-ichi

    2004-10-01

    We compared the expression profiles of highly purified human CD34+ cells and erythroid progenitor cells by micro-serial analysis of gene expression (microSAGE). Human CD34+ cells were purified from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized blood stem cells, and erythroid progenitors were obtained by cultivating these cells in the presence of stem cell factor, interleukin 3, and erythropoietin. Our 10,202 SAGE tags allowed us to identify 1354 different transcripts appearing more than once. Erythroid progenitor cells showed increased expression of LRBA, EEF1A1, HSPCA, PILRB, RANBP1, NACA, and SMURF. Overexpression of HSPCA was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. MicroSAGE revealed an unexpected preferential expression of several genes in erythroid progenitor cells in addition to the known functional genes, including hemoglobins. Our results provide reference data for future studies of gene expression in various hematopoietic disorders, including myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia.

  13. In vivo non-invasive serial monitoring of FDG-PET progression and regression in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Worthley, Stephen G; Zhang, Zhuang Y; Machac, Josef; Helft, Gérard; Tang, Cheuk; Liew, Gary Y H; Zaman, Azfar G; Worthley, Matthew I; Fayad, Zahi A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Fuster, Valentin; Badimon, Juan J

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the ability of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging to serially monitor macrophage content in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits (n = 8) by a combination of atherogenic diet and balloon denudation of the aorta. At the end of nine months, the rabbits were randomized to a further six months of the same atherogenic diet (progression group) or normal diet (regression group). In vivo uptake of FDG by the thoracic aorta was measured using aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity ratios at the start and end of the randomized period. A significant increase in FDG uptake of the progression group after continued cholesterol feeding (aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity: 0.57 +/- 0.02 to 0.68 +/- 0.02, P = 0.001), and a corresponding fall in FDG uptake of the regression group after returning to a normal chow diet (aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity ratios: 0.67 +/- 0.02 to 0.53 +/- 0.02, P < 0.0001). FDG PET can quantify in vivo macrophage content and serially monitor changes in FDG activity in this rabbit model.

  14. Evaluation of blood agar microtiter plates for culturing leishmania parasites to titrate parasite burden in spleen and peripheral blood of patients with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Radheshyam; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Nylén, Susanne; Sacks, David; Sundar, Shyam

    2010-05-01

    Serial dilution of blood and spleen biopsy specimens, plated on Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) blood agar using microtiter culture plates, is a sensitive and reproducible method for detection and growth of Leishmania parasites. Plates could be easily monitored, and growth could be rapidly detected. Moreover, parasite number may be estimated using this technique.

  15. Serials Management in the Electronic Era: Papers in Honor of Peter Gellatly, Founding Editor of "The Serials Librarian."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jim, Ed.; Williams, James W., Ed.

    This book assesses progress and technical changes in the field of serials management and anticipates future directions and challenges for librarians. The book consists of 18 chapters: (1) "Introduction" (Jim Cole and James W. Williams); (2) "Peter Gellatly--Editor with a Deft Touch" (Ruth C. Carter); (3) "The "Deseret News" Web Edition" (Stewart…

  16. Adolescent exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rowan, James D; McCarty, Madison K; Kundey, Shannon M A; Osburn, Crystal D; Renaud, Samantha M; Kelley, Brian M; Matoushek, Amanda Willey; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of adolescent exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, adolescent exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast adolescent exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, adolescent MPD exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD exposure ended.

  17. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  18. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral smear; Complete blood count - peripheral; CBC - peripheral ... Bain BJ. The peripheral blood smear. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 157. ...

  19. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  20. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You know what blood is — it's that red stuff that oozes out if you get a paper ... ingredients. It makes them. Bone marrow — that goopy stuff inside your bones — makes the red blood cells, ...

  1. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... matches yours. You may have read about the danger of becoming infected with hepatitis, HIV, or other ... member or friend donating blood before a planned surgery. This blood is then set aside and held ...

