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Sample records for administration serial blood

  1. Safe administration of blood components.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katy

    The transfusion process has many stages, each involving different members of staff in different locations. This gives rise to a significant potential for errors. Nurses are involved in many of these stages and therefore require knowledge, skills and competence in the process to ensure the safety of patients. This third article in our five-part series on blood transfusion discusses the safe administration of blood components and the key principles to which nurses must adhere.

  2. Blood Cell Separation Device Using Serially Connected Membrane Filters for Adapting to Blood Flow Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Kato, Daiki; Koga, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Kenichi; Fukuda, Makoto; Kinoshita, Yoshiharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi

    This paper proposes a cooperative operation of serially connected membrane filters toward adaptive blood cell separation system in order to overcome a restriction of a single membrane filter. Serially connected membrane filters allow that downstream filters extract blood plasma from residual blood at upstream filters. Consequently, it becomes possible to adapt filtering characteristics to changing properties of blood. We focus on trans-membrane pressure difference in order to prevent hemolysis. Our strategy can be realized as a miniaturized PDMS fluidic chip. Our laboratory experiment using a prototype shows that plasma extraction efficiency is improved from 34% to 75%. Toward an integrated system, this paper also demonstrates multiple filters are successfully integrated into a PDMS fluidic chip.

  3. Changes in serial blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, S J; Karchmer, S; Schnaas, L; Perroni, E; Zea, F; Fernández Alba, J

    1994-01-01

    The first step in modeling lead kinetics during pregnancy includes a description of sequential maternal blood lead (PbB) during pregnancy and the factors controlling it. We analyzed PbB of 105 women living in the Valley of Mexico from week 12 to week 36 of pregnancy and again at parturition. We also used data from all women contributing blood at any stage of pregnancy to determine antecedents of PbB. Pregnancies were uneventful, and offspring were normal. Although geometric mean PbB level averaged around 7.0 micrograms/dl (0.34 mumol/l), with a range of 1.0-35.5 micrograms/dl throughout pregnancy, analysis of variance revealed a significant decrease in mean PbB from week 12 to week 20 (1.1 micrograms/dl) and various significant increases in mean PbB from week 20 to parturition (1.6 micrograms/dl). Regression analyses confirmed the positive linear PbB trend from 20 weeks to parturition and additional contributions of dietary calcium, reproductive history, lifetime residence of Mexico City, coffee drinking, and use of indigenous lead-glazed pottery. Although decreasing hematocrit has been suggested to explain first-half pregnancy PbB decrease, the time course of hematocrit decrease in the present study did not match the sequential changes in PbB. While hemodilution and organ growth in the first half of pregnancy may account for much of the PbB decrease seen between 12 and 20 weeks, the remaining hemodilution and accelerated organ growth of the last half of pregnancy do not predict the trend toward increasing maternal PbB concentration from 20 weeks to delivery. Mobilization of bone lead, increased gut absorption, and increased retention of lead may explain part of the upward PbB trend in the second half of pregnancy. Reduction of lifetime lead exposure may be required to decrease risk of fetal exposure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9644197

  4. A practical method of serial bedside measurement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism during neurointensive care.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, P M; Stuart, A G; Aynsley-Green, A; Heaviside, D; Pay, D A; McGann, A; Crawford, P J; Harpin, R; Eyre, J A

    1991-01-01

    Acute encephalopathy is a major cause of death and neurological handicap in children. The principle aims of treatment are to provide adequate cerebral blood flow for the brain's metabolic needs and to prevent intracranial pressure rising above the level at which brain herniation occurs. Rational management requires an understanding of the pathophysiological changes in cerebral blood flow and metabolism which occur. The paucity of data on this subject reflects the perceived difficulty of measuring cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism in children. A modification of the Kety Schmidt technique of measuring cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism is described. This modification makes it possible to perform serial bedside measurements in children receiving intensive care. This method was used to perform 348 measurements in 58 children. The method was reproducible and no significant complications were encountered. The results indicated that appreciable changes in cerebral blood flow and metabolism could occur in individual patients over time, emphasising the importance of serial measurements. This technique may provide a practical means of monitoring cerebral blood flow and metabolism in very sick children receiving neurointensive care and evaluating the efficacy of treatment. PMID:1755648

  5. Serial transplantation resulting in tolerance to an unrelated cord blood graft.

    PubMed

    Goebel, W Scott; Nelson, Robert P; Brahmi, Zacharie; Gowan, Darla J; Towell, Paula J; Robertson, Kent A; Haut, Paul R

    2006-06-15

    Unrelated cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem cells were serially transplanted into two human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings with T cell, B cell, natural killer cell severe combined immunodeficiency. Brother A received a 4/6-matched, HLA DRbeta1-identical but class I-disparate UCB graft after myeloablative dosages of busulfan, melphalan, and antithymocyte globulin. He experienced complete donor chimerism, severe acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and limited chronic skin GVHD that resolved with treatment. Two years later, brother B received unfractionated marrow from brother A after reduced-intensity conditioning with cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin. Brother B experienced mixed-donor (i.e. original UCB) chimerism and no histologically documented GVHD. Both brothers are clinically well; brother A is in a fully immunologically reconstituted state. The uneventful course and progressive increase in donor chimerism after the second transplantation indicates that hematopoietic cells derived from the older brother's marrow engrafted without causing GVHD, suggesting that acquired tolerance to disparate unrelated HLA antigens was achieved.

  6. Effects of short-term administration of G-CSF (filgrastim) on bone marrow progenitor cells: analysis of serial marrow samples from normal donors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Rozman, M; Rovira, M; Marín, P; Montfort, N; Carreras, E; Montserrat, E

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effect of G-CSF administration on both the total number of CD34+ cells and the primitive CD34+ subsets in bone marrow (BM), we have analyzed BM samples serially obtained from 10 normal donors in steady-state and during G-CSF treatment. Filgrastim was administered subcutaneously at a dosage of 10 microg/kg/day (n = 7) or 10 microg/kg/12 h (n = 3) for 4 consecutive days. Peripheral blood sampling and BM aspirates were performed on day 1 (just before G-CSF administration), day 3 (after 2 days of G-CSF), and day 5 (after 4 days of G-CSF). During G-CSF administration, a significant increase in the total number of BM nucleated cells was observed. The percentage (range) of CD34+ cells decreased in BM from a median of 0.88 (0.47-1.44) on day 1 to 0.57 (0.32-1.87), and to 0.42 (0.16-0.87) on days 3 and 5, respectively. We observed a slight increase in the total number of BM CD34+ cells on day 3 (0.66 x 10(9)/l (0.13-0.77)), and a decrease on day 5 (0.23 x 10(9)/l (0.06-1.23)) as compared with steady-state (0.40 x 10(9)/l (0.06-1.68)). The proportion of primitive BM hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+CD38-, CD34+HLA-DR-, CD34+CD117-) decreased during G-CSF administration. In parallel, a significant increase in the total number of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood was observed, achieving the maximum value on day 5. These results suggest that in normal subjects the administration of G-CSF for 5 days may reduce the number of progenitor cells in BM, particularly the most primitive ones.

  7. Quantification of Serial Cerebral Blood Flow in Acute Stroke Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Okell, Thomas W.; Sheerin, Fintan; Schulz, Ursula; Mathieson, Phil; Reckless, Ian; Shah, Kunal; Ford, Gary A.; Chappell, Michael A.; Jezzard, Peter; Kennedy, James

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Perfusion-weighted imaging is used to select patients with acute ischemic stroke for intervention, but knowledge of cerebral perfusion can also inform the understanding of ischemic injury. Arterial spin labeling allows repeated measurement of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) without the need for exogenous contrast. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between dynamic CBF and tissue outcome in the month after stroke onset. Methods— Patients with nonlacunar ischemic stroke underwent ≤5 repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans at presentation, 2 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. Imaging included vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling using multiple postlabeling delays to quantify CBF in gray matter regions of interest. Receiver–operator characteristic curves were used to predict tissue outcome using CBF. Repeatability was assessed in 6 healthy volunteers and compared with contralateral regions of patients. Diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging were used to define tissue outcome. Results— Forty patients were included. In contralateral regions of patients, there was significant variation of CBF between individuals, but not between scan times (mean±SD: 53±42 mL/100 g/min). Within ischemic regions, mean CBF was lowest in ischemic core (17±23 mL/100 g/min), followed by regions of early (21±26 mL/100 g/min) and late infarct growth (25±35 mL/100 g/min; ANOVA P<0.0001). Between patients, there was marked overlap in presenting and serial CBF values. Conclusions— Knowledge of perfusion dynamics partially explained tissue fate. Factors such as metabolism and tissue susceptibility are also likely to influence tissue outcome. PMID:27879446

  8. Vascular Access Port Implantation and Serial Blood Sampling in a Gottingen Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Acute Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Coolbaugh, Thea V; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Lombardini, Eric; Moccia, Krinon D; Shelton, Larry J; Nagy, Vitaly; Whitnall, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing, but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. Because of their similarity to humans in regard to physiology and anatomy, we are characterizing Gottingen minipigs as a model to aid the development of radiation countermeasures. Irradiated minipigs exhibit immunosuppression, severe thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and acute inflammation. These complications render serial acquisition of blood samples problematic. Vascular access ports (VAP) facilitate serial sampling, but their use often is complicated by infections and fibrin deposition. We demonstrate here the successful use of VAP for multiple blood samplings in irradiated minipigs. Device design and limited postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before irradiation were key to obtaining serial sampling, reducing swelling, and eliminating infection and skin necrosis at the implantation site. Modifications of previous protocols included the use of polydioxanone sutures instead of silk; eliminating chronic port access; single-use, sterile, antireflux prefilled syringes for flushing; strict aseptic weekly maintenance of the device, and acclimating animals to reduce stress. VAP remained functional in 19 of 20 irradiated animals for as long as 3 mo. The remaining VAP failed due to a small leak in the catheter, leading to clot formation. VAP-related sepsis occurred in 2 minipigs. Blood sampling did not cause detectable stress in nonanesthetized sham-irradiated animals, according to leukograms and clinical signs. PMID:21333166

  9. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-01-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague–Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats—an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques. PMID:27025813

  10. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-03-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats--an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques.

  11. Non-invasive Serial Blood Collection in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Adkins, AL, Moran, AV 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6.2 5f. WORK UNIT ...technicians. The toenail clip method provided an easily trained, easily performed method of blood collection that yielded up to one milliliter of blood...collection, toenail clips, toenail bleeds 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  12. Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from serial xenon 133 cerebral blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Knopman, D.S.; Rubens, A.B.; Selnes, O.A.; Klassen, A.C.; Meyer, M.W.

    1984-06-01

    In 21 patients who suffered aphasia resulting from left hemisphere ischemic infarction, the xenon 133 inhalation cerebral blood flow technique was used to measure cerebral blood flow within 3 months and 5 to 12 months after stroke. In addition to baseline measurements, cerebral blood flow measurements were also carried out while the patients were performing purposeful listening. In patients with incomplete recovery of comprehension and left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, greater cerebral blood flow occurred with listening in the right inferior frontal region in the late studies than in the early studies. In patients with nearly complete recovery of comprehension and without left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, early listening studies showed diffuse right hemisphere increases in cerebral blood flow. Later listening studies in this latter patient group showed greater cerebral blood flow in the left posterior temporal-inferior parietal region. The study provides evidence for participation of the right hemisphere in language comprehension in recovering aphasics, and for later return of function in left hemisphere regions that may have been functionally impaired early during recovery.

  13. Quantification of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in conscious mice using serial blood and urine spots.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Theo H; Boer, Theo S; Havinga, Rick; Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2003-11-01

    In vivo studies of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in (genetically modified) conscious mice are hampered by limitations of blood and urine sample sizes. We developed and validated methods to quantify stable isotope dilution and incorporation in small blood and urine samples spotted onto filter paper. Blood glucose and urinary paracetamol-glucuronic acid were extracted from filter paper spots reproducibly and with high yield. Fractional isotopomer distributions of glucose and paracetamol-glucuronic acid when extracted from filter paper spots were almost identical to those isolated from the original body fluids. Rates of infusion of labeled compounds could be adjusted without perturbing hepatic glucose metabolism. This approach was used in mice to find the optimal metabolic condition for the study of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. In fed mice, no isotopic steady state was observed during a 6-h label-infusion experiment. In 9-h-fasted mice, isotopic steady state was reached after 3 h of label infusion and important parameters in hepatic glucose metabolism could be calculated. The rate of de novo glucose-6-phosphate synthesis was 143 +/- 17 micromol kg(-1) min(-1) and partitioning to plasma glucose was 79.0 +/- 5.2%. In 24-h-fasted mice, abrupt changes were noticed in whole body and in hepatic glucose metabolism at the end of the experiment.

  14. Cerebral blood flow effects of acute intravenous heroin administration.

    PubMed

    Kosel, Markus; Noss, Roger S; Hämmig, Robert; Wielepp, Peter; Bundeli, Petra; Heidbreder, Rebeca; Kinser, Jane A; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Kayser, Sarah; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute effects of intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin) administration - which induces a characteristic biphasic response: A short rush-sensation associated with intense pleasurable feelings followed by a subjectively different period of euphoria on cerebral blood flow. This was assessed in nine male heroin dependent patients participating in a heroin maintenance program in a setting resembling everyday pattern of heroin abuse. 99mTc-HMPAO was administered 45 s (rush) and 15 min (euphoria) after administration of i.v. heroin and 45 s after administration of saline (placebo). Plasma concentration of diacetylmorphine and its metabolites were measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to the euphoria condition, rush was associated with blood flow increase in the left posterior cerebellar lobe, left anterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus. Our results are in line with recent reports indicating that the cerebellum is an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, modulation of affect, motivation and social behaviour, which all play important roles in reinforcing properties of opioids.

  15. Serial measurements of total blood volume in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, J; Blumberg, A

    1976-08-01

    In 10 patients on maintenance dialysis red cell and plasma volumes (PV) were measured before and after dialysis and several times during the next 3 days in order to establish the usual pattern of intravascular variation associated with this treatment and to determine whether there was a correlation with dialysis induced untoward effects. PV decreased from 23.7 +/- 1.5 before to 20.7 +/- 1.5 ml/cm body height immediately after dialysis. Unexpectedly it was even significantly lower 16 h after (20.1 +/- 1.4 ml/cm). Nevertheless, undesired dialysis symptoms had disappeared by that time indicating that they had not been caused by a reduction in PV or that the patients had adapted to it. Changes in PV correlated better with changes in hematocrit (r = 0.89) than with changes in body weight (r = 0.60). Therefore careful determination of the large vessel hematocrit offers a reliable estimation of blood volume variations over short periods.

  16. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP IRIG STANDARD 200-16 IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE FORMATS DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION This page intentionally left blank. IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE ...Serial Time Code Formats, RCC 200-16, August 2016 v Table of Contents Preface

  17. Persistent neuroinflammatory effects of serial exposure to stress and methamphetamine on the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Northrop, Nicole A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2012-12-01

    Studies of methamphetamine (Meth)-induced neurotoxicity have traditionally focused on monoaminergic terminal damage while more recent studies have found that stress exacerbates these damaging effects of Meth. Similarities that exist between the mechanisms that cause monoaminergic terminal damage in response to stress and Meth and those capable of producing a disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) suggest that the well-known high co-morbidity of stress and Meth could produce long-lasting structural and functional BBB disruption. The current studies examined the role of neuroinflammation in mediating the effects of exposure to chronic stress and/or Meth on BBB structure and function. Rats were pre-exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and/or challenged with Meth. Twenty-four hours after the treatment of Meth in rats pre-exposed to CUS, occludin and claudin-5 immunoreactivity were decreased while truncation of β-dystroglycan, as well as FITC-dextran and water extravasation was increased. All changes other than β-dystroglycan and edema persisted 7 days later, occurred with increases in GFAP and COX-2, and were blocked by ketoprofen after Meth treatment. In addition, persistent increases in FITC-dextran extravasation were prevented by treatment with an EP1 receptor antagonist after Meth exposure. The results indicate that CUS and Meth synergize to produce long-lasting structural and functional BBB disruptions that are mediated by cyclooxygenase and protracted increases in inflammation. These results suggest that stress and Meth can synergize to produce a long-lasting vulnerability of the brain to subsequent environmental insults resulting from the persistent breach of the BBB.

  18. A congressional counterpoint: challenging the Reagan Administration on the safety of blood and blood products.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    When the US Centers for Disease Control met a hard wall of political restraint in attempting a full response to the emergency of AIDS in the early 1980s, it was possible to move toward protection of blood and blood products from the legislative branch of government instead - despite resistance from the Red Cross, blood banks, and the Reagan Administration. A Congressional creation, the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), received a request from the author, made on behalf of his employer, the Chairman of a Congressional Committee and a Member of the OTA Congressional Board. He asked the OTA to assess US blood policy in light of scientific and technological developments - most importantly the new disease, AIDS. The OTA issued its report in January 1985. In 1995, a new Republican majority in both legislative chambers eliminated the OTA - and thus a valuable source of policy analysis of scientific issues independent of the executive branch.

  19. Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2010-05-15

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate.

  20. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance...

  1. Investigating the impact of blood pressure increase to the brain using high resolution serial histology and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, F.; Castonguay, A.; Tardif, P. L.; Lefebvre, J.; Li, B.

    2015-09-01

    A combined serial OCT/confocal scanner was designed to image large sections of biological tissues at microscopic resolution. Serial imaging of organs embedded in agarose blocks is performed by cutting through tissue using a vibratome which sequentially cuts slices in order to reveal new tissue to image, overcoming limited light penetration encountered in microscopy. Two linear stages allow moving the tissue with respect to the microscope objective, acquiring a 2D grid of volumes (1x1x0.3 mm) with OCT and a 2D grid of images (1x1mm) with the confocal arm. This process is repeated automatically, until the entire sample is imaged. Raw data is then post-processed to re-stitch each individual acquisition and obtain a reconstructed volume of the imaged tissue. This design is being used to investigate correlations between white matter and microvasculature changes with aging and with increase in pulse pressure following transaortic constriction in mice. The dual imaging capability of the system allowed to reveal different contrast information: OCT imaging reveals changes in refractive indices giving contrast between white and grey matter in the mouse brain, while transcardial perfusion of FITC or pre-sacrifice injection of Evans Blue shows microsvasculature properties in the brain with confocal imaging.

  2. Serial Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

  3. Disruption of Performance in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task Induced by Administration of NMDA Receptor Antagonists: Relevance to Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Nurith; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients suffer from cognitive impairments that are not satisfactorily treated by currently available medications. Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia encompasses deficits in several cognitive modalities that can be differentially responsive to different medications and are likely to be mediated by different neurobiological substrates. Translational animal models of cognitive deficits with relevance to schizophrenia are critical for gaining insights into the mechanisms underlying these impairments and developing more effective treatments. The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a cognitive task used in rodents that allows simultaneous assessment of several cognitive modalities, including attention, response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists disrupts multiple 5-CSRTT performance measures in a way that mirrors various cognitive deficits exhibited by schizophrenia patients. Some of these disruptions are partially attenuated by antipsychotic medications that exhibit partial effectiveness on cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, suggesting that the model has predictive validity. Examination of the effects of pharmacological manipulations on 5-CSRTT performance disruptions induced by NMDA antagonists have implicated a range of brain regions, neurotransmitter systems, and specific receptor subtypes in schizophrenia-like impairment of different cognitive modalities. Thus, disruption of 5-CSRTT performance by NMDA antagonists represents a valuable tool for exploring the neurobiological bases of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:20488434

  4. Three-dimensional analysis of morphological changes in the malaria parasite infected red blood cell by serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Miako; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Fujioka, Hisashi; Kaneko, Osamu; Murata, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, exhibits morphological changes during the blood stage cycle in vertebrate hosts. Here, we used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) to visualize the entire structures of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) and to examine their morphological and volumetric changes at different stages. During developmental stages, the parasite forms Maurer's clefts and vesicles in the iRBC cytoplasm and knobs on the iRBC surface, and extensively remodels the iRBC structure for proliferation of the parasite. In our observations, the Maurer's clefts and vesicles in the P. falciparum-iRBCs, resembling the so-called tubovesicular network (TVN), were not connected to each other, and continuous membrane networks were not observed between the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) and the iRBC cytoplasmic membrane. In the volumetric analysis, the iRBC volume initially increased and then decreased to the end of the blood stage cycle. This suggests that it is necessary to absorb a substantial amount of nutrients from outside the iRBC during the initial stage, but to release waste materials from inside the iRBC at the multinucleate stage. Transportation of the materials may be through the iRBC membrane, rather than a special structure formed by the parasite, because there is no direct connection between the iRBC membrane and the parasite. These results provide new insights as to how the malaria parasite grows in the iRBC and remodels iRBC structure during developmental stages; these observation can serve as a baseline for further experiments on the effects of therapeutic agents on malaria.

  5. Brain and blood levels of bismuth after oral or parenteral administration of tripotassium-dicitrato bismuthate to rats.

    PubMed

    Abbracchio, M P; Balduini, W; Cavallaro, A; Adamoli, P; Fittipaldi, M; Muzio, F; Malandrino, S; Cattabeni, F

    1985-01-01

    Bismuth levels in blood and brain of rats have been measured following acute or subchronic administration of tri-potassium-dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage. After parenteral administration, the presence of bismuth in blood was associated with appreciable bismuth concentrations in brain of treated animals (approximately equal to 10-30% of blood levels). In contrast, following oral treatment, no bismuth was detected in brain of animals, even at doses of TDB able to produce blood bismuth concentrations comparable with those obtained after intraperitoneal administration. The formation of different bismuth species in blood of treated animals depending upon the route of administration of TDB is suggested.

  6. Patient safety with blood products administration using wireless and bar-code technology.

    PubMed

    Porcella, Aleta; Walker, Kristy

    2005-01-01

    Supported by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics interdisciplinary research team created an online data-capture-response tool utilizing wireless mobile devices and bar code technology to track and improve blood products administration process. The tool captures 1) sample collection, 2) sample arrival in the blood bank, 3) blood product dispense from blood bank, and 4) administration. At each step, the scanned patient wristband ID bar code is automatically compared to scanned identification barcode on requisition, sample, and/or product, and the system presents either a confirmation or an error message to the user. Following an eight-month, 5 unit, staged pilot, a 'big bang,' hospital-wide implementation occurred on February 7, 2005. Preliminary results from pilot data indicate that the new barcode process captures errors 3 to 10 times better than the old manual process.

  7. [Effect of preoperative administration of Lugol's solution on thyroid blood flow in hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Rodier, J F; Janser, J C; Petit, H; Schneegans, O; Ott, G; Kaissling, A; Grob, J C; Velten, M

    1998-01-01

    A study of 50 patients with hyperthyroidism was conducted to evaluate the effect of preoperative administration of Lugol's iodine solution on thyroid blood flow. Highly significant reductions in diameter, time-averaged velocity, and volume flow of the superior thyroid artery were demonstrated after administration of Lugol's solution. The Duplex ultrasound scanning used in this study is a noninvasive, inexpensive, accurate, and reproducible technique suitable for analysis of thyroid blood flow in hyperthyroidism. On the basis of current ultrasonographic results and low postoperative morbidity in patients, Lugol's solution is well tolerated and may be recommended for use before thyroidectomy, especially for diffuse toxic goiters and Graves disease.

  8. Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy applied to study the trafficking of 8D3-coated gold nanoparticles at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Cabezón, Itsaso; Augé, Elisabet; Bosch, Manel; Beckett, Alison J; Prior, Ian A; Pelegrí, Carme; Vilaplana, Jordi

    2017-03-10

    Due to the physical and physiological properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the transport of neurotherapeutics from blood to brain is still a pharmaceutical challenge. We previously conducted a series of experiments to explore the potential of the anti-transferrin receptor 8D3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to transport neurotherapeutics across the BBB. In that study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were coated with the 8D3 antibody and administered intravenously to mice. Transmission electron microscopy was used and a two-dimensional (2D) image analysis was performed to detect the AuNPs in the brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) and brain parenchyma. In the present work, we determined that serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is a useful tool to study the transcytosis of these AuNPs across the BBB in three dimensions and we, therefore, applied it to gain more knowledge of their transcellular trafficking. The resulting 3D reconstructions provided additional information on the endocytic vesicles containing AuNPs and the endosomal processing that occurs inside BCECs. The passage from 2D to 3D analysis reinforced the trafficking model proposed in the 2D study, and revealed that the vesicles containing AuNPs are significantly larger and more complex than described in our 2D study. We also discuss tradeoffs of using this technique for our application, and conclude that together with other volume electron microscopy imaging techniques, SBF-SEM is a powerful approach that is worth of considering for studies of drug transport across the BBB.

  9. Reactivity of retinal blood flow to 100% oxygen breathing after lipopolysaccharide administration in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kolodjaschna, Julia; Berisha, Fatmire; Lasta, Michael; Polska, Elzbieta; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2008-08-01

    Administration of low doses of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) to humans enables the study of inflammatory mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the retinal vascular reactivity after LPS infusion. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study, 18 healthy male volunteers received 20 IU/kg LPS or placebo as an intravenous bolus infusion. Outcome parameters were measured at baseline and 4h after LPS/placebo administration. At baseline and at 4h after administration a short period of 100% oxygen inhalation was used to assess retinal vasoreactivity to this stimulus. Perimacular white blood cell velocity, density and flux were assessed with the blue-field entoptic technique, retinal branch arterial and venous diameters were measured with a retinal vessel analyzer and red blood cell velocity in retinal branch veins was measured with laser Doppler velocimetry. LPS is associated with peripheral blood leukocytosis and increased white blood cell density in ocular microvessels (p<0.001). In addition, retinal arterial (p=0.02) and venous (p<0.01) diameters were increased. All retinal hemodynamic parameters showed a decrease during 100% oxygen breathing. This decrease was significantly blunted by LPS for all retinal outcome parameters except venous diameter (p=0.04 for white blood cell velocity, p=0.0002 for white blood cell density, p<0.0001 for white blood cell flux, p=0.01 for arterial diameter, p=0.02 for red blood cell velocity and p=0.006 for red blood cell flux). These data indicate that LPS-induced inflammation induces vascular dysregulation in the retina. This may provide a link between inflammation and vascular dysregulation. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether this model may be suitable to study inflammation induced vascular dysregulation in the eye.

  10. Oral Administration of Cilostazol Increases Ocular Blood Flow in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Duck Jin; Shin, Joo Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of cilostazol on ocular hemodynamics and to determine whether the administration of cilostazol increases the ocular blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Methods This prospective observational study investigated the effect of orally administered cilostazol on diabetic retinopathy. Before and after administration for 1 week, pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) and retrobulbar hemodynamics were measured using a POBF analyzer and transcranial Doppler imaging, respectively. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and blood pressure were also evaluated before and after treatment. Results Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients were included in this study. POBF increased significantly (16.8 ± 4.6 µL/sec vs. 19.6 ± 6.2 µL/sec, p < 0.001) after administration of cilostazol, while no significant change was identified in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and blood pressure. Mean flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery as measured with transcranial Doppler imaging also increased significantly after medication (23.5 ± 5.6 cm/sec vs. 26.0 ± 6.9 cm/sec, p = 0.001). The change in POBF directly correlated with the change in mean flow velocity (r = 0.419, p = 0.007). Conclusions Cilostazol was effective in increasing ocular blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy, possibly by modulating retrobulbar circulation. PMID:28367040

  11. Phagocytosis of bovine blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes after ozone gas administration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ducusin, Rio John T; Nishimura, Masakazu; Sarashina, Takao; Uzuka, Yuji; Tanabe, Shigeyuki; Otani, Masayuki

    2003-04-01

    To determine the effects of ozone on the phagocytosis of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), ozone gas was administered in vitro on the blood and milk of healthy lactating cows, cows with acute mastitis, and cows with milk fever. In the blood of healthy dairy cattle, although there was no significant effect of ozone gas on the viability of the leukocytes, phagocytosis of PMNs significantly decreased. In contrast, ozone gas administration in vitro significantly increased phagocytosis of PMNs from the blood of cows with acute mastitis and milk fever, and from mastitic milk. These findings showed that ozone administration in vitro has positive and negative effects on bovine PMN phagocytosis, depending on the health status of the animal.

  12. Cocaine and metabolite concentrations in DBS and venous blood after controlled intravenous cocaine administration

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Concheiro, Marta; Anizan, Sebastien; Barnes, Allan J; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-01-01

    Background: DBS are an increasingly common clinical matrix. Methods & results: Sensitive and specific methods for DBS and venous blood cocaine and metabolite detection by LC–HRMS and 2D GC–MS, respectively, were validated to examine correlation between concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration. Linear ranges from 1 to 200 µg/l were achieved, with acceptable bias and imprecision. Authentic matched specimens’ (392 DBS, 97 venous blood) cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations were qualitatively similar, but DBS had much greater variability (21.4–105.9 %CV) and were lower than in blood. Conclusion: DBS offer advantages for monitoring cocaine intake; however, differences between capillary and venous blood and DBS concentration variability must be addressed. PMID:26327184

  13. Developments in Serials: 1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  14. Oxidative stress in blood and testicle of rat following intraperitoneal administration of aluminum and indium.

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, S; Clichici, Simona; Ayadi, A; Login, C; Moldovan, R; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Mureşan, A; Tekaya, L

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

  15. [Kinetics of Semax penetration into the brain and blood of rats after its intranasal administration].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, K V; Nagaev, I Iu; Alfeeva, L Iu; Andreeva, L A; Kamenskiĭ, A A; Levitskaia, N G; Shevchenko, V P; Grivennikov, I A; Miasoedov, N F

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive peptide analogue Semax corresponding to the ACTH(4-10) sequence (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro) with a molar radioactivity of 56 Ci/mmol labeled with tritium at the C-terminal Pro was prepared. The labeled peptide was used for studying the kinetics of Semax penetration into rat brain and blood after its intranasal administration (50 microg/kg, 20 microl of solution) to nonbred white rats of body mass 200-250 g. It was demonstrated that 0.093% of the total introduced radioactivity per gram can be found in the rat brain 2 min after the administration, 80% of this radioactivity belonged to Semax, and the rest, to its metabolites. The peptide undergoes rapid enzymatic degradation, with the tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro prevailing in biological samples relative to the total content of Semax and its metabolites.

  16. Uptake and biodistribution of rizatriptan to blood and brain following different routes of administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Quan, Li-Hui; Guo, Yi; Liu, Chun-Yu; Liao, Yong-Hong

    2007-06-07

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the biodistribution profiles of rizatriptan in the blood and brain of Wistar rats after peroral, subcutaneous, intranasal and intratracheal administration with a particular view to determining the applicability of inhalation delivery to achieve rapid and high availability of the drug in both blood and the brain. Following the intratracheal administration of the drug (4.0mg/kg) to the rats, the absolute bioavailability was found to be 91.2%, significantly higher than those from intranasal or peroral routes, and T(max) in plasma and brain was attained within 2 min, significantly shorter than the T(max) of intranasal ( approximately 10 min in both plasma and brain), subcutaneous (16.7 min in plasma and 22.5 min in brain) and peroral (30.0 min in plasma and 45.0 min in brain) administration. In addition, other pharmacokinetic parameters associated with rapid onset of action including AUC(plasma/brain) and C(max), of intratracheal instillated rizatriptan appeared also to be comparable or superior to those of other delivered routes. Although AUC(brain)/AUC(plasma) ratios after intranasal delivery (43.4%) differed significantly from the ratios shown after intratracheal instillation (23.2%), the AUC(brain 0-120 min) via the latter routes was slightly but not significantly higher than that from the former routes. The results in the present study indicated that pulmonary delivery of rizatriptan may achieve maximum plasma and brain concentrations significantly more rapidly compared with intranasal, subcutaneous and peroral administration and be a promising delivery method with extremely rapid onset of action in the pain relief of migraine.

  17. [Ocular blood flow of cats after local administration of pilocarpine, phenylephrine, and of a mixture of both drugs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kaskel, D; Spangenberg, U; Rudolf, H; Hübel, H; Witt, N; Baumgart, W

    1978-03-01

    Radioactively labelled microspheres (size 15 micron) were used to determine the regional blood flow in cats before and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after unilateral drug administration. In four experimental groups, each consisting of five animals, two drops of the drug were administered into the conjunctival sac. The blood flow increased in both eyes after administration of 2% pilocarpine and of Glauko Biciron, a mixture of 2% pilocarpine and 0.06% phenylephrine. No significant differences in the regional blood flows between the treated and untreated eye were found. After administration of 2% phenylephrine a decrease in blood flow was observed in both eyes, however earlier and more pronounced in the left eye. Thus, phenylephrine evoked the expected vasoconstrictive effect on the treated side. In the control group, which received physiological salt solution, the blood flow on the treated side decreased in most tissues, while an increase was observed on the untreated side.

  18. Assessment of Blood Loss in Abdominal Myomectomy by Intramyometrial Vasopressin Administration Versus Conventional Tourniquet Application

    PubMed Central

    Khushboo; Biswas, Subhash Chandra; Alam, Hajekul; Kamilya, Gouri Sankar; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Mondal, Sarbeswar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Myomectomy is an invasive surgical procedure. It can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications like excessive haemorrhage. There are various methods to control haemorrhage like pharmacological and as well as mechanical methods. Aim This study was taken to compare intraoperative blood loss following abdominal myomectomy after receiving intramyometrial vasopressin or tourniquet application and to estimate postoperative reduction in haemoglobin & haematocrit values. Materials and Methods The study was a randomised single blinded parallel group study. Total 48 patients were included in this study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All patients were divided into two groups i.e. ‘T’ and ‘V’ group, 24 in each group. ‘T’ group received conventional tourniquet application and ‘V’ group received intramyometrial vasopressin administration. The analyses in this study were both sided and p<0.05 was considered significant statistically. The Software used were Statistica version 6 (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Stat Soft Inc., 2001) and Graph Pad Prism version 5 (San Diego, California: Graph Pad Software Inc., 2007). Results The blood loss in the tourniquet group was significantly higher (p=<0.001). Postoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit were lower in tourniquet group than vasopressin group. There was significant fall in haemoglobin and haematocrit in postoperative period in both group (p=<0.001) but it was more in tourniquet group. Total five patients (three in tourniquet group and two in vasopressin group) had received one unit whole blood transfusion. Conclusion Intramyometrial vasopressin injection during myomectomy operation more effectively decreases the blood loss, need for blood transfusion and it causes less reduction in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Thereby it seems to be an effective method without having any risk of ischemic damage to the uterus. PMID:27437308

  19. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Roşca, A.E.; Stoian, I.; Badiu, C.; Gaman, L.; Popescu, B.O.; Iosif, L.; Mirica, R.; Tivig, I.C.; Stancu, C.S.; Căruntu, C.; Voiculescu, S.E.; Zăgrean, L.

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme. PMID:27254659

  20. Cytokine levels in rat blood and brain structures after administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Abramova, A Yu; Pertsov, S S; Kozlov, A Yu; Nikenina, E V; Kalinichenko, L S; Dudnik, E N; Alekseeva, I V

    2013-08-01

    We compared cytokine profile of rat serum and brain structures after immune status modulation by LPS (30 μg/kg intraperitoneally). The content of inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines in biological samples of animals was measured on days 1 and 7 after antigenic stimulation. LPS administration reduced the levels of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood of the rats, especially on the 1st day. LPS administration was also accompanied by specific changes in cytokine content in the dorsal hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex. Antigenic stimulation increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in the examined brain tissues, the changes were most pronounced on day 1 after LPS injection. No significant changes in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain tissue of animals were found at the above terms after LPS injection. Thus, peripheral LPS administration to rats shifts the balance between the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the CNS structures towards the latter.

  1. The impact of administration of tranexamic acid in reducing the use of red blood cells and other blood products in cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vuylsteke, Alain; Saravanan, Palanikumar; Gerrard, Caroline; Cafferty, Fay

    2006-01-01

    Background To study the effect of administration of tranexamic acid on the use of blood and blood products, return to theatre for post-operative bleeding and the length of intensive care stay after primary cardiac surgery, data for 4191 patients, of all priorities, who underwent primary cardiac operation during the period between 30/10/00 and 21/09/04 were analysed. Methods Retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively during the study period. The main outcome measures were whether or not patients were transfused with red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma or any blood product, the proportion of patients returned to theatre for investigation for post-operative bleeding and length of stay in the intensive care unit. We performed univariate analysis to identify the factors influencing the outcome measures and multivariate analysis to identify the effect of administration of tranexamic acid on the outcome measures. Results Administration of tranexamic acid was an independent factor affecting the transfusion of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma or any blood product. It was also an independent factor influencing the rate of return to theatre for exploration of bleeding. The odds of receiving a transfusion or returning to theatre for bleeding were significantly lower in patients receiving tranexamic acid. The administration of tranexamic acid also significantly decreased blood loss. We did not find any association between the administration of tranexamic acid and the length of intensive care stay. Conclusion Based on the analysis of 4191 patients who underwent a primary cardiac operation, administration of tranexamic acid decreased the number of patients exposed to a transfusion or returned to theatre for bleeding in our institute. PMID:16942621

  2. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  4. Food and drug administration regulation of drugs that raise blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blankfield, Robert P; Iftikhar, Imran H

    2015-01-01

    Although it is recognized that a systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase ≥ 2 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase ≥ 1 mm Hg increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in middle-aged adults, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lacks an adequate policy for regulating medications that increase blood pressure (BP). Some FDA reviewers consider a clinically significant increase in BP to occur only if a drug raises SBP ≥ 20 mm Hg or if a drug raises DBP ≥ 10 to 15 mm Hg. In recent years, numerous drugs have been regulated or taken off the market due to cardiovascular safety concerns. The list includes rofecoxib (Vioxx), valdecoxib (Bextra), nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sibutramine (Meridia), and phenylpropanolamine. It is probable that the hypertensive effect of these drugs explains why they increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Other drugs, notably serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, were approved without cardiovascular safety data despite the fact that they raise BP comparable to valdecoxib and sibutramine. It is the responsibility of the FDA to ensure that drugs are properly labeled regarding risk. Even if a drug raises BP only modestly, FDA guidelines for new drug approvals should include a requirement for cardiovascular safety data. However, such guidelines will not address the problem of how to obtain cardiovascular safety data for the many already approved drugs that increase BP. The FDA should play a role in obtaining cardiovascular safety data for such drugs.

  5. Measurement of myocardial blood flow with oxygen-15 labelled water: comparison of different administration protocols.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, F; Rosen, S D; Fath-Ordoubadi, F; Kooner, J S; Clark, J C; Camici, P G; Lammertsma, A A

    1998-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with C15O2 or H215O can be used to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) and tissue fraction (TF), i.e. the fraction of the tissue mass in the volume of the region of interest. However, with C15O2 inhalation, the tissue fraction in the septum is overestimated. Bolus injection of H215O together with arterial cannulation gives very precise results but is invasive. The purpose of this study was to develop a method which circumvents these problems. A four-parameter model with parameters for MBF, TF and spill-over fractions from both left and right ventricular cavities was developed. This method was compared with a three-parameter model (no right ventricular cavity spill-over) in both septal and non-septal regions of interest for three different administration protocols: bolus injection of H215O, infusion of H215O and inhalation of C15O2. It was found that MBF can be measured with intravenous administration of H215O without the requirement for arterial cannulation. The four-parameter protocol with bolus injection was stable in clinical studies. The four-parameter model proved essential for the septum, where it gave highly significantly better fits than did the three-parameter model (P<0.00003 in each of 15 subjects). Administration of H215O together with this four-parameter model also circumvented the problem of overestimation of TF in the septum seen with C15O2 inhalation. In addition, the radiation dose of H215O protocols is lower than that of C15O2 inhalation. Using a left atrial input curve instead of a left ventricular cavity input curve gave the same mean MBF and TF.

  6. HIPPI/Serial-HIPPI

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E. ); Halvorson, M.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) is a simple high-performance, point-to-point channel for transmitting digital data at peak data rates of 800 or 1600 Mbit/S. The transmission distance between data processing equipment using copper cabling can be up to 25 meters. This distance may be increased by using a Serial-HIPPI extender. This paper describes the HIPPI channel, the choices considered for a serial extender, and the resulting agreement for the Serial-HIPPI specification. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate reduces hyperglycemia in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) by enhancing blood glucose consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Kurata, Manami; Yamazaki, Hanae; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on the blood glucose levels of mice using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. The intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg body weight AITC reduced the increase in blood glucose level after 2 g/kg body weight glucose was given intraperitoneally, compared with that of control mice. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for the reduction, respiratory gas analysis employing (13)C-labeled glucose was performed. The intragastrically administering AITC increased (13)CO2 emission, compared to vehicle, after intraperitoneal administration of (13)C-labeled glucose. This indicated that AITC increased the utilization of exogenously administered glucose, which was excessive glucose in the blood. To examine whether transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediated this reduction in the blood glucose levels, we used TRPA1 and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Intragastrically administering AITC reduced the increase in the blood glucose level in TRPA1 KO mice but not in TRPV1 KO mice. These findings suggest that dietary AITC might reduce the increases in blood glucose levels by increasing the utilization of excessive glucose in the blood by activating TRPV1.

  8. Antihypertensive effect of celery seed on rat blood pressure in chronic administration.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Maryam Hassanpour; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of different celery (Apium graveolens) seed extracts on blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-induced hypertensive rats. The hexanic, methanolic, and aqueous-ethanolic extracts were administered intraperitoneally and their effects on BP and heart rate (HR) were evaluated in comparison with spirnolactone as a diuretic and positive control. Also, the amount of n-butylphthalide (NBP), as an antihypertensive constituent, in each extract was determined by HPLC. The results indicated that all extracts decreased BP and increased the HR in hypertensive rats, but had no effect on normotensive rats. The data showed that administration of 300 mg/kg of hexanic, methanolic, and aqueous-ethanolic (20/80, v/v) extracts of the celery seed caused 38, 24, and 23 mmHg reduction in BP and 60, 25, and 27 beats per minute increase in the HR, respectively. Also, the HPLC analysis data revealed that the content of NBP in the hexanic extract was 3.7 and 4 times greater than methanolic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. It can be concluded that celery seed extracts have antihypertensive properties, which appears to be attributable to the actions of its active hydrophobic constitutes such as NBP and can be considered as an antihypertensive agent in chronic treatment of elevated BP.