  2. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.14 Extension of expiration date for a serial or... allowed in the filed Outline of Production. (1) Serials are approved for redating under the condition that... serial or subserial. 114.14 Section 114.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  3. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.14 Extension of expiration date for a serial or... allowed in the filed Outline of Production. (1) Serials are approved for redating under the condition that... serial or subserial. 114.14 Section 114.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  4. Long-Term Phonological Knowledge Supports Serial Ordering in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Masataka; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Serial ordering mechanisms have been investigated extensively in psychology and psycholinguistics. It has also been demonstrated repeatedly that long-term phonological knowledge contributes to serial ordering. However, the mechanisms that contribute to serial ordering have yet to be fully understood. To understand these mechanisms, we demonstrate…

  5. A SERIALS DATA PROGRAM FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, RESULTS OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CREAGER, WILLIAM A.; SPARKS, DAVID E.

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A CONTINUING NATIONAL INVENTORY OF THE WORLD'S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIALS. THE MAJOR TECHNICAL, OPERATIONAL, AND ECONOMIC FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION OF SUCH A SERIALS DATA PROGRAM HAVE BEEN EXAMINED. THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF A SERIALS DATA…

  6. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  7. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  8. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  9. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  10. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    PubMed

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders.

  11. Theoretical Positioning Accuracy for Serial and Parallel Kinematic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurekova, Eva; Halaj, Martin; Omachelová, Milada; Martišovitš, Ilja

    2014-10-01

    Modern production machines employ complex kinematic structures that shall enhance their performance. As those machines are very sophisticated electro-mechanical structures, their design is time consuming and financially demanding. Therefore, designers search for new possibilities how to estimate future properties of the machine as early as in the design phase. The paper gives a brief introduction to the adoption of methodology of measurement uncertainties into the design of production machines. The adapted methodology enables to estimate the theoretical positioning accuracy of the machine end effector that is one of the important indicators of machine performance. Both serial and parallel kinematic structures are considered in the paper. Methodology and sample calculations of theoretical positioning accuracy are presented for serial kinematic structure (represented by advanced plasma cutting head) and parallel kinematic structure, represented by one specific design named Tricept.

  12. Serial position effects in social transmission of food preference.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Maldonado, C Edith; Ortega-Saavedra, Guadalupe; Huichan-Olivares, Francisco; Gómez-Romero, José; Cruz-Morales, Sara E; Arriaga-Ramírez, J C Pedro

    2006-11-01

    The serial position effect in Long-Evans rats was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, the effect in a group for which an interstimulus interval (ISI) was introduced between items in a list of demonstrators was compared with that in a group without an ISI. With an ISI, a recency effect was produced. In Experiment 2, a serial position effect group was compared with four groups in which either the distinctiveness or the context of the middle item was changed, relative to the items on either side of it. A von Restorff effect was produced when a rat from a different strain was used as a demonstrator in Position 2. The results for Experiment 1 are discussed in relation to interstimulus effects in monkeys and those for Experiment 2 with respect to changes in the physical properties of middle items.

  13. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    PubMed

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders. PMID:22091451

  14. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; White, Thomas A.; Zatsepin, Nadia; Shilova, Anastasya; Nelson, Garrett; Liu, Haiguang; Johansson, Linda; Heymann, Michael; Jaeger, Kathrin; Metz, Markus; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Wu, Wenting; Båth, Petra; Berntsen, Peter; Oberthuer, Dominik; Panneels, Valerie; Cherezov, Vadim; Chapman, Henry; Schertler, Gebhard; Neutze, Richard; Spence, John; Moraes, Isabel; Burghammer, Manfred; Standfuss, Joerg; Weierstall, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway. PMID:25866654

  15. Molluscan engrailed expression, serial organization, and shell evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. K.; Wray, C. G.; Wedeen, C. J.; Kostriken, R.; DeSalle, R.; Staton, J. L.; Gates, R. D.; Lindberg, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Whether the serial features found in some molluscs are ancestral or derived is considered controversial. Here, in situ hybridization and antibody studies show iterated engrailed-gene expression in transverse rows of ectodermal cells bounding plate field development and spicule formation in the chiton, Lepidochitona cavema, as well as in cells surrounding the valves and in the early development of the shell hinge in the clam, Transennella tantilla. Ectodermal expression of engrailed is associated with skeletogenesis across a range of bilaterian phyla, suggesting a single evolutionary origin of invertebrate skeletons. The shared ancestry of bilaterian-invertebrate skeletons may help explain the sudden appearance of shelly fossils in the Cambrian. Our interpretation departs from the consideration of canonical metameres or segments as units of evolutionary analysis. In this interpretation, the shared ancestry of engrailed-gene function in the terminal/posterior addition of serially repeated elements during development explains the iterative expression of engrailed genes in a range of metazoan body plans.