  9. Correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow simultaneously measured before and after acetazolamide administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroichiro; Yamauchi, Hideto; Hazama, Shiro; Hamamoto, Hirotsugu; Inoue, Nobuhiro

    1999-10-01

    The cerebral circulation and metabolism of ten preoperative cardiac surgery patients were assessed. Alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), measured by 123I-N- isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography, and in cerebral oxygen metabolism, simultaneously detected by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) before and after acetazolamide administration, were investigated. The rCBF (ml/min/100 g) increased significantly from 40.21 +/- 7.65 to 56.24 +/- 13.69 (p equals 0.001), and a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) of 13.9% (p equals 0.0022) and total hemoglobin (Total-Hb) of 5.7% (0.0047) along with a significant decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) of 8.9% (p equals 0.0414) were observed concomitantly. Thus, the Oxy-Hb/Total- Hb ratio (%Oxy-Hb) rose significantly from 67.26 +/- 9.82% to 72.98 +/- 8.09% (p equals 0.0022). Examination of the relationships between individual parameters showed that the percentage changes in rCBF and Oxy-Hb were significantly correlated (r equals 0.758, p equals 0.011). The percentage changes in rCBF and %Oxy-Hb were also correlated significantly (r equals 0.740, p equals 0.014). In conclusion, this evidence suggested that NIRS is able to detect relative changes in cerebral hemodynamics and reflect luxury perfusion induced by acetazolamide.

  10. Blood glucose determination in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats after administration of local anesthetics containing vasoconstrictors.

    PubMed

    Esmerino, L A; Ranali, J; Rodrigues, A L

    1998-01-01

    Normal and alloxan-diabetic rats were injected submucously in the posterior region of the upper jaw with bupivacaine (1.28 mg/kg) containing adrenaline (0.0012 mg/kg), or lignocaine (5.14 mg/kg) containing noradrenaline (0.005 mg/kg). Blood glucose was determined at zero (before administration), 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after the administration of the anesthetics. Statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test, P < 0.05) showed significant differences between treatments at 1 hour in normal rats. Bupivacaine with adrenaline induced a significantly greater blood glucose level than lignocaine with noradrenaline. The effect was significant but of short duration. In alloxan-diabetic rats, anesthetics containing adrenaline or noradrenaline did not induce increased blood glucose levels.

  11. Phenytoin blood concentrations in hospitalized geriatric patients: oral versus nasogastric feeding tube administration.

    PubMed

    Lubart, Emilia; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Leibovitz, Arthur; Orly, Dafni; Segal, Refael

    2010-04-01

    Many medications administered to frail geriatric patients are not in a liquid form, but are crushed and dissolved in water before their administration through a nasogastric tube (NGT). Some medications are enteric coated and others are extended release. Only sparse information is available on their pharmacokinetics when administered through NGT. The aim of our study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin administered through an NGT and to compare these with the pharmacokinetics of a group of patients receiving the drug orally. Twenty patients were studied in a stable clinical condition, from the long-term care ward of the Geriatric Medical Center Shmuel Harofeh. They were consistently treated with phenytoin for the prevention of seizure disorders. Patients in group 1 (n = 12) had oropharyngeal dysphagia and received feeding and medications by NGT. Group 2 (n = 8), included age-matched orally fed patients from the same department, who received phenytoin orally. Blood samples for phenytoin concentration were taken at baseline, time 0, and at 1, 3, 4, 6, and 8 hours postdrug administration; phenytoin was measured using the AxSYM assay. The mean daily dose was not statistically different between the 2 groups: 291 +/- 28 (200-300) mg/d and 300 +/- 53 (200-400) mg/d, in the NGT, and the orally fed group, respectively, in one dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin were not significantly different between the 2 groups; trough concentrations, 1.9 +/- 1.7 (0.5-4.9) versus 2.2 +/- 1.8 (1.0-6.5) microg/mL; Cmax, 6.6 +/- 3.4 (2.5-9.1) versus 7.3 +/- 6.7 (2.7-8.4) microg/mL; tmax, 5.1 +/- 3.1 (3.1-8.2) versus 4.6 +/- 2.7 (2.3-8.4) hours; area under the curve, 52.2 +/- 40.1 (41.1-61.2) versus 62.3 +/- 84.7 (30.2-77.2) microg/h/mL, in the NGT fed versus the oral fed, respectively. Phenytoin pharmacokinetic parameters are not significantly different between patients receiving the drug through NGT as compared with those who received it orally, but the implication

  12. Correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow simultaneously measured before and after acetazolamide administration.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, H; Yamauchi, H; Hazama, S; Hamamoto, H; Inoue, N

    1999-10-01

    The cerebral circulation and metabolism of ten preoperative cardiac surgery patients were assessed. Alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), measured by 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography, and in cerebral oxygen metabolism, simultaneously detected by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) before and after acetazolamide administration, were investigated. The rCBF (ml/min/100 g) increased significantly from 40.21±7.65 to 56.24±13.69(p<0.001), and a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) of 13.9% (p=0.0022) and total hemoglobin (Total-Hb) of 5.7% (0.0047) along with a significant decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) of 8.9% (p=0.0414) were observed concomitantly. Thus, the Oxy-Hb/Total-Hb ratio (%Oxy-Hb) rose significantly from 67.26±9.82% to 72.98±8.09%(p=0.0022). Examination of the relationships between individual parameters showed that the percentage changes in rCBF and Oxy-Hb were significantly correlated (r=0.758,p=0.011). The percentage changes in rCBF and %Oxy-Hb were also correlated significantly (r=0.740,p=0.014). In conclusion, this evidence suggested that NIRS is able to detect relative changes in cerebral hemodynamics and reflect luxury perfusion induced by acetazolamide. © 1999 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  13. Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, W.J. ); Moore, R.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-07

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2).

  15. Oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vasodilation by binding to endothelial ATP-selective P2Y2 receptors; a phenomenon, which is posited to be accelerated during exercise. Herein, we used a rat model to examine how different dosages of acute oral ATP administration affected the femoral blood flow response prior to, during, and after an exercise bout. In addition, we performed a single dose chronic administration pilot study in resistance trained athletes. Methods Animal study: Male Wistar rats were gavage-fed the body surface area, species adjusted human equivalent dose (HED) of either 100 mg (n=4), 400 mg (n=4), 1,000 mg (n=5) or 1,600 mg (n=5) of oral ATP as a disodium salt (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT). Rats that were not gavage-fed were used as controls (CTL, n=5). Blood flow was monitored continuously: a) 60 min prior to, b) during and c) 90 min following an electrically-evoked leg-kicking exercise. Human Study: In a pilot study, 12 college-aged resistance-trained subjects were given 400 mg of ATP (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT) daily for 12 weeks, and prior to an acute arm exercise bout at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. Ultrasonography-determined volumetric blood flow and vessel dilation in the brachial artery was measured at rest, at rest 30 minutes after supplementation, and then at 0, 3, and 6 minutes after the exercise. Results Animal Study: Rats fed 1,000 mg HED demonstrated significantly greater recovery blood flow (p < 0.01) and total blood flow AUC values (p < 0.05) compared to CTL rats. Specifically, blood flow was elevated in rats fed 1,000 mg HED versus CTL rats at 20 to 90 min post exercise when examining 10-min blood flow intervals (p < 0.05). When examining within-group differences relative to baseline values, rats fed the 1,000 mg and 1,600 mg HED exhibited the most robust increases in blood flow during exercise and into the recovery period. Human study: At weeks 1, 8, and 12, ATP supplementation significantly increased

  16. Risk Management Analysis of Air Ambulance Blood Product Administration in Combat Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Medical Evacuation (medevac) helicopters in Afghanistan. This represents the initial experience for pre- hospital blood product transfusion by U.S...adverse reaction or local blood product wastage . Shock index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) improved significantly en-route, with a median shock...adherence to protocol, and diversion and/or wastage of limited resources were important considerations in the development of the pilot program. Aviation

  17. Cutaneous blood flow and sweat rate responses to exogenous administration of acetylcholine and methacholine

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kenichi; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Davis, Scott L.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses to exogenous administration of acetylcholine (ACh) and methacholine (MCh), which have different sensitivities to endogenous cholinesterase. Four intradermal microdialysis probes were placed in dorsal forearm skin: two sites were perfused with ACh (1 × 10−7−1 M) and the other two with the same molar concentrations of MCh. Sweat rate (SR) and cutaneous blood flow were simultaneously assessed directly over each microdialysis membrane. Dose-response curves were constructed, and the effective concentration of the drug resulting in 50% of the maximal response (EC50) was identified. For SR and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), there were no significant differences in EC50 between sites receiving the same drug: −1.52 ± 0.18 and −1.19 ± 0.09 log-molar concentration of ACh at distal and proximal sites, respectively, and −2.35 ± 0.24 and −2.42 ± 0.23 log-molar concentration of MCh at distal and proximal sites, respectively, for SR (P > 0.05) and −3.87 ± 0.32 and −3.97 ± 0.27 log-molar concentration of ACh at distal and proximal sites, respectively, and −4.78 ± 0.17 and −4.46 ± 0.16 log-molar concentration of MCh at distal and proximal sites, respectively, for CVC (P > 0.05). However, the EC50 for CVC and SR was significantly lower at the MCh than at the ACh sites. A second procedure was performed to confirm that differences in responses between ACh and MCh could be attributed to different cholinesterase sensitivities. Similarly, four microdialysis membranes were placed in dorsal forearm skin: two sites were perfused with ACh and other two with MCh. However, one of each of the ACh and MCh sites was also perfused with 10 μM neostigmine (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor). Neostigmine at the ACh site induced a leftward shift (i.e., lower EC50) of the SR and CVC dose-response curves compared with the site treated with ACh alone, resulting in no difference in the

  18. BLOOD PLASMA LEVELS AND ELIMINATION OF SALTS OF 2-PAM IN MAN AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    salts of 2-PAM in varying amounts. A measurable amount of oxime was found in blood plasma within about 15 minutes; the concentration rose rapidly...level of oxime 3.5 fold. The biological half-life in man of the 2-PAM salts given orally, calculated from blood plasma values and urinary excretion rates

  19. Microfluidic serial dilution circuit.

    PubMed

    Paegel, Brian M; Grover, William H; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Joyce, Gerald F

    2006-11-01

    In vitro evolution of RNA molecules requires a method for executing many consecutive serial dilutions. To solve this problem, a microfluidic circuit has been fabricated in a three-layer glass-PDMS-glass device. The 400-nL serial dilution circuit contains five integrated membrane valves: three two-way valves arranged in a loop to drive cyclic mixing of the diluent and carryover, and two bus valves to control fluidic access to the circuit through input and output channels. By varying the valve placement in the circuit, carryover fractions from 0.04 to 0.2 were obtained. Each dilution process, which is composed of a diluent flush cycle followed by a mixing cycle, is carried out with no pipeting, and a sample volume of 400 nL is sufficient for conducting an arbitrary number of serial dilutions. Mixing is precisely controlled by changing the cyclic pumping rate, with a minimum mixing time of 22 s. This microfluidic circuit is generally applicable for integrating automated serial dilution and sample preparation in almost any microfluidic architecture.

  20. Suicide in serial killers.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  1. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  2. Acute Effect of Central Administration of Urotensin II on Baroreflex and Blood Pressure in Conscious Normotensive Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyungjoon; Sata, Yusuke; Jackson, Kristy L.; Burke, Sandra L.; Head, Geoffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of central administration of Urotensin II on blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreceptor heart rate reflexes in conscious normotensive rabbits. Preliminary operations were undertaken to implant a balloon cuff on the inferior vena cava for baroreflex assessments and to implant cannula into the lateral and fourth ventricle. After 2 weeks of recovery cumulative dose response curves to Urotensin II (10, 100 ng, 1, 10, and 100 μg) given into the ventricles, or Ringer's solution as a vehicle were performed on separate days. Injections were given each hour and baroreflex assessments were made 30 min after each administration. Analysis of the dose response curves to Urotensin II compared to vehicle administered into the lateral or fourth ventricle, indicated little change to blood pressure or heart rate. Analysis of the time course to the highest dose over a 30 min period revealed a small (−5 mmHg) depressor response maximal at 10 min when injected into the fourth ventricle but no effect when injected into the lateral ventricle. Baroreflex assessments made at each dose showed that there was no change in baroreflex sensitivity but that an increase in the upper plateau was observed when Urotensin was injected into the lateral ventricle and a tendency for a reduced lower heart rate plateau was observed after fourth ventricle administration. Clonidine administration in the fourth ventricle decreased blood pressure and heart rate, thus confirming catheter patency. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Urotensin II in the forebrain and brainstem may play a role in modulating cardiac sympathetic and vagal baroreflexes but only during large acute changes in blood pressure. PMID:28280470

  3. Performance of flow cytometric analysis for the micronucleus assay--a reconstruction model using serial dilutions of malaria-infected cells with normal mouse peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Torous, Dorothea; Asano, Norihide; Tometsko, Carol; Sugunan, Siva; Dertinger, Stephen; Morita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    To confirm the performance and statistical power of a flow cytometric method for scoring micronucleated erythrocytes, reconstruction experiments were performed. For these investigations, peripheral blood erythrocytes from untreated mice, with a micronucleated erythrocyte frequency of approximately 0.1% were combined with known quantities of Plasmodium berghei (malaria) infected mouse erythrocytes. These cells had an infected erythrocyte frequency of approximately 0.7%, and mimic the DNA content of micronuclei (MN). For an initial experiment, samples with a range of MN/malaria (Mal) content were constructed and analysed in triplicate by flow cytometry until 2000, 20,000 and 200,000 total erythrocytes were acquired. In a second experiment, each specimen was analysed in triplicate until 2000, 20,000, 200,000 and 1,000,000 erythrocytes were acquired. As expected, the sensitivity of the assay to detect small changes in rare erythrocyte sub-population frequencies was directly related to the number of cells analysed. For example, when 2000 cells were scored, increases in MN/Mal frequencies of 3.9- or 2.7-fold were detected as statistically significant. When 200,000 cells were analysed, a 1.2-fold increase was detected. These data have implications for the experimental design and interpretation of micronucleus assays that are based on automated scoring procedures, since previously unattainable numbers of cells can now be readily scored.

  4. Ethanol and Acetaldehyde After Intraperitoneal Administration to Aldh2-Knockout Mice-Reflection in Blood and Brain Levels.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Ito, Asuka; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, on the analysis of ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (AcH) concentrations in the blood and brains of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) and C57B6/6J (WT) mice. Animals were administrated EtOH (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg) or 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP, 82 mg/kg) plus AcH (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. During the blood tests, samples from the orbital sinus of the eye were collected. During the brain tests, dialysates were collected every 5 min (equal to a 15 µl sample) from the striatum using in vivo brain microdialysis. Samples were collected at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 min intervals post-EtOH and -AcH injection, and then analyzed by head-space GC. In the EtOH groups, high AcH levels were found in the blood and brains of Aldh2-KO mice, while only small traces of AcH were seen in the blood and brains of WT mice. No significant differences in EtOH levels were observed between the WT and the Aldh2-KO mice for either the EtOH dose. EtOH concentrations in the brain were comparable to the EtOH concentrations in the blood, but the AcH concentrations in the brain were four to five times lower compared to the AcH concentrations in the blood. In the AcH groups, high AcH levels were found in both WT and Aldh2-KO mice. Levels reached a sharp peak at 5 min and then quickly declined for 60 min. Brain AcH concentrations were almost equal to the concentrations found in the blood, where the AcH concentrations were approximately two times higher in the Aldh2-KO mice than in the WT mice, both in the blood and the brain. Our results suggest that systemic EtOH and AcH administration can cause a greater increase in AcH accumulation in the blood and brains of Aldh2-KO mice, where EtOH concentrations in the Aldh2-KO mice were comparable to the EtOH concentrations in the WT mice. Furthermore, detection of EtOH and AcH in the blood and brain was found to be dose-dependent in both genotypes.

  5. The Acquisition of Serial Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire survey of large research libraries on procedures and special problems in serials acquisitions. Cooperative programs are discussed, including the Latin American Cooperative Acquisitions Program and the National Serials Data Program. (JS)

  6. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  7. Effects of Administration of Fostamatinib on Blood Concentrations of an Oral Contraceptive in Healthy Female Subjects

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-02-17

    Scientific Terminology Rheumatoid Arthritis, Healthy Female Volunteers, Pharmacokinetics, Oral Contraceptive, Drug-drug Interaction; Laymen Terminology Level of Oral Contraceptive in Blood, Oral Contraceptive, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Drug -Drug Interaction

  8. [Mechanisms of the change in blood electrical conductivity on the administration of dehydrating substances].

    PubMed

    Vaĭnshteĭn, G B; Iripkhanov, B B

    1982-01-01

    After i.v. infusion with 20% mannitol or 30% urea (1.5 g/kg) for 30 min, the specific electrical resistance (100 kHz, AC) of the whole blood decreased by 20-30% in anesthetized cats, although the plasma electroconductivity remained unchanged. Hematocrit, owing to osmotic hypervolemia, was significantly decreased thus causing a drop in the whole blood electrical resistance according to Maxwell's equation.

  9. Metabolomic Analyses of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride to Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Tomohiro; Azuma, Kazuo; Kurozumi, Seiji; Takamori, Yoshimori; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2012-01-01

    D-Glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN∙HCl) is an endogenous amino monosaccharide synthesized from glucose that is useful in the treatment of joint diseases in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism in dogs after oral administration of GlcN∙HCl. Accelerated fumarate respiration and elevated plasma levels of lactic acid and alanine were observed after administration. These results suggest that oral administration of GlcN∙HCl induces anaerobic respiration and starvation in cells, and we hypothesize that these conditions promote cartilage regeneration. Further studies are required to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). PMID:23015778

  10. 48 CFR 252.246-7005 - Notice of Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... _, Warranty Tracking Information, (indicated by a single asterisk (*)), on each contract line item number..., starting event, serialized item, unique item identifier, usage, warranty administrator, warranty...

  11. Metabolomic Analysis of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of N-acetyl-d-Glucosamine in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Tomohiro; Kurozumi, Seiji; Sato, Kimihiko; Terashi, Taro; Azuma, Kazuo; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4)-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism. PMID:26262626

  12. Management of Serials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisonger, Thomas E.

    This volume reviews current options for handling serials problems and clarifies fundamental issues in one of the greatest challenges confronting today's library and information science professionals. Focusing on the management of serials in libraries and the role of serials in scholarly communications, this book combines descriptive and…

  13. Preoperative liver dysfunction influences blood product administration and alterations in circulating haemostatic markers following ventricular assist device implantation

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Joshua R.; Kormos, Robert L.; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J.; Bermudez, Christian A.; Bhama, Jay K.; Lockard, Kathleen L.; Kunz, Nicole M.; Wagner, William R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Preoperative liver dysfunction may influence haemostasis following ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. The Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was assessed as a predictor of bleeding and levels of haemostatic markers in patients with currently utilized VADs. METHODS Sixty-three patients (31 HeartMate II, 15 HeartWare, 17 Thoratec paracorporeal ventricular assist device) implanted 2001–11 were analysed for preoperative liver dysfunction (MELD) and blood product administration. Of these patients, 21 had additional blood drawn to measure haemostatic marker levels. Cohorts were defined based on high (≥18.0, n = 7) and low (<18.0, n = 14) preoperative MELD scores. RESULTS MELD score was positively correlated with postoperative administration of red blood cell (RBC), platelet, plasma and total blood product units (TBPU) , as well as chest tube drainage and cardiopulmonary bypass time. Age and MELD were preoperative predictors of TBPU by multivariate analysis. The high-MELD cohort had higher administration of TBPU, RBC and platelet units and chest tube drainage postimplant. Similarly, patients who experienced at least one bleeding adverse event were more likely to have had a high preoperative MELD. The high-MELD group exhibited different temporal trends in F1 + 2 levels and platelet counts to postoperative day (POD) 55. D-dimer levels in high-MELD patients became elevated versus those for low-MELD patients on POD 55. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative MELD score predicts postoperative bleeding in contemporary VADs. Preoperative liver dysfunction may also alter postoperative subclinical haemostasis through different temporal trends of thrombin generation and platelet counts, as well as protracted fibrinolysis. PMID:24810756

  14. Identification of Recent Cannabis Use: Whole-Blood and Plasma Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics following Controlled Smoked Cannabis Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schwope, David M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most frequently observed illicit drug in investigations of accidents and driving under the influence of drugs. THC-glucuronide has been suggested as a marker of recent cannabis use, but there are no blood data following controlled THC administration to test this hypothesis. Furthermore, there are no studies directly examining whole-blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics, although this matrix is often the only available specimen. METHODS Participants (9 men, 1 woman) resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. We quantified THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide directly in whole blood and plasma by liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry within 24 h of collection to obviate stability issues. RESULTS Median whole blood (plasma) observed maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 50 (76), 6.4 (10), 41 (67), 1.3 (2.0), 2.4 (3.6), 89 (190), and 0.7 (1.4) μg/L 0.25 h after starting smoking for THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, CBD, CBN, and THCCOOH-glucuronide, respectively, and 0.5 h for THC-glucuronide. At observed Cmax, whole-blood (plasma) detection rates were 60% (80%), 80% (90%), and 50% (80%) for CBD, CBN, and THC-glucuronide, respectively. CBD and CBN were not detectable after 1 h in either matrix (LOQ 1.0 μg/L). CONCLUSIONS Human whole-blood cannabinoid data following cannabis smoking will assist whole blood and plasma cannabinoid interpretation, while furthering identification of recent cannabis intake. PMID:21836075

  15. Effect of intracerebroventricular and intravenous administration of nitric oxide donors on blood pressure and heart rate in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Nurminen, M. L.; Vapaatalo, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of nitric oxide (NO) releasing substances, sodium nitroprusside, 3-morpholino sydnonimine (SIN-1) and a novel oxatriazole derivative, GEA 3162, on blood pressure and heart rate were studied after peripheral or central administration in anaesthetized normotensive Wistar rats. 2. Given as cumulative intravenous injections, both nitroprusside and GEA 3162 (24-188 nmol kg-1) induced short-lasting and dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure, while SIN-1 decreased blood pressure only slightly even after larger doses (94-3000 nmol kg-1). Heart rate increased concomitantly with the hypotensive effect of the NO-releasing substances. 3. Cumulative intracerebroventricular administration of GEA 3162 (24-188 nmol kg-1) induced a dose-dependent hypotension with slight but insignificant increases in heart rate. In contrast, intracerebroventricular nitroprusside induced little change in blood pressure, while a large dose of SIN-1 (3000 nmol kg-1, i.c.v.) slightly increased mean arterial pressure. However, intracerebroventricular nitroprusside and SIN-1 increased heart rate at doses that did not significantly affect blood pressure. 4. To determine whether the cardiovascular effects of GEA 3162 were attributable to an elevation of cyclic GMP levels, pretreatments with methylene blue, a putative guanylate cyclase inhibitor, were performed. This substance failed to attenuate the cardiovascular effects of peripherally or centrally administered GEA 3162, suggesting that the effects were independent of guanylate cyclase. 5. In conclusion, the centrally administered NO-donor, GEA 3162, induced a dose-dependent. hypotensive response without significant changes in heart rate. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injections of nitroprusside and SIN-1 increased heart rate without affecting blood pressure. These results suggest that NO released by these drugs may affect central mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation independently of cyclic GMP. PMID:8968551

  16. Delaware's first serial killer.

    PubMed

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  17. Oral administration of the high-chromium yeast improve blood plasma variables and pancreatic islet tissue in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Jin, Wen; Lv, Jia-Ping

    2010-12-01

    The in vivo effects of oral administration of the high-chromium yeast to healthy and diabetic mice are described. Given that these complexes are proposed to function by potentiating the actions of insulin and activating the insulin receptor kinase, changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism would be expected. After 15 weeks administration (500 μg Cr/kg body mass) to healthy mice, abnormal metabolism and pathological change were not observed. After 15 weeks of treatment (0-1,000 μg Cr/kg body mass) of diabetic mice, the effect of high-chromium yeast on blood lipids and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) of diabetes are not consistent. High-chromium yeast results in a lowering (P < 0.05) of GHb and triglyceride, lowering (P < 0.01) of total cholesterol, and restoration (P < 0.01) of insulin; these results are in stark contrast to those of diabetic mice of administration of normal yeast, which have no effect on these parameters and serve as control group. The histopathological analysis of pancreas islet shows that high-chromium yeast could profoundly protect the impaired pancreatic islet and β-cells from inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis.

  18. [Insulin and glucocorticoid binding by blood cell receptors after hydrocortisone administration in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, N E; Tatarinova, G Sh

    1989-07-01

    Repeated i.v. administration of hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg) revealed an increase in the resistance against insulin although endogenous corticosterone was decreased in 33 male rabbits. The insulin- and dexamethasone-binding receptors of erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes. changed after 3-7 hydrocortisone injections, the binding increasing for insulin and diminishing for dexamethasone.

  19. Effects of pre-shipping enrofloxacin administration on fever and blood properties in adult Thoroughbred racehorses transported a long distance

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, Yoshiro; ISHIKAWA, Yuhiro; ARIMA, Daisuke; MAE, Naomi; IWAMOTO, Yohei; KOROSUE, Kenji; TSUZUKI, Nao; HOBO, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of single-dose enrofloxacin (ERFX) on fever and blood properties in 68 Thoroughbred racehorses after long-distance transportation, horses were assigned to receive ERFX (5 mg/kg, IV; ERFX group; n=52) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (50 ml, IV; control group; n=16) ≤1 hr before transportation. Horses were transported 1,122 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 21 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed before and after transportation. Rectal temperatures, white blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentration of ERFX group were significantly lower than control group (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, these results show ERFX administration just before transportation is effective at preventing transportation-associated fever in adult Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:28111418

  20. Daily rhythms in blood and milk lead toxicokinetics following intravenous administration of lead acetate to dairy cows in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, S. E.; Scaglione, M. C.; Acosta, P.; Coronel, J. E.; Beldomenico, H. R.; Boggio, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate circadian variations of blood and milk lead toxicokinetics in dairy cows in summer. Twenty lactating Holstein animals were randomly assigned to four treatments corresponding to different hours after onset of light (HALO): 2, 8, 14, and 20. Cows received a single intravenous administration of 2.5 mg/kg lead as lead acetate. Blood and milk samples were taken and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each toxicokinetic parameter, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to outline the existence of daily variations. Significant blood differences as a function of HALO were found for the hybrid constant of distribution (α), hybrid constant of elimination (β), elimination half-life ({text{t}}_{{{text{1/2 β }}}} ), area under the curve (AUC), volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) and clearance (ClB) ( p<0.05). Half-life of elimination presented two peaks at 2 and 14 HALO. Milk data showed significant differences for maximum concentration and AUC ( p<0.05). The ratio AUCmilk/AUCblood was utilized to estimate penetration of lead in milk. It differed significantly throughout the day ( p<0.05). Milk data for the significant parameters could be fitted to circadian rhythms. No circadian rhythms were detected in blood parameters or in the ratio AUCmilk/AUCblood.

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  2. Association of blood products administration during cardiopulmonary bypass and excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Hemant S; Barrett, Sarah S; Barry, Kristen; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Donahue, Brian S; Harris, Zena L; Bichell, David P

    2015-03-01

    Our objectives were to study risk factors and post-operative outcomes associated with excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgeries performed using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support. A retrospective observational study was undertaken, and all consecutive pediatric heart surgeries over 1 year period were studied. Excessive post-operative bleeding was defined as 10 ml/kg/h of chest tube output for 1 h or 5 ml/kg/h for three consecutive hours in the first 12 h of pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) stay. Risk factors including demographics, complexity of cardiac defect, CPB parameters, hematological studies, and post-operative morbidity and mortality were evaluated for excessive bleeding. 253 patients were studied, and 107 (42 %) met the criteria for excessive bleeding. Bayesian model averaging revealed that greater volume of blood products transfusion during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding. Multiple logistic regression analysis of blood products transfusion revealed that increased volume of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) administration for CPB prime and during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding (p = 0.028 and p = 0.0012, respectively). Proportional odds logistic regression revealed that excessive bleeding was associated with greater time to achieve negative fluid balance, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and duration of PCICU stay (p < 0.001) after adjusting for multiple parameters. A greater volume of blood products administration, especially PRBCs transfusion for CPB prime, and during the CPB period is associated with excessive post-operative bleeding. Excessive bleeding is associated with worse post-operative outcomes.

  3. Serially recurrent osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Srihari C; Sampath, Srinath C; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    2015-06-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a relatively common, benign, painful tumor of bone. It is widely believed to run a course culminating in spontaneous regression. The tumor can usually be eliminated by excision or ablation, although it may recur locally. Although management has classically been surgical, thermocoagulation via percutaneously delivered radiofrequency energy has demonstrated excellent results, typically resulting in durable response following a single treatment. Here, we present an unusual case of serially recurrent pathologically proven pediatric osteoid osteoma, treated by radiofrequency ablation five times over the course of 11 years. Limitations of RF ablation of osteoid osteoma and possible factors predisposing to incomplete treatment or recurrence are discussed.

  4. Improved red blood cell survival after cardiac operations with administration of urea during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.; Bake, B.; William-Olsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma hemoglobin and red blood cell survival (half-life of /sup 51/Cr) was studied in 48 patients undergoing single valve replacement or coronary artery bypass graft. Urea or placebo was administered during cardiopulmonary bypass in a prospective, randomized, double-blind manner to test the potential effect on mechanical hemolysis. The mean plasma hemoglobin level at the end of extracorporeal circulation was significantly lower in the urea-treated groups (coronary artery bypass 342 mg/L; valve replacement 364 mg/L) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 635 mg/L, valve replacement 518 mg/L. The half-life of /sup 51/Cr was significantly longer in the urea-treated patients (coronary artery bypass 18 days; valve replacement 16 days) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 12.4 days; valve replacement 12.7 days) but still below the normal reference value (29 +/- 4 days). The plasma hemoglobin returned to near normal values (50 mg/L) the day after operation (day 1) and remained low with no differences between control and urea-treated groups. The total blood hemoglobin was followed for 2 weeks after operation and showed significantly less anemia in the urea-treated group. The lowest mean blood hemoglobin level was noted between days 5 and 9-114 (coronary artery bypass) and 107 (valve replacement) gm/L in the urea-treated patients compared to 92.3 gm/L in the control subjects. The reduction in the severity of the anemia led to less transfusion in the urea-treated patients (approximately 0.5 unit/patient) than in the control subjects (approximately 1 unit/patient) between days 3 and 14.

  5. The morphological changes in lymphoid organs and peripheral blood indicators in rats after peroral administration of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucharskaya, A. B.; Pakhomy, S. S.; Zlobina, O. V.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Navolokin, N. A.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Bogatyrev, V. A.; Khlebtsov, N. G.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The wide application of nanotechnologies in medicine requires the careful study of various aspects of their potential safety. The effects of prolonged peroral administration of gold nanoparticles on morphological changes in lymphoid organs and indicators of peripheral blood of laboratory animals were investigated in experiment. The gold nanospheres functionalized with thiolated polyethylene glycol sizes 2, 15 and 50 nm were administered orally for 15 days to outbred white rats at a dosage of 190 μg/kg of animal body weight. The standard histological and hematological staining were used for morphological study of lymphoid organs and bone marrow smears. The size-dependent decrease of the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was noted in the study of peripheral blood, especially pronounced after administration of gold nanoparticles with size of 50 nm. The stimulation of myelocytic germ of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The signs of strengthening of the processes of differentiation and maturation of cellular elements were found in lymph nodes, which were showed as the increasing number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes. The quantitative changes of cellular component morphology of lymphoid organs due to activation of migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells indicate the presence of immunostimulation effect of gold nanoparticles.

  6. Milk and blood pharmacokinetics of tylosin and tilmicosin following parenteral administrations to cows.

    PubMed

    Avci, Tulay; Elmas, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetics of tylosin and tilmicosin in serum and milk in healthy Holstein breed cows (n = 12) and reevaluate the amount of residue in milk. Following the intramuscular administration of tylosin, the maximum concentrations (C max) in serum and milk were found to be 1.30 ± 0.24 and 4.55 ± 0.23 µg/mL, the time required to reach the peak concentration (t max) was found to be 2nd and 4th h, and elimination half-lives (t 1/2β ) were found to be 20.46 ± 2.08 and 26.36 ± 5.55 h, respectively. Following the subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin, the C max in serum and milk were found to be 0.86 ± 0.20 and 20.16 ± 1.13 µg/mL, the t max was found to be 1st and 8th h, and the t 1/2β were found to be 29.94 ± 6.65 and 43.02 ± 5.18 h, respectively. AUCmilk/AUCserum and C max-milk/C max-serum rates, which are indicators for determining the rate of drugs that pass into milk, were, respectively, calculated as 5.01 ± 0.72 and 3.61 ± 0.69 for tylosin and 23.91 ± 6.38 and 20.16 ± 1.13 for tilmicosin. In conclusion, it may be stated that milk concentration of tylosin after parenteral administration is higher than expected like tilmicosin and needs more withdrawal period for milk than reported.

  7. Decreased retinal blood flow in experimental colitis; improvement by eye drop administration of losartan

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Megan N.; Eshaq, Randa S.; Carter, Patsy R.; Harris, Norman R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease suffer not only from gut inflammation, but also from extraintestinal manifestations of the disease, including ocular pathology. The mechanisms causing ocular inflammation in these patients are unknown. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the possible vascular changes occurring in the retina using a mouse model of acute colitis, that is, ingestion of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Intravital microscopy of anesthetized mice revealed that DSS caused a significant 30-40% decrease in retinal red blood cell velocities, and a 45% decrease in total retinal blood flow, but no changes in intraocular pressure. To determine whether the decreases in retinal perfusion could be inhibited by an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan was administered by eye drops in a subset of the mice prior to the intravital microscopy measurements. Topical losartan was able to largely attenuate the altered hemodynamics induced by DSS. We conclude that angiotensin II might be a possible target for reducing the vascular changes occurring distantly in the eye during colitis. PMID:23830910

  8. Flow-Field Simulations and Hemolysis Estimates for the Food and Drug Administration Critical Path Initiative Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    PubMed

    Heck, Margaret L; Yen, Allen; Snyder, Trevor A; O'Rear, Edgar A; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V

    2017-02-07

    The design of blood pumps for use in ventricular assist devices, which provide life-saving circulatory support in patients with heart failure, require remarkable precision and attention to detail to replicate the functionality of the native heart. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated a Critical Path Initiative to standardize and facilitate the use of computational fluid dynamics in the study and development of these devices. As a part of the study, a simplified centrifugal blood pump model generated by computer-aided design was released to universities and laboratories nationwide. The effects of changes in fluid rheology due to temperature, hematocrit, and turbulent flow on key metrics of the FDA pump were examined in depth using results from a finite volume-based commercial computational fluid dynamics code. Differences in blood damage indices obtained using Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations were considered. These results are presented and discussed awaiting future validation using experimental results, which will be released by the FDA at a future date.

  9. Effect of Acute Administration of an Herbal Preparation on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, John G.; Nelson, Aaron; Devonish, Julia; Burke, Edmund R.; Stohs, Sidney J.

    2011-01-01

    Confusion and controversy exist regarding the cardiovascular effects of dietary supplements containing caffeine and Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. The primary protoalkaloidal ingredient in bitter orange extract is p-synephrine which has some structural similarities to ephedrine and nor-epinehrine, but exhibits markedly different pharmacokinetic and receptor binding properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of a product containing caffeine, bitter orange extract (p-synephrine) and green tea extract in mildly overweight individuals. Fourteen female and nine male subjects (age 24.7 ±7.4 yrs, BMI: 26.6 ±3.8) volunteered in this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind designed study. On day one, subjects entered the laboratory following an overnight fast. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at 60 min. Expired air was analyzed for the next 10 min of the session. At each of three meals, subjects ingested one capsule that was either a non-caloric placebo or a dietary supplement that contained 13 mg p-synephrine and 176 mg caffeine. On the following day, the subjects returned and repeated the protocol for data collection beginning 60 min after consuming one capsule of the placebo or the dietary supplement. No effects of the dietary supplement on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure or mean arterial pressure were observed. No between or within group differences were observed when data were analyzed for gender and caffeine usage. A small but significant decrease in resting respiratory exchange ratio was observed for the low caffeine user group in response to the product containing caffeine and p-synephrine. The results of this study indicate that ingestion of a product containing bitter orange extract, caffeine and green tea extract does not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation may increase in certain populations. PMID:21448304

  10. Corticosteroid administration modifies ozone-induced increases in sheep airway blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, R.A.; Yousef, M.A.; Schelegle, E.S.; Cross, C.E. )

    1992-09-01

    Recently, we have shown that exposure of intubated conscious sheep to 3 to 4 ppm ozone (O3) for 3 h increases bronchial blood flow (Qbr). The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential role of corticosteroids in modulating this increase. Six nasally intubated sheep were exposed to filtered room air, 3.5 ppm O3 on two separate occasions, and 3.5 ppm O3 plus methyl-prednisone, for 3 h. Qbr was measured using a chronically implanted 20 MHz pulsed Doppler flow probe. Qbr, mean aortic pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary artery pressure, arterial blood gases, and core temperature were monitored. After 3 h of 3.5 ppm O3, Qbr increased from 3.2 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SEM) to 8.5 +/- 1.6 KHz, whereas bronchial vascular resistance (BVR) decreased from the baseline value of 43.6 +/- 8.0 to 15.0 +/- 3 mm Hg/KHz. With corticosteroids, baseline Qbr was 3.2 +/- 0.6 and BVR was 44.2 +/- 9.7; after 3 h of 3.5 ppm O3, Qbr was 3.3 +/- 0.5 KHz and BVR was 39.0 +/- 8.0 mm Hg/KHz. The two 3.5-ppm O3 exposures without corticosteroids were impressively reproducible. Except for Qbr and BVR, no other measured cardiovascular parameters were affected by O3. The results indicate that corticosteroids are capable of interfering with mediator, neurohumoral, or inflammatory cell mechanisms responsible for vasodilation of the airway microcirculation after O3 exposure, but do not specifically address the specific processes whereby this attenuation occurs.

  11. Superselective intra-arterial umbilical cord blood administration to BM in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Arnberg, F; Lundberg, J; Kenne, E; Jaff, N; Müller, P; Nava, S; Kaipe, H; Ringdén, O; Holmin, S

    2014-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation is limited by the low number of cells and delayed engraftment. UCB cells are infused i.v. for transplantation, although only a proportion of the cells reach the BM. We investigated whether UCB could be administered safely using superselective intra-arterial (i.a.) injection. We injected human UCB (5 × 106) into the aorta in rats, into the iliac artery in mice and into the femoral nutrient artery (FNA) in rabbits. We used angiography, immunohistochemistry, intravital microscopy and qPCR to assess safety end points and the distribution of injected cells. All animals showed normal behavior. No evidence of organ infarction was noted. UCB injected into the FNA of rabbits did not change the flow rates, measured by angiography. By qPCR, we found significantly higher fold-change values in the injected BM compared with i.v. injection (P=0.0087). Using intravital microscopy we visualized the mouse capillary bed during i.a. injection without cellular congestion. In summary, we show that i.a. infusion of UCB is safe and reaches an eightfold increase in engraftment in the BM compared with i.v. infusion. These studies lay the foundation for clinical trials. PMID:25198791

  12. Developmental Study of Serial Habituation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dolores J.; And Others

    This study examines serial habituation in a sample of 54 infants aged 2, 3, and 4 months to determine whether age changes are partially a function of different "strategies" rather than simply different rates of habituation. The serial habituation hypothesis proposes that attention and habituation of attention proceed in order of the relative…

  13. Current Issues in Serials Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Benita M., Ed.; Bearman, Toni Carbo, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The July 1975 issue of Drexel Library Quarterly is dedicated to current issues in serials librarianship. Two contributors present conflicting opinions on means of bibliographic control, specifically main entries and the International Standard Bibliographic Description (Serials) (ISBD(S). International issues are discussed, as are major national…

  14. Multiple Intravenous Administrations of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Benefit in a Mouse Model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Rodrigues, Maria C. O.; Mirtyl, Santhia; Turner, Shanna; Mitha, Shazia; Sodhi, Jasmine; Suthakaran, Subatha; Eve, David J.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Background A promising therapeutic strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the use of cell-based therapies that can protect motor neurons and thereby retard disease progression. We recently showed that a single large dose (25×106 cells) of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood (MNC hUCB) administered intravenously to pre-symptomatic G93A SOD1 mice is optimal in delaying disease progression and increasing lifespan. However, this single high cell dose is impractical for clinical use. The aim of the present pre-clinical translation study was therefore to evaluate the effects of multiple low dose systemic injections of MNC hUCB cell into G93A SOD1 mice at different disease stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice received weekly intravenous injections of MNC hUCB or media. Symptomatic mice received 106 or 2.5×106 cells from 13 weeks of age. A third, pre-symptomatic, group received 106 cells from 9 weeks of age. Control groups were media-injected G93A and mice carrying the normal hSOD1 gene. Motor function tests and various assays determined cell effects. Administered cell distribution, motor neuron counts, and glial cell densities were analyzed in mouse spinal cords. Results showed that mice receiving 106 cells pre-symptomatically or 2.5×106 cells symptomatically significantly delayed functional deterioration, increased lifespan and had higher motor neuron counts than media mice. Astrocytes and microglia were significantly reduced in all cell-treated groups. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that multiple injections of MNC hUCB cells, even beginning at the symptomatic disease stage, could benefit disease outcomes by protecting motor neurons from inflammatory effectors. This multiple cell infusion approach may promote future clinical studies. PMID:22319620

  15. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  16. Extended-access methamphetamine self-administration elicits neuroinflammatory response along with blood-brain barrier breakdown.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Joana; Leitão, Ricardo A; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Assis, María Amparo; Coria, Santiago M; Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos; Ambrosio, Emilio; Silva, Ana Paula

    2017-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that can lead to neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. Several studies have explored the central impact of METH use, but the mechanism(s) underlying blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and associated neuroinflammatory processes after chronic METH consumption are still unclear. Important findings in the field are mainly based on in vitro approaches and animal studies using an acute METH paradigm, and not much is known about the neurovascular alterations under a chronic drug use. Thus, the present study aimed to fill this crucial gap by exploring the effect of METH-self administration on BBB function and neuroinflammatory responses. Herein, we observed an increase of BBB permeability characterized by Evans blue and albumin extravasation in the rat hippocampus and striatum triggered by extended-access METH self-administration followed by forced abstinence. Also, there was a clear structural alteration of blood vessels showed by the down-regulation of collagen IV staining, which is an important protein of the endothelial basement membrane, together with a decrease of intercellular junction protein levels, namely claudin-5, occludin and vascular endothelial-cadherin. Additionally, we observed an up-regulation of vascular cell and intercellular adhesion molecule, concomitant with the presence of T cell antigen CD4 and tissue macrophage marker CD169 in the brain parenchyma. Rats trained to self-administer METH also presented a neuroinflammatory profile characterized by microglial activation, astrogliosis and increased pro-inflammatory mediators, namely tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukine-1 beta, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Overall, our data provide new insights into METH abuse consequences, with a special focus on neurovascular dysfunction and neuroinflammatory response, which may help to find novel approaches to prevent or diminish brain dysfunction triggered by this overwhelming illicit

  17. Short-term effects of oral dronedarone administration on cardiac function, blood pressure and electrocardiogram in conscious telemetry dogs

    PubMed Central

    SAENGKLUB, Nakkawee; YOUNGBLOOD, Brad; DEL RIO, Carlos; SAWANGKOON, Suwanakiet; HAMLIN, Robert L.; KIJTAWORNRAT, Anusak

    2016-01-01

    Dronedarone is a multichannel blocking antiarrhythmic drug that has been used for management of atrial fibrillation in humans, but the data in veterinary medicine are inadequate. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effects of oral dronedarone on cardiac inotropy and lusitropy, blood pressure and electrocardiogram (ECG) in healthy dogs. A total of 6 beagle dogs were instrumented with telemetry units and sono-micrometry crystals to obtain left ventricular pressure-volume relationship, mean blood pressure (MBP) and ECG. Dogs were given orally dronedarone (20 mg/kg, twice per day) for 7 days. All parameters were obtained hourly at 4–8 hr after the first dose and at 12-, 96- (day 4) and 168-hr (day 7) after dosing. The results showed that dronedarone had no effect on inotropy and lusitropy, while it significantly lengthened PQ interval (P<0.001) and lowered MBP (P<0.05). Dronedarone also tended to reduce cardiac output (P=0.237) and heart rate (P=0.057). These results suggested that short-term effects of oral dronedarone administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg, twice per day, produced negative dromotropy with minimal effect on cardiac function in conscious dogs. PMID:26922916

  18. Systemic administration of a TLR7 ligand leads to transient immune incompetence due to peripheral-blood leukocyte depletion.