  16. Working memory capacity and controlled serial memory search.

    PubMed

    Mızrak, Eda; Öztekin, Ilke

    2016-08-01

    The speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure was used to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and the dynamics of temporal order memory retrieval. High- and low-span participants (HSs, LSs) studied sequentially presented five-item lists, followed by two probes from the study list. Participants indicated the more recent probe. Overall, accuracy was higher for HSs compared to LSs. Crucially, in contrast to previous investigations that observed no impact of WMC on speed of access to item information in memory (e.g., Öztekin & McElree, 2010), recovery of temporal order memory was slower for LSs. While accessing an item's representation in memory can be direct, recovery of relational information such as temporal order information requires a more controlled serial memory search. Collectively, these data indicate that WMC effects are particularly prominent during high demands of cognitive control, such as serial search operations necessary to access temporal order information from memory. PMID:27135712

  17. Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial".

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha; Hachmann, Wibke; Neubauer, Claudia; Konieczny, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading in which individuals process letters serially with a pronounced length effect. Yet, there is considerable variation in the performance of alexic readers with generally very slow, but also occasionally fast responses, an observation addressed rarely in previous reports. It has been suggested that "fast" responses in pure alexia reflect residual parallel letter processing or that they may even be subserved by an independent reading system. Four experiments assessed fast and slow reading in a participant (DN) with pure alexia. Two behavioral experiments investigated frequency, neighborhood, and length effects in forced fast reading. Two further experiments measured eye movements when DN was forced to read quickly, or could respond faster because words were easier to process. Taken together, there was little support for the proposal that "qualitatively different" mechanisms or reading strategies underlie both types of responses in DN. Instead, fast responses are argued to be generated by the same serial-reading strategy.

  18. Longitudinal fibre splitting in muscular dystrophy: a serial cinematographic study

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Edward R.; Bradley, Walter G.; Henderson, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    A technique of block surface-staining and serial cinematography was modified to review serial sections of normal and dystrophic muscle from the Bar Harbor 129 Re strain of mice as a preliminary study of fibre splitting in dystrophic muscle. Using this technique, muscle fibres were reconstructed for up to 1·5 mm of their length without difficulty. Split fibres were identified only when the actual separation of fibres was observed. Splitting was seen to be a significant cause of the variations in fibre diameter and was at times responsible for the formation of groups of small atrophic fibres which resembled those seen in denervation atrophy. Complex multiple splitting and recombination of daughter and parent fibres was also observed and reconstructed to scale. These results may have considerable significance for the interpretation of physiological data on both human and murine dystrophic muscle. Images PMID:4753877

  19. Serial thyroid iodine content in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.S.; Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-02-01

    X-ray fluorescent scanning was used to measure initial thyroidal iodine content in 64 patients diagnosed as being hyperthyroid and selected for I-131 therapy, and serially in 48 of these patients after therapy in an attempt to determine those patients that were at high risk of becoming hypothyroid. Iodine content fell rapidly after therapy, reaching a nadir at about three months. Based on the population studied, the chance of early hypothyroidism (within 12 months) is about 80% if the iodine content measured at three months is less than 2 mg. If the iodine content is greater than 2 mg, the chance is only about 14%. The serial measurement of thyroidal iodine content (with x-ray fluorescent scanning) may allow early identification of those patients at high risk of developing permanent hypothyroidism following a therapeutic dose of I-131.

  20. Low-Stroke Actuation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Dalong (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A serial robot includes a base, first and second segments, a proximal joint joining the base to the first segment, and a distal joint. The distal joint that joins the segments is serially arranged and distal with respect to the proximal joint. The robot includes first and second actuators. A first tendon extends from the first actuator to the proximal joint and is selectively moveable via the first actuator. A second tendon extends from the second actuator to the distal joint and is selectively moveable via the second actuator. The robot includes a transmission having at least one gear element which assists rotation of the distal joint when an input force is applied to the proximal and/or distal joints by the first and/or second actuators. A robotic hand having the above robot is also disclosed, as is a robotic system having a torso, arm, and the above-described hand.

  1. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-01-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution. PMID:27087008

  2. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder.

  3. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-12-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  4. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures. PMID:26627659

  5. A nonparametric trend test for seasonal data with serial dependence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.; Slack, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical tests for monotonic trend in seasonal (eg monthly) hydrologic time series are commonly confounded by some of the following problems: nonnormal data, missing values, seasonality, censoring and serial dependence. An extension of the Mann-Kendall test for trend (designed for such data) is presented here. Because the test is based entirely on tanks, it is robust against nonnormality and censoring.-from Authors

  6. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C H; Bruce Doak, R; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Koglin, Jason E; Marvin Seibert, M; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Kirian, Richard A; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Stevens, Raymond C; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10-μm-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor.

  7. Two Serial Data to Pulse Code Modulation System Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Two pulse code modulation (PCM) system interfaces for asynchronous serial data are described. One interface is for global positioning system (GPS) data on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri) airplane, tail number 836 (F-15B/836). The other is for flight control computer data on the duPont Aerospace (La Jolla, California) DP-1, a 53-percent scale model of the duPont Aerospace DP-2.

  8. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-04-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution.

  9. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder. PMID:23131308

  10. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A.; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C.H.; Doak, R. Bruce; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L.; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.; Kirian, Richard A.; Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T.A.; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously-renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10 μm-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor. PMID:24525480

  11. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C H; Bruce Doak, R; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Koglin, Jason E; Marvin Seibert, M; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Kirian, Richard A; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Stevens, Raymond C; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10-μm-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor. PMID:24525480

  12. Extending vaterite microviscometry to ex vivo blood vessels by serial calibration.

    PubMed

    Shreim, Samir G; Steward, Earl; Botvinick, Elliot L

    2012-01-01

    The endothelial glycocalyx layer is a ~2 µm thick glycosaminoglycan rich pericellular matrix expressed on the luminal surface of vascular endothelial cells, which has implications in vessel mechanics and mechanotransduction. Despite its role in vascular physiology, no direct measurement has of yet been made of vessel glycocalyx material properties. Vaterite microviscometry is a laser tweezers based microrheological method, which has been previously utilized to measure the viscosity of linear and complex fluids under flow. This form of microrheology has until now relied on complete recollection of the forward scattered light. Here we present a novel method to extend vaterite microviscometry to relatively thick samples. We validate our method and its assumptions and measure the apparent viscosity as a function of distance from the vascular endothelium. We observe a differential response in conditions designed to preserve the EGL in comparison to those designed to collapse it.

  13. Arthrogryposis wrist deformities: results of infantile serial casting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean W; Drennan, James C

    2002-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita involving the upper extremity can be associated with significant contractures of major joints. Treatment options to maximize upper extremity motion and function include passive joint stretching, serial casting, or surgical intervention. This study reviewed all patients at Carrie Tingley Hospital with arthrogrypotic wrist flexion contractures treated with passive stretching, serial casting, and custom wrist orthotics to determine the effect on wrist position and function. Seventeen infant patients with distal and classic arthrogryposis used this regimen. Average follow-up was 6 years. The greatest gain in wrist motion occurred after the first casting session for both groups. Patients with distal arthrogryposis had the largest improvement in passive wrist motion, were more functionally independent at final follow-up, and had no recurrence of deformity. Patients with classic arthrogryposis had rigid wrist flexion contractures and a 75% incidence of deformity recurrence after casting. At final follow-up, these patients remained functionally dependent, requiring >50% assistance with activities of daily living, and had less improvement in wrist motion. The authors recommend early casting of infant wrist deformities for both forms of arthrogryposis. If the wrist deformity recurs, repeat serial casting is unlikely to improve wrist extension. Other treatment options may be considered in the older child.