    PubMed

    Gunzer, Matthias; Riemann, Helge; Basoglu, Yasmin; Hillmer, Anja; Weishaupt, Carsten; Balkow, Sandra; Benninghoff, Bernd; Ernst, Beat; Steinert, Meike; Scholzen, Thomas; Sunderkötter, Cord; Grabbe, Stephan

    2005-10-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands lead to the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and are potent enhancers of specific immune responses. We show here that a single systemic dose of R-848, a ligand for TLR7, potently enhanced hapten sensitization during the induction of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). However, R-848 administration also resulted in a rapid and almost complete depletion of leukocytes from the blood. This effect was transient and was associated with general induction of endothelial adhesiveness. In response to R-848, endothelial cells up-regulated adhesion molecules in vitro and in vivo and leukocytes exhibited increased rolling on endothelia in R-848-treated animals. Adhesion molecule induction appeared to be a direct effect, because endothelial cells expressed TLR7 in vitro and in vivo. After R-848 treatment, the tissue residence time of leukocytes was markedly prolonged in all major peripheral organs. The resulting transiently reduced availability of peripheral-blood leukocytes (PBLs) (TRAP) significantly inhibited otherwise potent CHS responses until the effector cells returned. Thus, although TLR7 ligands are effective adjuvants for the induction of cell-mediated immunity, they can transiently inhibit the elicitation of localized immune responses, possibly due to a systemic endothelial activation throughout the vasculature.

  19. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  20. Glycerol administration before endurance exercise: metabolism, urinary glycerol excretion and effects on doping-relevant blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; de Marees, Markus; Geyer, Hans; Thevis, Mario; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol is prohibited as a masking agent by the World Anti-Doping Agency and a urinary threshold has recently been recommended. However, little is known about urinary glycerol excretion after exercise, when (1) exogenous glycerol is metabolized increasingly and (2) endogenous glycerol levels are elevated. The purpose of the placebo-controlled cross-over study was to determine the effects of pre-exercise glycerol administration on glycerol metabolism, urinary excretion, and selected blood parameters. After administration of glycerol (G; 1.0 g/kg body weight (BW) + 25 ml fluid/kg BW) or placebo (P; 25 ml fluid/kg), 14 cyclists exercised 90 min at 60% VO2max . Samples were taken at 0 h (before administration), 2.5 h (before exercise), 4 h (after exercise) and 6.5 h and additional urine samples were collected until 24 h. Exercise increased endogenous plasma glycerol (0.51 ± 0.21 mmol/l) but peak concentrations were much higher in G (2.5 h: 15.6 ± 7.8 mmol/l). Urinary glycerol increased rapidly (58,428 ± 71,084 µg/ml after 2.5 h) and was significantly higher than in P until 13.6 ± 0.9 h (p < 0.01). In comparison with placebo administration, G caused significantly greater changes in plasma volume and haemoglobin concentrations after 2.5 h. BW and urine production were significantly different between P and G after 2.5 h and post-exercise. Despite exercise-induced increases in endogenous glycerol in the control group, urinary excretion remained well below the previously recommended threshold. In addition, exercise-related glycerol degradation did not appear to negatively affect the detection of exogenously administered glycerol.

  1. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  2. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of route of administration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on DNA adduction and cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice and rats

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic
    aromatic hydrocarbons (PA...

  3. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  4. Human cord blood cells and myocardial infarction: effect of dose and route of administration on infarct size.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Burgos, Jose D; Vasko, Mark; Alvarado, Felipe; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sanberg, Paul R; Morgan, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal dose of stem cells or the optimal route of administration for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Bone marrow cells, containing hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, in doses of 0.5 x 10(6) to >30 x 10(6) have been directly injected into the myocardium or into coronary arteries or infused intravenously in subjects with myocardial infarctions to reduce infarct size and improve heart function. Therefore, we determined the specific effects of different doses of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, on infarct size. In order to determine the optimal technique for stem cell administration, HUCBC were injected directly into the myocardium (IM), or into the LV cavity with the ascending aorta transiently clamped to facilitate coronary artery perfusion (IA), or injected intravenously (IV) in rats 1-2 h after the left anterior coronary artery was permanently ligated. Immune suppressive therapy was not given to any rat. One month later, the infarct size in control rat hearts treated with only Isolyte averaged 23.7 +/- 1.7% of the LV muscle area. Intramyocardial injection of HUCBC reduced the infarct size by 71% with 0.5 x 10(6) HUCBC and by 93% with 4 x 10(6) HUCBC in comparison with the controls (p < 0.001). Intracoronary injection reduced the infarction size by 47% with 0.5 x 10(6) HUCBC and by 80% with 4 x 10(6) HUCBC (p < 0.001), and IV HUCBC reduced infarct size by 51% with 0.5 x 10(6) and by 75-77% with 16-32 million HUCBC (p < 0.001) in comparison with control hearts. With 4 x 10(6) HUCBC, infarction size was 65% smaller with IM HUCBC than with IA HUCBC and 78% smaller than with IV HUCBC (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, IM, IA, and IV HUCBC all produced significant reductions in infarct size in comparison with Isolyte-treated infarcted hearts without requirements for host immune suppression. The present experiments demonstrate that the optimal dose

  5. Impaired cerebral vasoreactivity after embolization of arteriovenous malformations: assessment with serial acetazolamide challenge xenon CT

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, R.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Horton, J.A.; Yonas, H.; Pentheny, S.; Durham, S.; Jungreis, C.A.; Hecht, S.T. )

    1991-05-01

    Embolization of a portion of the nidus of an arteriovenous malformation not only may alter hemodynamics within the nidus, but also may change blood flow dynamics in adjacent normal vessels. Sequential acetazolamide-challenge xenon CT cerebral blood flow studies were performed in eight patients before and after embolization of arteriovenous malformations to assess the hemodynamic effects on the major vascular territories supplying the malformation. Acetazolamide is a potent cerebral vasodilator, and its administration combined with cerebral blood flow studies allows assessment of cerebral vasoreactivity. In seven of the eight patients, one or more parenchymal areas exhibited a normal cerebral blood flow augmentation response to acetazolamide before embolization, but diminished acetazolamide flow augmentation was seen after embolization, indicating abnormal vasoreactivity. We found that the decrease in vasoreactivity peaked 6-10 days after embolization. In one of the eight patients, a temporary delayed neurologic deficit developed during a period of impaired cerebral vasoreactivity following embolization. Our results suggest that embolization of an arteriovenous malformation can induce vasoreactivity changes in adjacent normal vessels. Because these changes appear to be somewhat time-dependent, an appropriate interval should be observed between embolization stages or before surgical resection of an arteriovenous malformation following embolization to allow hemodynamic equilibration to occur. Acetazolamide challenge combined with serial cerebral blood flow studies following embolization enables determination of this hemodynamic equilibration.

  6. Impact of p-glycoprotein inhibition and lipopolysaccharide administration on blood-brain barrier transport of colistin in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors limiting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of colistin in healthy mice and to assess the impact of systemic inflammation on the transport of this antibiotic across the BBB. Colistin sulfate (40 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to Swiss outbred mice as single and multiple doses to determine any relationship between brain uptake and plasma concentrations of colistin. To assess the effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on BBB transport, colistin sulfate (5 mg/kg) was concomitantly administered intravenously with PSC833 or GF120918 (10 mg/kg). Systemic inflammation was induced by three intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 mg/kg), and BBB transport of colistin was subsequently measured following subcutaneous administration and by an in situ brain perfusion. The brain uptake of colistin was low following single and multiple subcutaneous doses, with brain-to-plasma concentration ratios ranging between 0.021 and 0.037, and this was not significantly enhanced by coadministration of GF120918 or PSC833 (P > 0.05). LPS significantly increased the brain uptake of subcutaneously administered colistin with area under the brain concentration time curve (AUC(brain)) values of 11.7 ± 2.7 μg·h/g and 4.0 ± 0.3 μg·h/g for LPS- and saline-treated mice, respectively (mean ± standard deviation). Similarly, in situ perfusion of colistin led to higher antibiotic brain concentrations in LPS-treated animals than in saline-treated animals, with colistin brain-to-perfusate concentration ratios of 0.019 ± 0.001 and 0.014 ± 0.001, respectively. This study demonstrates that the BBB transport of colistin is negligible in healthy mice; however, brain concentrations of colistin can be significantly enhanced during systemic inflammation, as might be observed in infected patients.

  7. Is serial homicide really increasing?

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B

    2001-01-01

    Close examination of the available crime data reveals little scientific support for the widely held belief that serial homicide is frequent and increasing. The author argues that the dramatic changes in homicide clearance rates, incidence of murders with unknown motives, and victim gender data point to a likely increase, not in serial murder, but in contract murder. This type of killing appears to be having a significant impact on society; yet there has been a complete absence of forensic psychiatric study of this crime, a circumstance that needs to change.

  8. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  9. Analysis of the variable factors influencing tacrolimus blood concentration during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to oral administration after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Kimitaka; Ikesue, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Yamamoto-Taguchi, Nanae; Tsuchiya, Yuichi; Matsukawa, Kumi; Uchida, Mayako; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Koichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to identify variable factors affecting tacrolimus blood concentration during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to twice-daily oral administration in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (n = 73). The blood concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus immediately before the change from continuous infusion (C/Div) was compared with that between 3 and 5 days after the change to oral administration (C/Dpo). Median (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) was 0.21 (range 0.04-0.58). Multiple regression analysis showed that concomitant use of oral itraconazole or voriconazole significantly increased the (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) of tacrolimus (p = 0.002), probably owing to the inhibition of enterohepatic cytochrome P450 3A4. In addition, 5 of 18 (28%) patients who had the lowest quartile (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) values developed acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), which was significantly higher than in others [5 of 55 (9%) patients, p = 0.045]. Although the switch from intravenous to oral administration at a ratio of 1:5 appeared to be appropriate, a lower conversion ratio was suitable in patients taking oral itraconazole or voriconazole. In patients whose blood concentration decreases after the switch, the development of GVHD should be monitored and tacrolimus dosage should be readjusted to maintain an appropriate blood concentration.

  10. Implementing a Serials Barcoding Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennertz, Lora L.; Conway, Cheryl L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of planning and implementing a barcode project for library serials based on experiences at the University of Arkansas Fayetteville library. Topics include dumb versus smart barcodes, cataloging, classification, application rate of barcode labels, and library staff participation. (Author/LRW)

  11. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Shaun M.; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg-1 BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg-1, p < 0.05). Magnitude inference analysis reported a likely benefit (81% likelihood) of the CHO mouth rinse on PPO. In the CHO trial, mean power output (MPO) showed a trend for being greater in the first 5 seconds of the sprint and lower for the remainder of the sprint compared with the PLA trial (p > 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key points The paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint. The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors. The significant increase in peak power

  12. Effects of combined administration of captopril and DMSA on arsenite induced oxidative stress and blood and tissue arsenic concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Kiran; Narula, Gagan Deep; Kannan, G M; Flora, S J S

    2007-01-01

    We compared the therapeutic efficacy of captopril and a thiol chelating agent, meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) either individually or in combination against arsenite induced oxidative stress and mobilization of metal in rats. Animals were exposed to 100 ppm arsenite as sodium arsenite in drinking water for six weeks followed by treatment with DMSA (50 mg/kg, orally), captopril (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) either alone or in combination, once daily for 5 consecutive days. Arsenite exposure led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, glutathione and platelet levels while significantly increased the level of reactive oxygen species (in RBCs). Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) level showed a significant decrease while, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels increased on arsenite exposure indicating arsenite induced hepatic oxidative stress. Kidney GSH, GSSG, catalase and TBARS remained unchanged on arsenite exposure. Treatment with DMSA was effective in increasing ALAD activity while, captopril was ineffective when given alone. Captopril when co-administered with DMSA also provided no additional beneficial effect on blood ALAD activity but significant brought altered platelet counts back to the normal value. In contrast, administration of captopril alone provided significant beneficial effects on hepatic oxidative stress, and in combination with DMSA provided a more pronounced recovery in the TBARS level compared to the individual effect of DMSA and captopril. Renal biochemical variables remained insensitive to arsenite and any of the treatments. Interestingly, combined administration of captopril with DMSA had a remarkable effect in depleting total arsenic concentration from blood and soft tissues. These results lead us to conclude that captopril administration during chelation treatment had some beneficial effects particularly on the protection of inhibited blood ALAD activity, and depletion

  13. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.671 Serial number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  14. Oral administration of potassium bromate, a major water disinfection by-product, induces oxidative stress and impairs the antioxidant power of rat blood.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2012-05-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) is a widely used food additive, a water disinfection by-product and a known nephrotoxic agent. The effect of KBrO(3) on rat blood, especially on the anti-oxidant defense system, was studied in this work. Animals were given a single oral dose of KBrO(3) (100 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed 12, 24, 48, 96 and 168 h after this treatment. Blood was collected from the animals and separated into plasma and erythrocytes. KBrO(3) administration resulted in increased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels and decreased the reduced glutathione content indicating the induction of oxidative stress in blood. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total anti-oxidant power was greatly reduced upon KBrO(3) treatment. Nitric oxide levels were enhanced while vitamin C concentration decreased in KBrO(3) treated animals. The activities of major anti-oxidant enzymes were also altered upon KBrO(3) treatment. The maximum changes in all these parameters were 48 h after the administration of KBrO(3) and then recovery took place. These results show for the first time that KBrO(3) induces oxidative stress in blood and impairs the anti-oxidant defense system. Thus impairment in the anti-oxidant power and alterations in the activities of major anti-oxidant enzymes may play an important role in mediating the toxic effects of KBrO(3) in the rat blood. The study of such biochemical events in blood will help elucidate the molecular mechanism of action of KBrO(3) and also for devising methods to overcome its toxic effects.

  15. Long-term effect of prazosin and losartan administration on blood pressure, heart, carotid artery, and acetylcholine induced dilation of cardiovascular system of young Wistar rats and SHR.

    PubMed

    Kristek, Frantisek; Malekova, Magdalena; Cacanyiova, Sona

    2013-06-01

    The long-term effects of prazosin and losartan administration on blood pressure, trophicity of the heart and carotid arteries, and responses of the cardiovascular system to acetylcholine, were studied in Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Four-week-old rats were treated with prazosin (10 mg/kg b.w./day in tap water) or losartan (20 mg/kg b.w./day in tap water) for 5-6 weeks. BP was measured by plethysmographic method. Ten animals of each group were subjected to in vivo studies and subsequent to morphological investigations. The right jugular vein was cannulated for administration of acetylcholine (0.1, 1, and 10 µg). After perfusion with a glutaraldehyde fixative (120 mmHg), the carotid arteries were embedded in Durcupan ACM, and the inner diameter (ID), wall thickness (WT) (tunica intima and media), cross sectional area (CSA) (tunica intima and media), and WT/ID ratio were calculated. In Wistar rats and SHRs, prazosin and losartan administration produced a decrease in the blood pressure and trophicity of the heart. In Wistar rats, both drugs decreased the WT, CSA, and the WT/ID ratio. In addition, these drugs increased the circumferential stress of the artery without affecting the ID. In contrast, in the SHRs, only losartan administration produced these effects. Importantly, both the drugs improved the responses to acetylcholine in SHRs.

  16. The Serial Process in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilden, David L.; Thornton, Thomas L.; Marusich, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions for serial search are described. A multiple target search methodology (Thornton & Gilden, 2007) is used to home in on the simplest target/distractor contrast that effectively mandates a serial scheduling of attentional resources. It is found that serial search is required when (a) targets and distractors are mirror twins, and…

  17. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  18. Effects of introducing an administrative .05% blood alcohol concentration limit on law enforcement patterns and alcohol-related collisions in Canada.

    PubMed

    Blais, Étienne; Bellavance, François; Marcil, Alexandra; Carnis, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Except for Quebec, all Canadian provinces have introduced administrative laws to lower the permitted blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to .05% or .04% for driving-or having the care of-a motor vehicle. Using linear mixed effects models for longitudinal data, this study evaluates the effect of administrative BAC laws on fatal alcohol related crashes and law enforcement patterns in Canada from 1987 to 2010. Results reveal a significant decrease of 3.7% (95% C.I.: 0.9-6.5%) in fatally injured drivers with a BAC level equal or greater than .05% following the introduction of these laws. Reductions were also observed for fatally injured drivers with BAC levels greater that .08% and .15%. The introduction of administrative BAC laws led neither to significant changes in the rate of driving while impaired (DWI) incidents reported by police officers nor in the probability of being charged for DWI under the Criminal Code.

  19. Distinguishing serial and parallel parsing.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E; Pearlmutter, N J

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses ways of determining whether the human parser is serial maintaining at most, one structural interpretation at each parse state, or whether it is parallel, maintaining more than one structural interpretation in at least some circumstances. We make four points. The first two counterclaims made by Lewis (2000): (1) that the availability of alternative structures should not vary as a function of the disambiguating material in some ranked parallel models; and (2) that parallel models predict a slow down during the ambiguous region for more syntactically ambiguous structures. Our other points concern potential methods for seeking experimental evidence relevant to the serial/parallel question. We discuss effects of the plausibility of a secondary structure in the ambiguous region (Pearlmutter & Mendelsohn, 1999) and suggest examining the distribution of reaction times in the disambiguating region.

  20. Administration of Traditional Chinese Blood Circulation Activating Drugs for Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    He, Lisha; Wang, Han; Gu, Chengjuan; He, Xinhui

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important complementary strategy for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) in China. Traditional Chinese blood circulation activating drugs are intended to guide an overall approach to the prevention and treatment of microvascular complications of DM. The core mechanism is related to the protection of the vascular endothelium and the basement membrane. Here, we reviewed the scientific evidence underpinning the use of blood circulation activating drugs to prevent and treat DM-induced microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Furthermore, we summarized the effects and mechanism of TCM on improving blood rheology, inhibiting aggregation of platelet, forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs), regulating oxidative stress, reducing blood fat, and improving lipid metabolism. The paper provides a new theoretical basis for the clinical practice of TCM in the prevention and treatment of DM and its microvascular complications. PMID:27830156

  1. Rape and the Serial Rapist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Continued) Page The Sexual Arousal Of The Rapist 20 The Sexual Behavior Of The Rapist 21 Sexual Dysfunctions And The Rapist 23 Notes 25...research oriented study on this subject. This author does however hope that by constructing a multi-disciplined comprehensive literature review, it will...this issue. DEFINITION OF TERMS Rape. Forcible sexual penetration of an unwilling victim.4 Serial Rapist. An individual who has committed 10 or more

  2. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing.

  3. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2006-11-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  4. Comparing single and serial homicide offenses.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Gretchen W; Lord, Wayne D; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    Serial homicide has attracted much attention, but little empirical scientific investigation. This exploratory study reports demographic information on a large sample of serial homicide offenders (157 offenders, 608 victims), and compares a subsample of serial homicide offenses with a control group of single homicide offenses. Results show that serial homicide offenders target more women than men, and kill more strangers than family or friends. Single homicide offenders kill men and women in equal frequency, but kill family and friends more often than strangers. Serial homicide offenders kill for apparent sexual motivation more often than for any other reason, while single homicide offenders kill most often out of anger.

  5. Comparison of MARC Serials, NSDP, and ISBD-S

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulsifier, Josephine S.

    1973-01-01

    The specifications for serial records of the MARC Serials Distribution Service, the National Serials Data Program, and the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials are discussed. Both data content and, where applicable, machine format are analyzed. (4 references) (Author)

  6. Administration of Tranexamic Acid Reduces Postoperative Blood Loss in Calcaneal Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bing; Tian, Jing; Zhou, Da-peng

    2015-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on reducing postoperative blood loss in calcaneal fractures. A total of 90 patients with a unilateral closed calcaneal fracture were randomized to the TXA (n = 45) and control (n = 45) groups. The corresponding groups received 15 mg/kg body weight of TXA or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution) intravenously before the skin incision was made. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed for all patients and selective bone grafting was performed. The patients were examined 3 months after surgery. The intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, blood test results, and wound complications were compared between the 2 groups. The complications of TXA were also investigated. No statistically significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics between the TXA and control groups. Also, no significant difference was noted in the intraoperative blood loss between the 2 groups. However, in the TXA group, the postoperative blood loss during the first 24 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (110.0 ± 160.0 mL versus 320.0 ± 360.0 mL; p < .001). The incidence of wound complications was also reduced compared with that in the control group (7.3% versus 23.8%; p = .036). No significant difference was found in the incidence of thromboembolic events or adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups. We concluded that preoperative single-dose TXA can effectively reduce postoperative blood loss and wound complications in patients with calcaneal fractures and that no significant side effects developed compared with the control group.

  7. [Properties of glycyrrhizin in Kampo extracts including licorice root and changes in the blood concentration of glycyrrhetic acid after oral administration of Kampo extracts].

    PubMed

    Miyamura, M; Ono, M; Kyotani, S; Nishioka, Y

    1996-03-01

    We investigated in vitro the properties of glycyrrhizin (GL), such as dissolution, absorption and resolution, using a Sho-Seiryu-To extract, a Sho-Saiko-To extract, both including a licorice root, and licorice extract. The dissolution of GL differed with the pH of the solvent. The absorption (partition coefficient) of GL decreased with an increase in pH, and increased in the presence of other active constituents, such as baicalin, baicalein, and ephedrine. In the case of the Sho-Saiko-To extract, the conversion from GL to glycyrrhetic acid (GA) by beta-glucuronidase originated from E. coli occurred slowly. It was also suppressed by adding baicalin. We determined in vivo the pharmacokinetics of GA after oral administration of Kampo extracts in healthy volunteers. In each Kampo extract, the time of administration had no influence on the mean maximum blood concentration (Cmax) and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC). Tmax was delayed in the case of the administration after meal (p < 0.05).

  8. Application specific serial arithmetic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, K.; Mathews, D.; Thompson, T.

    1990-01-01

    High performance systolic arrays of serial-parallel multiplier elements may be rapidly constructed for specific applications by applying hardware description language techniques to a library of full-custom CMOS building blocks. Single clock pre-charged circuits have been implemented for these arrays at clock rates in excess of 100 Mhz using economical 2-micron (minimum feature size) CMOS processes, which may be quickly configured for a variety of applications. A number of application-specific arrays are presented, including a 2-D convolver for image processing, an integer polynomial solver, and a finite-field polynomial solver.

  9. A multifrequency serial EIT system.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, N; Ayeva, B; Rigaud, B; Morucci, J P

    1996-11-01

    A multifrequency (1 kHz-1 MHz) serial electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed. It is based on 16 active electrodes and can be extended up to 32. Each active electrode can be programmed for current driving and for measuring either the injected current or the voltage difference between adjacent electrodes, and includes calibration facilities. Real and imaginary parts of the impedance are obtained by applying a parametric identification method (extended Prony), but other techniques are easily adaptable. Image reconstruction is carried out using the Sheffield filtered back-projection algorithm. Characteristic frequency images are under development and should be of great interest to distinguish between normal and tumorous tissues.

  10. [An a priori risk analysis study. Securisation of transfusion of blood product in a hospital: from the reception in the medical unit to its administration].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, E; Lévy, R; Boyeldieu, D

    2013-12-01

    Following an ABO accident after transfusion of red blood cells, an a priori risk analysis study is being performed in a hospital. The scope of this analysis covers from the reception of the blood product in the medical unit to its administration. The risk analysis enables to identify the potentially dangerous situations and the evaluation of the risks in order to propose corrective measures (precautionary or protective) and bring the system back to an acceptable risk level. The innovative concept of an a priori risk analysis in the medical field allows the extension of the analysis of this transfusion risk to other hospitals. In addition, it allows the extension of the use of this approach to other medical fields.

  11. Comparison of early reactions of the blood system in rats to immobilization, the action of hypoxia and the administration of erythopoietin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorizontov, P. D.; Fedotova, M. I.; Gudim, V. I.; Belousova, O. I.

    1980-01-01

    Three series of experiments were simultaneously carried on rats with the purpose of studying the action of different stimulants on the blood system; rats were subjected to immobilization, hypoxic hypoxia and erythropoietin administration. Changes in various cellular forms in the bone marrow, the thymus and the spleen were studied. A unitypical reaction, as in stress, was noted during the first hours; a reduction of the cell count in the lymphoid organs, a reduction of granulocytes and an increase of lymphoid cells in the bone marrow. The differences were chiefly quantitative. This was followed by stimulation of myelo and erythropoiesis determined by the specific features of the action applied. Nonspecific blood reaction was apparently due to activation of the adaptation mechanisms.

  12. Anaesthesia for 1131 patients undergoing proximal femoral fracture repair: a retrospective, observational study of effects on blood pressure, fluid administration and perioperative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wood, R J; White, S M

    2011-11-01

    Intra-operative hypotension is a frequent occurrence during anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery in older patients with co-morbidities. We analysed retrospective data from the Brighton Hip Fracture Database to determine the intra-operative fall in systolic blood pressure, and the incidence of absolute (lowest systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg) and relative (> 20% fall in systolic blood pressure from baseline) hypotension during general or spinal anaesthesia among 1131 non-consecutive patients with hip fracture. General anaesthesia for 489 patients (43.2%) produced a greater mean (SD) fall in systolic blood pressure than spinal anaesthesia for 578 patients (51.1%): 34.2% (13.0%) vs 29.7% (10.8%), respectively (p < 0.0001), mean difference 4.5% (95% CI 3.1-5.9%), and was associated with greater mean (SD) intra-operative fluid administration (1555 (801) ml vs 1375 (621) ml, respectively, p < 0.0001). We observed a correlation between the volume of subarachnoid hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and fall in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.004): compared with patients receiving > 1.5 ml (n = 463), fewer patients receiving ≤ 1.5 ml bupivacaine 0.5% (n = 97) experienced episodes of absolute (31.1% vs 11.3%, p < 0.0001) or relative (83.9% vs 26.8%, p < 0.0001) hypotension. Both mean (SD) intravenous fluid administration (1097 ml (439) vs 1431 ml (638), p < 0.0001) and mean peri-operative fall in haemoglobin concentration (2.1 (1.8) g.dl(-1) vs 2.6 (1.7) g.dl(-1), p = 0.009) were lower in the low-dose spinal group. If these data are confirmed by other researchers, intra-operative hypotension (and consequent haemodilution secondary to reactive fluid administration) in this patient group may be reduced by the simple expedient of administering more cautious general anaesthesia, or reduced volumes of subarachnoid local anaesthetic.

  13. Long-term effect of prazosin administration on blood pressure, heart and structure of coronary artery of young spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kristek, F; Koprdova, R

    2011-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system belongs to the essential systems participating in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Inhibitory intervention into the key point of its operation (alfa 1 adrenoceptors) in the prehypertensive period of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) might affect the development of the hypertension in later ontogenic periods. We studied the long-term effect of prazosin administration on the cardiovascular system of young Wistar rats and SHR. Four-week-old animals were used: Wistar rats, SHR, and Wistar rats and SHR receiving prazosin (10 mg/kg/day in tap water) by gavage. Blood pressure (BP) was measured weekly by the plethysmographic method. After six weeks under anaesthesia, the carotid artery was cannulated for BP registration, and the jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Afterwards, the animals were perfused with a glutaraldehyde fixative at a pressure of 120 mmHg. The septal branch of the left descending coronary artery was processed using electron microscopy. The prazosin administration evoked the following results in both groups: a decrease of BP and heart/body weight ratio, enhancement of hypotensive responses to acetylcholine (0.1 μg, 1 μg, and 10 μg), and an increase in the inner diameter of the coronary artery without changes in wall thickness, cross sectional area (CSA) (tunica intima+media), CSA of smooth muscle cells, and extracellular matrix. In the SHR group, a reduction was observed in BP increase after noradrenaline (1 μg) application. CSA of endothelial cells which was decreased in the SHR (compared to the control Wistar rats) was increased after prazosin treatment (up to control value). Long-term prazosin administration from early ontogeny partially prevented some pathological alterations in the cardiovascular system of SHR.

  14. Peripheral blood morphologic changes after high-dose antineoplastic chemotherapy and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, D P; Castillo, A; Foucar, K; Townsend, K; Neidhart, J

    1989-09-01

    The peripheral blood morphologic findings in 17 patients with cancer who had received high-dose cytotoxic chemotherapy followed by recombinant human-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh-GCSF) were reviewed and compared with a control group of patients who received only high-dose chemotherapy. Both groups showed dysmyelopoiesis (abnormal granulation and nuclear lobulation) in the granulocytic series during the period of bone marrow recovery that followed the cytotoxic chemotherapy. Most of these morphologic abnormalities were more prominent in the rh-GCSF-treated group. Monocytic cells in both groups showed prominent vacuolation and immature nuclei. The percentages and absolute numbers of large granular lymphocytes were increased in the rh-GCSF group compared with the control group. No quantitative or qualitative abnormalities of eosinophilic or basophilic granulocytes were detected in either group. Both groups showed nonspecific red blood cell abnormalities, and large platelets were present in half of the control group smears. This report provides the first detailed peripheral blood morphologic description in patients treated with rh-GCSF and high-dose chemotherapy.

  15. Evolution of human serial pairbonding.

    PubMed

    Fisher, H E

    1989-03-01

    Data on divorce taken for all available years between 1947 and 1981 from the Demographic Yearbooks of the United Nations on 58 peoples illustrate that divorce has a consistent pattern. Divorces exhibit a skewed distribution, characterized by the occurrence of the mode early in marriage (with a divorce peak on or around the fourth year) and a gradual, long-tailed decline following this peak. Divorce risk peaks in age category 25-29 for males and age categories 20-24 and 25-29 for females, the height of reproductive and parenting years, and divorce counts peak among couples with two or fewer children. These properties of divorce are unrelated to divorce rate; they occur in societies with both high and low divorce rates. Data on available horticultural and gathering/hunting societies illustrate that divorce also peaks among young couples early in marriage. Remarriage by divorced and widowed individuals of reproductive age is also common cross-culturally. It is proposed that the above four-year modal marriage duration among couples of reproductive age who divorce reflects a hominid reproductive strategy that probably evolved some time after the appearance of Homo in response to increased female "reproductive burden" and functioned to ensure the survival of the hominid infant through weaning. Serial pairbonding during the female's reproductive years had ancestral adaptive advantages, producing the modern cross-cultural pattern of serial pairbonding.

  16. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women’s birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors’ co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood. PMID:24381370

  17. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  18. Mechanical Serial-Sectioning Data Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Poulter, Gregory A.; Madison, Jonathan D.

    2015-11-17

    Mechanical Serial-Sectioning Data Assistant (MECH-SSDA) is a real-time data analytics software with graphical user-interface that: 1) tracks and visualizes material removal rates for mechanical serial-sectioning experiments using at least two height measurement methods 2) tracks process time for specific segments of the serial-sectioning experiment and 3) alerts the user to anomalies in expected removal rate, process time or unanticipated operational pauses

  19. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  20. Serial turbo trellis coded modulation using a serially concatenated coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Pollara, Fabrizio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Serial concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) includes an outer coder, an interleaver, a recursive inner coder and a mapping element. The outer coder receives data to be coded and produces outer coded data. The interleaver permutes the outer coded data to produce interleaved data. The recursive inner coder codes the interleaved data to produce inner coded data. The mapping element maps the inner coded data to a symbol. The recursive inner coder has a structure which facilitates iterative decoding of the symbols at a decoder system. The recursive inner coder and the mapping element are selected to maximize the effective free Euclidean distance of a trellis coded modulator formed from the recursive inner coder and the mapping element. The decoder system includes a demodulation unit, an inner SISO (soft-input soft-output) decoder, a deinterleaver, an outer SISO decoder, and an interleaver.

  1. Effects of oral administration of sodium citrate or acetate to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, muscle pH decline, and quality attributes of pork.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J W; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Haub, M D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral administration of sodium citrate (CIT) or acetate (ACE) to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, pH decline, and quality attributes of pork. Previous studies have shown that CIT has the potential to inhibit phosphofructokinase (PFK), a key enzyme in postmortem muscle glycolysis. In Exp. 1, CIT, ACE, or water was orally administered (0.75 g/kg of BW) to 24 pigs. After a 30-min rest, pigs were exercised, and blood samples were taken at 45 and 75 min after oral treatment. Citrate and ACE tended (P = 0.08) to increase blood pH and increased (P = 0.02) bicarbonate levels immediately after exercise. After a 30-min rest, blood pH of pigs administered ACE tended (P = 0.09) to remain higher, whereas blood pH of CIT-treated pigs was similar to that of control pigs. Bicarbonate levels in ACE- and CIT-treated pigs were still greater (P < 0.05) than those of control pigs at 75 min after oral treatment. In Exp. 2, 30 pigs were administered CIT, ACE, or water 45 min before stunning (electric plus captive bolt). Antemortem treatments had no effect (P > 0.10) on muscle pH or postmortem concentrations of the glycolytic metabolites of glucose-6 phosphate, fructose-6 phosphate, fructose-1,6 bisphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, or lactate. Minor, but inconsistent, differences in quality attributes were found in LM chops, and no differences in quality attributes were found between control and CIT- or ACE-treated pigs for inside and outside semimembranosus muscles (P > 0.10). There was no significant inhibition of the PFK enzyme by orally administered CIT or ACE; however, the PFK glycolytic metabolite data analysis indicated that PFK was a main regulatory enzyme in postmortem muscle.

  2. The effects of oral administration of Yunnan Baiyao on blood coagulation in beagle dogs as measured by kaolin-activated thromboelastography and buccal mucosal bleeding times.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Jami; Boysen, Søren; Wagg, Catherine; Chalhoub, Serge

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of oral administration of Yunnan Baiyao (YB) on hemostasis by measuring buccal mucosal bleeding times (BMBTs) and doing citrated kaolin-activated whole-blood thromboelastography (TEG). In a randomized controlled crossover trial 8 beagle dogs were given either placebo or 1000 mg of YB orally every 12 h for 5 consecutive treatments. Blood was drawn 24 h before treatment and 2 and 24 h after the last treatment, and the BMBT was measured in each sample in duplicate. The TEG analysis was done in duplicate 60 ± 5 min after sample collection. There were no adverse effects of treatment and no significant differences between the control and treatment BMBTs or TEG parameters at any time point. Significant differences were found between baseline and 24 h after the last treatment within the treatment group for the TEG parameters LY30 and LY60 and within the control group for the TEG parameters MA, G, LY30, and LY60. Thus, at the dose and frequency of administration in this study YB did not appear to have any clinically significant effects on the measured coagulation parameters. The differences within the treatment group were likely due to analytic error since similar differences were seen in the control group. Further studies with a larger sample, as well as more direct measures of platelet function, are needed.

  3. Some biochemical parameters of blood plasma of turkey-hens following administration of 1,2,4-triasole derivative.

    PubMed

    Krauze, M; Truchliński, J; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M

    2007-01-01

    The present study involved 180 slaughter turkey-hens of heavy Big-6 type divided into four groups (in triplicate repetition for 15 birds). All the birds were fed with the same standard full-dose mixtures in 5-stage system. The turkey-hens of groups I, II and III were given 1,2,4-triasole derivative (3-(2-pyridil)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triasole-5-carboxylic acid), which has antibacterial, antifungal and immunomodulating properties, in amount of 50, 75 and 100 microg per 1 dm3 of water. Group IV--control was given water without the additive. The 1,2,4-triasole derivative was given to drinking water, starting from the first day of bird's life and for the whole rearing period. The present results of biochemical analysis of blood plasma showed that addition of examined substance significantly reduced concentration of protein, glucose, triglycerides and uric acid as compared to control. It was stated that tested 1,2,4-triasole derivative elevated the level of HDL fraction percentage and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood plasma.

  4. Estimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Nathalie; Hallet, Claude; Seidel, Laurence; Demaret, Isabelle; Luppens, David; Ansseau, Marc; Rozet, Eric; Albert, Adelin; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2-4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1-2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0-1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and <2 h for all metabolites present. The 'jackknife' correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8-9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites.

  5. The unrecognized effects of the volume and composition of the resuscitation fluid used during the administration of blood products

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, C. Robert; Veech, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent publications have reported the severe adverse events associated with blood products but have not considered the effect of the volume and composition of the resuscitative fluids infused with the blood products. Methods Injury leads to cellular reaction characterized by insulin resistance during which glucose cannot enter muscle and fat cells. In all cells, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is decreased during insulin deficiency leaving cells deficient in substrates needed to power the Krebs cycle and make ATP. Results d-β-Hydroxybutyrate, a normal ketone body metabolite, enters cells on the monocarboxylate transport mimicking the action of insulin and bypassing the enzymatic block at PDH. Metabolism of ketone bodies increases efficiency of mitochondrial energy production and cellular ATP level. Conclusion Infusion of 250 ml of 600 mM Na d-β-hydroxybutyrate solution, with the same osmotic strength as the hypertonic NaCl solution currently being used, would correct insulin resistance, provide energy substrates for cells to produce ATP, correct the tendency of injured tissue to swell due to decreased energy of ionic gradients and correct acidosis observed in hemorrhage. PMID:22364841

  6. Modeling Serial Arguments in Close Relationships: The Serial Argument Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan, Jennifer L.; Finan, Andrea; Kaminsky, Allison

    2008-01-01

    Though an emerging research area, serial argumentation has yet to be cohesively explored from a theoretical lens. The current project thus extends and updates Trapp and Hoff's (1985) original serial argument model by explicating and testing a theoretical process an individual goes through immediately before, during, and after a serial argument…

  7. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  8. Administration of TLR7 agonist, resiquimod, in different types of chicken induces a mixed Th1 and Th2 response in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Anand Kumar, B S; Kumar, Vimal; Badasara, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the variation in immune response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of broiler, White Leghorn (WL) and Kadaknath breeds of chicken following administration of TLR7 agonist, resiquimod (R-848). Expression of different immune related genes viz., interferon-β (IFN-β), IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, TLR7 and iNOS was assessed by quantitative real time PCR over a period of 24 h. The results indicated that there was a significant up-regulation in the relative expression of immune response genes post R-848 administration (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the transcriptional expression of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 genes in the PBMCs was significantly up-regulated over 24 h in broiler, WL and Kadaknath breeds of birds after the administration of R-848. Overall, R-848 induced a mixed Th1 and Th2 response in PBMCs of chicken origin ex vivo.

  9. Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids: new postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Cuny, E; Carpenter, W M

    1998-04-01

    Dental health care professionals continue to suffer exposure incidents from instruments contaminated with blood and/or body fluids from patients. Each of these cases requires that a rigid protocol be followed for their evaluation. New information regarding the risk factors for HIV-seroconversion following an exposure incident have been identified. Recent data has demonstrated that a 79 percent reduction in disease transmission may be possible with a new combination drug therapy. The anti-retroviral drugs included in this new regimen are now standard in the management of occupational exposure to HIV. Several factors set dentistry apart from other health care occupations, and these differences appear to have an effect on the risks associated with occupational exposures. This article explores these risk factors and the new recommendations for postexposure care.

  10. Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Qian, Zhenchao

    2008-01-01

    Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of "serial cohabitors." Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15%-20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low…

  11. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…

  12. Training Serials Specialists: Internships as an Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiseles, Linda; Feller, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the lack of qualified, experienced serials librarians; suggests recruiting support staff from within technical services departments; and describes an internship program developed at Hofstra University (New York) to help train a library school student in serials work. The manager's perspective, the student's perspective, and an evaluation…

  13. The Use of OCLC for Serials Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidner, Cathy

    Designed for use by serials librarians concerned with the implementation of OCLC (Ohio College Library Center) in their individual libraries, librarians responsible for deciding to adopt OCLC rather than a competitive system or to add the Serials Subsystem to the services they already receive from OCLC, and information scientists and systems…

  14. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  15. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  16. Levels of heroin and its metabolites in blood and brain extracellular fluid after i.v. heroin administration to freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Gottås, A; Øiestad, E L; Boix, F; Vindenes, V; Ripel, Å; Thaulow, C H; Mørland, J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Heroin, with low affinity for μ-opioid receptors, has been considered to act as a prodrug. In order to study the pharmacokinetics of heroin and its active metabolites after i.v. administration, we gave a bolus injection of heroin to rats and measured the concentration of heroin and its metabolites in blood and brain extracellular fluid (ECF). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH After an i.v. bolus injection of heroin to freely moving Sprague–Dawley rats, the concentrations of heroin and metabolites in blood samples from the vena jugularis and in microdialysis samples from striatal brain ECF were measured by ultraperformance LC-MS/MS. KEY RESULTS Heroin levels decreased very fast, both in blood and brain ECF, and could not be detected after 18 and 10 min respectively. 6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) increased very rapidly, reaching its maximal concentrations after 2.0 and 4.3 min, respectively, and falling thereafter. Morphine increased very slowly, reaching its maximal levels, which were six times lower than the highest 6-MAM concentrations, after 12.6 and 21.3 min, with a very slow decline during the rest of the experiment and only surpassing 6-MAM levels at least 30 min after injection. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS After an i.v. heroin injection, 6-MAM was the predominant opioid present shortly after injection and during the first 30 min, not only in the blood but also in rat brain ECF. 6-MAM might therefore mediate most of the effects observed shortly after heroin intake, and this finding questions the general assumption that morphine is the main and most important metabolite of heroin. PMID:23865556

  17. Oral administration of bisphenol A induces high blood pressure through angiotensin II/CaMKII-dependent uncoupling of eNOS.

    PubMed

    Saura, Marta; Marquez, Susana; Reventun, Paula; Olea-Herrero, Nuria; Arenas, María Isabel; Moreno-Gómez-Toledano, Rafael; Gómez-Parrizas, Mónica; Muñóz-Moreno, Carmen; González-Santander, Marta; Zaragoza, Carlos; Bosch, Ricardo J

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is found in human urine and fat tissue. Higher urinary BPA concentrations are associated with arterial hypertension. To shed light on the underlying mechanism, we orally administered BPA (4 nM to 400 μM in drinking water) to 8-wk-old CD11 mice over 30 d. Mice developed dosage-dependent high blood pressure (systolic 130 ± 12 vs. 170 ± 12 mmHg; EC50 0.4 μM), impairment of acetylcholine (AcH)-induced carotid relaxation (0.66 ± 0.08 vs. 0.44 ± 0.1 mm), a 1.7-fold increase in arterial angiotensin II (AngII), an 8.7-fold increase in eNOS mRNA and protein, and significant eNOS-dependent superoxide and peroxynitrite accumulation. AngII inhibition with 0.5 mg/ml losartan reduced oxidative stress and normalized blood pressure and endothelium-dependent relaxation, which suggests that AngII uncouples eNOS and contributes to the BPA-induced endothelial dysfunction by promoting oxidative and nitrosative stress. Microarray analysis of mouse aortic endothelial cells revealed a 2.5-fold increase in expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-α (CaMKII-α) in response to 10 nM BPA, with increased expression of phosphorylated-CaMKII-α in carotid rings of BPA-exposed mice, whereas CaMKII-α inhibition with 100 nM autocamptide-2-related inhibitor peptide (AIP) reduced BPA-mediated increase of superoxide. Administration of CaMKII-α inhibitor KN 93 reduced BPA-induced blood pressure and carotid blood velocity in mice, and reverted BPA-mediated carotid constriction in response to treatment with AcH. Given that CaMKII-α inhibition prevents BPA-mediated high blood pressure, our data suggest that BPA regulates blood pressure by inducing AngII/CaMKII-α uncoupling of eNOS.

  18. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract administration on intestinal α-glucosidases activities and spikes in postprandial blood glucose levels in SD rats model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ho; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Young-In; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L.) extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS) was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose), a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUC(last)) in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg) was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL). The AUC(last) in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg) was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL). Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053) on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model. Compared

  19. [Cytokine secretion in whole blood of healthy subjects following oral administration of Urtica dioica L. plant extract].

    PubMed

    Teucher, T; Obertreis, B; Ruttkowski, T; Schmitz, H

    1996-09-01

    Twenty healthy volunteers ingested for 21 days 2 capsules b.i.d. of an IDS 23/1 containing nettle leaf extract (Rheuma-Hek). Before and after 7 and 21 days the basal and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were measured ex vivo. In vitro the effects of IDS 23/1 on the release of these cytokines were determined. Additionally basal interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were recorded. Orally taken the test drug has ex vivo no effect on basal levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-4, IL-6 or IL-10 which were always below detection limits. After 7 and 21 days ingestion ex vivo a decrease of LPS stimulated TNF-alpha release of 14.6 and 24.0%, respectively, was observed. IL-1 beta was reduced for 19.2 and 39.3%. In vitro IDS 23/1 added to whole blood resulted in an exceeded inhibition of LPS stimulated TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretion which correlated with the duration of the drug ingestion. Using the highest tested IDS 23/1 concentration the inhibition reached 50.5 (day 0) to 79.5% (day 21) for TNF-alpha and 90.0 (day 0) to 99.2% (day 21) for IL-1 beta, respectively. IDS 23/1 induced a pronounced release of IL-6 in absence of LPS only in vitro. The detected IL-6 concentrations were comparable to those after LPS stimulation, additive effects could not be observed. The absence of detectable IL-6 concentrations in whole blood ex vivo after oral ingestion of the tested drug as well as the differences in the inhibition patterns for TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta ex vivo and ex vivo in vitro suggest that the extract contains different pharmacological effective compounds with varying bioavailabilities.

  20. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  1. Combined administration of captopril with an antihypertensive Val-Tyr di-peptide to spontaneously hypertensive rats attenuates the blood pressure lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshiro; Zhu, Xiao Lin; Watanabe, Keisuke; Tanaka, Keisuke; Kusano, Yoko; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2006-11-25

    Some di-peptides have been proven to exert an antihypertensive effect in mild-hypertensive subjects. The aim of this study was to clarify whether combined administration of an ACE inhibitor, captopril, with an antihypertensive di-peptide Val-Tyr (VY) would alter their potent antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Single oral administration of captopril (2.5 mg/kg), VY (25 mg/kg), or captopril (2.5 mg/kg)+VY (25 mg/kg) to 18-week-old male SHRs was performed. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured up to 9 h, and plasma captopril concentrations were determined. A transport study of captopril and/or VY across living rat jejunum from SHRs was also performed to evaluate the kinetics of absorption. Combined administration of captopril with VY failed to lower the BP during the 9-h experiment. A transport study of captopril or VY revealed that VY inhibited captopril transport, and vice versa, in a competitive manner and exhibited an approximately 1/3-fold lower Ki value for captopril compared with that for VY; indicating that both compounds compete for the same membrane transport pathway. A 50% decrease in plasma captopril levels by combined administration with VY supported that the attenuation of the BP lowering effect was due to inhibition of captopril uptake by VY. Consequently, our findings suggest that subjects treated with ACE inhibitors for hypertension should avoid combined-intake with antihypertensive foods that are rich in small peptides due to the competitive inhibition of drug uptake by these peptides.

  2. Safety and feasibility of countering neurological impairment by intravenous administration of autologous cord blood in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds We conducted a pilot study of the infusion of intravenous autologous cord blood (CB) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to assess the safety and feasibility of the procedure as well as its potential efficacy in countering neurological impairment. Methods Patients diagnosed with CP were enrolled in this study if their parents had elected to bank their CB at birth. Cryopreserved CB units were thawed and infused intravenously over 10~20 minutes. We assessed potential efficacy over 6 months by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and various evaluation tools for motor and cognitive functions. Results Twenty patients received autologous CB infusion and were evaluated. The types of CP were as follows: 11 quadriplegics, 6 hemiplegics, and 3 diplegics. Infusion was generally well-tolerated, although 5 patients experienced temporary nausea, hemoglobinuria, or urticaria during intravenous infusion. Diverse neurological domains improved in 5 patients (25%) as assessed with developmental evaluation tools as well as by fractional anisotropy values in brain MRI-DTI. The neurologic improvement occurred significantly in patients with diplegia or hemiplegia rather than quadriplegia. Conclusions Autologous CB infusion is safe and feasible, and has yielded potential benefits in children with CP. PMID:22443810

  3. Effects of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells in 3-Acetylpyridine-Lesioned Rats

    PubMed Central

    Calatrava-Ferreras, Lucía; Gonzalo-Gobernado, Rafael; Herranz, Antonio S.; Reimers, Diana; Montero Vega, Teresa; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano; Richart López, Luis Alberto; Bazán, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxias include a heterogeneous group of infrequent diseases characterized by lack of motor coordination caused by disturbances in the cerebellum and its associated circuits. Current therapies are based on the use of drugs that correct some of the molecular processes involved in their pathogenesis. Although these treatments yielded promising results, there is not yet an effective therapy for these diseases. Cell replacement strategies using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HuUCBMCs) have emerged as a promising approach for restoration of function in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential therapeutic activity of HuUCBMCs in the 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) rat model of cerebellar ataxia. Intravenous administered HuUCBMCs reached the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. Grafted cells reduced 3-AP-induced neuronal loss promoted the activation of microglia in the brain stem, and prevented the overexpression of GFAP elicited by 3-AP in the cerebellum. In addition, HuUCBMCs upregulated the expression of proteins that are critical for cell survival, such as phospho-Akt and Bcl-2, in the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. As all these effects were accompanied by a temporal but significant improvement in motor coordination, HuUCBMCs grafts can be considered as an effective cell replacement therapy for cerebellar disorders. PMID:23150735

  4. Long-term AICAR administration reduces metabolic disturbances and lowers blood pressure in rats displaying features of the insulin resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buhl, Esben S; Jessen, Niels; Pold, Rasmus; Ledet, Thomas; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Steen B; Pedersen, Oluf; Schmitz, Ole; Lund, Sten

    2002-07-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome is characterized by several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic chemical activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by the adenosine analog 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta -D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) has been shown to augment insulin action, upregulate mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscles, and decrease the content of intra-abdominal fat. Furthermore, acute AICAR exposure has been found to reduce sterol and fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes incubated in vitro as well as suppress endogenous glucose production in rats under euglycemic clamp conditions. To investigate whether chronic AICAR administration, in addition to the beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, is capable of improving other phenotypes associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats (n = 6) exhibiting insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were subcutaneously injected with AICAR (0.5 mg/g body wt) daily for 7 weeks. Obese control rats were either pair-fed (PF) (n = 6) or ad libitum-fed (AL) (n = 6). Lean Zucker rats (fa/-) (n = 8) served as a reference group. AICAR administration significantly reduced plasma triglyceride levels (P < 0.01 for AICAR vs. AL, and P = 0.05 for AICAR vs. PF) and free fatty acids (P < 0.01 for AICAR vs. AL, and P < 0.05 for AICAR vs. PF) and increased HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.01 for AICAR vs. AL and PF). AICAR treatment also lowered systolic blood pressure by 14.6 +/- 4.3 mmHg (P < 0.05), and AICAR-treated animals exhibited a tendency toward decreased intra-abdominal fat content. Furthermore, AICAR administration normalized the oral glucose tolerance test and decreased fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin close to the level of the lean animals. Finally, in line with previous findings, AICAR treatment was also found to enhance GLUT4 protein expression and to increase maximally insulin-stimulated glucose transport in primarily white fast-twitch muscles. Our

  5. Serial killers with military experience: applying learning theory to serial murder.

    PubMed

    Castle, Tammy; Hensley, Christopher

    2002-08-01

    Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanatory research topic. This article examines the possible link between serial killers and military service. Citing previous research using social learning theory for the study of murder, this article explores how potential serial killers learn to reinforce violence, aggression, and murder in military boot camps. As with other variables considered in serial killer research, military experience alone cannot account for all cases of serial murder. Future research should continue to examine this possible link.

  6. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10−7-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P < 0.0001) and was greater on the back versus other sites (P < 0.05), but LDF was similar between sites (P = 0.343). RSR and SkBF showed a strong relation during initial (arm: r = 0.77 ± 0.09, thigh: r = 0.81 ± 0.08, abdomen: r = 0.89 ± 0.04, back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF. PMID:23389110

  7. Analysis and bioactive evaluation of the compounds absorbed into blood after oral administration of the extracts of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Sun, Hui; Fan, Yuling; Li, Lijing; Makino, Toshiaki; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    In order to screen the active constituents of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., the compounds absorbed into the rat blood after oral administration of ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of V. vitis-idaea (EEV) have been analyzed. Two compounds were detected in the plasma and identified as arbutin and fraxin, which are originally existed in the crude drug. Furthermore, the pharmacological effects of the two compounds involving EEV for curing acute and chronic respiratory tract infection were tested. The results showed that both arbutin and fraxin have the anti-inflammatory, anti-coughing and phlegm-removing effects. Therefore, it was ascertained that the arbutin and fraxin would be the main active constituents of V. vitis-idaea L.

  8. Comparison of continuous infusion with intermittent bolus administration of cefotaxime on blood and cavity fluid drug concentrations in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Hewson, J; Johnson, R; Arroyo, L G; Diaz-Mendez, A; Ruiz-López, J A; Gu, Y; del Castillo, J R E

    2013-02-01

    Healthy neonatal foals were treated with cefotaxime by bolus (40 mg/kg i.v. q6h for 12 doses; n=10) or by infusion (loading dose of 40 mg/kg i.v. followed by continuous infusion of a total daily dose of 160 mg/kg per 24 h for 3 days; n=5). Population pharmacokinetics was determined, and concentrations in cavity fluids were measured at steady state (72 h). Highest measured serum drug concentration in the bolus group was 88.09 μg/mL and minimum drug concentration (C(min)) was 0.78 μg/mL at 6-h postadministration (immediately before each next dose), whereas infusion resulted in a steady-state concentration of 16.10 μg/mL in the infusion group. Mean cefotaxime concentration in joint fluid at 72 h was higher (P=0.051) in the infusion group (5.02 μg/mL) compared to the bolus group (0.78 μg/mL). Drug concentration in CSF at 72 h was not different between groups (P=0.243) and was substantially lower than serum concentrations in either group. Insufficient data on pulmonary epithelial lining fluid were available to compare the methods of administration for cefotaxime in this cavity fluid. Results support continuous drug infusion over bolus dosing in the treatment for neonatal foal septicemia to optimize time that cefotaxime concentration exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration of common equine pathogens.

  9. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ky; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Lee-Kyung; Cho, Young Min

    2016-02-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281).

  10. Serial assessment of local peripheral vascular function after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Bladon, Kallie J; Lawrence, Jennifer L; McGlinchy, Sarah A; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2013-12-01

    Muscle damage is a common response to unaccustomed eccentric exercise; however, the effects of skeletal muscle damage on local vascular function and blood flow are poorly understood. This study examined serial local vascular responses to flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) dilation in the brachial artery after strenuous eccentric exercise and serially assessed resting blood flow. Ten healthy males performed 50 maximal eccentric unilateral arm contractions to induce muscle damage to the biceps brachii. Changes in maximal isometric strength and vascular responses were assessed 1, 24, 48, and 96 h after exercise. Mean blood velocities and arterial diameters, measured with Doppler ultrasound, were used to calculate blood flow and shear stress (expressed as area under the curve). Eccentric exercise resulted in impaired maximal isometric strength for up to 96 h (p < 0.001). Reductions in flow-mediated dilation (before exercise, 9.4% ± 2.6%; 1 h after exercise, 5.1% ± 2.2%) and nitroglycerin responses (before exercise, 26.3% ± 6.5%; 1 h after exercise, 20.7% ± 4.7%) were observed in the 1 h after exercise and remained lower for 96 h (p < 0.05). The shear stress response was attenuated immediately after exercise and remained impaired for 48 h (p < 0.05). Resting blood pressure and muscle blood flow remained similar throughout the study. Results suggest that muscle damage from eccentric exercise leads to impaired local endothelial and vascular smooth muscle function. Lower shear stress after exercise might contribute to the observed reduction in flow-mediated dilation responses, but the mechanism responsible for the attenuated endothelial-independent vasodilation remains unclear.

  11. A case of severe chlorite poisoning successfully treated with early administration of methylene blue, renal replacement therapy, and red blood cell transfusion: case report.

    PubMed

    Gebhardtova, Andrea; Vavrinec, Peter; Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Seelen, Mark; Dobisova, Anna; Flassikova, Zora; Cikova, Andrea; Henning, Robert H; Yaghi, Aktham

    2014-08-01

    The case of a 55-year-old man who attempted suicide by ingesting <100 mL of 28% sodium chlorite solution is presented. On arrival in the intensive care unit, the patient appeared cyanotic with lowered consciousness and displayed anuria and chocolate brown serum.Initial laboratory tests revealed 40% of methemoglobin. The formation of methemoglobin was effectively treated with methylene blue (10% after 29 hours).To remove the toxin, and because of the anuric acute renal failure, the patient received renal replacement therapy. Despite these therapeutic measures, the patient developed hemolytic anemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which were treated with red blood cell transfusion and intermittent hemodialysis. These interventions led to the improvement of his condition and the patient eventually fully recovered. Patient gave written informed consent.This is the third known case of chlorite poisoning that has been reported. Based upon this case, we suggest the management of sodium chlorite poisoning to comprise the early administration of methylene blue, in addition to renal replacement therapy and transfusion of red blood cells.

  12. Effect of Resveratrol Administration on the Element Metabolism in the Blood and Brain Tissues of Rats Subjected to Acute Swimming Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Arslangil, Dilek; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Patlar, Suleyman

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine how resveratrol administration affects the element metabolism in the blood and brain cortex tissues of rats subjected to an acute swimming exercise. The study was carried out on Wistar-Albino-type adult male rats supplied by the Center. Group 1 is the control group. Group 2 is the swimming control group. Group 3 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) + swimming group. Group 4 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) group. Blood and brain cortex tissues were analyzed for some elements. The acute swimming exercise led to increases in the rats' serum iron, selenium, lead, cobalt, and boron levels, while the resveratrol-swimming group has increases in copper, phosphorus, and calcium values. The brain cortex tissue of the resveratrol-swimming group had significantly higher molybdenum levels than others. The results obtained in the study indicate that acute swimming exercise altered the distribution of elements in the serum to a considerable extent; however, resveratrol's affect is limited. Especially, resveratrol supplementation may have a regulatory affect on serum iron and magnesium levels.

  13. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  14. Effects of repeated social defeat on adolescent mice on cocaine-induced CPP and self-administration in adulthood: integrity of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Aguilar, María A; Martín-García, Elena; Cabrera, Roberto; Maldonado, Rafael; Porcu, Francesca; Colado, María Isabel; Miñarro, José

    2017-01-01

    Social stress in adulthood enhances cocaine self-administration, an effect that has been related with an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. A detrimental effect of cocaine on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity has also been reported. This study evaluates the effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational effects of cocaine in adult mice and the changes induced by RSD on BBB permeability. Cocaine self-administration, conditioned place preference and quantitative analysis of claudin-5, laminin, collagen-IV and IgG immunoreactivity took place 3 weeks after RSD. Mice socially defeated during adolescence developed conditioned place preference and exhibited reinstated preference with a non-effective dose of cocaine (1 mg/kg). RSD mice needed significantly more sessions than control animals for the preference induced by 25 mg/kg of cocaine to be extinguished. However, acquisition of cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg per injection) was delayed in the RSD group. Mice exposed to RSD displayed significant changes in BBB structure in adulthood, with a marked reduction in expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5 and an increase in basal laminin degradation (reflected by a decrease in laminin and collagen-IV expression) in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. The detrimental effect induced by cocaine (25 mg/kg) on collagen-IV expression in the hippocampus was more pronounced in RSD mice. In summary, our findings suggest that stress and cocaine can increase the long-term vulnerability of the brain to subsequent environmental insults as a consequence of a sustained disruption of the BBB.

  15. Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin 1-7 versus Hypertonic Sodium Chloride 7.5% Administration after Acute Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) plays an important role in renal circulation. Hemorrhagic shock (HS) may cause kidney circulation disturbance, and this study was designed to investigate the renal blood flow (RBF) response to Ang1-7 after HS. Methods. 27 male Wistar rats were subjected to blood withdrawal to reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 45 mmHg for 45 min. The animals were treated with saline (group 1), Ang1-7 (300 ng·kg−1 min−1), Ang1-7 in hypertonic sodium chloride 7.5% (group 3), and hypertonic solution alone (group 4). Results. MAP was increased in a time-related fashion (Ptime < 0.0001) in all groups; however, there was a tendency for the increase in MAP in response to hypertonic solution (P = 0.09). Ang1-7, hypertonic solution, or combination of both increased RBF in groups 2-4, and these were significantly different from saline group (P = 0.05); that is, Ang1-7 leads to a significant increase in RBF to 1.35 ± 0.25 mL/min compared with 0.55 ± 0.12 mL/min in saline group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although Ang1-7 administration unlike hypertonic solution could not elevate MAP after HS, it potentially could increase RBF similar to hypertonic solution. This suggested that Ang1-7 recovers RBF after HS when therapeutic opportunities of hypertonic solution are limited. PMID:27073699

  16. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals.

  17. Body weight, meat quality and blood metabolite responses to carbohydrate administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kop-Bozbay, C; Ocak, N

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine weights of body (BW), carcass (CW), gastrointestinal tract (GTW), meat quality and some blood metabolite responses to corn starch, saccharose or glucose administration in the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal (FW) in broilers. On day 42 of age, 200 broilers (Ross 308) were allocated randomly to five treatments with four replicates. During a 10-h FW, control broilers (C) were provided with non-treated water and the standard finisher diet ad libitum, whereas fasted broilers provided with non-treated (NFW) or treated water, 3 g glucose (G), saccharose (S) or corn starch (CS)/L. Eight birds (four males and four females) per treatment were slaughtered. Birds receiving non-treated or treated water had lower BW and higher carcass yield than the full-fed broilers. The full-fed broilers had higher absolute and relative GTW than the fasted birds. Broilers consumed more readily treated water compared with non-treated water. While the a* value of breast meat from CS birds was higher than that from NFW, the b* value of that was higher than S and C birds. The c* values of breast meat from S birds were lower compared with that from the CS treatment. The thigh meat from NFW broilers had higher h* value than that from C and G broilers. The thigh meats of C and CS broilers had higher c* value than that of G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma triglyceride concentration than NFW, S and G birds. The full-fed broilers had higher plasma uric acid and uric acid nitrogen concentrations than S birds. These results show that carbohydrate administration in the drinking water cannot be a good alternative for the FW period before slaughter due to the fact that the carbohydrates do not reduce BW losses and do not lead to increases in meat quality.

  18. Serials Automation for San Jose State University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Susana J.

    This study (1) examines the university's serials system and identifies its problems; (2) analyzes the current manual operations in the serials department, with emphasis on the serials check-in system; and (3) determines whether or not computerization of some or all of the serials subsystems would improve the department's internal effectiveness and…

  19. Mass drug administration of ivermectin in south-eastern Senegal reduces the survivorship of wild-caught, blood fed malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In south-eastern Senegal, malaria and onchocerciasis are co-endemic. Onchocerciasis in this region has been controlled by once or twice yearly mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (IVM) for over fifteen years. Since laboratory-raised Anopheles gambiae s.s. are susceptible to ivermectin at concentrations found in human blood post-ingestion of IVM, it is plausible that a similar effect could be quantified in the field, and that IVM might have benefits as a malaria control tool. Methods In 2008 and 2009, wild-caught blood fed An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from huts of three pairs of Senegalese villages before and after IVM MDAs. Mosquitoes were held in an insectary to assess their survival rate, subsequently identified to species, and their blood meals were identified. Differences in mosquito survival were statistically analysed using a Glimmix model. Lastly, changes in the daily probability of mosquito survivorship surrounding IVM MDAs were calculated, and these data were inserted into a previously developed, mosquito age-structured model of malaria transmission. Results Anopheles gambiae s.s. (P < 0.0001) and Anopheles arabiensis (P = 0.0191) from the treated villages had significantly reduced survival compared to those from control villages. Furthermore, An gambiae s.s. caught 1-6 days after MDA in treated villages had significantly reduced survival compared to control village collections (P = 0.0003), as well as those caught pre-MDA (P < 0.0001) and >7 days post-MDA (P < 0.0001). The daily probability of mosquito survival dropped >10% for the six days following MDA. The mosquito age-structured model of malaria transmission demonstrated that a single IVM MDA would reduce malaria transmission (Ro) below baseline for at least eleven days, and that repeated IVM MDAs would result in a sustained reduction in malaria Ro. Conclusions Ivermectin MDA significantly reduced the survivorship of An. gambiae s.s. for six days past the date of

  20. The role of Kupffer cells in glucan-induced granuloma formation in the liver of mice depleted of blood monocytes by administration of strontium-89

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, M.; Takahashi, K. )

    1991-05-01

    In order to elucidate the role of Kupffer cells in granuloma formation in the liver of mice under a condition of severe monocytopenia induced by administration of strontium-89, granulomas were produced by particulate glucan injection and examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically, by ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography, and in culture experiments. Hepatic granulomas were smaller, less numerous, and more irregularly shaped in the monocytopenic mice than in the control mice. The granulomas were composed of multinuclear giant cells, epithelioid cells, Kupffer cells, and T lymphocytes, but not monocytes or granulocytes. Kupffer cells were heavily labeled with ({sup 3}H)thymidine in the monocytopenic mice, particularly just before the stage of granuloma formation, and then clustered in the liver sinusoids. At 8 days, they formed granulomas, transformed into epithelioid cells, and transformed further into multinuclear giant cells. Although the culture of liver cell suspensions prepared from the livers of monocytopenic mice sustained diffuse proliferation of macrophages on a monolayer of mouse stromal cell line (ST2), no monocyte/macrophage colonies were formed. From these results, it is reasonable to conclude that Kupffer cells alone are activated in a condition without a supply of monocytes from peripheral blood; proliferate and cluster in the hepatic sinusoids; transform into peroxidase-negative macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinuclear giant cells; and participate in granuloma formation in loco together with T lymphocytes.

  1. Serotonergic disturbances in autistic disorder: L-5-hydroxytryptophan administration to autistic youngsters increases the blood concentrations of serotonin in patients but not in controls.

    PubMed

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Verkerk, Robert; Scharpe, Simon; Deboutte, Dirk; Maes, Michael

    2005-03-25

    Some studies have suggested that disorders in the peripheral and central metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) may play a role in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder. This study examines the whole blood concentrations of 5-HT and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in baseline conditions and during a challenge with L-5-OH-tryptophane (5-HTP; 4 mg/kg in non enteric-coated tablets), the precursor of 5-HT, in a study group of 18 male, post-pubertal, Caucasian autistic patients (age 13-19 y.; I.Q.>55) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. In baseline conditions, no significant differences in 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels could be found between autistic youngsters and normal controls. 5-HTP administration significantly increased the levels of 5-HT in autistic youngsters but not in normal controls. Following 5-HTP challenge the 5-HT levels were significantly higher in autistic patients than in healthy volunteers. After challenge with 5-HTP, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of 5-HIAA or the test substance between autistic youngsters and normal controls. Differences in the peripheral metabolism of 5-HT which may not be observed in baseline conditions but which became clear after loading with 5-HTP, suggest that an increased synthesis of 5-HT from its precursor 5-HTP might be a one factor responsible for differences in the serotonergic system between autistic post-pubertal youngsters and normal controls.

  2. Effect of blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow on oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    González, R; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2013-10-01

    Reproduction may be affected by stressful events changing the female endocrine or metabolic profile. An altered environment during oocyte development could influence the delicate process of oocyte maturation. Here, the effect of simulated stress by media supplementation with blood plasma from sows after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration during the preovulatory period was assessed. Oocytes were matured for 46 hours in the presence of plasma from ACTH-treated sows, or plasma from NaCl-treated control sows, or medium without plasma (BSA group). The plasma used had been collected at 36 and 12 hours (±2 hours) before ovulation (for the first 24 hours + last 22 hours of maturation, respectively). Subsequent fertilization and embryo development were evaluated. Actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrial patterns were studied by confocal microscopy both in the oocytes and the resulting blastocysts. Nuclear maturation did not differ between treatments. Subtle differences were observed in the actin microfilaments in oocytes; however, mitochondrial patterns were associated with the treatment (P < 0.001). These differences in mitochondrial patterns were not reflected by in vitro outcomes, which were similar in all groups. In conclusion, an altered hormonal environment provided by a brief exposure to plasma from ACTH-treated sows during in vitro oocyte maturation could induce alterations in actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrial patterns in oocytes. However, these changes might not hamper the subsequent in vitro embryo development.

  3. Analyzing Current Serials in Virginia: An Application of the Ulrich's Serials Analysis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gasser, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    VIVA (the Virtual Library of Virginia) was one of the first subscribers to R. R. Bowker's Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (USAS). Creating a database that combined a union report of current serial subscriptions within most academic libraries in the state with the data elements present in Ulrich's made possible a comprehensive analysis designed…

  4. [The serial murder: a few theoretical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Leistedt, S; Linkowski, P

    2011-01-01

    Despite numbers of publications and effort to try to establish the definition, the classification, the epidemiology, the clinical aspects and the psychopathology of serial killers, a universal consensus seems to say the least. Crime, though reduced in some countries, appears to impact more and more consistent worldwide, generating controversial ideas and a multitude of possible explanations. The serial killer usually presents as a caucasian man, aged between 20 and 40 years, often embedded socially and in his family, but with serious psychiatric, personal and especially family history. Usually acting alone, the serial killer plans a crime well in advance, but sometimes within the scope of impulsivity for a minority, the victim not being previously selected. In the latter case, an actual mental illness like psychosis is found. It is clear from numerous psychopathological studies conducted so far that most serial killers are defined as psychopathic sexual sadists, whose childhood was difficult, if not flouted, punctuated by physical and psychological violence situations. In addition, pervasive fantasies combined with thoughts of death, sex and violence are as much in common with the original acts of which they are the instigators. Beyond a relentless media that is constantly watering the public with stories and pictures depicting them as such, serial killers remain an enigma. We can therefore attempt to answer the various questions raised by this phenomenon, the way these people operate and how we can curb the rise, thanks to the neurobiological and neurophysiological approaches that science offers us.

  5. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    PubMed

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis.

  6. Serial multiplier arrays for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, Kel

    1990-01-01

    Arrays of systolic serial-parallel multiplier elements are proposed as an alternative to conventional SIMD mesh serial adder arrays for applications that are multiplication intensive and require few stored operands. The design and operation of a number of multiplier and array configurations featuring locality of connection, modularity, and regularity of structure are discussed. A design methodology combining top-down and bottom-up techniques is described to facilitate development of custom high-performance CMOS multiplier element arrays as well as rapid synthesis of simulation models and semicustom prototype CMOS components. Finally, a differential version of NORA dynamic circuits requiring a single-phase uncomplemented clock signal introduced for this application.

  7. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides.

  8. Blood CoQ10 levels and safety profile after single-dose or chronic administration of PureSorb-Q40: animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Nukui, Kazuki; Yamagishi, Toshihiko; Miyawaki, Hiromi; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Okamoto, Tadashi; Belardinelli, Romualdo; Tiano, Luca; Littarru, Gian Paulo; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is known to be highly hydrophobic and, as such, insoluble in water: this leads to serious inconvenience when trying to incorporate it in food products. Its absorption is also known to be very limited. PureSorb-Q40 (P40) (Water-soluble type CoQ10 powder, CoQ10 content 40 w/w % was developed in order to improve its use with food products and to enhance its absorption. In the present study the absorption of this novel formulation was compared to a conventional lipid soluble CoQ10 by administering both products to rats and humans. Acute, single-administration studies in rats showed that P40 has a higher absorption, compared to lipid soluble CoQ10, both in prandial and fasting states. Similarly, single administration in humans revealed a higher absorption level for P40, taken in the fasting state or together with meals. In the rat study, no adverse effects were observed with P40 at doses up to 2,000 mg/kg in both sexes. In a double-blind, placebo controlled, comparative study conducted on 46 healthy volunteers and randomly divided into two groups, in the group receiving 900~mg of CoQ10 per day, for 4 consecutive weeks, the average level at two weeks was 8.79 +/- 3.34 microg/mL, similar to the corresponding level after 4 weeks (8.33 +/- 4.04 microg/mL). After 2 weeks of washout, serum CoQ10 level decreased to 1.30 +/- 0.49 microg/mL. P40 intake did not cause any significant changes in symptoms and clinical laboratory tests as assessed by physical, hematological, blood biochemical or urinalysis. Clinical examinations also did not reveal any abnormalities. The above blood (serum) CoQ10 level at 2 weeks after start of intake was compared with other reported values. The same dose of CoQ10 (900mg/day), when administered by softgel capsules yielded a plasma CoQ10 concentration of 3.6 microg/mL, while P40 levels were 8.79 +/- 3.34 microg/mL. These levels are remarkably high for instance when compared to the corresponding levels obtained, in patients

  9. Blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow negatively affects in vitro fertilization by disturbing spermatozoa function.

    PubMed

    González, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2015-04-15

    Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns.

  10. Statistical inference for serial dilution assay data.

    PubMed

    Lee, M L; Whitmore, G A

    1999-12-01

    Serial dilution assays are widely employed for estimating substance concentrations and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The Poisson-Bernoulli model for such assays is appropriate for count data but not for continuous measurements that are encountered in applications involving substance concentrations. This paper presents practical inference methods based on a log-normal model and illustrates these methods using a case application involving bacterial toxins.

  11. "Serial" Effects in Parallel Models of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which…

  12. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  13. Asymmetry in serial femtosecond crystallography data

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Johansson, Linda; Dunevall, Elin; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y.; Neutze, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Serial crystallography is an increasingly important approach to protein crystallography that exploits both X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation. Serial crystallography recovers complete X-ray diffraction data by processing and merging diffraction images from thousands of randomly oriented non-uniform microcrystals, of which all observations are partial Bragg reflections. Random fluctuations in the XFEL pulse energy spectrum, variations in the size and shape of microcrystals, integrating over millions of weak partial observations and instabilities in the XFEL beam position lead to new types of experimental errors. The quality of Bragg intensity estimates deriving from serial crystallography is therefore contingent upon assumptions made while modeling these data. Here it is observed that serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) Bragg reflections do not follow a unimodal Gaussian distribution and it is recommended that an idealized assumption of single Gaussian peak profiles be relaxed to incorporate apparent asymmetries when processing SFX data. The phenomenon is illustrated by re-analyzing data collected from microcrystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center and comparing these intensity observations with conventional synchrotron data. The results show that skewness in the SFX observations captures the essence of the Wilson plot and an empirical treatment is suggested that can help to separate the diffraction Bragg intensity from the background. PMID:28248658

  14. Cooperative Serials Review: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Library Consortium, MA.

    This report describes a 1980/81 project concerned with the formulation and validation of a model for determining whether cancellation and/or consolidation of serial subscriptions and holdings should be recommended to maximize the cost-effective use of combined collections and staff resources in the Boston Library Consortium (BLC). The publication…

  15. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  16. Unlinkable Serial Transactions: Protocols and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    Verification Additional Key Words and Phrases: Anonymity , blinding, cryptographic protocols, unlinkable serial transactions A preliminary version of...typically one for each vendor [Chaum 1981]. Customers maintain anonymity by conducting transactions using anonymous elec- tronic cash (e-cash). But...vendors are able to protect their interests by maintaining a profile on each anonymous customer. In this paper we present, effectively, the opposite

  17. Iranian Serials Published in Latin Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    A list of English, French and German serials published in Iran and available for subscription abroad is given. Bibliographic information is included for each publication. The list was compiled with the help of Guity Afshar and Anoush Hovsepian from Pouri Soltani's "Directory of Iranian Periodicals," 1971. It was distrubuted to certain…

  18. Bibliography of Serials on Caribbean Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Dennis; Milman, Claudio

    An alphabetical listing of serial titles that are relevant to Caribbean affairs and culture is provided. Annotations include the individual publication's scope of coverage as well as its frequency of appearance (monthly, quarterly, weekly, etc.) and postal address. The same type of information regarding newspapers published in the Caribbean area…

  19. Coordination in serial-parallel image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Waldemar; Dubovoi, Vladymyr M.; Duda, Marina E.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Yesmakhanova, Laura; Kozbakova, Ainur

    2015-12-01

    Serial-parallel systems used to convert the image. The control of their work results with the need to solve coordination problem. The paper summarizes the model of coordination of resource allocation in relation to the task of synchronizing parallel processes; the genetic algorithm of coordination developed, its adequacy verified in relation to the process of parallel image processing.

  20. Notes for Serials Cataloging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Beverley, Ed.; Caraway, Beatrice L., Ed.

    Notes are indispensable to serials cataloging. Researchers, reference librarians, and catalogers regularly use notes on catalog records and, as the audience for these notes has expanded from the local library community to the global Internet community, the need for notes to be cogent, clear, and useful is greater than ever. This book is a…

  1. Statistical design for a small serial dilution series.

    PubMed

    Zelterman, Daniel; Tulupyev, Alexander; Heimer, Robert; Abdala, Nadia

    2010-02-10

    We describe statistical plans for a serial dilution series designed to detect and estimate the number of viral particles in a solution. The design addresses a problem when a very limited number of aliquots are available for proliferation. A gamma prior distribution on the number of viral particles allows us to describe the marginal probability distribution of all experimental outcomes. We examine a design that minimizes the expected reciprocal information and compare this with the maximum entropy design. We argue that the maximum entropy design is more useful from the point of view of the laboratory technician. The problem and design are motivated by our study of the viability of human immunodeficiency virus in syringes and other equipment that might mediate blood-borne viral transmission.

  2. A Model of Serial Argument in Interpersonal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Robert; Hoff, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    While most scholars view argument as a single conversational event, the interaction can be seen as a serial episode that occurs and recurs in everyday life. This essay presents a model of serial argument with supporting data. (PD)

  3. Bismuth toxicity in man II. Review of bismuth blood and urine levels in patients after administration of therapeutic bismuth formulations in relation to the problem of bismuth toxicity in man.

    PubMed

    Serfontein, W J; Mekel, R

    1979-11-01

    A survey of the leterature on bismuth toxicity in man in relation to blood level data, has revealed the necessity of distinguishing between lipid soluble and water soluble organic complexes of bismuth on the one hand and the simple inorganic salts of bismuth on the other hand. A characteristic feature of the former, illustrated by the water soluble bismuth complex triglycollamate, is the high bismuth levels (due to absorption of the complex as such) and the nephrotoxic properties of the compound in man. Bismuth absorption after administration of the simple inorganic salts of bismuth is postulated to occur in the form of ionic bismuth as such, low bismuth levels being characteristic features of such compounds. Bismuth blood and urine levels obtained from patients after administration of a new anti-ulcer drug (Bicitropeptide) in a well controlled clinical trial are discussed and suggest that that this bismuth containing drug behaves pharmacologically in a manner similar to the inorganic bismuth salts in man, low bismuth blood levels and the absence of toxic side effects being conspicuous features of the drug. Based on these considerations, it is proposed that the pharmacologically active bismuth compounds be divided into four different groups depending on structure, stability and solubility. The question as to what constitutes a "toxic bismuth blood level" can only be discussed in relation to the new proposed sub-division of bismuth compounds and is only meaningful if the term is defined to relate only to ionic bismuth (presumably bound to a large extent to blood proteins). Based on information gleaned from the literature and blood level values reported in the clinical trial referred to, it is suggested that bismuth blood level values below 50 micrograms/ml are highly unlikely to be associated with meaningful toxicity in man. Finally, attention is drawn to the reversibility of bismuth toxicity in man as reported by many authors irrespective of the type of bismuth

  4. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels

  5. An Investigation of Selective College and University Libraries' Serial Arrangement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Elizabeth Gates; Teborek, Gay

    Data from a survey on serials arrangement procedures and policies at academic libraries was used by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Library in changing current serials policies. Ten libraries, four of which have similar serial holdings and user populations to URI, responded to a questionnaire. Information was obtained on classification versus…

  6. English Literature: A Student's Guide to Serial Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This selected guide to serial bibliographies covering English language literature is based on an essay bibliography by David E. Pownall. Other bibliographies of serial bibliographies which were consulted include "A Reference Guide to English Studies,""Periodicals Containing Reviews and Bibliographies,""Serial Bibliographies in the Humanities and…

  7. The OCLC Serials Sub-System: A First Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Neal L.; And Others

    This examination of the OCLC serials control sub-system points to positive and negative aspects of the OCLC system as they relate to serials, and evaluates the system's serials cataloging capabilities. While this report assumes a knowledge of the basic operations of OCLC, it describes the system in general, its function in cataloging, and its…

  8. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  9. Ritual and signature in serial sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Kassen, Martin; Mesa, V Blair; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Ritual and signature are fantasy-driven, repetitive crime scene behaviors that have been found to occur in serial sexual homicide. Notwithstanding numerous anecdotal case reports, ritual and signature have rarely been studied empirically. In a national sample of 38 offenders and their 162 victims, we examined behavioral and thematic consistency, as well as the evolution and uniqueness of these crime scene actions. The notion that serial sexual murderers engage in the same rituals and leave unique signatures at every scene was not supported by our data. In fact, the results suggest that the crime scene conduct of this group of offenders is fairly complex and varied. Implications of these findings for forensic assessments and criminal investigations are discussed.

  10. Blood oxygenation during hyperpressure intraperitoneal fluid administration in a rabbit model of severe liver injury: Evaluation of a novel concept for control of pre-hospital liver bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Azizi, Saeed; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Maham, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen is an essential part of the most important metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. Oxygen delivery is merely dependent on blood, rendering blood loss a devastating event. Traumatic pre-hospital liver bleeding is a major cause of early trauma deaths in human and animals, with no established therapeutic method yet. Increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been shown to reduce liver bleeding by half. Although reduction of blood loss could be in favor of blood oxygen delivery, however, the complex interaction between increased IAP and respiratory mechanics during severe hemorrhagic shock remained unclear. We used a novel model of liver trauma in 16 rabbits and randomly assigned them to either normotensive abdomen group or increased IAP by fluid infusion (HA) groups (n=8 each). Liver size and the amount of liver injury were evaluated. Various blood oxygenation parameters were recorded. Both groups were identical in terms of the liver size and injury. The HA group had significantly lower shock index. Arterial oxygen capacity and oxygen content were higher in the HA group. No significant statistical difference was seen between groups in terms of abdominal perfusion pressure; alveolar pressure of oxygen; dissolved oxygen in blood plasma; alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient; arterial to alveolar oxygen pressure ratio; the ratio between partial pressure of arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen; and respiratory index. In conclusion, the novel therapeutic method of increasing IAP by fluid infusion in a rabbit model of liver hemorrhage preserved blood oxygenation better than the classic therapeutic method.

  11. Serial dependence in the perception of attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    The perception of attractiveness is essential for choices of food, object, and mate preference. Like perception of other visual features, perception of attractiveness is stable despite constant changes of image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. Recent results demonstrate that perception of low-level stimulus features and even more complex attributes like human identity are biased towards recent percepts. This effect is often called serial dependence. Some recent studies have suggested that serial dependence also exists for perceived facial attractiveness, though there is also concern that the reported effects are due to response bias. Here we used an attractiveness-rating task to test the existence of serial dependence in perceived facial attractiveness. Our results demonstrate that perceived face attractiveness was pulled by the attractiveness level of facial images encountered up to 6 s prior. This effect was not due to response bias and did not rely on the previous motor response. This perceptual pull increased as the difference in attractiveness between previous and current stimuli increased. Our results reconcile previously conflicting findings and extend previous work, demonstrating that sequential dependence in perception operates across different levels of visual analysis, even at the highest levels of perceptual interpretation. PMID:28006077

  12. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  13. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  14. Serial dilutions: a new area of research for animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Sondra L; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Abramson, Charles I

    2012-10-01

    This paper attempts to stimulate the psychological investigation of homeopathy and serially agitated dilutions. The history of homeopathy and serial dilutions is provided in a literature review of selected research areas. Two original illustrative experiments are also presented and discussed. The first examined the effect of serially agitated dilutions of Sevin on the mortality rate of honey bees (Apis mellifera). In a second experiment, the effect of serially agitated dilutions of sucrose on proboscis extension in honey bees was assessed. No differences were found between serially agitated dilutions of pesticides and sucrose compared with dilutions alone. Implications, limitations, and proposed further work are discussed.

  15. From animal cruelty to serial murder: applying the graduation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jeremy; Hensley, Christopher

    2003-02-01

    Although serial murder has been recorded for centuries, limited academic attention has been given to this important topic. Scholars have attempted to examine the causality and motivations behind the rare phenomenon of serial murder. However, scant research exists which delves into the childhood characteristics of serial murderers. Using social learning theory, some of these studies present supporting evidence for a link between childhood animal cruelty and adult aggression toward humans. Based on five case studies of serial murderers, we contribute to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood cruelty toward animals and serial murder with the application of the graduation hypothesis.

  16. Reduction in renal blood flow following administration of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in septic rats treated with Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive and KCa1.1 calcium-activated K+ channel blockers.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Maggi Sant'Helena, Bruna; Guarido, Karla L; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo

    2015-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of K+ channel blockers in the vascular reactivity of in vitro perfused kidneys, as well as on the influence of vasoactive agents in the renal blood flow of rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Both norepinephrine and phenylephrine had the ability to increase the vascular perfusion pressure reduced in kidneys of rats subjected to CLP at 18 h and 36 h before the experiments. The non-selective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the Kir6.1 blocker glibenclamide, normalized the effects of phenylephrine in kidneys from the CLP 18 h group. Systemic administration of tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, or the KCa1.1 blocker iberiotoxin, did not change the renal blood flow in control or septic rats. Norepinephrine or phenylephrine also had no influence on the renal blood flow of septic animals, but its injection in rats from the CLP 18 h group previously treated with either glibenclamide or iberiotoxin resulted in an exacerbated reduction in the renal blood flow. These results suggest an abnormal functionality of K+ channels in the renal vascular bed in sepsis, and that the blockage of different subtypes of K+ channels may be deleterious for blood perfusion in kidneys, mainly when associated with vasoactive drugs.

  17. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  18. Serial murder and the case of Aileen Wuornos: attachment theory, psychopathy, and predatory aggression.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Bruce A; Griffin, Ayanna

    2004-01-01

    The extant research on female homicide has yet to offer any systematic assessment of why women murder serially. Part of the explanation is attributed to existing literature focusing on justifiable and excusable homicide, or women who kill their abusive partners because they have been battered, fear that their lives are in danger, or are otherwise victimized. Thus, predatory homicide perpetrated by women has not received extensive attention in the relevant literature. This article aims to address this deficiency by providing a detailed case study analysis of Aileen Wuornos, a convicted serial murderer executed at Broward Correctional Institution in Pembroke Pines, FL, on October 9, 2002. By linking the literature on attachment theory with the research on psychopathy and predatory aggression, this article argues that Aileen Wuornos was a cold blooded and calculated killer: a serial offender responsible for her delinquent and criminal behavior. Generalizing from the case of Aileen Wuornos, several tentative recommendations are proposed as linked to clinical and forensic prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, as well as future research on women, psychopathy, and predatory serial homicide.

  19. Fusion of competing features is not serial.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Michael H; Parish, Landi; Koch, Christof; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    How features of an object are bound into a unique percept is one of the puzzling problems in the cognitive and neuro-sciences. In order to investigate the spatio-temporal mechanisms of feature binding, we serially present two verniers with opposite offset directions for very short durations. Only one vernier is perceived with its offset dominated by the vernier presented second. This dominance reverses if the two verniers are followed by masking gratings, i.e. the first presented vernier dominates performance. Therefore, feature fusion can neither be explained completely by spatially local mechanisms nor by the temporal order of appearance of elements.

  20. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  1. Serial murder by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C

    2004-01-01

    Six cases of serial murder by children and adolescents spanning the past 150 years are presented. The available literature pertaining to this area is reviewed. Each of these six offenders committed sexually homicidal behavior as demonstrated by their expression of erotic interest or engagement in overt sexual behavior at the crime scenes. From a DSM-IV-TR perspective they all exhibited signs of sexual sadism, and their crime characteristics reflected behavior of a more predatory than affective nature. Hands on methods of killing were preferred, i.e., cutting, stabbing, or strangulation. These crimes are extremely rare. Case reports in this area are encouraged to advance our knowledge of these youths.

  2. EM Immunity Study of Serial Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, M.; Rigazio, L.; Canavero, F. G.; Perraud, R.

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a systematic study of IC immunity for a TX/RX digital system, implemented in a FPGA board. A DPI setup is used to measure the immunity of signal I/O ports to conducted continuous- wave interference. The injection path from RF noise source to input pin is characterized to define the injected power level causing a malfunction on the TX/RX system, up to 250 MHz. The impact of data coding on immunity measurement is analyzed by comparing error rates of Flexray coded data over a standard serial transmission protocol.

  3. Automated Serial Sectioning for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jen; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of an apparatus and method for automated serial sectioning of a specimen of a solder, aluminum, or other relatively soft opaque material are discussed. The apparatus includes a small milling machine (micromiller) that takes precise, shallow cuts (increments of depth as small as 1 micron) to expose successive sections. A microscope equipped with an electronic camera, mounted in a fixed position on the micromiller, takes pictures of the newly exposed specimen surface at each increment of depth. The images are digitized, and the resulting data are subsequently processed to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) features of the specimen.

  4. Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements ("violation elements"). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain-stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of…

  5. Report of the ARL Serials Prices Project. A Compilation of Reports Examining the Serials Prices Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    The rising prices of journals and serials--major information sources for academic and research communities--are explored in this work, which presents two contractor reports on the topic. These two reports are introduced by an overview and summary together with recommendations for further Association of Research Libraries (ARL) action, short…

  6. Serial position curves in free recall.

    PubMed

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  7. Serial dilution microchip for cytotoxicity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyunwoo; Lim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-08-01

    Today's pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges resulting from the vast increases in sample numbers produced by high-throughput screening (HTS). In addition, the bottlenecks created by increased demand for cytotoxicity testing (required to assess compound safety) are becoming a serious problem. We have developed a polymer PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device that can perform a cytotoxicity test in a rapid and reproducible manner. The concept that the device includes is well adjustable to automated robots in huge HTS systems, so we can think of it as a potential dilution and delivery module. Cytotoxicity testing is all about the dilution and dispensing of a drug sample. Previously, we made a PDMS based microfluidic device which automatically and precisely diluted drugs with a buffer solution with serially increasing concentrations. This time, the serially diluted drug solution was directly delivered to 96 well plates for cytotoxicity testing. Cytotoxic paclitaxel solution with 2% RPMI 1640 has been used while carrying out cancerous cell based cytotoxicity tests. We believe that this rapid and robust use of the PDMS microchip will overcome the growing problem in cytotoxicity testing for HTS.

  8. Serial Cognition and Personality in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Drew M.; Terrace, Herbert S.; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between serial cognition and personality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Nine macaques were tested on a simultaneous chaining task to assess their cognitive abilities. They were also rated for personality traits and scored according to a previously extracted six component structure derived from free-ranging rhesus macaques. Friendliness and Openness were positively associated with good performance on three measures of accuracy on the serial learning task: Progress, Error, and Rewarded (i.e., correctly completed) Trials. Faster Reaction Times were associated with lower Friendliness and higher Confidence, as well as higher Openness when only correct responses were analyzed. We also used regularized exploratory factor analysis to extract two, three, four, five, and six factor structures, and found consistent associations between accuracy and single factors within each of these structures. Prior results on intelligence in other nonhuman primate species have focused on basic intelligence tests; this study demonstrates that more complex, abstract cognitive tasks can be used to assess intelligence and personality in nonhuman primates. PMID:27158661

  9. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  10. [Linkage analysis of serial sex crimes].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kaeko; Watanabe, Kazumi; Wachi, Taeko; Otsuka, Yusuke; Kuraishi, Hiroki; Fujita, Goro

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to create an index for a behavioral linkage analysis of serial sex crimes, and second, to construct a predictive model for the analysis. Data on 720 sex crimes (rape, indecent assault) committed by 360 offenders arrested between 1993 and 2005 throughout Japan were collected. The following seven behaviors were examined during a series of analyses aimed at illustrating the effectiveness of crime linkage in serial sex crimes: victim age group, area type, publicness of offense site, weapon, time, contact method, and day of the week. The results indicated that six of the seven behaviors (excluding "day of the week") significantly distinguished between linked and unlinked crime pairs. Under a logistic regression of these six variables, which were dichotomously coded in terms of the concordance or discordance between each pair of incidents, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.87), indicating a high level of discriminative accuracy in identifying disparate sex crimes committed by the same person.

  11. "Serial" effects in parallel models of reading.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which postulate a common parallel processing mechanism for reading both words and nonwords (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Rastle, Havelka, Wydell, Coltheart, & Besner, 2009). However, an alternative explanation of these data is that visual processes outside the scope of existing parallel models are responsible for generating the word-length related phenomena (Seidenberg & Plaut, 1998). Here we demonstrate that a parallel model of single word reading can account for the differential word-length effects found in the naming latencies of words and nonwords, provided that it includes a mapping from visual to orthographic representations, and that the nature of those orthographic representations are not preconstrained. The model can also simulate other supposedly "serial" effects. The overall findings were consistent with the view that visual processing contributes substantially to the word-length effects in normal reading and provided evidence to support the single-route theory which assumes words and nonwords are processed in parallel by a common mechanism.

  12. CMOS serial link for fully duplexed data communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyeongho; Kim, Sungjoon; Ahn, Gijung; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a CMOS serial link allowing fully duplexed 500 Mbaud serial data communication. The CMOS serial link is a robust and low-cost solution to high data rate requirements. A central charge pump PLL for generating multiphase clocks for oversampling is shared by several serial link channels. Fully duplexed serial data communication is realized in the bidirectional bridge by separating incoming data from the mixed signal on the cable end. The digital PLL accomplishes process-independent data recovery by using a low-ratio oversampling, a majority voting, and a parallel data recovery scheme. Mostly, digital approach could extend its bandwidth further with scaled CMOS technology. A single channel serial link and a charge pump PLL are integrated in a test chip using 1.2 micron CMOS process technology. The test chip confirms upto 500 Mbaud unidirectional mode operation and 320 Mbaud fully duplexed mode operation with pseudo random data patterns.

  13. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  14. Health-Promoting Effects of Serial vs. Integrated Combined Strength and Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Karatrantou, K; Gerodimos, V; Häkkinen, K; Zafeiridis, A

    2017-01-01

    Combined strength and aerobic training programs are widely used for improving markers of physical fitness and health. We compared the efficiency of a serial and an integrated combined training program on health and overall fitness in middle-aged females. 54 females (46.7±4.5yrs) were assigned to a serial (SCG) or an integrated (ICG) combined training group or to a control group (CG). The SCG and ICG performed a 3-month training combining aerobic dance and calisthenics. The 2 training programs differ in the sequence of aerobic and strength exercises. SCG performed the strength exercises prior to aerobic; in ICG, the aerobic and strength exercises were altered in a predetermined order. Body composition/circumferences, blood pressure, respiratory function, flexibility, balance, muscle strength/endurance, power and aerobic capacity were measured before and after training. SCG and ICG significantly increased muscle strength and endurance, power, aerobic capacity, flexibility, balance, fat-free mass and respiratory function (p<0.001-0.05), while significant reductions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate and body fat/circumferences (p<0.001-0.05). However, there were no significant differences between SCG and ICG after training. Serial and integrated combined training programs confer analogous adaptations and can be used interchangeably for counteracting the detrimental effects of sedentary lifestyle on indices of physical fitness and health.

  15. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    PubMed

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  16. Effect of joint administration of imipramine and amantadine on binding of [3H]7-OH-DPAT to dopamine D3 receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients with drug-resistant unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta; Rogóz, Zofia; Solich, Joanna; Dudek, Dominika; Wróbel, Andrzej; Zieba, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of the patients suffering from therapy-resistant unipolar depression with joint administration of imipramine (twice daily, 100-150 mg/day) and amantadine (twice daily, 150 mg/day) for four to six weeks resulted in the significant increase in the binding of [3H]7-OH-DPAT to dopamine D3 receptors in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. This effect correlated well with the clinical improvement, estimated with Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale. In the light of the above data, it seems justified to postulate that joint therapy with imipramine and amantadine may be successful in the treatment-resistant unipolar depression.

  17. Distribution of certain drug products by registered blood establishments and comprehensive hemophilia diagnostic treatment centers that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements and administrative procedures. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-10-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to allow certain registered blood establishments and comprehensive hemophilia diagnostic treatment centers that are also health care entities to distribute certain drug products. The final rule amends limited provisions of the regulations implementing the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA). These regulations, among other things, restrict the sale, purchase, or trade of, or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade, prescription drugs purchased by hospitals and other health care entities.

  18. High-dose carboplatin, etoposide and melphalan (CEM) with peripheral blood progenitor cell support as late intensification for high-risk cancer: non-haematological, haematological toxicities and role of growth factor administration.

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti Panici, P.; Pierelli, L.; Scambia, G.; Foddai, M. L.; Salerno, M. G.; Menichella, G.; Vittori, M.; Maneschi, F.; Caracussi, U.; Serafini, R.; Leone, G.; Mancuso, S.

    1997-01-01

    The present report describes the non-haematological toxicity and the influence of growth factor administration on haematological toxicity and haematopoietic recovery observed after high-dose carboplatin (1200 mg m(-2)), etoposide (900 mg m(-2)) and melphalan (100 mg m(-2)) (CEM) followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation (PBPCT) in 40 patients with high-risk cancer during their first-line treatment. PBPCs were collected during the previous outpatient induction chemotherapy programme by leukaphereses. CEM administration with PBPCT was associated with low non-haematological toxicity and the only significant toxicity consisted of a reversible grade III/IV increase in liver enzymes in 32% of the patients. Haematopoietic recovery was very fast in all patients and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus erythropoietin (EPO) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus EPO after PBPCT significantly reduced haematological toxicity, abrogated antibiotic administration during neutropenia and significantly reduced hospital stay and patient's hospital charge compared with patients treated with PBPCT only. None of the patients died early of CEM plus PBPCT-related complications. Low non-haematological toxicity and accelerated haematopoietic recovery renders CEM with PBPC/growth factor support an acceptable therapeutic approach in an adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting. PMID:9099971

  19. Low-dose fixed-target serial synchrotron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robin L; Axford, Danny; Sherrell, Darren A; Kuo, Anling; Ernst, Oliver P; Schulz, Eike C; Miller, R J Dwayne; Mueller-Werkmeister, Henrike M

    2017-04-01

    The development of serial crystallography has been driven by the sample requirements imposed by X-ray free-electron lasers. Serial techniques are now being exploited at synchrotrons. Using a fixed-target approach to high-throughput serial sampling, it is demonstrated that high-quality data can be collected from myoglobin crystals, allowing room-temperature, low-dose structure determination. The combination of fixed-target arrays and a fast, accurate translation system allows high-throughput serial data collection at high hit rates and with low sample consumption.

  20. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  1. Is Serial Testing Required to Diagnose Imported Malaria in the Era of Rapid Diagnostic Tests?

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Janet M.; Juneja, Surender; Manitta, Joseph; Whitehead, Susan; Maxwell, Ellen; Goh, Wai-Keong; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Eisen, Damon P.

    2013-01-01

    Exclusion of malaria traditionally requires three negative serial thick and thin blood films. However, many clinical laboratories now routinely perform rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in addition to blood films when malaria is suspected. We sought to determine whether serial testing is necessary in this setting. We examined 388 cases of malaria diagnosed during 1999–2010 at three laboratories in Melbourne, Australia. For each case, we ascertained whether the diagnosis was made on initial or follow-up testing. Nine cases (3.5%) were diagnosed after a negative initial blood film and RDT: 7 Plasmodium vivax, 1 P. ovale, and 1 P. falciparum. Of four case-patients with P. vivax in which clinical data were available, all had recent exposure to antimalarial medication. Our data suggest that among patients who have not received recent anti-malarial therapy, and when RDTs are performed and blood films are prepared, most malaria diagnoses are made by using the first set of tests. PMID:23208885

  2. A nanoliter microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Guo-Yue; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial culture is a basic technique in both fundamental and applied microbiology. The excessive reagent consumption and laborious maintenance of bulk bioreactors for microbial culture have prompted the development of miniaturized on-chip bioreactors. With the minimal choice of two compartments (N = 2) and discrete time, periodic dilution steps, we realize a microfluidic bioreactor that mimics macroscopic serial dilution transfer culture. This device supports automated, long-term microbial cultures with a nanoliter-scale working volume and real-time monitoring of microbial populations at single-cell resolution. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, the device also operates as an effective biofilm-flow reactor to support cogrowth of planktonic and biofilm populations. We expect that such devices will open opportunities in many fields of microbiology. PMID:26392828

  3. Data Exploration Toolkit for serial diffraction experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Zeldin, Oliver B.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; ...

    2015-01-23

    Ultrafast diffraction at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to yield new insights into important biological systems that produce radiation-sensitive crystals. An unavoidable feature of the 'diffraction before destruction' nature of these experiments is that images are obtained from many distinct crystals and/or different regions of the same crystal. Combined with other sources of XFEL shot-to-shot variation, this introduces significant heterogeneity into the diffraction data, complicating processing and interpretation. To enable researchers to get the most from their collected data, a toolkit is presented that provides insights into the quality of, and the variation present in, serial crystallography datamore » sets. These tools operate on the unmerged, partial intensity integration results from many individual crystals, and can be used on two levels: firstly to guide the experimental strategy during data collection, and secondly to help users make informed choices during data processing.« less

  4. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  5. Structure of the Angiotensin Receptor Revealed by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Haitao; Unal, Hamiyet; Gati, Cornelius; ...

    2015-05-07

    We report that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT1R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT1R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing high quality crystals for structure determination using synchrotron radiation. By applying the recently developed method of serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser, we successfully determined the room-temperature crystal structure of the human AT1R in complex with its selective antagonist ZD7155 at 2.9 Å resolution. Themore » AT1R-ZD7155 complex structure revealed key structural features ofAT1R and critical interactions for ZD7155 binding. Finally, docking simulations of the clinically used ARBs into the AT1R structure further elucidated both the common and distinct binding modes for these anti-hypertensive drugs. Our results thereby provide fundamental insights into AT1R structure-function relationship and structure-based drug design.« less

  6. Structure of the Angiotensin Receptor Revealed by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haitao; Unal, Hamiyet; Gati, Cornelius; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Wei; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Nelson, Garrett; Weierstall, Uwe; Sawaya, Michael R.; Xu, Qingping; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Yefanov, Oleksandr M.; White, Thomas A.; Wang, Chong; Ishchenko, Andrii; Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Desnoyer, Russell; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Fromme, Petra; Stevens, Raymond C.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Karnik, Sadashiva S.; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-05-07

    We report that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT1R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT1R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing high quality crystals for structure determination using synchrotron radiation. By applying the recently developed method of serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser, we successfully determined the room-temperature crystal structure of the human AT1R in complex with its selective antagonist ZD7155 at 2.9 Å resolution. The AT1R-ZD7155 complex structure revealed key structural features ofAT1R and critical interactions for ZD7155 binding. Finally, docking simulations of the clinically used ARBs into the AT1R structure further elucidated both the common and distinct binding modes for these anti-hypertensive drugs. Our results thereby provide fundamental insights into AT1R structure-function relationship and structure-based drug design.

  7. Comparing Administrative and Clinical Data for Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jory; Issa, Mohamed; Nasrallah, Ali; Bahroloomi, Sheena; Blackwood, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU). Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011). The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD-10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  8. Repeated administrations of human umbilical cord blood cells improve disease outcomes in a mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNCs) into Naglu knockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglu mice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media-only group or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups--single low dose (3 × 10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8 × 10(7) cells), or multiple doses (3 × 10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously; cyclosporine was injected intraperitoneally to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild-type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition in an active avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation, and decreased microglial activation, particularly in the hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations.

  9. Repeated Administrations of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Improve Disease Outcomes in a Mouse Model of Sanfilippo Syndrome Type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2013-12-30

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNC) into Nagluknockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglumice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media only group, or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups - single low dose (3x10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8x10(7) cells) or multiple doses (3x10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously (i.v.); cyclosporine was injected i.p. to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition inactive avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation and decreased microglial activation, particularly in hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations.

  10. Tailoring Lipid and Polymeric Nanoparticles as siRNA Carriers towards the Blood-Brain Barrier - from Targeting to Safe Administration.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria João; Fernandes, Carlos; Martins, Susana; Borges, Fernanda; Sarmento, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Blood-brain barrier is a tightly packed layer of endothelial cells surrounding the brain that acts as the main obstacle for drugs enter the central nervous system (CNS), due to its unique features, as tight junctions and drug efflux systems. Therefore, since the incidence of CNS disorders is increasing worldwide, medical therapeutics need to be improved. Consequently, aiming to surpass blood-brain barrier and overcome CNS disabilities, silencing P-glycoprotein as a drug efflux transporter at brain endothelial cells through siRNA is considered a promising approach. For siRNA enzymatic protection and efficient delivery to its target, two different nanoparticles platforms, solid lipid (SLN) and poly-lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA) nanoparticles were used in this study. Polymeric PLGA nanoparticles were around 115 nm in size and had 50 % of siRNA association efficiency, while SLN presented 150 nm and association efficiency close to 52 %. Their surface was functionalized with a peptide-binding transferrin receptor, in a site-oriented manner confirmed by NMR, and their targeting ability against human brain endothelial cells was successfully demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The interaction of modified nanoparticles with brain endothelial cells increased 3-fold compared to non-modified lipid nanoparticles, and 4-fold compared to non-modified PLGA nanoparticles, respectively. These nanosystems, which were also demonstrated to be safe for human brain endothelial cells, without significant cytotoxicity, bring a new hopeful breath to the future of brain diseases therapies.

  11. Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

  12. List Onset and Isolation in Continuous Serial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Louis G.

    1974-01-01

    This experiment attempted to obtain an estimate of perceptual isolation effects when the isolated item was the only distinctive feature in the list and to obtain data on continuous serial learning in order that isolation and serial-position effects could be compared directly. (Author/RK)

  13. Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

  14. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  15. Balancing Information Needs with Serials Value and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda A.

    1997-01-01

    To prevent further erosion of their monographs budget and to allow for a modest number of new serial subscriptions to support changing curricular and research needs, librarians at Bowling Green State University (Ohio) decided to cut serial subscriptions and to subsidize article delivery from a commercial document delivery vendor. Discusses the…

  16. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main…

  17. Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

  18. Serials Information on CD-ROM: A Reference Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Ulrich's PLUS (a CD-ROM version of Ulrich's serials directories) and EBSCO's CD-ROM version of "The Serials Directory," and compares the two in terms of their use as reference tools. Areas discussed include database content, user aids, system features, search features, and a comparison of search results. Equipment requirements…

  19. Multiple Serial List Learning with Two Mnemonic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Paul T.; Young, Robert K.

    The classic mnemonic for learning serial lists, the method of loci, and its modern counterpart, the peg system, were compared by having subjects learn three 20-item serial lists. In addition to the type of mnemonic training, list imagery was either high (rated 6-7) or medium (rated 4-5), and instructions were either progressive elaboration (e.g.,…

  20. 10 CFR 32.201 - Serialization of nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serialization of nationally tracked sources. 32.201 Section 32.201 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Specifically Licensed Items § 32.201 Serialization...

  1. Linking Associative and Serial List Memory: Pairs Versus Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Paired associates and serial list memory are typically investigated separately. An "isolation principle" (J. B. Caplan, 2005) was proposed to explain behavior in both paradigms by using a single model, in which serial list and paired associates memory differ only in how isolated pairs of items are from interference from other studied items. In…

  2. Implications of Proposed Changes in Rules for Entry of Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Joseph H.

    In a presentation to the American Library Association, the author describes some advantages of converting serial title entries to the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--and some difficulties of conversion. The coordination of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules with ISBD(S) is discussed, as well as ISBD(S) in…

  3. Basal CD34+ Cell Count Predicts Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Healthy Donors after Administration of G-CSF: a Longitudinal, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Massimo; Gori, Mercedes; Pitino, Annalisa; Gentile, Massimo; Dattola, Antonia; Pontari, Antonella; Vigna, Ernesto; Moscato, Tiziana; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Barilla', Santina; Tripepi, Giovanni; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-03-24

    A longitudinal, prospective, observational, single-center, cohort study on healthy donors (HDs) was designed to identify predictors of CD34+ cells on day 5 with emphasis on the predictive value of the basal CD34+ cell count. As potential predictors of mobilization, age, sex, body weight, height, blood volume as well as white blood cell count, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells, platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were considered. Two different evaluations of CD34+ cell counts were determined for each donor: baseline (before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] administration) and in PB after G-CSF administration on the morning of the fifth day (day 5). A total 128 consecutive HDs (66 males) with a median age of 43 years were enrolled. CD34+ levels on day 5 displayed a non-normal distribution with a median value of 75.5 cells/µL. To account for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a quantile regression analysis to predict CD34+ on day 5 using the baseline value of CD34+ as the key predictor was performed. On crude analysis, a baseline value of CD34+ ranging from 0.5 to 1 cells/µL predicts a median value of 50 cells/µL on day 5; a value of 2 cells/µL predicts a median value of 70.7 cells/µL; a value of 3-4 cells/µL predicts a median value of 91.3 cells/µL, and a value ≥ 5 predicts a median value of 112 cells/µL. In conclusion, the baseline PB CD34+ cell count correlates with the effectiveness of allogeneic PBSC mobilization and could be useful to plan the collection.

  4. Assessment of driving capability through the use of clinical and psychomotor tests in relation to blood cannabinoids levels following oral administration of 20 mg dronabinol or of a cannabis decoction made with 20 or 60 mg Delta9-THC.

    PubMed

    Ménétrey, Annick; Augsburger, Marc; Favrat, Bernard; Pin, Marie A; Rothuizen, Laura E; Appenzeller, Monique; Buclin, Thierry; Mangin, Patrice; Giroud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    molar ratio of main active to inactive cannabinoids, greater than 10 was found to correlate with a strong feeling of intoxication. It also matched with a significant decrease in the willingness to drive, and it matched also with a significant impairment in tracking performances. The mathematic model II proposed by Huestis et al. (1992) provided at best a rough estimate of the time of oral administration with 27% of actual values being out of range of the 95% confidence interval. The sum of THC and 11-OH-THC blood concentrations provided a better estimate of impairment than THC alone. This controlled clinical study points out the negative influence on fitness to drive after medium or high dose oral THC or dronabinol.

  5. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  6. The concordance of serial ANA tests in an Australian tertiary hospital pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adrian Y S; Hudspeth, Andrew R; Adelstein, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The antinuclear antibody (ANA) tests are some of the more frequently requested tests for the diagnosis of autoimmunity. Although they are used primarily as diagnostic blood tests, multiple requests on the same patient continue to be encountered in the laboratory. This retrospective analysis of serial ANA testing at one pathology laboratory in Australia is the first study that examines the statistical concordance and possible implications of this on clinical practice. High-titred ANA have quite good repeatability for titre and pattern, and low-titred ANA, which can be non-specific, have poor repeatability. Staining patterns are, in general, almost random in nature on serial tests when compared to the first-obtained ANA pattern for each patient. This study confirms that there is little benefit in serial ANA testing, and only if there is a clear change in the patient's clinical picture would repeat of an initial low-titred ANA be useful. The findings reinforce the need for pathology stewardship to minimise costs, wasted resources and unnecessary referrals.

  7. Serial circulating immune complex levels and mitogen responses during progressive tumor growth in WF rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrick, M L; Steele, G; Ross, D S; Lahey, S J; Deasy, J M; Rayner, A A; Harte, P J; Wilson, R E; Munroe, A E; King, V P

    1983-06-01

    Inbred male WF rats were given im injections of one of two antigenically and histologically distinct syngeneic tumor isografts, adenocarcinoma DMH-W 163 or spontaneous renal cell carcinoma SPK. Serum and peripheral blood lymphocytes were harvested from tumor-bearing and normal age-matched controls before and after isograft challenge at weekly intervals. Serial circulating immune complex (CIC) levels were quantitated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) insolubilization. T-cell mitogen responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) were followed serially. Tumor growth was measured at least weekly. PEG-CIC values rose early after tumor injection, increased with tumor growth, and declined in some animals just before death. Mitogen response to PHA was significantly decreased in isografted tumor-bearing rats, particularly at later stages of tumor development, compared to normal uninoculated controls. Responses to Con A were variable, and suppression was not always seen in tumor bearers. In animals that did not have progressive tumor growth after isograft injection, PEG-CIC levels did not change and responses to PHA were not suppressed. Patterns of CIC change and responses to PHA were not affected by differences in tumor histology or growth rates. Thus serial CIC levels measured by the PEG assay correlate with tumor growth and precede nonspecific suppression of T-cell mitogenic response in these animal tumor models.

  8. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2014-07-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops.

  9. Graphene-based microfluidics for serial crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sui, Shuo; Wang, Yuxi; Kolewe, Kristopher W; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Schiffman, Jessica D; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Perry, Sarah L

    2016-08-02

    Microfluidic strategies to enable the growth and subsequent serial crystallographic analysis of micro-crystals have the potential to facilitate both structural characterization and dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. However, adapting microfluidic crystallization platforms for micro-crystallography requires a dramatic decrease in the overall device thickness. We report a robust strategy for the straightforward incorporation of single-layer graphene into ultra-thin microfluidic devices. This architecture allows for a total material thickness of only ∼1 μm, facilitating on-chip X-ray diffraction analysis while creating a sample environment that is stable against significant water loss over several weeks. We demonstrate excellent signal-to-noise in our X-ray diffraction measurements using a 1.5 μs polychromatic X-ray exposure, and validate our approach via on-chip structure determination using hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model system. Although this work is focused on the use of graphene for protein crystallography, we anticipate that this technology should find utility in a wide range of both X-ray and other lab on a chip applications.

  10. Serial dependence promotes object stability during occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Alina; Zhang, Kathy; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    Object identities somehow appear stable and continuous over time despite eye movements, disruptions in visibility, and constantly changing visual input. Recent results have demonstrated that the perception of orientation, numerosity, and facial identity is systematically biased (i.e., pulled) toward visual input from the recent past. The spatial region over which current orientations or face identities are pulled by previous orientations or identities, respectively, is known as the continuity field, which is temporally tuned over the past several seconds (Fischer & Whitney, 2014). This perceptual pull could contribute to the visual stability of objects over short time periods, but does it also address how perceptual stability occurs during visual discontinuities? Here, we tested whether the continuity field helps maintain perceived object identity during occlusion. Specifically, we found that the perception of an oriented Gabor that emerged from behind an occluder was significantly pulled toward the random (and unrelated) orientation of the Gabor that was seen entering the occluder. Importantly, this serial dependence was stronger for predictable, continuously moving trajectories, compared to unpredictable ones or static displacements. This result suggests that our visual system takes advantage of expectations about a stable world, helping to maintain perceived object continuity despite interrupted visibility. PMID:28006066

  11. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, Dario B.

    1994-01-01

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  12. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  13. Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops. PMID:25379096

  14. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  15. Effect of Single and Double Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kim, Yona; Chang, Jong Wook; Yang, Yoon Sun; Oh, Wonil; Lee, Jae Min; Park, Hye Ran; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha

    2017-02-01

    Stem cell therapies are administered during the acute phase of stroke to preserve the penumbral tissues from ischemic injury. However, the effect of repeated cell therapy during the acute phase remains unclear. In this study, we investigated and compared the functional outcome of single (two days post-injury) and repeated (two and nine days post-injury) treatment with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rotarod and limb placement tests were utilized to investigate functional outcomes, while infarct volume and tissue damage were measured by immunofluorescent staining for neovascularization, neurogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation in the penumbral zones. We observed notable motor dysfunction and a significant decrease in infarcted brain volume, as well as increases in neurons and vessels in both single and repeated hUCB-MSC treatments compared to the control group. Interestingly, repeated administration of hUCB-MSCs was not found to elicit additional or synergistic improvements over monotherapy. This study suggests that a clearer understanding of the therapeutic window after stroke will facilitate the development of more efficient treatment protocols in the clinical application of stem cell therapy.

  16. Effect of Single and Double Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kim, Yona; Chang, Jong Wook; Yang, Yoon Sun; Oh, Wonil; Lee, Jae Min; Park, Hye Ran; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell therapies are administered during the acute phase of stroke to preserve the penumbral tissues from ischemic injury. However, the effect of repeated cell therapy during the acute phase remains unclear. In this study, we investigated and compared the functional outcome of single (two days post-injury) and repeated (two and nine days post-injury) treatment with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rotarod and limb placement tests were utilized to investigate functional outcomes, while infarct volume and tissue damage were measured by immunofluorescent staining for neovascularization, neurogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation in the penumbral zones. We observed notable motor dysfunction and a significant decrease in infarcted brain volume, as well as increases in neurons and vessels in both single and repeated hUCB-MSC treatments compared to the control group. Interestingly, repeated administration of hUCB-MSCs was not found to elicit additional or synergistic improvements over monotherapy. This study suggests that a clearer understanding of the therapeutic window after stroke will facilitate the development of more efficient treatment protocols in the clinical application of stem cell therapy. PMID:28243167

  17. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR), bradykinin (BK), and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF) response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779) and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE) or vehicle (OV) for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg(-1) min(-1)) were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF) in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (P < 0.05). Infusion of 300 ng kg(-1) min(-1) Ang 1-7 increased RBF by 6.9 ± 1.9% in OVE group versus 0.9 ± 1.8% in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats.

  18. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR), bradykinin (BK), and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF) response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779) and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE) or vehicle (OV) for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg−1 min−1) were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF) in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (P < 0.05). Infusion of 300 ng kg−1 min−1 Ang 1-7 increased RBF by 6.9 ± 1.9% in OVE group versus 0.9 ± 1.8% in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats. PMID:26421009

  19. [Behavior of blood glucose level with the administration of micronutrients vitamin d3 and calcium in nondiabetic patients with hyperglycemia in adult intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Rueda Páez, Elsy Victoria; Moncada Parada, Esperanza; Figueroa Melgarejo, Jairo; Ascencio Higuera, Ana Airé

    2015-05-01

    La hiperglucemia sin antecedentes previos de diabetes mellitus (DM) se observa en un alto porcentaje en pacientes de unidades de cuidado intensivo (UCI). Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento de cifras de glucemia en pacientes no diabéticos con hiperglucemia mediante la administración de 2 micronutrientes. Metodología: se realizó un ensayo clínico a 32 pacientes, 16 en el grupo a intervenir y 16 en el grupo control. Al grupo intervenido se le administró desde su ingreso los micronutrientes vitamina D3 en dosis de 1.000 unidades internacionales (UI) y calcio en dosis de 1.000 mg cada 24 horas por un periodo de 72 horas. Resultados: no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la glucemia de ingreso entre los grupos intervenidos y control (152,6 y 153,3 mg/dl respectivamente (p= 0,922), sin embargo a las 72 horas el comportamiento de las glucemias disminuyó significativamente en el grupo intervenido comparado con el grupo control (98,41 y 141,66 mg/dl respectivamente p= < 0,000). Así mismo, se evidenció que la intervención con vitamina D3 y Calcio redujo el riesgo (47%) de desarrollo del evento indeseado (glucemia > 100 mg/dl), mostrando que se deben tratar 2.29 pacientes para disminuir el evento indeseable (NNT). Conclusión: la utilización de los micronutrientes analizados en pacientes críticos sin diagnóstico previo de diabetes requiere de más investigaciones que contemplen las limitaciones aquí planteadas. Dada la poca literatura encontrada de estudios similares, esta investigación proporcionaría otra alternativa en la disminución de la hiperglucemia de éstos pacientes.

  20. Release of melanotroph- and corticotroph-type proopiomelanocortin derivatives into blood after administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone in patients with septic shock without adrenocortical insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Matejec, Reginald; Löcke, Gudrun; Mühling, Jörg; Harbach, Heinz-Walter; Langefeld, Tanja-Wiebke; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Hempelmann, Gunter

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the adequacy of pituitary function by determining the plasma concentrations of corticotroph-type (corticotropin, beta-endorphin immunoreactive material [beta-END IRM], authentic beta-END, and beta-lipotropin IRM) as well as melanotroph-type (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [alpha-MSH] and N-acetyl-beta-END [Nac-beta-END] IRM) proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derivatives in patients under septic shock upon administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The objectives were to assess whether an insufficient release of corticotroph- or melanotroph-type POMC derivatives from the pituitary into the cardiovascular compartment correlates with the 28-day mortality rate. Seventeen patients with septic shock but without adrenocortical insufficiency and 16 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study, and CRH stimulation tests were performed with an i.v. bolus injection of 100 microg human CRH. After treatment with CRH, plasma concentrations of corticotroph-type POMC derivatives increased in survivors and nonsurvivors, melanotroph-type POMC derivatives such as alpha-MSH or Nac-beta-END IRM increased only in survivors in contrast to nonsurvivors. The release of alpha-MSH and Nac-beta-END IRM was suppressed by dexamethasone in survivors but not in nonsurvivors. In patients with septic shock, the response of the pituitary to CRH stimulation in terms of alpha-MSH or Nac-beta-END IRM release was impaired in nonsurvivors compared with survivors or controls. Reduced responses of alpha-MSH or Nac-beta-END IRM to CRH and the invalid suppression by dexamethasone reflect a state of dysfunction of the melanotroph-type POMC system in nonsurvivors. Considering anticytokine and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-MSH, this dysfunction may increase the risk of death in patients with septic shock.

  1. Neonatal high-permeability pulmonary edema based on serial cytokine profiles and KL-6 in serum: case report.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Naoto

    2017-03-22

    A newborn male with pulmonary edema was delivered at term by elective Caesarian section. Cytokine profiles of 17 cytokines and KL-6 in cord blood and serial serum values were investigated. The cord blood values of all 17 cytokines and KL-6 were within normal limits. Subsequently, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, and IFNγ rapidly elevated during the first several hours after birth and dramatically decreased thereafter, whereas KL-6 rose to 611 U/ml on the 3(rd) day of life and then gradually decreased. These cytokines may induce pulmonary permeability, and KL-6 secreted in lining fluid could result in influx into the bloodstream. This is the first report that we have differentiated neonatal pulmonary edema from TTN by the measurement of serial cytokine profiles and KL-6 in serum.

  2. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  3. A comparison of serum antivenom concentrations after intravenous and intramuscular administration of redback (widow) spider antivenom

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; O'Leary, Margaret; Miller, Mark; Brown, Simon G A; Ramasamy, Sharmaine; James, Rosemary; Schneider, Jennifer S

    2008-01-01

    AIMS There are no studies measuring antivenom concentrations following intramuscular administration. This study aimed to compare antivenom concentrations following intravenous and intramuscular administration of redback spider antivenom (RBSAV). METHODS Twenty patients recruited to a controlled trial comparing intramuscular and intravenous administration of antivenom had serial blood samples collected at 30 min intervals for 2 h after the administration of one or two doses of antivenom. Antivenom concentration was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS Ten patients received intramuscular antivenom but antivenom could not be detected in serum after either one or two vials, at any time point. The median time of the final sample after commencement of antivenom treatment in these patients was 3.2 h (1.8–5 h). Ten patients received intravenous antivenom (three one vial and seven two or more vials) and antivenom was detected in all patients. CONCLUSIONS RBS AV given by the intramuscular route is unlikely to be effective in the treatment of redback (widow) spider bite. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Widow spider antivenoms, including redback spider antivenom, are often given by the intramuscular route. No studies have measured widow spider antivenom following intramuscular or intravenous antivenom. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Intramuscular redback spider antivenom is not detectable in serum for at least 3–5 h after treatment. Intravenous antivenom is detectable 30 min after intravenous infusion. Intramuscular antivenom may not be an effective administration route. PMID:18171334

  4. Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections

    SciTech Connect

    Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-04-13

    We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

  5. Genome-Wide Linkage Screen for Systolic Blood Pressure in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES) of Mexican-Americans and Confirmation of a Major Susceptibility Locus on Chromosome 6q14.1

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Sobha; Coletta, Dawn K.; Schneider, Jennifer; Hu, Shirley L.; Farook, Vidya S.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Arya, Rector; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hypertension or high blood pressure is a strong correlate of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We conducted a genome-wide linkage screen to identify susceptibility genes influencing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Mexican-Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Methods Using data from 1,089 individuals distributed across 266 families, we performed a multipoint linkage analysis to localize susceptibility loci for SBP and DBP by applying two models. In model 1, we added a sensible constant to the observed BP values in treated subjects [Tobin et al.; Stat Med 2005;24:2911–2935] to account for antihypertensive use (i.e. 15 and 10 mm Hg to SBP and DBP values, respectively). In model 2, we fixed values of 140 mm Hg for SBP and 90 mm Hg for DBP, if the treated values were less than the standard referenced treatment thresholds of 140/90 mm Hg for hypertensive status. However, if the observed treated BP values were found to be above these standard treatment thresholds, the actual observed treated BP values were retained in order not to reduce them by substitution of the treatment threshold values. Results The multipoint linkage analysis revealed strong linkage signals for SBP compared with DBP. The strongest evidence for linkage of SBP (model 1, LOD = 5.0; model 2, LOD = 3.6) was found on chromosome 6q14.1 near the marker D6S1031 (89 cM) in both models. In addition, some evidence for SBP linkage occurred on chromosomes 1q, 4p, and 16p. Most importantly, our major SBP linkage finding on chromosome 6q near marker D6S1031 was independently confirmed in a Caucasian population (LOD = 3.3). In summary, our study found evidence for a major locus on chromosome 6q influencing SBP levels in Mexican-Americans. PMID:21293138

  6. Long-term cilostazol administration ameliorates memory decline in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) through a dual effect on cAMP and blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Shuichi; Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ito, Hideki; Endo, Shogo

    2017-04-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which hydrolyze and inactivate 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), play an important role in synaptic plasticity that underlies memory. Recently, several PDE inhibitors were assessed for their possible therapeutic efficacy in treating cognitive disorders. Here, we examined how cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, affects brain functions in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), an animal model of age-related cognitive impairment. Long-term administration of cilostazol restored the impaired context-dependent conditioned fear memory of SAMP8 to match that in normal aging control substrain SAMR1. Cilostazol also increased the number of cells containing phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), a downstream component of the cAMP pathway. Finally, cilostazol improves blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, demonstrated by reduced extravasation of 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-fluoro-d-glucose and Evans Blue dye in the brains of SAMP8. This improvement in BBB integrity was associated with an increased amount of zona occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and occludin proteins, components of tight junctions integral to the BBB. The results suggest that long-term administration of cilostazol exerts its beneficial effects on age-related cognitive impairment through a dual mechanism: by enhancing the cAMP system in the brain and by maintaining or improving BBB integrity.

  7. Gastrointestinal Bleeding as a Complication of Serial Transverse Enteroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jeremy G.; Stamm, Danielle A.; Modi, Biren P.; Duggan, Christopher; Jaksic, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) lengthens and tapers bowel in patients with intestinal failure and has a generally low complication profile. Evaluation and treatment of serious gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in three STEP patients is described. Methods Records of patients participating in an interdisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation program were reviewed to identify those who underwent STEP and had GIB necessitating red blood cell transfusion. Results Of 296 patients, 23 underwent STEP and 3 (13%) had subsequent GIB requiring transfusion. Underlying diagnoses were multiple atresias/intrauterine volvulus, gastroschisis, and gastroschisis with volvulus. STEP was performed at ages ranging from 3–5 months, using 3–8 stapler firings with an increase in mean bowel length from 23 to 45 cm. GIB was noted at 10–33 months post-op and resulted in 2–7 transfusions per patient over a period of 3–16 months. Gastrointestinal endoscopic evaluation demonstrated ulcers adjacent to the staple lines in two patients. Both had improvement of GIB with enteral antibiotics, sulfasalazine, topical enteral steroids and, ultimately, a period of bowel rest. The third patient had histological evidence of eosinophilic enteritis and was treated sequentially with antibiotics, sulfasalazine, enteral steroids, and an elemental diet. In all three, hemoglobin levels improved despite persistent occult bleeding. Conclusions Significant GIB is a potential late complication of STEP. Endoscopy identified the underlying source of GIB in all three patients. A combination of enteral antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and bowel rest was effective in the treatment of post-STEP GIB, without the need for additional bowel resection. PMID:24851761

  8. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  9. Union Lists and the Public Record of Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kenneth D.

    1970-01-01

    Adaptation of union listing of serials to displace individually constructed public records in contributing libraries is discussed. Standardization in scope, main entry, and input would be necessary. (Author/JS)

  10. Health care serial murder: a patient safety orphan.

    PubMed

    Kizer, Kenneth W; Yorker, Beatrice C

    2010-04-01

    Two recent instances of alleged health care serial murder raise questions about the priority of efforts to address this problem and the adequacy of current health care safety systems for preventing such intentionally caused adverse events.

  11. ISBD (S) and Title Main Entry for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, C. Sumner

    1975-01-01

    I shall side with the IFLA 1961 decision to accord main entry under corporate bodies for the publications resulting from their corporate activity, monographic or serial. I find the case for arbitrary entry under title to be essentially weak. (Author)

  12. Bibliographic Control of Serial Publications: ISDS and ISBD(S)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffez, F.; Grousseaud, A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of the International Serials Data System within the UNISIST framework to the IFLA sponsored International Standard Bibliographic Description draws attention to the complementary nature of the two systems. (Author/JAB)

  13. Hematologic and plasma biochemical changes associated with fenbendazole administration in Hermann's tortoises (testudo hermanni).

    PubMed

    Neiffer, Donald L; Lydick, Dianna; Burks, Kyle; Doherty, Donna

    2005-12-01

    Toxicosis associated with benzimidazole anthelmintics has been reported with increasing frequency in zoologic collections. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, and gross and histologic lesions are primarily the result of damage to the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems. Profound leukopenia, especially granulocytopenia, is the most common and severe clinicopathologic change associated with benzimidazole administration. Death usually occurs from overwhelming systemic bacterial and/or fungal infections secondary to severe immunosuppression. In this 125-day study, six male Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni) were treated orally with two 5-day courses of fenbendazole 2 wk apart at a dosage of 50 mg/kg. Serial blood samples were used to assess hematologic and plasma biochemical changes before, during, and following the treatment period. Although the tortoises remained healthy, blood sampling indicated an extended heteropenia with transient hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and equivocal hyperproteinemia/hyperglobulinemia, which were considered to be in response to fenbendazole administration. Changes in several other clinicopathologic parameters appeared to correlate with fenbendazole administration. The hematologic and biochemical changes seen in the healthy animals in this study should be considered when treating compromised tortoises with fenbendazole. Hematologic and plasma biochemical status of tortoises/reptiles should be determined before treatment and monitored during the treatment period. The risk of mortality of an individual from nematode infection should be assessed relative to the potential for metabolic alteration and secondary septicemia following damage to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal systems by fenbendazole.

  14. Fast assembling of neuron fragments in serial 3D sections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanbo; Iascone, Daniel Maxim; da Costa, Nuno Maçarico; Lein, Ed S; Liu, Tianming; Peng, Hanchuan

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing neurons from 3D image-stacks of serial sections of thick brain tissue is very time-consuming and often becomes a bottleneck in high-throughput brain mapping projects. We developed NeuronStitcher, a software suite for stitching non-overlapping neuron fragments reconstructed in serial 3D image sections. With its efficient algorithm and user-friendly interface, NeuronStitcher has been used successfully to reconstruct very large and complex human and mouse neurons.

  15. [A serial killer as exemplified by T. R. Bundy].

    PubMed

    Gałeska-Sliwka, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The question of serial homicides and their perpetrators poses a considerable problem of both a definitional and practical nature. T R. Bundy is the first perpetrator who was officially termed a "serial killer". Since that time, this concept has been commonly used and sometimes even overused, e.g. in reference to mass murderers. However, the definitions established for Bundy's case have been preserved and continue to be used in practice.

  16. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure.

    PubMed

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR.

  17. The Assessment of Experimental Methods of Serial Number Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Mackenzie

    Serial number restoration is a common and successful process of revealing obliterated serial numbers on firearms. In a crime laboratory setting, obliterated serial numbers are commonly processed in order to tie a person to a crime scene or provide an investigative lead for officers. Currently serial numbers are restored using a chemical etchant method that can eat away at the metal on the firearm even after the examination is complete. It can also take several hours to complete and only provide an examiner with a partial number. There are other nondestructive options however little to no literature is available. The purpose of this study is to discover new methods for nondestructive serial number restoration and to compare them to the traditional chemical method used. Metal bars of premeasured obliteration depths and different compositions were examined using three proposed experimental methods: near infrared imaging, cold frost, and scanning acoustic microscopy. Results did not indicate significant difference in the median number of visible digits recovered for each of the three proposed methods compared to the traditional chemical method. There were significant results in the median number of composition utilized and depth of obliteration. This indicates that different firearm compositions and depth of obliteration has an effect on serial number restoration.

  18. Development of serial processing in reading and rapid naming.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K

    2013-12-01

    Serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) is more strongly related to reading fluency than naming of isolated words, suggesting that the implementation of serial processing may underlie the RAN-reading relationship. In this study, 107 Greek children from Grade 2 and 107 from Grade 6 were tested with discrete and serial naming of digits, objects, and words in 50-item arrays. The correlation between discrete and serial word reading was very high in Grade 2 but only moderate in Grade 6. In confirmatory factor analysis, a reading-naming latent structure fit the Grade 2 data best; in contrast, a serial-discrete structure fit the Grade 6 data. Thus, the superficial longitudinal stability of RAN-reading correlations belies vastly different patterns of interrelations, indicative of changes in the developing cognitive processes underlying both naming and reading. Word fluency tasks in Grade 2 are apparently accomplished largely as a series of isolated individual word naming trials even though multiple individual letters in each word may be processed in parallel. In contrast, specifically serial procedures are applied in Grade 6, presumably via simultaneous processing of multiple individual words at successive levels. It is proposed that this feat requires endogenous control of cognitive cascades.

  19. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory.

  20. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  1. Bioavailability of the Yuzpe and levonorgestrel regimens of emergency contraception: vaginal vs. oral administration.

    PubMed

    Kives, Sari; Hahn, Philip M; White, Emily; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Reid, Robert L

    2005-03-01

    Separate crossover studies compared the bioavailability of oral vs. vaginal routes of administration for the Yuzpe (n=5) and levonorgestrel regimens (n=4) of emergency contraception. Twice the standard dose of the Yuzpe regimen (200 microg of ethinyl estradiol, 1000 microg of levonorgestrel) or the levonorgestrel regimen (1500 microg of levonorgestrel) was self-administered vaginally. One week later, each subject received orally the standard dose of the assigned medication. Serial blood samples were collected over 24 h and assayed for levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (for the Yuzpe regimen only). Paired t tests were used to compare oral vs. vaginal administration for maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax) and area under the curve over 24 h (AUC0-24). Relative bioavailability (vaginal/oral) was derived from AUC0-24. Vaginal administration of double the standard dose of the Yuzpe regimen resulted in a lower Cmax (vaginal=5.4 vs. oral=14.6 ng/mL, p=.038) and a later Tmax (5.9 vs. 2.0 h, p=.066) for levonorgestrel, compared to oral administration. Corresponding ethinyl estradiol concentrations were higher (786 vs. 391 pg/mL, p=.039) and peaked later (4.0 vs. 1.9 hr, p=.154) with vaginal administration. Relative bioavailabilities for levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol were 58% and 175%, respectively. Similarly, vaginal administration of the levonorgestrel regimen resulted in a lower Cmax (vaginal=5.4 vs. oral=15.2 ng/mL, p=.006) and a later Tmax (7.4 vs. 1.3 h, p=.037) for levonorgestel, compared to oral administration. The relative bioavailability was 62%. Our preliminary data suggest that vaginal administration of these emergency contraception regimens appears to require at least three times the standard oral dose to achieve equivalent systemic levonorgestrel concentrations.

  2. Hardware Implementation of Serially Concatenated PPM Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Barsoum, Maged; Cheng, Michael; Nakashima, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A prototype decoder for a serially concatenated pulse position modulation (SCPPM) code has been implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). At the time of this reporting, this is the first known hardware SCPPM decoder. The SCPPM coding scheme, conceived for free-space optical communications with both deep-space and terrestrial applications in mind, is an improvement of several dB over the conventional Reed-Solomon PPM scheme. The design of the FPGA SCPPM decoder is based on a turbo decoding algorithm that requires relatively low computational complexity while delivering error-rate performance within approximately 1 dB of channel capacity. The SCPPM encoder consists of an outer convolutional encoder, an interleaver, an accumulator, and an inner modulation encoder (more precisely, a mapping of bits to PPM symbols). Each code is describable by a trellis (a finite directed graph). The SCPPM decoder consists of an inner soft-in-soft-out (SISO) module, a de-interleaver, an outer SISO module, and an interleaver connected in a loop (see figure). Each SISO module applies the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm to compute a-posteriori bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) from apriori LLRs by traversing the code trellis in forward and backward directions. The SISO modules iteratively refine the LLRs by passing the estimates between one another much like the working of a turbine engine. Extrinsic information (the difference between the a-posteriori and a-priori LLRs) is exchanged rather than the a-posteriori LLRs to minimize undesired feedback. All computations are performed in the logarithmic domain, wherein multiplications are translated into additions, thereby reducing complexity and sensitivity to fixed-point implementation roundoff errors. To lower the required memory for storing channel likelihood data and the amounts of data transfer between the decoder and the receiver, one can discard the majority of channel likelihoods, using only the remainder in

  3. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  4. Hemodynamics in Coronary Arterial Tree of Serial Stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Jia, Xinwei; Zhong, Liang; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Tan, Wenchang

    2016-01-01

    Serial segmental narrowing frequently occurs in humans, which alters coronary hemodynamics and further affects atherosclerotic progression and plaque formation. The objective of this study was to understand the distribution of hemodynamic parameters in the epicardial left main coronary arterial (LMCA) tree with serial stenoses reconstructed from patient computer tomography angiography (CTA) images. A finite volume method was used in conjunction with the inlet pressure wave and outlet flow resistance. The time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were determined from the flow field. A stenosis at a mother vessel mainly deteriorated the hemodynamics near the bifurcation while a stenosis at a daughter vessel affected the remote downstream bifurcation. In comparison with a single stenosis, serial stenoses increased the peak pressure gradient along the main trunk of the epicardial left anterior descending arterial tree by > 50%. An increased distance between serial stenoses further increased the peak pressure gradient. These findings have important implications on the diagnosis and treatment of serial coronary stenoses. PMID:27685989

  5. Genetic programming and serial processing for time series classification.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Cid, Eva; Sharman, Ken; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I

    2014-01-01

    This work describes an approach devised by the authors for time series classification. In our approach genetic programming is used in combination with a serial processing of data, where the last output is the result of the classification. The use of genetic programming for classification, although still a field where more research in needed, is not new. However, the application of genetic programming to classification tasks is normally done by considering the input data as a feature vector. That is, to the best of our knowledge, there are not examples in the genetic programming literature of approaches where the time series data are processed serially and the last output is considered as the classification result. The serial processing approach presented here fills a gap in the existing literature. This approach was tested in three different problems. Two of them are real world problems whose data were gathered for online or conference competitions. As there are published results of these two problems this gives us the chance to compare the performance of our approach against top performing methods. The serial processing of data in combination with genetic programming obtained competitive results in both competitions, showing its potential for solving time series classification problems. The main advantage of our serial processing approach is that it can easily handle very large datasets.

  6. Experimental demonstration of sequence recognition of serial memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Son Ngoc; Van Pham, Khoa; Yang, Wonsun; Jo, Anjae; Vo, Huan Minh; Lee, Mi Jung; Min, Kyeong-Sik

    2017-01-01

    The sequence recognition is very essential in mimicking brain's neocortical function because most of input patterns to brain's neocortex are dynamically changing over time, not static regardless of time. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the sequence recognition for various input sequences using serial memristors, for the first time. In this experiment, the serial memristors are used, which were fabricated with carbon fiber and aluminum film on glass substrate. To verify the sequence recognition, we store the following 3 sequences in the fabricated serial memristors, which are `A'→`B'→`C', `B'→`A'→`C', and `C'→`B'→`A', respectively. By performing this experiment, it is verified the serial memristors are changed to Low Resistance State only when the input sequence matches the stored one. When the input sequence is different from the stored one, the serial memristors remain unchanged. The simple voltage comparator can be used to sense the output voltage to indicate whether the sequence matching happens or not. This experimental demonstration can be very useful to realize memristor crossbars which can process the temporal and sequential patterns in future. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-07

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides.

  8. Simultaneous determination of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and 2-methoxy cinnamic acid in rat whole blood after oral administration of volatile oil of Cinnamoni Ramulus by UHPLC-MS/MS: An application for a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Zhao, Yunli; Zhang, Qili; Wang, Pei; Guan, Jiao; Rong, Rong; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-09-15

    A simple and rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and 2-methoxy cinnamic acid in rat whole blood. It was the first time to study the pharmacokinetics of 2-methoxy cinnamic acid in rat whole blood. Samples were processed by a one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile-37% formaldehyde (90:10, v:v). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Thermo Scientific C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.9μm) at room temperature. The total run time was 4min. The detection was accomplished by using positive and negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all of the analytes over 1000 times concentration range with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.1ng/mL for cinnamaldehyde, 5.8ng/mL for cinnamic acid, and 10ng/mL for 2-methoxy cinnamic acid, respectively. To our knowledge, this was the first time that the LLOQ for cinnamaldehyde in validated methods for biological samples was as low as 0.1ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within ±9% for all of the analytes during the assay validation. Assay recoveries were higher than 80% and the matrix effects were minimal. The half-life were 8.7±0.7h for cinnamaldehyde, 1.0±0.5h for cinnamic acid, and 1.4±0.4h for 2-methoxy cinnamic acid, respectively. The validated assay was firstly applied to the simultaneous quantification of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and 2-methoxy cinnamic acid, especially for 2-methoxy cinnamic acid in rat whole blood after oral administration of 15mg/kg essential oil of Cinnamoni Ramulus. It was observed that the Cmax and AUC of 2-methoxy cinnamic acid (0.01% in essential oil of Cinnamoni Ramulus) were greater than those of cinnamaldehyde (83.49% in essential oil of Cinnamoni Ramulus), which implied that 2-methoxy cinnamic acid might

  9. [Serum and tissue concentration of tegafur and 5-FU after administration of tegafur suppository in patients with lung cancer--correcting the influence of residual blood in the tissue].

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Nakahara, K; Hashimoto, J; Matsumura, A; Mizuta, T; Akashi, A; Nakagawa, K; Takeda, S; Minami, M; Kawashima, Y

    1989-11-01

    Tissue concentration of tegafur and 5-FU was studied in 25 patients with of primary lung cancer, given 2 x 750 mg of tegafur suppository daily preoperatively (total doses 3.75-9.75 g, mean 5.16 g). Furthermore, the influence of blood remaining in the tissue was corrected in the determination of tegafur and 5-FU concentration. The tegafur level in tumor tissue (9.614 +/- 5.739 micrograms/g) was significantly (p less than 0.01) low compared with those in serum and normal lung tissue (13.185 +/- 8.198 micrograms/ml, 12.954 +/- 10.048 micrograms/g). On the other hand, the 5-FU level in tumor tissue (0.124 +/- 0.208) was significantly (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.05) high compared with those in serum and normal lung tissue (0.019 +/- 0.013 micrograms/ml, 0.035 +/- 0.031 micrograms/g) and showed approximately 2.5 times more minimum effective concentration against tumor cells (0.05 micrograms/g). The results show that preoperative administration of 2 x 750 mg of tegafur suppository daily is effective for the transfer of tegafur and 5-FU to lung cancer tissue.

  10. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Pawate, Ashtamurthy S; Šrajer, Vukica; Schieferstein, Jeremy; Guha, Sudipto; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Schmidt, Marius; Ren, Zhong; Kenis, Paul J A; Perry, Sarah L

    2015-07-01

    Serial methods for crystallography have the potential to enable dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. The use of serial data-collection strategies can circumvent challenges associated with radiation damage and repeated reaction initiation. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for the serial time-resolved Laue diffraction analysis of macroscopic crystals of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Reaction initiation was achieved via pulsed laser illumination, and the resultant electron-density difference maps clearly depict the expected pR(1)/pR(E46Q) and pR(2)/pR(CW) states at 10 µs and the pB1 intermediate at 1 ms. The strategies presented here have tremendous potential for extension to chemical triggering methods for reaction initiation and for extension to dynamic, multivariable analyses.

  11. Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-03-01

    This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

  12. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Šrajer, Vukica; Schieferstein, Jeremy; Guha, Sudipto; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Schmidt, Marius; Ren, Zhong; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Perry, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Serial methods for crystallography have the potential to enable dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. The use of serial data-collection strategies can circumvent challenges associated with radiation damage and repeated reaction initiation. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for the serial time-resolved Laue diffraction analysis of macroscopic crystals of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Reaction initiation was achieved via pulsed laser illumination, and the resultant electron-density difference maps clearly depict the expected pR1/pRE46Q and pR2/pRCW states at 10 µs and the pB1 intermediate at 1 ms. The strategies presented here have tremendous potential for extension to chemical triggering methods for reaction initiation and for extension to dynamic, multivariable analyses. PMID:26144226

  13. Violent cultural factors and serial homicide by males.

    PubMed

    DeFronzo, James; Prochnow, Jane

    2004-02-01

    Explaining the phenomenon of male serial homicide has usually been approached from a psychiatric perspective. However, recent integrative theory suggests that cultural factors may play a role in shaping the psychology of young males with particular psychiatric and possibly neurological vulnerabilities in such ways as to facilitate converting the motivation to kill into actual behavior. Present results indicated that 34-45% of the interstate variation in rates of serial killer activity could be accounted for by three dimensions of local culture. Higher rates of male serial killer activity were associated with a local state culture supportive of game hunting and military training and a local culture supportive of punitive violence. The findings must be viewed with caution since societal variables are complex and the results are based on correlations which cannot be causally interpreted without more direct evidence of validity.

  14. A combination strategy for tracking the serial criminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuan; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Wan, Jiadi; Yu, Wenjing

    2010-08-01

    We build a Geographic Profiling Model to generate the criminal's geographical profile, by combining two complementary strategies: the Spatial Distribution Strategy and the Probability Distance Strategy. In the first strategy, we designate the mean of all the known crime sites as the anchor point, and build a Standard Deviational Ellipse Model, considering the effect of landscape. In the second strategy, we take many factors such as the buffer zone and distance decay theory into consideration and calculate the probability of the offender's residence in a certain area by using the Bayesian Theorem and the Rossmo Algorithm. Then, we combine the result of two strategies and get three search areas suit different conditions of the police to track the serial criminal. Apply the model to the English serial killer Peter Sutcliffe's case, the calculation result shows that the model can effectively be used to track serial criminal.

  15. Serial processing in reading aloud: reply to Zorzi (2000).

    PubMed

    Rastle, K; Coltheart, M

    2000-06-01

    K. Rastle and M. Coltheart (1999; see also M. Coltheart & K. Rastle, 1994) reported data demonstrating that the cost of irregularity in reading aloud low-frequency exception words is modulated by the position of the irregularity in the word. They argued that these data implicated a serial process and falsified all models of reading aloud that operate solely in parallel, a conclusion that M. Zorzi (2000) challenged by successfully simulating the position of irregularity effect with such a model. Zorzi (2000) further claimed that a reanalysis of K. Rastle and M. Coltheart's (1999) data demonstrates sensitivity to grapheme-phoneme consistency (which he claimed was confounded across the position of irregularity manipulation) rather than the use of a serial process. Here, the authors argue that M. Zorzi's (2000) reanalyses were inappropriate and reassert that K. Rastle and M. Coltheart's (1999) findings are evidence for serial processing.

  16. [Oral loading dose of phenytoin in the treatment of serial seizures, prevention of seizure recurrence and rapid drug substitution].

    PubMed

    Sokić, D; Janković, S M

    1994-01-01

    Over a period of nine months twenty-five epileptic patients were treated with the oral loading dose of phenytoin. The dose ranged from 12 to 23 mg/kg body weight during 1 to 12 hours. In 20 patients with serial seizures or intolerance to other antiepileptic drugs this treatment was effective. Seizures also stopped in 2 of 4 patients with serial partial motor seizures. These 2 patients required both higher loading dose and faster rate of administration than the other patients. A patient with epilepsia partialis continua failed to respond to the treatment. Patients that received phenytoin through the naso-gastric tube, in respect to oral administration, required higher doses to obtain therapeutic plasma levels of phenytoin. One patient had mild nausea, 3 mild dizziness, and 1 tinitus on the first day of the treatment. There was no correlation between a given dose and the achieved phenytoin plasma levels. In our opinion the therapy with oral loading dose of phenytoin is highly effective in the treatment of serial generalized seizures and rapid antiepileptic drug substitution, and partially effective in the prevention of partial motor seizures. It produces only mild and transient side-effects.

  17. Serial ovarian ultrasonography in wild-caught wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    McCorkell, Robert B; Woodbury, Murray R; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of daily examination of wild-caught wood bison and to characterize the ovarian function using serial transrectal ultrasonography and blood hormone analysis. Ten 2-year-old wood bison heifers obtained from Elk Island National Park were placed in a corral adjacent to a handling system designed for restraining bison. The handling system was left open to the corral allowing the bison to explore it freely for 2 months. Active acclimation followed for a 2-week period, during which the bison were herded daily through the handling system and rewarded with whole oats. Finally, the bison were restrained in the handling system and rewarded with whole oats upon release. Once conditioned, daily transrectal examination of the ovaries was completed in 100% of attempts for 30 days (January-February) using a B-mode scanner with a 5 to 10-MHz linear array. Follicle size and numbers were recorded, and individual follicles were identified serially. Blood samples were collected daily and the serum was analyzed for FSH concentrations. Nonrandom changes were detected in the number of follicles ≥ 4 mm in diameter per day (P < 0.05). Each peak in follicle numbers was associated with the development of a single dominant follicle. The interval between the emergence of successive dominant follicles was 6.8 ± 0.6 days (mean ± SEM). The maximum diameter of the dominant follicle was 9.9 ± 0.4 mm. In conclusion, wild-caught wood bison were amenable to daily examination and blood sampling, and ovarian dynamics were characterized by wave-like development of anovulatory antral follicles. The demonstrated success of this approach to the study of ovarian function will be useful for characterizing the annual reproductive pattern in wood bison, which is necessary for the development of bison-specific protocols for controlling ovarian function for species conservation.

  18. Serial transrectal ultrasonography for monitoring the reproductive activity of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus).

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Jeong, D H; Yang, J J; Lee, B K; Kong, J K; Lee, J W; Kim, I H

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the structural changes in the reproductive tract of Asiatic black bears using serial transrectal ultrasonography. In addition, the ultrasonographic observations were compared with the results of vaginal cytology and hormonal analyses. The collection of blood for hormonal analysis, vaginal cytology and transrectal ultrasonography was performed in two bears (Bears 1 and 2) from June 2011 to August 2013 without mating and in a third bear (Bear 3) from April to December 2012, allowing natural mating. Serial ultrasonographic observations showed cyclic changes in ovarian structures (e.g. emergence of small follicles, growth and ovulation of dominant follicles and corpus luteum (CL) formation) during the reproductive cycles of the three bears. The diameter of the uterine horns remained similar throughout the reproductive cycle in Bears 1 and 2, and it remained similar from April until October, but an enlargement containing foetuses was observed in Bear 3 in December. The ultrasonographic observations were consistent with the data obtained through vaginal cytology and progesterone analysis during the reproductive cycle. An average of 4.0 (±0.4) dominant follicles was observed during the oestrous stage (May-August), during which the superficial cells accounted for >90% of the total vaginal cells. In addition, the detection of an average of 2.6 (±0.2) CL was associated with increased plasma progesterone concentrations (3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml) between June and December (near hibernation). In conclusion, serial transrectal ultrasonography demonstrated yearly oestrous (ovulation) cycles via follicular dynamics and CL formation on ovaries, accordingly with vaginal cytology and hormonal level in the Asiatic black bear.

  19. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  20. In situ serial Laue diffraction on a microfluidic crystallization device

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Sarah L.; Guha, Sudipto; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Srajer, Vukica; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ren, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in room-temperature diffraction has been prompted by the desire to observe structural dynamics of proteins as they function. Serial crystallography, an experimental strategy that aggregates small pieces of data from a large uniform pool of crystals, has been demonstrated at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for serial Laue diffraction from macroscopic crystals and proposes that a collection of small slices of Laue data from many individual crystals is a realistic solution to the difficulties in dynamic studies of irreversible biochemical reactions. PMID:25484843

  1. Serial murder in America: case studies of seven offenders.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James O

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes and compares information on seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project designed to study similarities and differences among these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder by examining the perpetrators' backgrounds, as well as the unique ways in which they view themselves and the world around them. Although qualitative interview research alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior, it is useful in many ways. Some of the information discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the strengths and limitations of each type of research are discussed.

  2. A neuropsychiatric developmental model of serial homicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Leong, Gregory B; Ferrari, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    Serial sexual homicide has been the object of intensive study from forensic psychiatric, criminological, developmental, and sociological perspectives. In contradistinction to these approaches, neuropsychiatric concepts and methods have received relatively little attention in this area. In this article we adopt a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective and undertake a review of the psychiatric literature on violence and autism spectrum disorders. Our analysis of this literature suggests the presence of an association between autism spectrum psychopathology and serial homicidal behavior. Recommendations for further research to help clarify the nature of this association are briefly discussed.

  3. Low-dose midazolam sedation: an option for patients undergoing serial hepatic venous pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Steinlauf, A F; Garcia-Tsao, G; Zakko, M F; Dickey, K; Gupta, T; Groszmann, R J

    1999-04-01

    The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is becoming increasingly used clinically. It is useful in the differential diagnosis of portal hypertension and provides a prognostic index in cirrhotic patients. Performance of serial measurements has been shown to be useful in guiding pharmacological therapy of portal hypertension and variceal hemorrhage. The technique is safe to perform; however, many patients are anxious and reluctant to undergo serial measurements. The effects of sedatives on portal pressure measurements have not yet been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of midazolam on the HVPG. Twenty patients with compensated cirrhosis were included in this prospective, double-blind study. The HVPG was determined by subtracting the free hepatic venous pressure (FHVP) from the wedged hepatic venous pressure (WHVP). Patients were randomized to receive either placebo, 0.02 mg/kg midazolam, or 0.03 mg/kg midazolam, administered intravenously over 3 minutes. Immediately after drug administration and every 3 minutes thereafter, for a total of 30 or 40 minutes, measurements were repeated. Three hours later, patients were asked to state whether the sedative affected their state of comfort/relaxation. The effects of both doses of midazolam on HVPG did not differ significantly from those of placebo. Furthermore, neither dose of midazolam induced significant changes in HVPG as compared with baseline values. However, higher-dose midazolam (0.03 mg/kg) was associated with significant reductions in FHVP from baseline and a tendency for a reduction in WHVP. Both doses significantly increased patient comfort and relaxation during the test. Midazolam, used at a dose of 0.02 mg/kg, is effective in increasing patient comfort and relaxation during hepatic venous pressure measurements, without significantly affecting pressures (HVPG, WHVP, or FHVP). It is therefore an acceptable option for patients undergoing serial hepatic venous pressure measurements.

  4. Segmentation of vessel structures in serial whole slide sections using region-based context features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, Michael; Hahn, Horst K.; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for the automatic segmentation of vascular structures in stacks of serial sections. It was initially motivated within the Virtual Liver Network research project that aims at creating a multi-scale virtual model of the liver. For this the vascular systems of several murine livers under different conditions need to be analyzed. To get highly detailed datasets, stacks of serial sections of the whole organs are prepared. Due to the huge amount of image data an automatic approach for segmenting the vessels is required. After registering the slides with an established method we use a set of Random Forest classifiers to distinguish vessels from tissue. Instead of a pixel-wise approach we perform the classification on small regions. This allows us to use more meaningful features. Besides basic intensity and texture features we introduce the concept of context features, which allow the classifiers to also consider the neighborhood of a region. Classification is performed in two stages. In the second stage the previous classification result of a region and its neighbors is used to refine the decision for a particular region. The context features and two stage classification process make our method very successful. It can handle different stainings and also detect vessels in which residue like blood cells remained. The specificity reaches 95%-99% for pure tissue, depending on staining and zoom level. Only in the direct vicinity of vessels the specificity declines to 88%-96%. The sensitivity rates reach between 89% and 98%.

  5. Serial magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies in multiple sulphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I; Vargiami, Euthymia; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Mavridou, Irene; Santamaria, Raul; Canals, Isaak; Michelakakis, Helen

    2008-05-01

    We present serial clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurophysiological findings of a patient with multiple sulphatase deficiency (MSD), who was first admitted at the age of 9 months, because of psychomotor retardation. MRI demonstrated extensive diffuse symmetrical high signal in the deep white matter of both cerebral hemispheres, as well as of the subcortical white matter and the brainstem, while there was additional enlargement of sulci and subdural spaces and mild atrophy. Assay of arylsulphatase A activity in white blood cell homogenates at the age of 29 months disclosed a marked deficiency of the enzyme, compatible with the diagnosis of early-infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. During the course of a later admission, the presence of ichthyosis pointed out to the possible diagnosis of MSD; further assays of sulphatases in plasma, leukocytes as well as in cultured fibroblasts, combined with an abnormal excretion of mucopolysaccharides and sulphatides in urine confirmed the diagnosis. Molecular analysis identified a homozygous disease-causing mutation (R349W) of the SUMF1 gene. Serial neurophysiological and MRI studies demonstrated the progressive nature of the disorder (regarding both central and peripheral nervous system), correlating with the clinical deterioration (spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy and epilepsy) with subsequent death at the age of 4 years.

  6. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    PubMed Central

    Dilanian, Ruben A.; Williams, Sophie R.; Martin, Andrew V.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Quiney, Harry M.

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used. PMID:27006776

  7. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  8. Technical Processing Monographs and Serials. RDU-75-08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam

    A report on technical processing of monographs and serials at Purdue University Libraries and Audio-Visual Center was compiled as part of preparation for the use of Ohio College Library Center services. The current organization and flow of work in the acquisitions and cataloging departments were described in narrative and flowchart form, and…

  9. Upper and lower bounds for a serial dilution test.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    A Poisson-binomial model estimates the concentration of a target microbe from a serial dilution test. The maximum likelihood procedure gives an equation whose solution equals the estimate of the concentration. This paper gives bounds for the solution to this equation that require only minimal calculations.

  10. Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Serial Dilutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Candace L.; McGill, Michael T.; Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E model of inquiry-based learning was incorporated into a sophomore-level microbiology laboratory to increase student understanding of serial dilutions, a concept that is often difficult for most students to comprehend. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted during the semester to determine the value of this approach for…

  11. Regularization in Short-Term Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew; Bylsma, Lauren M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that short-term memory for serial order can be influenced by background knowledge concerning regularities of sequential structure. Specifically, it has been shown that recall is superior for sequences that fit well with familiar sequencing constraints. The authors report a corresponding effect pertaining to serial…

  12. FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2013-10-01

    The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.

  13. Analysis of aging in lager brewing yeast during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Bühligen, Franziska; Lindner, Patrick; Fetzer, Ingo; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2014-10-10

    Serial repitching of brewing yeast inoculates is an important economic factor in the brewing industry, as their propagation is time and resource intensive. Here, we investigated whether replicative aging and/or the population distribution status changed during serial repitching in three different breweries with the same brewing yeast strain but different abiotic backgrounds and repitching regimes with varying numbers of reuses. Next to bud scar numbers the DNA content of the Saccharomyces pastorianus HEBRU cells was analyzed. Gene expression patterns were investigated using low-density microarrays with genes for aging, stress, storage compound metabolism and cell cycle. Two breweries showed a stable rejuvenation rate during serial repitching. In a third brewery the fraction of virgin cells varied, which could be explained with differing wort aeration rates. Furthermore, the number of bud scars per cell and cell size correlated in all 3 breweries throughout all runs. Transcriptome analyses revealed that from the 6th run on, mainly for the cells positive gene expression could be seen, for example up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes. Additionally, the cells' settling in the cone was dependent on cell size, with the lowest and the uppermost cone layers showing the highest amount of dead cells. In general, cells do not progressively age during extended serial repitching.

  14. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  15. Phospohorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated the effect of three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatmen...

  16. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  17. When Temporal Isolation Benefits Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Nimmo, Lisa M.; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2008-01-01

    According to temporal distinctiveness models, items that are temporally isolated from their neighbors during list presentation are more distinct and thus should be recalled better. Contrary to that expectation of distinctiveness views, much recent evidence has shown that forward short-term serial recall is unaffected by temporal isolation. We…

  18. Picture Detection in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation: Features or Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Pandav, Rijuta; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A pictured object can be readily detected in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence when the target is specified by a superordinate category name such as "animal" or "vehicle". Are category features the initial basis for detection, with identification of the specific object occurring in a second stage (Evans &…

  19. Process to restore obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Parker, B.; Chisum, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Metal smeared into grooves of serial numbers by grinding or filing can be cleaned out by process called cavitation. Ultrasonic vibrator generates very high frequency vibrations in water which create millions of microscopic bubbles. Cavitation bubbles impact metal surface at thousands of pounds per square inch pressure. Metal particles filling grooves are broken away.

  20. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  1. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  2. Serial Back-Plane Technologies in Advanced Avionics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta

    2005-01-01

    Current back plane technologies such as VME, and current personal computer back planes such as PCI, are shared bus systems that can exhibit nondeterministic latencies. This means a card can take control of the bus and use resources indefinitely affecting the ability of other cards in the back plane to acquire the bus. This provides a real hit on the reliability of the system. Additionally, these parallel busses only have bandwidths in the 100s of megahertz range and EMI and noise effects get worse the higher the bandwidth goes. To provide scalable, fault-tolerant, advanced computing systems, more applicable to today s connected computing environment and to better meet the needs of future requirements for advanced space instruments and vehicles, serial back-plane technologies should be implemented in advanced avionics architectures. Serial backplane technologies eliminate the problem of one card getting the bus and never relinquishing it, or one minor problem on the backplane bringing the whole system down. Being serial instead of parallel improves the reliability by reducing many of the signal integrity issues associated with parallel back planes and thus significantly improves reliability. The increased speeds associated with a serial backplane are an added bonus.

  3. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  4. Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

  5. Serials Conversion at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banach, Patricia; Spell, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project in which OCLC retrospectively converted more than 27,000 serial titles held by the University of Massachusetts Library at Amherst. Details of the reasons for choosing OCLC, the contract between the library and OCLC, and the effectiveness of the project in meeting the library's goals are discussed. (Author/CLB)

  6. Serials Standards in Convergence: ISBD(S) Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Ingrid

    This paper provides an update on the revision process undertaken to produce a new, relevant, and useful ISBD(S) (International Standard Bibliographic Description) standard for describing serial publications in both print and electronic formats. Highlights include: the concept of "integrating resource," i.e., a bibliographic resource that…

  7. Union List of Serials in Pacific Island Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene G., Comp.; Yoshida, Patricia, Comp.

    This union list contains the serial holdings from Pacific Island libraries, including the University of the South Pacific Library (Fiji), the University of Guam Robert F. Kennedy Library, Guam Public Library, College of Micronesia-FSM Library, College of the Marshall Islands Library, Micronesian Seminar Library, Palau Community College Library,…

  8. Serial Learning in Rats: A Test of Three Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, E. J.; Miller, Ronald Mellado

    2004-01-01

    Findings obtained by providing rats with a single fixed series of events, A-B-C-..., often are equally compatible with three alternative serial learning interpretations: that the signal for items is (A) their position in the series (position view), (B) the prior item of the series (chaining view), and (C) one, two, or more prior items of the…

  9. Influence of serial practice on Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue scores: the learning effect.

    PubMed

    Breton, M E; Fletcher, D E; Krupin, T

    1988-03-15

    Clinical application of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test may be compromised by uncontrolled sources of psychophysical fluctuation such as a serial practice effect. Although the literature does not report a substantial practice effect for the 100-hue test, we have measured significant improvement in performance extending over at least four test repetitions for a group of twenty-six normal naive subjects. Analysis of test taking strategy identified the most likely source of improvement as cognitive in nature and not related to the availability of the peripheral color signal. An extended training procedure was devised to minimize the serial practice effect which included intensive instruction with illustrations of correct and incorrect cap sequences and practice with verbal feedback on performance using a subset of ten 100-hue caps. Administration of the pretest training was found to minimize the practice effect in an additional group of thirty initially naive subjects. Using pretest training, we were also able to record consistent 100-hue intensity-response functions over five illumination levels.

  10. An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

  11. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  12. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  13. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  14. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  15. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  16. β-asarone and levodopa co-administration increase striatal dopamine level in 6-hydroxydopamine induced rats by modulating P-glycoprotein and tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier and promoting levodopa into the brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Deng, Minzhen; He, Yuping; Lu, Shiyao; Ma, Ruanxin; Fang, Yongqi

    2016-06-01

    Levodopa (L-dopa) is widely considered as one of the most effective drug constituents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of L-dopa is <5%, which causes low efficacy. Neuroprotective effects of β-asarone on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats were demonstrated by our previous studies. Co-administration of β-asarone and L-dopa has not been explored until being investigated on PD rats in this study. PD rats were divided into four groups: untreated, L-dopa-treated, β-asarone-treated and co-administered-treated groups. All of the treatments were administered to the rats twice per day for 30 days. The L-dopa, dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels were subsequently determined. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-5, occludin and actin expression was also assessed in cortex. Changes in BBB ultrastructure were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that the co-administered treatment increased levels of L-dopa, DA, DOPAC and HVA in striatum, and S100β in plasma, but down-regulated NSE, P-gp, ZO-1, occludin, actin and claudin-5 in cortex. Crevices were observed between capillary endothelial cells at intercellular tight junction of the striatum in co-administered-treated group, while the endothelial cells in untreated group were tightly jointing each other. In addition, the correlations of L-dopa or DA and P-gp or tight junction proteins respectively were significantly negative in co-administered- and β-asarone-treated groups. These findings suggest that co-administered treatment may enhance the L-dopa BBB permeability and attenuate brain injury, which may be beneficial to PD treatment.

  17. Adolescent exposure to methylphenidate impairs serial pattern learning in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rowan, James D; McCarty, Madison K; Kundey, Shannon M A; Osburn, Crystal D; Renaud, Samantha M; Kelley, Brian M; Matoushek, Amanda Willey; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of adolescent exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) on adult cognitive capacity are largely unknown. We utilized a serial multiple choice (SMC) task, which is a sequential learning paradigm for studying complex learning, to observe the effects of methylphenidate exposure during adolescence on later serial pattern acquisition during adulthood. Following 20.0mg/kg/day MPD or saline exposure for 5 days/week for 5 weeks during adolescence, male rats were trained to produce a highly structured serial response pattern in an octagonal operant chamber for water reinforcement as adults. During a transfer phase, a violation to the previously-learned pattern structure was introduced as the last element of the sequential pattern. Results indicated that while rats in both groups were able to learn the training and transfer patterns, adolescent exposure to MPD impaired learning for some aspects of pattern learning in the training phase which are learned using discrimination learning or serial position learning. In contrast adolescent exposure to MPD had no effect on other aspects of pattern learning which have been shown to tap into rule learning mechanisms. Additionally, adolescent MPD exposure impaired learning for the violation element in the transfer phase. This indicates a deficit in multi-item learning previously shown to be responsible for violation element learning. Thus, these results clearly show that adolescent MPD produced multiple cognitive impairments in male rats that persisted into adulthood long after MPD exposure ended.

  18. Serials Management in the Electronic Era: Papers in Honor of Peter Gellatly, Founding Editor of "The Serials Librarian."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jim, Ed.; Williams, James W., Ed.

    This book assesses progress and technical changes in the field of serials management and anticipates future directions and challenges for librarians. The book consists of 18 chapters: (1) "Introduction" (Jim Cole and James W. Williams); (2) "Peter Gellatly--Editor with a Deft Touch" (Ruth C. Carter); (3) "The "Deseret…

  19. Effects of active vs. passive recovery on work performed during serial supramaximal exercise tests.

    PubMed

    Spierer, D K; Goldsmith, R; Baran, D A; Hryniewicz, K; Katz, S D

    2004-02-01

    The current investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of active versus passive recovery on work performance during repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise. Six healthy sedentary subjects and 9 moderately trained healthy hockey players performed serial 30-second Wingate anaerobic power tests (WAnT) on a bicycle ergometer interposed with 4 minutes of active recovery at a work rate corresponding to 28 % of VO(2)max or passive recovery at rest. Peak power, mean power, total work achieved, and fatigue index were calculated for the serial WAnT. Capillary blood lactate was determined at 5-minute intervals after the last WAnT during 30 minutes of active or passive recovery. Mean power was significantly greater during active recovery in sedentary subjects when compared with passive recovery (388 +/- 42 vs. 303 +/- 37 W, p < 0.05), but did not differ according to recovery mode in moderately trained hockey players (589 +/- 22 W active vs. 563 +/- 26 W passive, p = 0.14). Total work achieved significantly increased during active when compared with passive recovery in sedentary subjects (34 890 +/- 3768 vs. 27 260 +/- 3364 J, p < 0.02) and moderately trained hockey players (86 763 +/- 9151 vs. 75 357 +/- 8281 J, p < 0.05). Capillary blood lactate levels did not differ during active when compared with passive recovery in sedentary subjects but were significantly lower during active when compared with passive recovery in moderately trained hockey players. These data demonstrate that active recovery at a work rate corresponding to 28 % of VO(2)max increases total work achieved during repeated WAnT when compared with passive recovery in sedentary subjects and moderately trained hockey players.

  20. The Circulation Analysis of Serial Use: Numbers Game or Key to Service?

    PubMed Central

    Raisig, L. Miles

    1967-01-01

    The conventionally erected and reported circulation analysis of serial use in the individual and the feeder library is found to be statistically invalid and misleading, since it measures neither the intellectual use of the serial's contents nor the physical handlings of serial units, and is nonrepresentative of the in-depth library use of serials. It fails utterly to report or even to suggest the relation of intralibrary and interlibrary serial resources. The actual mechanics of the serial use analysis, and the active variables in the library situation which affect serial use, are demonstrated in a simulated analysis and are explained at length. A positive design is offered for the objective gathering and reporting of data on the local intellectual use and physical handling of serials and the relating of resources. Data gathering in the feeder library, and implications for the extension of the feeder library's resources, are discussed. PMID:6055863

  1. Event-related potential practice effects on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeffrey M.; Fox, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Practice can change the nature and quality of a stimulus-response relationship. The current study observed the effects of repeated administration of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in 12 healthy individuals, in an effort to establish distinct profiles associated with novel and practiced processing. Over four training sessions the mean number of correct responses on this demanding test of attention significantly improved and was approaching ceiling for most task conditions. Behavioural improvements were associated with significantly reduced amplitude of late Processing Negativity, a frontally distributed component of the event-related potential waveform associated with voluntary, limited-capacity activity within higher-order attentional systems. These results suggest that PASAT performance became more efficient as practice seemingly eased the strategic planning and coordination requirements the task places on frontally-mediated executive attention resources. The findings of the current study extend our understanding of the functional and behavioural mechanisms underlying the effects of practice. PMID:23717344

  2. Efficacy of IgM anti-blood type antibody monitoring by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after renal transplantation across the blood barrier: high-dose immunoglobulin administration blocks IgM rather than IgG anti-blood type antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Tanabe, K; Furusawa, M; Isizuka, T; Tokumoto, T; Shimmura, H; Shimizu, T; Miyamoto, N; Hayashi, T; Toma, H

    2004-09-01

    We used an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate the presence of subtypes of anti-blood-type antibodies in patients with biopsy-proven humoral rejection after ABO-incompatible renal transplantation. High agglutinin IgG and IgM anti-blood type antibodies from 12 ABO-incompatible recipients with vascular rejection were separately assessed using an ELISA. Patients who exhibited excellent renal function despite high agglutinin titers of anti-blood-type antibodies(n = 8) were also examined. All 12 rejection patients exhibited highly elevated titers of IgG and IgM, while the eight stable patients exhibited only slightly elevated IgG titers, but not IgM. IgG and IgM titers did not change after plasmapheresis and steroid pulse therapy, whereas IVIg treatment significantly blocked both IgG and IgM, with IgM being blocked to a larger extent than IgG. Blocking of IgM seems to play an important role in improving ABO-incompatible grafts.

  3. Serial investigation of continuous glucose monitoring in a very low birth weight infant with transient late-onset hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshihiko; Hatanaka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Mari; Kusakari, Michiko; Takahashi, Hidehiro; Kamohara, Takashi

    2016-12-16

    Transient late-onset hyperglycemia was detected in a very low birth weight (VLBW) infant (gestational age 28 weeks, birth weight 1,082 g) by routine point-of-care glucose monitoring. The infant had no clinical symptom. Serial continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted for 3 days at 31, 35, and 39 weeks' post conceptual age. The difference values between the maximum and minimum blood glucose levels during the interval from one enteral feeding to the next enteral feeding were 32.3±14.3 mg/dL, 47.5±22.9 mg/dL, and 27.5±12.9 mg/dL for the 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) CGM, respectively. The serial change in the values was statistically significant (p<0.01).CGM is widely used as a routine clinical practice, which is true even in VLBW infants. Hyperglycemic events detected by only once of CGM in otherwise healthy preterm infants have already been reported on larger numbers of patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the change of glucose intolerance in a VLBW infant with transient late-onset hyperglycemia was investigated by serial CGM.

  4. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  5. Long-Term Phonological Knowledge Supports Serial Ordering in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Masataka; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Serial ordering mechanisms have been investigated extensively in psychology and psycholinguistics. It has also been demonstrated repeatedly that long-term phonological knowledge contributes to serial ordering. However, the mechanisms that contribute to serial ordering have yet to be fully understood. To understand these mechanisms, we demonstrate…

  6. A serial dilution microfluidic device for cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Adrian T; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy; Walker, Glenn M

    2006-01-01

    A novel microfluidic device is presented which creates a linear serial dilution of two input fluid streams. This platform facilitates higher productivity as a component of a high throughput cytotoxicity testing strategy. A modeling solution is presented to create custom linear dilution schemes. The featured device creates a serial dilution of two solutions in the range of 1:9 through 9:1 across nine discrete dilutions. It has been validated to create a highly linear progression of dilutions with an R2 value of 0.9993. The device functions equivalently over a wide range of flow rates. The standard deviation of dilution values averages 0.76% over six flow rates spanning 0.5 to 16 microl min(-1).

  7. Low-Stroke Actuation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Dalong (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A serial robot includes a base, first and second segments, a proximal joint joining the base to the first segment, and a distal joint. The distal joint that joins the segments is serially arranged and distal with respect to the proximal joint. The robot includes first and second actuators. A first tendon extends from the first actuator to the proximal joint and is selectively moveable via the first actuator. A second tendon extends from the second actuator to the distal joint and is selectively moveable via the second actuator. The robot includes a transmission having at least one gear element which assists rotation of the distal joint when an input force is applied to the proximal and/or distal joints by the first and/or second actuators. A robotic hand having the above robot is also disclosed, as is a robotic system having a torso, arm, and the above-described hand.

  8. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    PubMed

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders.

  9. Molluscan engrailed expression, serial organization, and shell evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. K.; Wray, C. G.; Wedeen, C. J.; Kostriken, R.; DeSalle, R.; Staton, J. L.; Gates, R. D.; Lindberg, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Whether the serial features found in some molluscs are ancestral or derived is considered controversial. Here, in situ hybridization and antibody studies show iterated engrailed-gene expression in transverse rows of ectodermal cells bounding plate field development and spicule formation in the chiton, Lepidochitona cavema, as well as in cells surrounding the valves and in the early development of the shell hinge in the clam, Transennella tantilla. Ectodermal expression of engrailed is associated with skeletogenesis across a range of bilaterian phyla, suggesting a single evolutionary origin of invertebrate skeletons. The shared ancestry of bilaterian-invertebrate skeletons may help explain the sudden appearance of shelly fossils in the Cambrian. Our interpretation departs from the consideration of canonical metameres or segments as units of evolutionary analysis. In this interpretation, the shared ancestry of engrailed-gene function in the terminal/posterior addition of serially repeated elements during development explains the iterative expression of engrailed genes in a range of metazoan body plans.

  10. Jacob--the case of a serial killer.

    PubMed

    Kallian, M; Bar-el, Y C; Durst, R; Witztum, E

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a rare forensic psychiatric syndrome which has been the subject of massive publicity in the last decade. Despite the widespread interest, the psychodynamic process whereby a person becomes a serial murderer remains largely unknown. "Jacob" was convicted of a series of murders that he carried out over a decade. The case material is based on the psychiatric reports that were presented to the court and the many articles published in the local press at the time. Despite the limitations imposed by the material, the available information on "Jacob" bears some similarity to the phenomenological and psychodynamic models described in the literature. An attempt is made to understand the transformation of a person into a serial killer considering the life events, psychopathology and stressors that lead to the emergence from the world of imagination and fantasy of a potential murderer to the deeds that comprise the syndrome.

  11. Insect morphological diversification through the modification of wing serial homologs.

    PubMed

    Ohde, Takahiro; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2013-04-26

    Fossil insects living some 300 million years ago show winglike pads on all thoracic and abdominal segments, which suggests their serial homology. It remains unclear whether winglike structures in nonwinged segments have been lost or modified through evolution. Here, we identified a ventral lateral part of the body wall on the first thoracic segment, the hypomeron, and pupal dorsolateral denticular outgrowths as wing serial homologs in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. Both domains transform into winglike structures under Hox RNA interference conditions. Gene expression and functional analyses revealed central roles for the key wing selector genes, vestigial and scalloped, in the hypomeron and the denticular outgrowth formation. We propose that modification, rather than loss, of dorsal appendages has provided an additional diversifying mechanism of insect body plan.

  12. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; White, Thomas A.; Zatsepin, Nadia; Shilova, Anastasya; Nelson, Garrett; Liu, Haiguang; Johansson, Linda; Heymann, Michael; Jaeger, Kathrin; Metz, Markus; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Wu, Wenting; Båth, Petra; Berntsen, Peter; Oberthuer, Dominik; Panneels, Valerie; Cherezov, Vadim; Chapman, Henry; Schertler, Gebhard; Neutze, Richard; Spence, John; Moraes, Isabel; Burghammer, Manfred; Standfuss, Joerg; Weierstall, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway. PMID:25866654

  13. Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial".

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha; Hachmann, Wibke; Neubauer, Claudia; Konieczny, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading in which individuals process letters serially with a pronounced length effect. Yet, there is considerable variation in the performance of alexic readers with generally very slow, but also occasionally fast responses, an observation addressed rarely in previous reports. It has been suggested that "fast" responses in pure alexia reflect residual parallel letter processing or that they may even be subserved by an independent reading system. Four experiments assessed fast and slow reading in a participant (DN) with pure alexia. Two behavioral experiments investigated frequency, neighborhood, and length effects in forced fast reading. Two further experiments measured eye movements when DN was forced to read quickly, or could respond faster because words were easier to process. Taken together, there was little support for the proposal that "qualitatively different" mechanisms or reading strategies underlie both types of responses in DN. Instead, fast responses are argued to be generated by the same serial-reading strategy.

  14. Serial thyroid iodine content in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.S.; Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-02-01

    X-ray fluorescent scanning was used to measure initial thyroidal iodine content in 64 patients diagnosed as being hyperthyroid and selected for I-131 therapy, and serially in 48 of these patients after therapy in an attempt to determine those patients that were at high risk of becoming hypothyroid. Iodine content fell rapidly after therapy, reaching a nadir at about three months. Based on the population studied, the chance of early hypothyroidism (within 12 months) is about 80% if the iodine content measured at three months is less than 2 mg. If the iodine content is greater than 2 mg, the chance is only about 14%. The serial measurement of thyroidal iodine content (with x-ray fluorescent scanning) may allow early identification of those patients at high risk of developing permanent hypothyroidism following a therapeutic dose of I-131.

  15. Planning a serial dilution test with multiple dilutions.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    The dilutions used in a serial dilution test determine which concentrations it can estimate well. Two criteria help to select how many and which dilutions to use. The first criterion is a low probability of outcomes with either all growth or all non-growth tubes at the concentrations of interest. The second criterion considers how far the estimated concentration (MPN) is likely to be from the actual concentration.

  16. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-01-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution. PMID:27087008

  17. Two Serial Data to Pulse Code Modulation System Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Two pulse code modulation (PCM) system interfaces for asynchronous serial data are described. One interface is for global positioning system (GPS) data on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri) airplane, tail number 836 (F-15B/836). The other is for flight control computer data on the duPont Aerospace (La Jolla, California) DP-1, a 53-percent scale model of the duPont Aerospace DP-2.

  18. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-04-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution.

  19. A nonparametric trend test for seasonal data with serial dependence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.; Slack, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical tests for monotonic trend in seasonal (eg monthly) hydrologic time series are commonly confounded by some of the following problems: nonnormal data, missing values, seasonality, censoring and serial dependence. An extension of the Mann-Kendall test for trend (designed for such data) is presented here. Because the test is based entirely on tanks, it is robust against nonnormality and censoring.-from Authors

  20. A GaAs Based Digital Serial Communications System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-25

    TASK Student, HQDA, MILPERCEN (DAPC-OPA-E), AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS *200 Stovall Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22332 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(f different from Controlling Office) 15. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) NOT CLASSIFIED Sa. DECL ASSI FICATION/DOWN...shift register with sixteen parallel lines and one serial line. In this system, the shift register is sequenced by a 4-bit controller through 16 states

  1. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder.

  2. Ultrasound-guided serial transabdominal cardiac biopsies in cats.

    PubMed

    van Essen, Vivian J; Uilenreef, Joost J; Szatmári, Viktor; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Kuiper, Raoul V; Rothuizen, Jan; de Bruin, Alain

    2012-03-01

    A percutaneous/transdiaphragmatic core needle biopsy technique was developed in cats to obtain serial biopsies from different locations of the left ventricle, through which morphological and molecular changes within the same individual can be studied to unravel the mechanisms of feline cardiomyopathies. Transmural left ventricular myocardial samples were obtained from 29 anesthetized, healthy, adult cats with ultrasound guidance. An 18G automatic biopsy needle was inserted between the last left rib and the sternum through the diaphragm into the thorax. Biopsies were obtained from the left ventricular wall. In five cats, three single biopsies were taken with 4-week intervals. Autopsy was performed on six cats, of which three cats had serial biopsies. In total, 87 biopsies were obtained without long-term effects on cardiac function or structure. The biopsies caused transient single ventricular premature complexes and mild pericardial effusion without tamponade. Necropsy revealed a minimal amount of fibrous connective tissue in the diaphragm and the heart without any significant microscopic lesions in the adjacent muscle tissue. The high quality biopsy material was suitable for morphological and molecular studies. This minimally invasive, ultrasound-guided cardiac biopsy technique thus allows for the safe collection of serial biopsies to study feline cardiomyopathies in an experimental setting.

  3. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  4. Learning to recognize face shapes through serial exploration.

    PubMed

    Wallraven, Christian; Whittingstall, Lisa; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2013-05-01

    Human observers are experts at visual face recognition due to specialized visual mechanisms for face processing that evolve with perceptual expertize. Such expertize has long been attributed to the use of configural processing, enabled by fast, parallel information encoding of the visual information in the face. Here we tested whether participants can learn to efficiently recognize faces that are serially encoded-that is, when only partial visual information about the face is available at any given time. For this, ten participants were trained in gaze-restricted face recognition in which face masks were viewed through a small aperture controlled by the participant. Tests comparing trained with untrained performance revealed (1) a marked improvement in terms of speed and accuracy, (2) a gradual development of configural processing strategies, and (3) participants' ability to rapidly learn and accurately recognize novel exemplars. This performance pattern demonstrates that participants were able to learn new strategies to compensate for the serial nature of information encoding. The results are discussed in terms of expertize acquisition and relevance for other sensory modalities relying on serial encoding.

  5. Cognitive, emotional and social markers of serial murdering.

    PubMed

    Angrilli, Alessandro; Sartori, Giuseppe; Donzella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Although criminal psychopathy is starting to be relatively well described, our knowledge of the characteristics and scientific markers of serial murdering is still very poor. A serial killer who murdered more than five people, KT, was administered a battery of standardized tests aimed at measuring neuropsychological impairment and social/emotional cognition deficits. KT exhibited a striking dissociation between a high level of emotional detachment and a low score on the antisocial behavior scale on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 showed a normal pattern with the psychotic triad at borderline level. KT had a high intelligence score and showed almost no impairment in cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Theory of Mind, Tower of London, this latter evidenced a mild impairment in planning performance). In the tests on moral, emotional and social cognition, his patterns of response differed from matched controls and from past reports on criminal psychopaths as, unlike these individuals, KT exhibited normal recognition of fear and a relatively intact knowledge of moral rules but he was impaired in the recognition of anger, embarrassment and conventional social rules. The overall picture of KT suggests that serial killing may be closer to normality than psychopathy defined according to either the DSM IV or the PCL-R, and it would be characterized by a relatively spared moral cognition and selective deficits in social and emotional cognition domains.

  6. Serial pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Eric D.

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and "one-hot" counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  7. DDCMP protocol on a DMA serial-line board

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.N.; Kessler, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the midst of an upgrade to their radiation counting facility. The result of this upgrade wil be a computer-based data acquisition network, the Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility Network (NCCF-NET). This network will consist of forty dedicated LSI-11/2 based controllers, ten interactive LSI-11/23 based workstations and a VAX-11/750 central node for data reduction and storage. One of the data acquisition instruments used in this network is a Nuclear Data pulse-height analyzer, the ND66L. This analyzer communicates to a host system over a 9600-baud serial line, using the DDCMP link level protocol. In order to relieve the host computer from the overhead of handling the DDCMP protocol, an in-house designed DMA serial line board was implemented to communicate with the ND66L. The hardware used and its environment will be duscussed along with the design and implementation of the firmware, which implements the serial DDCMP link.

  8. Serial extraction: 20 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; de SOUZA, Karen Regina Siqueira

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a case treated by a serial extraction program at the mixed dentition stage followed by a corrective orthodontic treatment, with a long-term follow-up period. Twenty years after the interceptive treatment, a harmonious face was observed along with treatment stability in the anterior posterior direction, deep overbite (which has been mentioned as a disadvantage of the serial extraction program), and a small relapse of anterior tooth crowding. All these conditions have been regarded as normal occurrences for most orthodontic treatments with a long-term follow-up period. This case report demonstrated that the establishment of a serial extraction protocol determined relevant esthetic changes that afforded an improvement of the patient's self-esteem, with a positive social impact. Furthermore, the low cost of this protocol permits the use of this therapy with underprivileged populations. It is important to emphasize that an early correction of tooth crowding by this protocol does not guarantee stability, but small relapses do not invalidate its accomplishment. PMID:23032213

  9. Massively Parallel Rogue Cell Detection Using Serial Time-Encoded Amplified Microscopy of Inertially Ordered Cells in High-Throughput Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    TITLE: Massively Parallel Rogue Cell Detection Using Serial Time- Encoded Amplified Microscopy of Inertially Ordered Cells in High- Throughput Flow ...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Encoded Amplified Microscopy of Inertially Ordered Cells in High-Throughput Flow 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0519...for blur flee imaging of breast cancer cells and blood cells in flow with and without microparticle labels to EpCAM on the cell surfaces. 2

  10. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  11. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  12. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... notice a decrease in red blood cell levels. Iron overload If you receive multiple blood transfusions, you may end up with too much iron in your blood. Iron overload (hemochromatosis) can damage ...

  13. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  14. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity. ... and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron ...

  15. Applying social learning theory to childhood and adolescent firesetting: can it lead to serial murder?

    PubMed

    Singer, Stephen D; Hensley, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Despite the fact that serial murder has existed for centuries, it has been given little academic attention in the social science literature. Existing studies have primarily examined the motivational factors involved in the commission of serial murder. However, research examining the childhood and adolescent backgrounds of serial murderers is scant. Based on three case studies of serial murderers, this study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood and/or adolescent fire setting and adult serial murder by applying social learning theory.

  16. Ultrafast photonic interfaces for storage networking using serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Nakahara, Tatsushi; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Takahata, Kiyoto; Yasui, Takako; Kondo, Naoto; Yumoto, Junji

    2003-09-01

    We propose novel ultrafast photonic interfaces for use in storage networking based on all-optical serial-to-parallel and photonic parallel-to-serial conversion. We confirm their operation with 40-Gbit/s 16-bit optical data using compact modules and a potential bandwidth of over 100 Gbit/s. We realize a photonic random access memory (RAM) by sandwiching a CMOS RAM with these two interfaces and achieve the storage and read-out of 40-Gbit/s 16-bit optical data. We also discuss the advantages of the interfaces and their possible applications to storage networking such as the real-time remote back-up of huge quantities of data, disaster recovery and video communication systems.

  17. Highly Reliable, High-Speed, Unidirectional Serial Data Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert M.; Bishop, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    Highly reliable, high-speed, unidirectional serial data-communication subsystems have been proposed to be installed in an upgrade of the computing systems aboard the space shuttles. The basic design concept of these serial data links is also adaptable to terrestrial use in applications in which there are requirements for highly reliable serial data communications. The hardware and software aspects of the architecture of the data links are dictated largely by a requirement, in the original space-shuttle application, for one computer to monitor the memory transactions and memory contents of other computers in real time with high reliability and without reliance on requests for retransmission. To minimize weight while affording a capability to transfer data at a required rate of 2.56 x 10(exp 8) bits per second, it was decided that the links would be serial ones of the fiber-channel type. [Fiber channel denotes a type of serial computer bus that is used to connect a computer (usually a supercomputer) with a high-speed data storage device. Depending on the specific application, the physical connection between the transmitter and receiver could be made via an optical fiber or a twisted pair of wires.] Heretofore, fiber-channel links have ordinarily been bidirectional and have operated under protocols that provide for receiving stations to detect errors and request retransmission when necessary. In the present case, the time taken by processing to request retransmission would conflict with the requirement for real-time transfer of data. To ensure reliability without retransmission, a link according to the proposal would utilize a modified version of the normal fiberchannel character set in conjunction with forward error correction by means of a Reed-Solomon code (see figure). The Reed-Solomon encoding and decoding and the translations between the normal and modified character sets would be effected by logic circuitry external to the fiber-channel transmitter and receiver

  18. 76 FR 42715 - Quarantine Release Errors in Blood Establishments; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Quarantine Release Errors in Blood Establishments; Public... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Quarantine Release Errors in Blood... workshop will focus on the extent and characteristics of QREs in blood establishments and...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  4. 77 FR 20643 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To... following links. Blood Products Advisory Committee Web Cast Link May 15...

  5. 76 FR 39405 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To... available at the following links. Blood Products Advisory Committee Day 1:...

  6. Extending vaterite microviscometry to ex vivo blood vessels by serial calibration.

    PubMed

    Shreim, Samir G; Steward, Earl; Botvinick, Elliot L

    2012-01-01

    The endothelial glycocalyx layer is a ~2 µm thick glycosaminoglycan rich pericellular matrix expressed on the luminal surface of vascular endothelial cells, which has implications in vessel mechanics and mechanotransduction. Despite its role in vascular physiology, no direct measurement has of yet been made of vessel glycocalyx material properties. Vaterite microviscometry is a laser tweezers based microrheological method, which has been previously utilized to measure the viscosity of linear and complex fluids under flow. This form of microrheology has until now relied on complete recollection of the forward scattered light. Here we present a novel method to extend vaterite microviscometry to relatively thick samples. We validate our method and its assumptions and measure the apparent viscosity as a function of distance from the vascular endothelium. We observe a differential response in conditions designed to preserve the EGL in comparison to those designed to collapse it.

  7. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Let's find out more about each ingredient. continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih-RITH-ruh-sytes) ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical called hemoglobin ( ...

  8. Serotonin antagonists in the five-choice serial reaction time task and their interactions with nicotine.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Davide; Naylor, Christopher G; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Stolerman, Ian P

    2012-04-01

    Much research has implicated the serotonin (5-HT) system in cognitive functioning and psychomotor stimulant abuse, but its role depends on the subtypes of 5-HT receptors involved and the nature of the behavioural task. Here we aimed to extend previous studies by examining the role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors in attentional performance. The effects of the selective 5-HT antagonists WAY-100635 and SB-242084 were assessed alone and for interactions with nicotine in the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats. The effects of several doses of WAY-100635 were tested in combination with a fixed dose of nicotine, and then various doses of nicotine were tested in combination with SB-242084. Systemic administration of WAY-100635 and SB-242084 induced opposing effects on speed-related measures in the five-choice serial reaction time task, with antagonism at 5-HT1A receptors increasing omission errors and response latency, and antagonism at 5-HT2C receptors reducing both omissions and latency, and also increasing anticipatory responses; neither drug affected accuracy. Nicotine itself improved all main indices of attention, and there was preliminary evidence that the detrimental effects of WAY-100635 on response latency were weakened by nicotine. Conversely, treatment with SB-242084 enhanced all speed-related indices of performance to above the levels seen under the influence of nicotine alone, thus suggesting that 5-HT2C antagonists might be useful to decrease reaction times if used as an add-on therapy to treat attentional decline.

  9. Analytical expression for the inverted inertia matrix of serial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical derivation of the inertia matrix and its inverse for an open-loop, serial-chain robot. The derivation allows one to write a recursive forward-dynamics algorithm for simulation purposes whose computational complexity is of order n, i.e., {Omicron}(n) -- n being the degrees of freedom of the robot under study. The proposed methodology is based on the Gaussian elimination of the inertia matrix, in contrast to, say, Kalman filtering, which is proposed elsewhere. The derivation is illustrated with a three-degrees-of-freedom planar robot.

  10. A semiautomated approach for artefact removal in serial tissue cryosections.

    PubMed

    Kindle, L M; Kakadiaris, I A; Ju, T; Carson, J P

    2011-02-01

    Thinly sliced serial tissue sections of an organ can be imaged using optical microscopy at a resolution detailing individual cells. When the tissue sections are first subjected to in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry, these data sets can be analysed for changes in gene expression and gene products. Such spatial information is important for understanding the functional effects of experimental or environmental challenges to the organism. However, a critical step in analysing these data sets is mitigating artefacts that result from the preparation of the tissue sections. In this paper, we describe an automated method with manual validation tools that together enable detecting and addressing artefacts including dust particles and air bubbles.

  11. Protein crystal screening and characterization for serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    PubMed Central

    Darmanin, Connie; Strachan, Jamie; Adda, Christopher G.; Ve, Thomas; Kobe, Bostjan; Abbey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has spurred the development of serial femtosecond nanocrystallography (SFX) which, for the first time, is enabling structure retrieval from sub-micron protein crystals. Although there are already a growing number of structures published using SFX, the technology is still very new and presents a number of unique challenges as well as opportunities for structural biologists. One of the biggest barriers to the success of SFX experiments is the preparation and selection of suitable protein crystal samples. Here we outline a protocol for preparing and screening for suitable XFEL targets. PMID:27139248

  12. Serial rapists and their victims: reenactment and repetition.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Hazelwood, R R; Rokous, F E; Hartman, C R; Burgess, A G

    1988-01-01

    The major finding in this study of 41 serial rapists is the large numbers of reported and unreported victims. For over 1200 attempted and completed rapes, there were 200 convictions. The hidden rapes or earliest nonreported victims of these men as boys and adolescents were identified from their families, their neighborhood, and their schools. Examining the possible link between childhood sexual abuse and criminal behavior in this sample of 41 serial rapists, 56.1% were judged to have at least one forced or exploitive abuse experience in boyhood, as compared to a study of 2,972 college males reporting 7.3% experiencing boyhood sexual abuse. Looking within the abused samples, 56.1% of the rapists reported forced sex, compared to the college sample's 30.4%. Also, the rapist sample revealed higher rates of family member as abuser (48.4%), compared to 22.2% for the college sample. Retrospective reconstruction of the sexual activities and assertive behaviors of these men as boys reveals that 51% of the boys reenact the abuse as a preadolescent with their earliest victims being known to them (48% as neighborhood girls), family (25% as sisters), or girlfriend (25%). The onset of rape fantasies in midadolescence (mean age 16.9) crystalizes the earlier sexually initiated behaviors into juvenile behaviors of spying, fetish burglaries, molestations, and rapes. Repetition of these juvenile behaviors set their criminal patters on strangers--their next group of victims. To reduce victimization, serial rapists need to be identified early and stopped. This means acknowledging and reporting boy sexual abuse. This includes being sensitive to the reenactment behaviors noted in the initiated activities of abused children, which in turn need to be differentiated from peer play. Closer attention needs to be paid to families with incest behavior to insure that younger children are protected. Adolescents showing early repetitive juvenile delinquent behaviors must be assessed for physical

  13. High-Resolution Protein Structure Determination by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R. Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P.; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J.; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J.; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hunter, Mark S.; Johansson, Linda C.; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C. H.; Chapman, Henry N.; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-01-01

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules. PMID:22653729

  14. High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J; Barends, Thomas R M; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A; Seibert, M Marvin; Montanez, Paul A; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y; Hunter, Mark S; Johansson, Linda C; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-07-20

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  15. Controllable optomechanical coupling in serially-coupled triple resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chenguang Zhao, Yunsong; Fan, Jiahua; Zhu, Lin

    2014-12-15

    Radiation pressure can efficiently couple mechanical modes with optical modes in an optical cavity. The coupling efficiency is quite dependent on the interaction between the optical mode and mechanical mode. In this report, we investigate a serially-coupled triple resonator system, where a freestanding beam is placed in the vicinity of the middle resonator. In this coupled system, we demonstrate that the mechanical mode of the free-standing beam can be selectively coupled to different resonance supermodes through the near field interaction.

  16. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; ...

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  17. Hi-speed versatile serial crate controller for CAMAC

    SciTech Connect

    Horelick, D.

    1984-10-01

    A serial crate controller, primarily for use in the SLC CAMAC control system, has been designed, and has been in use for about 2 years. The design supports a party line approach, with up to 16 crates on a single twisted pair for data transfers, plus another pair for prompt L response. The bit rate is 5 megabits/s, and complete transaction times of about 10 ..mu..s are achieved for 16-bit data transfers over cables up to 1000 feet long. One of the primary objects of the design was simplicity - there are approximately 60 chips in the two-board unit.

  18. Initial and serial evoked potentials in cerebrovascular critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Walter F; Pawlik, Gunter; Thiel, Alexander

    2006-10-01

    Results of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations performed early in the clinical course of patients with acute cerebrovascular disease correlate statistically significantly with outcome regardless of type and localization of the primary lesion. The prognostic value of serial examinations of SEP and BAEP has not been studied yet. The authors examined a group of 215 patients suffering from acute stroke requiring neurocritical care composed of 75 supratentorial and 36 infratentorial ischemic strokes, 58 supratentorial and 18 infratentorial hemorrhages, and 28 aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhages prospectively using spinal and cortical SEP and BAEP according to routine procedures on admission as well as after 1 and 2 weeks. The findings were correlated to outcome at 4 weeks. Statistical assessment was performed using standard methods of contingency analysis. In all groups, SEP findings were significantly correlated with outcome at initial and all subsequent examinations, similar correlations were also found for BAEP. However, after partialling out the prognostic information gained from the initial examination of SEP and BAEP, the follow-up examinations rendered only a marginal increase in prognostic information. Therefore, the initial examination of evoked potentials supplies valuable prognostic information, however, serial examinations of evoked potentials during the first weeks of disease improve the prognostic information only marginally.

  19. External serial connection without layer patterning for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ying Qian; Wong, Hin Yong; Tan, Ching Seong; Meng, Hsin-Fei

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel alternative to conventional internal serial connection, where precise patterning and scribing of organic layers can be eliminated. Adjacent cells can be made nearer for better space-utilization and higher voltages per unit area. Also, blade coating is proposed as the fabrication method as it has low material wastage (less than 5%), easily scalable to large area, has high film uniformity and has high throughput due to its roll-to-roll potential. This paper demonstrates 3-cells large area (12.98 cm2) external serial connection organic solar cells (OSCs) using the material poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and 2,6-Bis(trimethyltin)-4, 8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene:6,6-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PBDTTT-CT:PC71BM) respectively. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the resulting 3-cells modules are 2.0% and 4.1% respectively.

  20. Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gati, Cornelius; Bourenkov, Gleb; Klinge, Marco; Rehders, Dirk; Stellato, Francesco; Oberthür, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Sommer, Benjamin P.; Mogk, Stefan; Duszenko, Michael; Betzel, Christian; Schneider, Thomas R.; Chapman, Henry N.; Redecke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structure determinations of biological macromolecules are limited by the availability of sufficiently sized crystals and by the fact that crystal quality deteriorates during data collection owing to radiation damage. Exploiting a micrometre-sized X-ray beam, high-precision diffractometry and shutterless data acquisition with a pixel-array detector, a strategy for collecting data from many micrometre-sized crystals presented to an X-ray beam in a vitrified suspension is demonstrated. By combining diffraction data from 80 Trypanosoma brucei procathepsin B crystals with an average volume of 9 µm3, a complete data set to 3.0 Å resolution has been assembled. The data allowed the refinement of a structural model that is consistent with that previously obtained using free-electron laser radiation, providing mutual validation. Further improvements of the serial synchrotron crystallography technique and its combination with serial femtosecond crystallography are discussed that may allow the determination of high-resolution structures of micrometre-sized crystals. PMID:25075324

  1. Parallel, semiparallel, and serial processing of visual hyperacuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahle, Manfred W.

    1990-10-01

    Humans can discriminate between certain elementary stimulus features in parallel, i.e., simultaneously over the visual field. I present evidence that, in man, vernier rnisalignments in the hyperacuity-range, i.e., below the photoreceptor diameter, can also be detected in parallel. This indicates that the visUal system performs some form of spatial interpolation beyond the photoreceptor spacing simultaneously over the visual field. Vernier offsets are detected in parallel even when orientation cues are masked: deviation from straightness is an elementary feature of visual perception. However, the identification process, that classifies each vernier in a stimulus as being offset to the right (versus to the left) is serial and has to scan the visual field sequentially if orientation cues are masked. Therefore, reaction times and thresholds in vernier acuity tasks increase with the number of verniers presented simultaneously if classification of different features is required. Furthermore, when approaching vernier threshold, simple vernier detection is no longer parallel but becomes partially serial, or semi-parallel.

  2. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2016-12-22

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  3. Stability of high cell density brewery fermentations during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Pieter J; Dekoninck, Tinne M L; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-11-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density brewery fermentations can adversely affect the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. Therefore, different O(2) conditions (wort aeration and yeast preoxygenation) were applied to high cell density fermentation and eight generations of fermentations were evaluated together with conventional fermentations. Freshly propagated high cell density populations adapted faster to the fermentative conditions than normal cell density populations. Preoxygenating the yeast was essential for the yeast physiological and beer flavor compound stability of high cell density fermentations during serial repitching. In contrast, the use of non-preoxygenated yeast resulted in inadequate growth which caused (1) insufficient yield of biomass to repitch all eight generations, (2) a 10% decrease in viability, (3) a moderate increase of yeast age, (4) and a dramatic increase of the unwanted flavor compounds acetaldehyde and total diacetyl during the sequence of fermentations. Therefore, to achieve sustainable high cell density fermentations throughout the economical valuable process of serial repitching, adequate yeast growth is essential.

  4. Serial lobar lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Milind M; Nair, Jairaj; Athavale, Amita; Gavali, Varun; Sarkar, Manjula; Divate, Smita; Shah, Unmil

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease with worldwide distribution and an estimated incidence of 0.36 cases per million. We report a case of a PAP coexisting with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The patient was treated with serial lobar lung lavages, GM-CSF, cotrimoxazole, and antituberculosis drugs. His PaO2 on room air improved from 45.7 to 63.8 torr and pulmonary functions normalized (FVC 81.2%, FEV1 95.3%, FEV1/FVC 91.8). A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed clearing of both lower lobes. Whole-lung lavage is used in the treatment of PAP, but it may worsen the hypoxemia and lead to hemodynamic instability during the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bronchoscopic serial lobar lung lavages in cases of PAP performed in India. This method can be performed in bronchoscopic suites having general anesthesia facilities without the requirement of special gadgets.

  5. The serial nature of the masked onset priming effect revisited.

    PubMed

    Mousikou, Petroula; Coltheart, Max

    2014-01-01

    Reading aloud is faster when target words/nonwords are preceded by masked prime words/nonwords that share their first sound with the target (e.g., save-SINK) compared to when primes and targets are unrelated to each other (e.g., farm-SINK). This empirical phenomenon is the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and is known to be due to serial left-to-right processing of the prime by a sublexical reading mechanism. However, the literature in this domain lacks a critical experiment. It is possible that when primes are real words their orthographic/phonological representations are activated in parallel and holistically during prime presentation, so any phoneme overlap between primes and targets (and not just initial-phoneme overlap) could facilitate target reading aloud. This is the prediction made by the only computational models of reading aloud that are able to simulate the MOPE, namely the DRC1.2.1, CDP+, and CDP++ models. We tested this prediction in the present study and found that initial-phoneme overlap (blip-BEST), but not end-phoneme overlap (flat-BEST), facilitated target reading aloud compared to no phoneme overlap (junk-BEST). These results provide support for a reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right, yet are inconsistent with all existing computational models of single-word reading aloud.

  6. Optimal Weights in Serial Generalized-Ensemble Simulations.

    PubMed

    Chelli, Riccardo

    2010-07-13

    In serial generalized-ensemble simulations, the sampling of a collective coordinate of a system is enhanced through non-Boltzmann weighting schemes. A popular version of such methods is certainly the simulated tempering technique, which is based on a random walk in temperature ensembles to explore the phase space more thoroughly. The most critical aspect of serial generalized-ensemble methods with respect to their parallel counterparts, such as replica exchange, is the difficulty of weight determination. Here we propose an adaptive approach to update the weights on the fly during the simulation. The algorithm is based on generalized forms of the Bennett acceptance ratio and of the free energy perturbation. It does not require intensive communication between processors and, therefore, is prone to be used in distributed computing environments with modest computational cost. We illustrate the method in a series of molecular dynamics simulations of a model system and compare its performances to two recent approaches, one based on adaptive Bayesian-weighted histogram analysis and the other based on initial estimates of weight factors obtained by potential energy averages.

  7. Random-effects models for serial observations with binary response

    SciTech Connect

    Stiratelli, R.; Laird, N.; Ware, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    This paper presents a general mixed model for the analysis of serial dichotomous responses provided by a panel of study participants. Each subject's serial responses are assumed to arise from a logistic model, but with regression coefficients that vary between subjects. The logistic regression parameters are assumed to be normally distributed in the population. Inference is based upon maximum likelihood estimation of fixed effects and variance components, and empirical Bayes estimation of random effects. Exact solutions are analytically and computationally infeasible, but an approximation based on the mode of the posterior distribution of the random parameters is proposed, and is implemented by means of the EM algorithm. This approximate method is compared with a simpler two-step method proposed by Korn and Whittemore, using data from a panel study of asthmatics originally described in that paper. One advantage of the estimation strategy described here is the ability to use all of the data, including that from subjects with insufficient data to permit fitting of a separate logistic regression model, as required by the Korn and Whittemore method. However, the new method is computationally intensive.

  8. Parallel and serial grouping of image elements in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Houtkamp, Roos; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2010-12-01

    The visual system groups image elements that belong to an object and segregates them from other objects and the background. Important cues for this grouping process are the Gestalt criteria, and most theories propose that these are applied in parallel across the visual scene. Here, we find that Gestalt grouping can indeed occur in parallel in some situations, but we demonstrate that there are also situations where Gestalt grouping becomes serial. We observe substantial time delays when image elements have to be grouped indirectly through a chain of local groupings. We call this chaining process incremental grouping and demonstrate that it can occur for only a single object at a time. We suggest that incremental grouping requires the gradual spread of object-based attention so that eventually all the object's parts become grouped explicitly by an attentional labeling process. Our findings inspire a new incremental grouping theory that relates the parallel, local grouping process to feedforward processing and the serial, incremental grouping process to recurrent processing in the visual cortex.

  9. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

  10. Frequency of serial sexual homicide victimization in Virginia for a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McNamara, James J; Morton, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    The frequency of serial sexual murder has been widely discussed, and estimates of the number of victims in the United States range from 500 to 6000 per year. This study attempted to quantify the number of serial sexual murder victims in Virginia for a ten-year period. Multiple sources of data were utilized, including Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case files, FBI's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) reports, Virginia State Police ViCAP reports, Virginia Homicide Investigators Association, and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science DNA database, to effectively cull out all the known serial sexual murder victims for the given time period. Review of these records revealed a total of 28 victims of serial sexual murder, compared with a total of 5183 murder victims for the same ten-year period. The frequency of serial sexual victimization was 0.5% of all homicides for the given period. These results highlight the unusual frequency of serial sexual murder.

  11. Falsifying serial and parallel parsing models: empirical conundrums and an overlooked paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R L

    2000-03-01

    When the human parser encounters a local structural ambiguity, are multiple structures pursued (parallel or breadth-first parsing), or just a single preferred structure (serial or depth-first parsing)? This note discusses four important classes of serial and parallel models: simple limited parallel, ranked limited parallel, deterministic serial with reanalysis, and probabilistic serial with reanalysis. It is argued that existing evidence is compatible only with probabilistic serial-reanalysis models, or ranked parallel models augmented with a reanalysis component. A new class of linguistic structures is introduced on which the behavior of serial and parallel parsers diverge the most radically: multiple local ambiguities are stacked to increase the number of viable alternatives in the ambiguous region from two to eight structures. This paradigm may provide the strongest test yet for parallel models.

  12. Blood Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... as A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  13. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  14. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  15. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong blood type, the antibodies immediately set out to destroy the invading cells. This aggressive, whole-body response can give someone a fever, chills, and low blood pressure. It can even lead ...

  16. New developments in electron microscopy for serial image acquisition of neuronal profiles.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki

    2015-02-01

    Recent developments in electron microscopy largely automate the continuous acquisition of serial electron micrographs (EMGs), previously achieved by laborious manual serial ultrathin sectioning using an ultramicrotome and ultrastructural image capture process with transmission electron microscopy. The new systems cut thin sections and capture serial EMGs automatically, allowing for acquisition of large data sets in a reasonably short time. The new methods are focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, ultramicrotome/serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, automated tape-collection ultramicrotome/scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope camera array. In this review, their positive and negative aspects are discussed.

  17. Serial agonistic attacks by greylag goose families, Anser anser, against the same opponent

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, Isabella B.R.; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiß, Brigitte M.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from primates that alliance partners may support each other’s interests in competition with others, for example, through repeated agonistic attacks against a particular individual. We examined serial aggressive interactions between greylag goose families and other flock members. We found that repeated attacks towards the same individual were common and that up to five serial attacks by family members followed an initial attack. Family size did not affect the frequency of such serial attacks. Juvenile geese evidently benefited most from active social support through serial attacks. About 60% of the juveniles’ lost primary interactions were subsequently reversed by another family member. This may be one of the reasons why juveniles rank higher in the social hierarchy than would be expected from their age and size alone. Losses in serial attacks predominantly occurred against other, presumably higher-ranking, family geese and ganders. We propose three major functions/consequences of serial attacks. Analogous to primates, serial attacks in greylag geese may serve to reinforce a losing experience of an opponent defeated in a preceding attack. On the side of the winning family, serial attacks may reinforce the experience of winning. Both winning and losing experiences are linked with physiological consequences in higher vertebrates, affecting the future social performance of winners or losers. Finally, serial attacks may signal the agonistic potential of a family to other flock members. This is supported by heart rate data, which indicate that greylags are competent to interpret third-party relationships. PMID:21984838

  18. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of the blood....

  19. Registration of serial sections of mouse liver cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Baheerathan, S; Albregtsen, F; Danielsen, H E

    1998-10-01

    Image registration of biological tissue is essential for 3D reconstruction, which is important for visualizing and quantifying the 3D relationships between internal structures of an object. The biological role of DNA organization, which is an extremely complex 3D architecture within the cell nucleus, has come into focus since it has become clear that the chromatin structure in itself functions as a regulator of DNA. Thus, 3D reconstruction of cell nuclei based on consecutive series of high-resolution ultrathin slices may provide new information about the chromatin structure and its organizational changes during carcinogenesis. This work focuses mainly on the problem of registering successive serial transmission electron micrographs of ultrathin sections of mouse liver cell nuclei to analyse the 3D chromatin structure. A five-step semiautomatic interactive registration method is proposed. The first two steps of the procedure correct the rotation and translation components by using the phase correlation. The third, fourth and fifth steps correct the global distortion, employing a point mapping method based on different ways of selecting the control points. In step three, the control points were automatically computed by phase correlating corresponding subimages of the reference and sensed image. A semiautomatic method is used in the fourth step to select the control points, i.e. an automated method for computing the centre of mass of manually identified anatomical structures in neighbouring slices. For the sections which could not be properly corrected by the four steps, a final step is introduced, where control points are manually selected in the reference and sensed images. An algorithm is proposed to examine the spatial distribution of selected control points. Four sets of serial sections of mouse liver cell nuclei, each with approximately 100 sections, are registered by the proposed method and also registered manually for the comparison of registration accuracy

  20. Blood money.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S B

    2000-11-01

    Foetal blood contains cells that can regenerate all the cellular elements of blood and the immune system (stem cells). This blood can be obtained from the placenta without any harm to mother or baby and is currently used as a successful alternative to bone marrow for paediatric transplantation. Recently, it has been suggested that this blood can be put in storage and used (if needed) for the child that the blood originally came from. This has prompted a commercial interest, leading to both financial and ethical concerns.

  1. Serial measurement of memory and diffusion tensor imaging changes within the first week following uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Elisabeth A; McCauley, Stephen R; Barnes, Amanda; Wu, Trevor C; Chu, Zili; Hunter, Jill V; Bigler, Erin D

    2012-06-01

    Patients (n = 8) with uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) underwent serial assessments (4) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological testing within the first 8 days post-injury. Using a multi-case study design, we examined changes in brain parenchyma (via DTI-derived fractional anisotropy [FA], apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], axial diffusivity [AD] and radial diffusivity [RD] in the left cingulum bundle) and in memory performance (via Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised). Qualitative inspection of the results indicated that memory performance was transiently affected in most participants over the course of the week, with performance most negatively impacted on the second assessment (days 3-4 or 97-144 h post-injury), and then returning to within normal limits by 8 days post-injury. Alternatively, FA and other DTI metrics showed a more complex pattern, with the trajectory of some participants changing more prominently than others. For example, FA transiently increased in some participants over the study period, but the pattern was heterogeneous. Memory performance appeared to mirror changes in FA in certain cases, supporting a pathophysiological basis to memory impairment following mTBI. However, the pattern and the degree of symmetry between FA and memory performance was complex and did not always correspond. Serial imaging over the semi-acute recovery period may be important in reconciling conflicting findings in mTBI utilizing memory and/or DTI. Serial use of imaging modalities including DTI may aid understanding of underlying pathophysiological changes in the semi-acute post-injury period. Should a consistent pattern emerge that allows identification of patients at-risk for acute and/or persistent symptoms, such knowledge could guide development of therapeutic targets in mTBI and in understanding the most effective administration time window for these agents.

  2. Vanadium distribution following decavanadate administration.

    PubMed

    Soares, S S; Martins, H; Aureliano, M

    2006-01-01

    An acute exposure of two vanadate solutions-metavanadate and decavanadate-containing different vanadate oligomers, induces different patterns of subcellular vanadium distribution in blood plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and cardiac muscle subcellular fractions of the fish Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream). The highest amount of vanadium was found in blood plasma 1 h after (5 mM) intravenous vanadate administration (295 +/- 64 and 383 +/- 104 microg V/g dry tissue, for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively), being 80-fold higher than in RBC. After 12 h of administration, the amount of vanadium in plasma, as well as in cardiac cytosol, decreased about 50%, for both vanadate solutions. During the period between 1 and 12 h, the ratio of vanadium in plasma/vanadium in RBC increased from 27 to 128 for metavanadate, whereas it remains constant (77) for decavanadate. Both vanadium solutions were primarily accumulated in the mitochondrial fraction (138 +/- 0 and 195 +/- 34 ng V/g dry tissue for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively, after 12 h exposure), rather than in cytosol. The amount of vanadium in cardiac mitochondria was twofold higher than in cytosol, earlier for metavanadate (6 h) than for decavanadate (12 h). It is concluded that, in fish cardiac muscle, the vanadium distribution is dependent on the administration of decameric vanadate, with vanadium being mainly distributed in plasma, before being accumulated into the mitochondrial fraction.

  3. Optimal serial dilutions designs for drug discovery experiments.

    PubMed

    Donev, Alexander N; Tobias, Randall D

    2011-05-01

    Dose-response studies are an essential part of the drug discovery process. They are typically carried out on a large number of chemical compounds using serial dilution experimental designs. This paper proposes a method of selecting the key parameters of these designs (maximum dose, dilution factor, number of concentrations and number of replicated observations for each concentration) depending on the stage of the drug discovery process where the study takes place. This is achieved by employing and extending results from optimal design theory. Population D- and D(S)-optimality are defined and used to evaluate the precision of estimating the potency of the tested compounds. The proposed methodology is easy to use and creates opportunities to reduce the cost of the experiments without compromising the quality of the data obtained in them.

  4. Dispersion serial dilution methods using the gradient diluter device.

    PubMed

    Walling, Leslie; Schulz, Craig; Johnson, Michael

    2012-12-01

    A solute aspirated into a prefilled tube of diluent undergoes a dilution effect known as dispersion. Traditionally the effects of dispersion have been considered a negative consequence of using liquid-filled fixed-tip liquid handlers. We present a novel device and technique that utilizes the effects of dispersion to the benefit of making dilutions. The device known as the Gradient Diluter extends the dilution range of practical serial dilutions to six orders of magnitude in final volumes as low as 10 μL. Presented are the device, dispersion methods, and validation tests using fluorescence detection of sulforhodamine and the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection of furosemide. In addition, a T-cell inhibition assay of a relevant downstream protein is used to demonstrate IC(50) curves made with the Gradient Diluter compare favorably with those generated by hand.

  5. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the

  6. Impaired serial visual search in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Sireteanu, Ruxandra; Goebel, Claudia; Goertz, Ralf; Werner, Ingeborg; Nalewajko, Magdalena; Thiel, Aylin

    2008-12-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of attentional deficits in dyslexia, we investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia on a number of visual search tasks. When tested with conjunction tasks for orientation and form using complex, letter-like material, dyslexic children showed an increased number of errors accompanied by faster reaction times in comparison to control children matched to the dyslexics on age, gender, and intelligence. On conjunction tasks for orientation and color, dyslexic children were also less accurate, but showed slower reaction times than the age-matched control children. These differences between the two groups decreased with increasing age. In contrast to these differences, the performance of dyslexic children in feature search tasks was similar to that of control children. These results suggest that children with developmental dyslexia present selective deficits in complex serial visual search tasks, implying impairment in goal-directed, sustained visual attention.

  7. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cimica, Velasco . E-mail: vcimica@aecom.yu.edu; Batusic, Danko; Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava; Chen, Yonglong; Hollemann, Thomas; Pieler, Tomas; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2007-08-31

    We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction.

  8. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs.

  9. Merging of synchrotron serial crystallographic data by a genetic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Ulrich; Cianci, Michele; Foos, Nicolas; Silva, Catarina S.; Mazzei, Luca; Zubieta, Chloe; de Maria, Alejandro; Nanao, Max H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in macromolecular crystallography have made it practical to rapidly collect hundreds of sub-data sets consisting of small oscillations of incomplete data. This approach, generally referred to as serial crystallography, has many uses, including an increased effective dose per data set, the collection of data from crystals without harvesting (in situ data collection) and studies of dynamic events such as catalytic reactions. However, selecting which data sets from this type of experiment should be merged can be challenging and new methods are required. Here, it is shown that a genetic algorithm can be used for this purpose, and five case studies are presented in which the merging statistics are significantly improved compared with conventional merging of all data. PMID:27599735

  10. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    PubMed

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  11. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    DOE PAGES

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; ...

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is shown enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals deliveredmore » by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.« less

  12. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is shown enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  13. A case of serial homicide by injection of succinylcholine.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Fujita, M Q; Zhu, B L; Ishidam, K; Oritani, S; Tsuchihashi, H; Nishikawa, M; Izumi, M; Matsumoto, F

    2000-04-01

    The abstract of this paper was presented at the 14th Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences, Tokyo in 1996. We report a bizarre criminal case of suspected serial homicide by injection of a muscle relaxant (succinylcholine). Five victims were found buried in a rural area. In two victims showing moderate decomposition (about three months after death), intense pulmonary oedema with pleural effusion was observed. Evidence of a puncture site was found in one of the victims. Succinylcholine could not be detected in the victims, but was identified in a syringe found near the corpses. The 40-mg ampule dose of succinylcholine administered intramuscularly to the victims, possibly causing prolonged apnea, was considered to be at least around the minimum lethal dose, although the combined effect of the sedation with hypnotics also used was not negligible.

  14. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlensinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios use error-correction techniques that approach Shannon s theoretical limit of performance. The authors describe the benefit of closed-loop measurements for a receiver when paired with a counterpart transmitter and representative channel conditions. We also describe a real-time Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in real-time during the development of software defined radios.

  15. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  16. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  17. The problem of multimodal concurrent serial order in behavior.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-09-01

    The "problem of serial order in behavior," as formulated and discussed by Lashley (1951), is arguably more pervasive and more profound both than originally stated and than currently appreciated. We spell out two complementary aspects of what we term the generalized problem of behavior: (i) multimodality, stemming from the disparate nature of the sensorimotor variables and processes that underlie behavior, and (ii) concurrency, which reflects the parallel unfolding in time of these processes and of their asynchronous interactions. We illustrate these on a number of examples, with a special focus on language, briefly survey the computational approaches to multimodal concurrency, offer some hypotheses regarding the manner in which brains address it, and discuss some of the broader implications of these as yet unresolved issues for cognitive science.

  18. The evolution of photosynthesis in chromist algae through serial endosymbioses

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Schreiber, John; Yue, Jipei; Guo, Hui; Ding, Qin; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Chromist algae include diverse photosynthetic organisms of great ecological and social importance. Despite vigorous research efforts, a clear understanding of how various chromists acquired photosynthetic organelles has been complicated by conflicting phylogenetic results, along with an undetermined number and pattern of endosymbioses, and the horizontal movement of genes that accompany them. We apply novel statistical approaches to assess impacts of endosymbiotic gene transfer on three principal chromist groups at the heart of long-standing controversies. Our results provide robust support for acquisitions of photosynthesis through serial endosymbioses, beginning with the adoption of a red alga by cryptophytes, then a cryptophyte by the ancestor of ochrophytes, and finally an ochrophyte by the ancestor of haptophytes. Resolution of how chromist algae are related through endosymbioses provides a framework for unravelling the further reticulate history of red algal-derived plastids, and for clarifying evolutionary processes that gave rise to eukaryotic photosynthetic diversity. PMID:25493338

  19. Does the identification of simple features require serial processing?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folk, C. L.; Egeth, H.

    1989-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown performance decrements with increasing display size when background texture elements are present in a same-different feature discrimination task--a result that challenges the traditional notion that the identities of simple visual features are processed in parallel, preattentively. Four experiments are reported that explore the implications of these results. Experiment 1 replicates the recent studies but limits the generalizability of the results to small target numbers. Experiments 2 and 3 show that the observed performance decrements are not due to a serial or even limited-capacity, parallel process. Experiment 4 suggests that decision factors idiosyncratic to the use of texture elements in a same-different task are responsible for the effect. It is concluded that the identification of simple visual features proceeds in parallel, with unlimited capacity (i.e., preattentively).

  20. Improving Luminol Blood Detection in Forensics.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Bogdan A; Bunescu, Sabina; Neamtu, Andrei; Bulgaru-Iliescu, Diana; Foia, Liliana; Botnariu, Eosefina Gina

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop chemical improvements to the original Weber protocol, in order to increase the intensity and time length of light emission and to eliminate false-positive reactions. The intensity and duration of light were measured on serial blood dilutions using a plate reader chemiluminometer. Blood stains of various concentrations were impregnated in pure cellulose, dried, and luminol solution was added with/without the potential enhancers. An in silico study was also conducted, aiming to demonstrate the enhancing mechanism of hemoglobin denaturation using 8 M urea. The luminol blood detection test revealed important improvements after urea pretreatment or in the presence of monochloro-triazinyl-β-cyclodextrin. This approach also eliminated the false-positive reaction from sodium hypochlorite. These improvements could provide a higher sensitivity under particular circumstances such as old or washed blood stains, leading to a better localization for further DNA typing and higher quality photographic analysis.

  1. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators

    PubMed Central

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Thongpibul, Kulvadee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders. Participants and methods An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36), the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed. Results Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive function were found to significantly mediate the relationship between depression and pain, while controlling for demographic variables. The total effect of depression on pain was significant. This model, with an additional three mediators, accounted for 15% of the explained variance in pain compared to 9% without mediators. For the alternative model, after controlling for the mediators, a nonsignificant total direct effect level of self-sacrificing was found, suggesting that the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was based only on an indirect effect and that perceived stress was found to be the strongest mediator. Conclusion Serial mediation may help us to see how depression and pain are linked and what the fundamental mediators are in the chain. No significant, indirect effect of self-sacrificing on pain was observed, if perceived stress was not part of the depression and/or cognitive function mediational chain. The results shown here have implications for future

  2. [Blood components and good practices in transfusion].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Georges

    2015-02-01

    Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered.

  3. Serial measurements of exercise performance in pediatric heart transplant patients using stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Joanne P; Human, Derek G; Sandor, George G S; De Souza, Astrid M; Potts, James E

    2011-05-01

    Heart transplantation is an increasingly acceptable therapeutic option for children with end-stage and complex congenital heart disease. With advances in surgery, immunosuppression, and follow-up care, functional outcomes need to be evaluated. We report the results of serial exercise testing performed using stress echocardiography in a cohort of pediatric HTP. HTP (n = 7) exercised on a semi-recumbent ergometer to volitional fatigue. Echocardiography-Doppler measurements, HR, and blood pressure were taken at rest and during staged exercise. Results were compared with healthy CON (n = 12). HTP did significantly less work during exercise (940 vs. 1218 J/kg, p < 0.03). Their SVI (33 vs. 49 mL/m(2), p < 0.003), CI (5.16 vs. 9.25 L/min/m(2), p < 0.0005), and HR (162 vs. 185 bpm, p < 0.02) were lower at peak exercise. HTP had a lower SF at peak exercise (48% vs. 52%, p < 0.03) and an abnormal relationship between the MVCFc and σPS. During follow-up, hemodynamics and left ventricular function remained relatively constant in HTP. HTP are able to exercise safely; however, their exercise tolerance is reduced, and hemodynamics and contractility are diminished. Over time, their hemodynamics and left ventricular function have remained relatively constant.

  4. Serial bone marrow transplantation reveals in vivo expression of the pCLPG retroviral vector

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene therapy in the hematopoietic system remains promising, though certain aspects of vector design, such as transcriptional control elements, continue to be studied. Our group has developed a retroviral vector where transgene expression is controlled by p53 with the intention of harnessing the dynamic and inducible nature of this tumor suppressor and transcription factor. We present here a test of in vivo expression provided by the p53-responsive vector, pCLPG. For this, we used a model of serial transplantation of transduced bone marrow cells. Results We observed, by flow cytometry, that the eGFP transgene was expressed at higher levels when the pCLPG vector was used as compared to the parental pCL retrovirus, where expression is directed by the native MoMLV LTR. Expression from the pCLPG vector was longer lasting, but did decay along with each sequential transplant. The detection of eGFP-positive cells containing either vector was successful only in the bone marrow compartment and was not observed in peripheral blood, spleen or thymus. Conclusions These findings indicate that the p53-responsive pCLPG retrovirus did offer expression in vivo and at a level that surpassed the non-modified, parental pCL vector. Our results indicate that the pCLPG platform may provide some advantages when applied in the hematopoietic system. PMID:20096105

  5. Modulation of lead-induced performance deficit in children by varying signal rate in a serial choice reaction task

    SciTech Connect

    Winneke, G.; Brockhaus, A.; Collet, W.; Kraemer, U. )

    1989-11-01

    Evidence is presented showing that serial choice reaction performance is disrupted at low blood lead levels (PbB), and that parametric variation of task characteristics modulates the degree of disruption. This evidence is based on two independent studies in 6- to 9-year-old children living in two lead smelter areas in the cities of Nordenham (N = 114) and Stolberg (N = 109) in West Germany. Average PbB was 8.2 micrograms/100 ml (4.4-23.8 micrograms/100 ml) in the Nordenham sample and 7.4 micrograms/100 ml (4.2-18.0 micrograms/100 ml) in the Stolberg sample. Serial choice reaction performance was assessed by means of the Vienna reaction device in which a random sequence of light and tone signals has to be answered by pressing appropriate response buttons. Correct (hits) and false responses (errors) were evaluated as performance measures, and signal rate was varied in order to achieve easy and difficult task conditions. Exposure-related performance deficit was more pronounced for errors than for hits, more clearcut for high than for low signal rates, and proved significant in both studies after correction for confounding using confounder models of different complexities. Some features of the observed deficit resemble clinical observations in children presenting with attention deficit disorder.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous haemofiltration: A randomised controlled trial of continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus administration.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Janattul-Ain; Roberts, Darren M; Udy, Andrew A; Mat-Nor, Mohd-Basri; Mohamad-Nor, Fariz-Safhan; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-07-01

    Here we describe the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin administered by continuous infusion (CI) versus intermittent bolus (IB) dosing in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) and compare the frequency of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) target attainment with each dosing strategy. This was a prospective pharmacokinetic trial in 16 critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock undergoing CVVH and randomised to receive either CI or IB administration of a standard daily dose of piperacillin/tazobactam (11.25g/day on Day 1 followed by 9g/day). Serial blood samples were measured on two occasions. Piperacillin pharmacokinetics were calculated using a non-compartmental approach. Blood concentrations were compared with established PK/PD targets. On occasion 1 (Days 1-3 of therapy), IB administration resulted in significantly higher piperacillin peak concentrations (169 vs. 89mg/L; P=0.002), whereas significantly higher steady-state concentrations were observed in CI patients (83 vs. 57mg/L; P=0.04). Total clearance and clearance not mediated by CVVH were significantly higher with CI administration [median (interquartile range), 1.0 (0.7-1.1) and 0.8 (0.6-1.0)mL/kg/min; P=0.001 and 0.001, respectively]. The estimated unbound piperacillin concentrations were four times above the target susceptibility breakpoint (16mg/L) for the entire dosing interval (100%fT>4xMIC) in 87.5% of patients receiving CI administration (sampling occasion 1), compared with 62.5% of IB patients achieving the desired target (50%fT>4xMIC). Compared with IB dosing, and despite similar CVVH settings, CI administration of piperacillin results in a pharmacokinetic profile that may optimise outcomes for less susceptible pathogens.

  7. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  8. Radionuclide administration to nursing mothers: mathematically derived guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, B.M.; Nickoloff, E.L.; Esser, P.D.; Alderson, P.O.

    1986-08-01

    We determined a formula to establish objective guidelines for the administration of radionuclides to nursing mothers. The formula is based on the maximum permissible dose to the infant's critical organ, serial measurements of breast milk activity, milk volume, and dose to the critical organ per microcurie in milk. Using worst-case assumptions, we believe that cessation of nursing for 24 hours after administration of technetium labeled radiopharmaceuticals is sufficient for safety. Longer-lived agents require greater delays. Iodine-123 radiopharmaceuticals are preferable to iodine-131 agents and should always be used when studying the unblocked thyroid.

  9. Serial High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Post-Primary Angioplasty Exercise Test

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Humberto Andres; Vanz, Ana Paula; Castro, Iran

    2016-01-01

    Background The kinetics of high-sensitivity troponin T (hscTnT) release should be studied in different situations, including functional tests with transient ischemic abnormalities. Objective To evaluate the release of hscTnT by serial measurements after exercise testing (ET), and to correlate hscTnT elevations with abnormalities suggestive of ischemia. Methods Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary angioplasty were referred for ET 3 months after infarction. Blood samples were collected to measure basal hscTnT immediately before (TnT0h), 2 (TnT2h), 5 (TnT5h), and 8 hours (TnT8h) after ET. The outcomes were peak hscTnT, TnT5h/TnT0h ratio, and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) for hscTnT levels. Log-transformation was performed on hscTnT values, and comparisons were assessed with the geometric mean ratio, along with their 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was assessed by analysis of covariance with no adjustment, and then, adjusted for TnT0h, age and sex, followed by additional variables (metabolic equivalents, maximum heart rate achieved, anterior wall STEMI, and creatinine clearance). Results This study included 95 patients. The highest geometric means were observed at 5 hours (TnT5h). After adjustments, peak hscTnT, TnT5h/TnT0h and AUC were 59% (p = 0.002), 59% (p = 0.003) and 45% (p = 0.003) higher, respectively, in patients with an abnormal ET as compared to those with normal tests. Conclusion Higher elevations of hscTnT may occur after an abnormal ET as compared to a normal ET in patients with STEMI. PMID:26959404

  10. Serial changes in plasma annexin A1 and cortisol levels in sepsis patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Hui; Li, I-Ting; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Shih, Chung-Hung

    2014-02-28

    Annexin A1 (AnxA1), originally identified as a glucocorticoid-regulated protein, is an impor- tant endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator during the resolution phase of inflammation, and its cir- culating level has been rarely studied in sepsis patients. Glucocorticoid has been extensively used in treating patients with sepsis. However, it is unclear whether endogenous cortisol or exogenous glucocor- ticoid contributes to the regulation of AnxA1 levels in peripheral blood of sepsis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate: [1] serial changes over time in the plasma levels of AnxA1 and cortisol in sepsis patients; and [2] prognostic value of AnxA1 level in the survival of sepsis patients. Fifty-eight adult sepsis patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled. The plasma levels of cortisol and AnxA1 were determined by specific enzyme-link immunosorbent assay. Results show that the median daily levels of cortisol at the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day after admission to ICU were signifi- cantly elevated over the cortisol level of the control subjects. However, the AnxA1 level was elevated in only thirty-three patients (56%) over the observation period. There was no significant correlation between cortisol levels and AnxA1 levels. Further analysis indicated that steroid treatment resulted in significant elevation of the cortisol level over time, but did not affect the AnxA1 level. AnxA1 levels were also not statistically different between surviving and non-surviving patients. In conclusions, the circu- lating level of AnxA1 is elevated in a subgroup of sepsis patients, and the AnxA1 level does not correlate with the cortisol level in the peripheral blood of sepsis patients.

  11. The Automation of Government Publications: Functional Requirements and Selected Software Systems for Serials Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Mary Sue; Purcell, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-based software and network systems for application to serials and government publications. General and specific functional requirements (hardware, software, file structure) are discussed, and descriptive information about commercially available serials control systems and a list of distributors are provided. (CLB)

  12. Print Serial Cancellations in University Libraries Post 1990: What Do the CAUL Statistics Reveal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genoni, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports on Australia's research infrastructure have highlighted the decline in serial subscriptions in academic and research libraries during the 1990s. They have used the annual CAUL statistics in order to support these claims. This article examines the CAUL statistics for serial subscriptions, indicating their numerous flaws when used for…

  13. 77 FR 66920 - Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 202 Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Interim regulations. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is adopting interim regulations that allow groups of related serial issues to...

  14. Repetition Learning in the Immediate Serial Recall of Visual and Auditory Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Mike P. A.; Cumming, Nick; Norris, Dennis; Hitch, Graham J.; McNeil, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    In 5 experiments, a Hebb repetition effect, that is, improved immediate serial recall of an (unannounced) repeating list, was demonstrated in the immediate serial recall of visual materials, even when use of phonological short-term memory was blocked by concurrent articulation. The learning of a repeatedly presented letter list in one modality…

  15. The Locus of Serial Processing in Reading Aloud: Orthography-to-Phonology Computation or Speech Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-01-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However,…

  16. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. It is DoD policy that contractors apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such as...

  17. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. It is DoD policy that contractors apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such as...

  18. The Nature of Verbal Short-Term Impairment in Dyslexia: The Importance of Serial Order

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve; Cowan, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations. In this mini review, we show that specific serial order STM impairment is frequently reported in both dyslexic children and adults with a history of dyslexia. Serial order STM impairment appears to occur for the retention of both verbal and visuo-spatial sequence information. Serial order STM impairment is, however, not a characteristic of every individual dyslexic subject and is not specific to dyslexia. Future studies need to determine whether serial order STM impairment is a risk factor which, in association with phonological processing deficits, can lead to dyslexia or whether serial order STM impairment reflects associated deficits causally unrelated to dyslexia. PMID:27752247

  19. Automated Serials Control at the Indian Institutes of Technology: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Tapas Kumar; Panda, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the functional attributes of the automated serials control systems of the libraries in seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and provide a comparative analysis. Design/methodology/approach: Features of the serials control modules of the library management systems (LMSs) in use in the…

  20. Children's Memory: SES Differences in the Development of Serial Processing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Anne; McLean, Leslie D.

    Two studies examined serial recall process of first-grade Canadian children from inner-city and suburban backgrounds. In the first study significant differences were found in the serial position curve of recall. Suburban children recalled a greater number of early-presented, primacy items, while inner-city children who had equivalent span…

  1. Race as Seriality: A Response to David Benatar and Zimitri Erasmus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouws, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I draw on the Sarte's notion of "seriality" as theorized in his book "Dialectic of Reason" and as interpreted by Iris Marion Young. I argue that seriality can be used to escape the false essentialism and identity politics of race as a category for admissions to universities. A series is a social collective whose members are unified…

  2. Communication and interoperability for serial comparison in continuous health care--the new challenges.

    PubMed

    Zywietz, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of information technology and of telematics and increasing efforts to establish an electronic health record stimulate the development and introduction of new concepts in health care. However, compared to other application areas, e.g., tourism, banking, commerce etc. the use of information technology in health care is still of limited success. In hospitals as well in ambulatory medicine (General Practitioner systems) computers are often only used for administrative purposes. Fully operational Hospital Information Systems (HIS) are rare and often island solutions. The situation is somewhat better for department systems (DIS), e.g., where image analysis, processing of biochemical data or of biosignals is in the clinical focus. Even before we have solved the various problems in health care data processing and management within the "conventional" care institutions new challenges are coming up with concepts of telemedicine for assisted and non-assisted home care for patients with chronic diseases or people at high risk. The major challenges for provision of tele-monitoring and alarming services are improvement of communication and interoperability of devices and care providers. A major obstacle in achieving such goals are lack of standards for devices as well for procedures and a lack of databases with information on "normal" variability of many medical parameters to be monitored by serial comparison in continuous medical care. Some of these aspects will be discussed in more detail.

  3. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  4. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Ferrari, Michelle M; Leong, Gregory B

    2002-11-01

    Sexual serial homicidal behavior has received considerable attention during the last three decades. Substantial progress has been made in the development of methods aimed at identifying and apprehending individuals who exhibit these behaviors. In spite of these advances, the origins of sexual serial killing behavior remain for the most part unknown. In this article we propose a biopsychosocial psychiatric model for understanding the origins of sexual serial homicidal behavior from both neuropsychiatric and developmental perspectives, using the case of convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer as the focal point. We propose that his homicidal behavior was intrinsically associated with autistic spectrum psychopathology, specifically Asperger's disorder. The relationship of Asperger's disorder to other psychopathology and to his homicidal behavior is explored. We discuss potential implications of the proposed model for the future study of the causes of sexual serial homicidal crime.

  5. Female serial murderers: directions for future research on a hidden population.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2011-02-01

    This comprehensive overview on a sample of 65 cases (134 total offenders, including some partnered teams of more than 2 offenders) provides information on female serial murderers who either work in a mixed-sex offending group or alone. These female serial homicide offenders have a distinct set of offender-victim characteristics, including specific victim preferences, methods, and motivations: Partnered serial homicide offenders are more likely to target adult strangers and dispatch them using a combination of methods, whereas solo female serial murderers are most likely to target adult family members and murder them with poison. These patterns have the potential to add to our understanding of the possible similarities and differences of serial homicide cases by building on established offender characteristics. Convictions and sentences for the offenders are included and areas of future research and implications for treatment with this sample are also explored.

  6. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric.

    PubMed

    Morey, Candice C; Mall, Jonathan T

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a single list, but we further investigate the impact of this interference throughout the serial position curve, where asymmetries are indeed apparent. A concurrent verbal order memory task affects spatial memory performance throughout the serial positions of the list, but performing a spatial order task affects memory for the verbal serial list only for early list items; in the verbal task only, the final items are unaffected by a concurrent task. Adding suffixes eliminates this asymmetry, resulting in impairment throughout the list for both tasks. These results suggest that domain-general working memory resources may be supplemented with resources specific to the verbal domain, but perhaps not with equivalent spatial resources.

  7. Inherited disorders of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-08-01

    Hemostasis is traditionally defined as a physiological response to blood vessel injury and bleeding, which entails a co-ordinated process involving the blood vessel, platelets, and blood clotting proteins (i.e. coagulation factors). Hemostasis can be divided into primary and secondary components. The former rapidly initiates after endothelial damage and is characterized by vascular contraction, platelet adhesion, and formation of a soft aggregate plug. The latter is initiated following the release of tissue factor and involves a complex sequence of events known as the blood coagulation cascade, encompassing serial steps where each coagulation factor activates another in a chain reaction that culminates in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Patients carrying abnormalities of the coagulation cascade (i.e. deficiencies of coagulation factors) have an increased bleeding tendency, where the clinical severity is mostly dependent upon the type and the plasma level of the factor affected. These disorders also impose a heavy medical and economic burden on individual patients and society in general. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview on the pathophysiology, clinics, diagnostics, and therapy of inherited disorders of coagulation factors.

  8. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  9. Blood purification for intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Blood purification is administered in cases of acute intoxication when the substance causing the intoxication is to be eliminated or when the substance leads to a case of organ dysfunction, such as in renal or hepatic failure. The causative substances cover a wide range, from medical drugs or agrichemicals to natural poisons (such as poisonous mushrooms). In removing these substances, gastric lavage, activated carbon administration, laxative administration or enema cleaning are the preferred methods, and blood purification is not routinely conducted. However, when the causative substance is unknown or when there are several causative substances, it is not easy to immediately grasp the disposition of the patient and so judge whether or not blood purification should be performed. In such cases, blood purification must be conducted in a timely manner and in accordance with the crisis management principle of 'prepare for the worst'. In general, substances whose molecular weight is within the removal spectrum, having a small distribution volume and a low protein-binding rate, are easier to remove. For substances with high protein-binding rates, albumin dialysis (MARS and Prometheus) is performed in order to remove albumin-binding substances. Since MARS and Prometheus have not been introduced in Japan, plasma diafiltration, employing selective plasma filtration with dialysis, is a practical alternative.

  10. Serial Measurements of Splanchnic Vein Diameters in Rats Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Bridget M.; Krieger-Burke, Teresa; Fink, Gregory D.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate serial ultrasound imaging in rats as a fully non-invasive method to (1) quantify the diameters of splanchnic veins in real time as an indirect surrogate for the capacitance function of those veins, and (2) assess the effects of drugs on venous dimensions. A 21 MHz probe was used on anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats to collect images containing the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV), abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC), and splenic vein (SpV; used as a landmark in timed studies) and the abdominal aorta (AA). Stable landmarks were established that allowed reproducible quantification of cross-sectional diameters within an animal. The average diameters of vessels measured every 5 min over 45 min remained within 0.75 ± 0.15% (PV), 0.2 ± 0.09% (SMV), 0.5 ± 0.12% (IVC), and 0.38 ± 0.06% (AA) of baseline (PV: 2.0 ± 0.12 mm; SMV: 1.7 ± 0.04 mm; IVC: 3.2 ± 0.1 mm; AA: 2.3 ± 0.14 mm). The maximal effects of the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) on venous diameters were determined 5 min post SNP bolus; the diameters of all noted veins were significantly increased by SNP, while mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 29 ± 4 mmHg. By contrast, administration of the venoconstrictor sarafotoxin (S6c; 5 ng/kg, i.v. bolus) significantly decreased PV and SpV, but not IVC, SMV, or AA, diameters 5 min post S6c bolus; MAP increased by 6 ± 2 mmHg. In order to determine if resting splanchnic vein diameters were stable over much longer periods of time, vessel diameters were measured every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Measurements were found to be highly reproducible within animals over this time period. Finally, to evaluate the utility of vein imaging in a chronic condition, images were acquired from 4-week deoxycorticosterone acetate salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive and normotensive (SHAM) control rats. All vessel diameters increased from baseline while MAP increased (67 ± 4 mmHg) in DOCA-salt rats

  11. Effects of mercury on spermatogenesis studied by velocity sedimentation cell separation and serial mating.

    PubMed

    Lee, I P; Dixon, R L

    1975-07-01

    Recently the potential toxicity of environmental mercury has become a major concern. Human tissues contain mercury due to daily environmental exposure. Nearly all of the mercury contaminating food is in the form of methylmercury complexes, due to the biotransformation of inorganic mercury. This report compares the reproductive effects of methylmercury hydroxide and mercuric chloride in male mice. The mercuric compounds were administered intraperitoneally once at a dose of 1 mg/kg (based on Hg++ concentration), or spermatogenic cells were exposed in vitro to Hg+ concentrations ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-8)M. Spermatogenic cells were separated for biochemical studies using the velocity sedimentation technique, and in vivo serial mating was used to assess fertility. The effects of CH3Hg+ or Hg++ on the uptake of 3H-thymidine by spermatogonia, 3H-uridine by early elongated spermatids, and 3H-L-leucine by late elongated spermatids were studied. These in vitro experiments indicated that at 1-(-3) m CH2HgOH reduced thymidine incorporation by spermatogonia by 40%, uridine incorporation by elongated spermatids by 39% and L-leucine incorporation by late elongated spermatids by 40%. Results obtained with HgCl2 were similar but of lesser magnitude. In vivo administration of CH3HgOH and HgCl2 significantly inhibited the uptake of thymidine, uridine and L-leucine by their respective spermatogenic cells. Fertility profiles obtained from serial mating studies indicated that the primary effect of CH3HgOH was on spermatogonial cells, premeiotic spermatocytes and early elongated spermatids, with no apparent effect on spermatozoa in testis, peididymis or vas deferentia. HgCl2 also primarily affected spermatogonial and premeiotic cells, but the effect was less than that seen with CH3HgOH. Statistical analysis indicated significant antifertility effects. Inhibition of uptake of thymidine and uridine was well correlated with the functionality of these cells as reflected in the fertility

  12. [ABO blood grouping of fingerprint by means of immunohistochemical procedure].

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Ohshima, T; Takayasu, T; Nagano, T; Jia, J

    1993-04-01

    For the purpose of ABO-blood typing on fingerprints, the detection of blood group substances in fingerprints attached on nitrocellulose filter or paper was performed immunohistochemically using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. At first, it was fundamentally tested whether ABO-blood typing could be specifically performed for the fingerprints of known ABO blood group, being made experimentally on nitrocellulose filter or paper, and the effect of fixation and paper quality for the detection was also examined. And, ABO-typing was carried out using transferred fingerprints from a slide glass to a nitrocellulose filter. Moreover, using a fingerprint of unknown ABO-type, serially repetitive blood typing (three times) was compared to individually performed grouping (three tests) after dividing a single fingerprint into three parts. In addition, the method of serial ABO-blood typing after the morphological detection of fingerprints by ninhydrine was also considered. As results, according to primary antibodies applied, ABH activities were specifically detected in the fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter and paper. For the fixation procedure of very minute blood group substances to paper, heat fixation was the most effective and methanol fixation was also available. The intensity of immunostaining of fingerprints decreased according to the deterioration of paper quality used. And, the transferred fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter were also specifically typed. Serially repetitive blood typing (anti-B-->anti-A-->anti-H) was possible to fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter, but it gave poor results to those on paper. To overcome this difficulty, after being detected morphologically by ninhydrine, iodine or aluminium powder and decolored thereafter, a fingerprint on paper was divided into three parts and specific blood typing was possible. As for the double blind test to fingerprints on paper, 22 out of 35 fingerprints were specifically typed and the rate of

  13. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  14. 77 FR 35718 - Certain Universal Serial Bus (“USB”) Portable Storage Devices, Including USB Flash Drives and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Universal Serial Bus (``USB'') Portable Storage Devices, Including USB Flash Drives and... importation of certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage devices, including USB flash drives...

  15. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  16. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) from the tissues back toward the heart. From there, it passes to the lungs to receive more oxygen. This cycle repeats itself when oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs, which ...

  17. Serial exercise gated radionuclide ventriculograms (RVG) in monitoring doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Lahoda, J.; Fox, L.

    1985-05-01

    The resting RVG (Radionuclide Ventriculograms) are demonstrated to be an effective monitor of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. The exercise RVG has not been as well studied to see if it yields additional information or detects toxicity effects earlier. Sixteen patients receiving doxorubicin for chemotherapy had 2-6 serial exercise studies with intervals between studies of 1 month to 15 months. The patients exercised varying amounts with cardiac work indicated by their double products (HR x Sys. BP). Although all patients started with a normal resting LVEF (>50%), 5 of the 16 did not have a normal response (greater than or equal to5% increase in LVEF) with initial exercise study. Of the 11 patients with an initially normal response to exercise, on at least one subsequent study, 3 had an abnormal response to exercise. On a later follow up study 1 of these 3 patients again had a normal response to exercise. Six of these 11 patients had had RVG evidence of cardiotoxicity. Four of these 6 patients had continually normal exercise responses, while 2 of these 5 patients had had an abnormal exercise response. An initial exercise RVG may be reasonable to detect unsuspected CAD in cancer victims. These patients are reported to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of doxorubicin. Follow up exercise RVGs do not contribute useful information, do not predict cardiotoxicity, and may be misleading.

  18. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5Å resolution using 300µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  19. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  20. Estimating the precision of serial dilutions and viable bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Hedges, A J

    2002-06-25

    The propagation of error in serial dilutions was investigated theoretically and by means of computer simulations. The principal aim of the study was, given only the pipette manufacturer's specification, to estimate the variance of any step in a dilution series both of pure solutions and of homogeneous bacterial suspensions by means of simple formulae. The study was extended to include bacterial plate counts by both the standard and the Miles and Misra methods. It was found that such estimation was possible and that the distributions approximated the normal sufficiently for the construction of confidence intervals (Cls) by the usual method. Such intervals can be regarded as minima which could be inflated by other, possibly undetermined, factors. It is suggested that laboratories could construct tables such as that reported here for pipettes and methods in common use to facilitate estimation. While replication of the final sampling step of a plate count increases the precision of estimation, averaging across dilutions may decrease precision and is not recommended for the standard pour-plate count.