  14. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling. PMID:26441742

  15. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling. PMID:26441742

  16. Serial extraction: 20 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; Souza, Karen Regina Siqueira de

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a case treated by a serial extraction program at the mixed dentition stage followed by a corrective orthodontic treatment, with a long-term follow-up period. Twenty years after the interceptive treatment, a harmonious face was observed along with treatment stability in the anterior posterior direction, deep overbite (which has been mentioned as a disadvantage of the serial extraction program), and a small relapse of anterior tooth crowding. All these conditions have been regarded as normal occurrences for most orthodontic treatments with a long-term follow-up period. This case report demonstrated that the establishment of a serial extraction protocol determined relevant esthetic changes that afforded an improvement of the patient's self-esteem, with a positive social impact. Furthermore, the low cost of this protocol permits the use of this therapy with underprivileged populations. It is important to emphasize that an early correction of tooth crowding by this protocol does not guarantee stability, but small relapses do not invalidate its accomplishment.

  17. Serial extraction: 20 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; de SOUZA, Karen Regina Siqueira

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a case treated by a serial extraction program at the mixed dentition stage followed by a corrective orthodontic treatment, with a long-term follow-up period. Twenty years after the interceptive treatment, a harmonious face was observed along with treatment stability in the anterior posterior direction, deep overbite (which has been mentioned as a disadvantage of the serial extraction program), and a small relapse of anterior tooth crowding. All these conditions have been regarded as normal occurrences for most orthodontic treatments with a long-term follow-up period. This case report demonstrated that the establishment of a serial extraction protocol determined relevant esthetic changes that afforded an improvement of the patient's self-esteem, with a positive social impact. Furthermore, the low cost of this protocol permits the use of this therapy with underprivileged populations. It is important to emphasize that an early correction of tooth crowding by this protocol does not guarantee stability, but small relapses do not invalidate its accomplishment. PMID:23032213

  18. DDCMP protocol on a DMA serial-line board

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.N.; Kessler, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the midst of an upgrade to their radiation counting facility. The result of this upgrade wil be a computer-based data acquisition network, the Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility Network (NCCF-NET). This network will consist of forty dedicated LSI-11/2 based controllers, ten interactive LSI-11/23 based workstations and a VAX-11/750 central node for data reduction and storage. One of the data acquisition instruments used in this network is a Nuclear Data pulse-height analyzer, the ND66L. This analyzer communicates to a host system over a 9600-baud serial line, using the DDCMP link level protocol. In order to relieve the host computer from the overhead of handling the DDCMP protocol, an in-house designed DMA serial line board was implemented to communicate with the ND66L. The hardware used and its environment will be duscussed along with the design and implementation of the firmware, which implements the serial DDCMP link.

  19. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  20. Voltage balancing strategies for serial connection of microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno; Buret, François

    2015-07-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) converts electrochemically organic matter into electricity by means of metabolisms of bacteria. The MFC power output is limited by low voltage and low current characteristics in the range of microwatts or milliwatts per litre. In order to produce a sufficient voltage level (>1.5 V) and sufficient power to supply real applications such as autonomous sensors, it is necessary to either scale-up one single unit or to connect multiple units together. Many topologies of connection are possible as the serial association to improve the output voltage, or the parallel connection to improve the output current or the series/parallel connection to step-up both voltage and current. The association of MFCs in series is a solution to increase the voltage to an acceptable value and to mutualize the unit's output power. The serial association of a large number of MFCs presents several issues. The first one is the hydraulic coupling among MFCs when they share the same substrate. The second one is the dispersion between generators that lead to a non-optimal stack efficiency because the maximum power point (MPP) operation of all MFCs is not permitted. Voltage balancing is a solution to compensate non-uniformities towards MPP. This paper presents solutions to improve the efficiency of a stack of serially connected MFCs through a voltage-balancing circuit. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek