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Sample records for administration significantly decreased

  1. Computerized medication administration records decrease medication occurrences.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Hill, J J; Wilson, R G; Nipper, K; Kwon, I W

    1997-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated that medication errors occur at a number of locations in the continuum between ordering of drug therapy and administration of the medication. Computer management of patient medication profiles offers the opportunity to enhance communication between pharmacists and nurses, and to decrease medication errors and delays in delivery of therapy. A number of authors have postulated that computerization of medication profiles would enhance medication delivery accuracy and timeliness, but no study has demonstrated this improvement. We report the results of a retrospective analysis undertaken to assess the improvements resulting from sharing a computerized medication record. We used a broader definition of medication occurrences that includes the more traditional definition, and averted errors, delays in delivery of medications and information, and disagreements between pharmacy and nursing medication profiles. We compared medication occurrences reported through an existing internal system between two periods; the first when separate pharmacy and nursing medication records were used, and the second period when a shared medication record was used by pharmacy and nursing. Average medication occurrences per admission decreased from 0.1084 to 0.0658 (p < 0.01). Medication occurrences per dose decreased from 0.0005 to 0.0003 (p < 0.01). The use of a shared medication record by pharmacy and nursing led to a statistically significant decrease in medication occurrences. Information shared between the two professions allowed timely resolution of discrepancies in medication orders, leading to better execution of drug therapy, decreased medication occurrences, and increased efficiency. PMID:10166241

  2. Misonidazole neurotoxicity in mice decreased by administration with pyridoxine

    SciTech Connect

    Eifel, P.J.; Brown, D.M.; Lee, W.W.; Brown, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    A series of toxicological and pharmacological experiments was performed to test the hypothesis that alterations of pyridoxine (Vitamin B/sub 6/) metabolism may play an important role in the development of misonidazole (MISO) neurotoxicity. The formation of a Schiff's base between the final reduction product of MISO, 2-amino MISO (NH/sub 2/-MISO), and pyridoxal-HCl in ethanol was demonstrated. Mice receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of MISO suffered significantly less toxicity (as determined by survival, weight gain and neurological tests) when large doses of pyridoxine-HCl (PYR) were delivered concomitantly, and consequently were able to tolerate administration of more than twice as many MISO injections. PYR did not alter the pharmacokinetics of MISO, either when given simultaneously or when given by multiple repeated daily injections prior to MISO. The administration of PYR also did not alter the radiosensitization by MISO in an in vivo-in vitro cloning assay with the EMT6 tumor in BALB/c mice. If depletion or altered metabolism of pyridoxine by reduced metabolites is also responsible for the neurotoxic effects of nitroimidazoles in humans, then concomitant administration of pyridoxine (in doses greater than the molar quantity of NH/sub 2/-MISO formed) should inhibit the development of such symptoms and allow administration of larger doses of MISO than are currently clinically employable.

  3. Decreased synthesis of DNA in regenerating rat liver after the administration of reserpine

    PubMed Central

    Ćihák, A.; Vaptzarova, K.

    1973-01-01

    1. Reserpine given to rats before the enhanced synthesis of DNA begins 14h after partial hepatectomy markedly depresses thymidine uptake into DNA at 24 hours. 2. At this time decreased activity of liver thymidine kinase but unchanged thymidine 5′-nucleotidase were observed. 3. Reserpine has no effect on DNA synthesis when administered simultaneously with the labelled thymidine 2 h before killing. 4. With depressed DNA synthesis after reserpine administration there is no significant decrease of liver RNA synthesis. PMID:4793440

  4. Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Mice Decreases GIRK Channel-Mediated Currents in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Amanda L.; Varela, Erika; Bettinger, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine is a psychomotor stimulant with abuse liability and a substrate for catecholamine uptake transporters. Acute methamphetamine elevates extracellular dopamine, which in the midbrain can activate D2 autoreceptors to increase a G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) conductance that inhibits dopamine neuron firing. These studies examined the neurophysiological consequences of methamphetamine self-administration on GIRK channel-mediated currents in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Methods: Male DBA/2J mice were trained to self-administer intravenous methamphetamine. A dose response was conducted as well as extinction and cue-induced reinstatement. In a second study, after at least 2 weeks of stable self-administration of methamphetamine, electrophysiological brain slice recordings were conducted on dopamine neurons from self-administering and control mice. Results: In the first experiment, ad libitum-fed, nonfood-trained mice exhibited a significant increase in intake and locomotion following self-administration as the concentration of methamphetamine per infusion was increased (0.0015–0.15mg/kg/infusion). Mice exhibited extinction in responding and cue-induced reinstatement. In the second experiment, dopamine cells in both the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area from adult mice with a history of methamphetamine self-administration exhibited significantly smaller D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated currents compared with control mice, regardless of whether their daily self-administration sessions had been 1 or 4 hours. Interestingly, the effects of methamphetamine self-administration were not present when intracellular calcium was chelated by including BAPTA in the recording pipette. Conclusions: Our results suggest that methamphetamine self-administration decreases GIRK channel-mediated currents in dopaminergic neurons and that this effect may be calcium dependent. PMID:25522412

  5. Tyrosine Administration Decreases Vulnerability to Ventricular Fibrillation in the Normal Canine Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Neal A.; Desilva, Regis A.; Lown, Bernard; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1981-02-01

    Intravenous infusion of tyrosine (1, 2, or 4 milligrams per kilogram) for 20 to 30 minutes caused dose-dependent increases in the ventricular fibrillation threshold in normal dogs. Administration of valine, a neutral amino acid that competes with tyrosine for uptake at the blood-brain barrier, in a dose equimolar to the most effective dose of tyrosine, slightly decreased the ventricular fibrillation threshold when given alone and significantly blocked elevation of the ventricular fibrillation threshold after tyrosine infusion. Hence, tyrosine, presumably acting in the central nervous system, can protect against certain ventricular arrhythmias.

  6. Intrathecal Administration of Morphine Decreases Persistent Pain after Cesarean Section: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Kumi; Ohashi, Yuki; Motoyasu, Akira; Ando, Tadao; Moriyama, Kiyoshi; Yorozu, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic pain after cesarean section (CS) is a serious concern, as it can result in functional disability. We evaluated the prevalence of chronic pain after CS prospectively at a single institution in Japan. We also analyzed perioperative risk factors associated with chronic pain using logistic regression analyses with a backward-stepwise procedure. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent elective or emergency CS between May 2012 and May 2014 were recruited. Maternal demographics as well as details of surgery and anesthesia were recorded. An anesthesiologist visited the patients on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 2, and assessed their pain with the Prince Henry Pain Scale. To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain, we contacted patients by sending a questionnaire 3 months post-CS. Results Among 225 patients who questionnaires, 69 (30.7%) of patients complained of persistent pain, although no patient required pain medication. Multivariate analyses identified lighter weight (p = 0.011) and non-intrathecal administration of morphine (p = 0.023) as determinant factors associated with persistent pain at 3 months. The adjusted odds ratio of intrathecal administration of morphine to reduce persistent pain was 0.424, suggesting that intrathecal administration of morphine could decrease chronic pain by 50%. In addition, 51.6% of patients had abnormal wound sensation, suggesting the development of neuropathic pain. Also, 6% of patients with abnormal wound sensation required medication, yet no patients with persistent pain required medication. Conclusion Although no effect on acute pain was observed, intrathecal administration of morphine significantly decreased chronic pain after CS. PMID:27163790

  7. Characterization of the decrease of extracellular striatal dopamine induced by intrastriatal morphine administration

    PubMed Central

    Piepponen, T Petteri; Mikkola, Janne A V; Ruotsalainen, Minna; Jonker, Daniël; Ahtee, Liisa

    1999-01-01

    The effect of intrastriatally-administered morphine on striatal dopamine (DA) release was studied in freely moving rats. Morphine (1, 10 or 100 μM) was given into the striatum by reversed microdialysis, and concentrations of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were simultaneously measured from the striatal dialysates.Intrastriatally-administered morphine significantly and dose-dependently decreased the extracellular concentration of DA, the concentrations of the acidic DA metabolites were only slightly decreased. The effect of morphine was antagonized by naltrexone (2.25 mg kg−1, s.c.). Pretreatment with a preferential κ-opioid receptor antagonist, MR2266 [(−)-5,9 alpha-diethyl-2-(3-furylmethyl)-2′-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphane; 1 mg kg−1, s.c.], had no effect on the decrease of extracellular DA evoked by intrastriatal morphine (100 μM).Intrastriatal administration of the selective μ-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5] enkephalin (DAMGO; 1 μM), significantly decreased the extracellular concentration of DA in the striatum.When the rats were given morphine repeatedly in increasing doses (10–25 mg kg−1, s.c.) twice daily for 7 days and withdrawn for 48 h, the decrease of extracellular DA induced by morphine (100 μM) was significantly less than that seen in saline-treated controls.Our results show that besides the well-known stimulatory effect there is a local inhibitory component in the action of morphine on striatal DA release in the terminal regions of nigrostriatal DA neurones. Tolerance develops to this inhibitory effect during repeated morphine treatment. Furthermore, our results suggest that the effect of intrastriatally-administered morphine is mediated by the μ-opioid receptors. PMID:10369482

  8. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  9. MDMA administration decreases serotonin but not N-acetylaspartate in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A.; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Michaels, Mark S.; Hyde, Elisabeth M.; Kuhn, Donald M.; Galloway, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    In animals, repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reduces markers of serotonergic activity and studies show similar serotonergic deficits in human MDMA users. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11.7 Tesla, we measured the metabolic neurochemical profile in intact, discrete tissue punches taken from prefrontal cortex, anterior striatum, and hippocampus of rats administered MDMA (5 mg/kg IP, 4× q 2 h) or saline and euthanized 7 days after the last injection. Monoamine content was measured with HPLC in contralateral punches from striatum and hippocampus to compare the MDMA-induced loss of 5HT innervation with constituents in the 1H-MRS profile. When assessed 7 days after the last MDMA injection, levels of hippocampal and striatal serotonin (5HT) were significantly reduced, consistent with published animal studies. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were significantly increased in prefrontal cortex and not affected in anterior striatum or hippocampus; myo-inositol (INS) levels were increased in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus but not anterior striatum. Glutamate levels were increased in prefrontal cortex and decreased in hippocampus, while GABA levels were decreased only in hippocampus. The data suggest that NAA may not reliably reflect MDMA-induced 5HT neurotoxicity. However, the collective pattern of changes in 5HT, INS, glutamate and GABA is consistent with persistent hippocampal neuroadaptations caused by MDMA. PMID:20800616

  10. Decreased Cocaine Motor Sensitization and Self-Administration in Mice Overexpressing Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Trigo, José M; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Ortega-Álvaro, Antonio; Ternianov, Alexander; Navarro, Daniela; Robledo, Patricia; Berbel, Pere; Maldonado, Rafael; Manzanares, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The potential involvement of the cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2r) in the adaptive responses induced by cocaine was studied in transgenic mice overexpressing the CB2r (CB2xP) and in wild-type (WT) littermates. For this purpose, the acute and sensitized locomotor responses to cocaine, conditioned place preference, and cocaine intravenous self-administration were evaluated. In addition, we assessed whether CB2r were localized in neurons and/or astrocytes, and whether they colocalized with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (D1Dr and D2Dr). Dopamine (DA) extracellular levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and μ-opioid and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the NAcc were also studied in both genotypes. CB2xP mice showed decreased motor response to acute administration of cocaine (10–20 mg/kg) and cocaine-induced motor sensitization compared with WT mice. CB2xP mice presented cocaine-induced conditioned place aversion and self-administered less cocaine than WT mice. CB2r were found in neurons and astrocytes and colocalized with D2Dr in the VTA and NAcc. No significant differences in extracellular DA levels in the NAcc were observed between genotypes after cocaine administration. Under baseline conditions, TH and DAT gene expression was higher and μ-opioid receptor gene expression was lower in CB2xP than in WT mice. However, both genotypes showed similar changes in TH and μ-opioid receptor gene expression after cocaine challenge independently of the pretreatment received. Importantly, the cocaine challenge decreased DAT gene expression to a lesser extent in cocaine-pretreated CB2xP than in cocaine-pretreated WT mice. These results revealed that CB2r are involved in cocaine motor responses and cocaine self-administration, suggesting that this receptor could represent a promising target to develop novel treatments for cocaine addiction. PMID:22414816

  11. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats. PMID:21276269

  12. An Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain Significantly Decreases Physical Activity across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Wikstrom, Erik A.; Guderian, Sophie; Turner, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We do not know the impact an ankle sprain has on physical activity levels across the lifespan. With the negative consequences of physical inactivity well established, understanding the effect of an ankle sprain on this outcome is critical. The objective of this study was to measure physical activity across the lifespan after a single ankle sprain in an animal model. Thirty male mice (CBA/J) were randomly placed into one of three groups: the transected calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) group, the transected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL)/CFL group, and a SHAM group. Three days after surgery, all of the mice were individually housed in a cage containing a solid surface running wheel. Physical activity levels were recorded and averaged every week across the mouse’s lifespan. The SHAM mice ran significantly more distance each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p = 0.011). Daily duration was different between the three running groups (p = 0.048). The SHAM mice ran significantly more minutes each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p=0.046) while the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly less minutes each day (post hoc p = 0.028) compared to both the SHAM and CFL only group. The SHAM mice ran at a faster daily speed versus the remaining two groups of mice (post hoc p = 0.019) and the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly slower each day compared to the SHAM and CFL group (post hoc p = 0.005). The results of this study indicate that a single ankle sprain significantly decreases physical activity across the lifespan in mice. This decrease in physical activity can potentially lead to the development of numerous chronic diseases. An ankle sprain thus has the potential to lead to significant long term health risks if not treated appropriately. Key points A single ankle significantly decreased physical activity levels in mice across the lifespan. Decreased physical activity could significantly negatively impact overall health if not

  13. D3 receptor test in vitro predicts decreased cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Caine, S B; Koob, G F; Parsons, L H; Everitt, B J; Schwartz, J C; Sokoloff, P

    1997-07-01

    The three dopamine agonists with highest reported D3 receptor selectivity in vitro, pramipexole, quinelorane and PD128,907, decreased self-administration of a high dose of cocaine in rats as a result of a leftward shift in the cocaine dose-effect function. In contrast the D3 preferring antagonist nafadotride increased cocaine self-administration. Moreover the relative potencies of these and other D2-like dopamine agonists (lisuride, 7-OH-DPAT, quinpirole, apomorphine, bromocriptine) to modulate cocaine self-administration were highly correlated with their relative potencies for increasing mitogenesis in vitro in cell lines expressing D3 but not D2 receptors. These results support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor may be an important target for pharmacotherapies for cocaine abuse and dependence. PMID:9243643

  14. Oral administration and younger age decrease plasma concentrations of voriconazole in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kato, Karin; Nagao, Miki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Takakura, Shunji; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole is used for treating or preventing invasive aspergillosis and other invasive fungal infections. To minimize adverse reactions and to maximize treatment effects, therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed. However, it is challenging to optimize daily voriconazole dosing because limited data have been published so far on pediatric patients. We retrospectively analyzed voriconazole concentrations in patients aged 0-18 years. In addition, a literature review was conducted. In our study cohort, younger age and oral administration were significantly associated with lower plasma voriconazole concentrations (P < 0.01). An unfavorable outcome was associated with low concentrations of voriconazole (P = 0.01). Reports of voriconazole administration in pediatric patients show that higher doses are required in younger children and in patients receiving oral administration. Hence, the current data suggest that we should escalate both initial and maintenance doses of voriconazole in pediatric patients, particularly in patients of younger age receiving an oral administration of voriconazole. PMID:26538245

  15. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V.; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Weili, Lin; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9–24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

  16. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

  17. Decrease in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentration and increase in pyridoxal concentration in rat plasma by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine administration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Teruki; Johno, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Mika; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji

    2015-07-01

    Food poisoning from Ginkgo biloba seeds can cause epilepsy because of a decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the brain. We previously demonstrated that 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) is responsible for this observed toxicity of G biloba seeds; however, the mechanism for the decrease in GABA and plasma concentration profile of MPN has not been clarified. Our hypothesis is that MPN induces a decrease in vitamin B6 concentrations, resulting in a decrease in GABA concentration. This study aimed to characterize the plasma concentration profile of MPN and intrinsic vitamin B6 concentrations (pyridoxal [PL], PL-5'-phosphate [PLP], and 4-pyridoxic acid) using a rat model. Plasma concentrations of B6 vitamers after intravenous MPN administration (5 mg/kg) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The half-life of MPN (0.91 ± 0.05 hours) was shorter in rats than the previously reported value in humans. We found a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of PLP, an active form of vitamin B6, after MPN administration. We also observed an increase in plasma PL and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations; the increase in PL concentration may be caused by either metabolism of MPN to PL or by MPN-mediated inhibition of PL kinase. The present study is the first in vivo study showing relatively rapid elimination of MPN in rats and a decrease in plasma PLP concentration caused by MPN. PMID:26092494

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation Significantly Decreases Disability from Low Back Pain in Patients with Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather; Gee, Lucy; Kumar, Vignessh; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Durphy, Jennifer; Hanspal, Era; Barba, Anne; Molho, Eric; Shin, Damian; Pilitsis, Julie G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up to 60% of Parkinson's patients suffer from low back pain (LBP) during the course of their disease. How LBP affects daily functional status and how to manage this aspect of PD has not been adequately explored. Methods We examined sixteen patients undergoing bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) who met inclusion criteria for moderate disability from LBP, as classified by the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (OLBPD). Results Thirteen of 16 patients had attempted additional treatments for LBP including medical management, massage, chiropractic, epidural steroid injections and/or surgery and with minimal relief. Following DBS, there was a significant improvement in OLBPD at both the 6-month and 1-year time points (p < 0.02, p < 0.005 respectively). A mean improvement of 31.7% on OLBPD score was noted. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) similarly decreased significantly at 1 year (p = 0.015). There was no correlation between OLBPD score and other measures including UPDRS, age, and other non-motor symptoms. Conclusion Given the prevalent yet undertreated disability associated with LBP in PD, these results are novel in that they show STN DBS has a significant positive effect on disability associated with LBP. PMID:25895600

  19. Significant decrease in peripheral regulatory B cells is an immunopathogenic feature of dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenli; Tian, Xiaolan; Lu, Xin; Peng, Qinglin; Shu, Xiaoming; Yang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanli; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xuezhi; Liu, Qingyan; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are critical in maintaining self-tolerance. Their role in dermatomyositis (DM), an autoimmune disease characterized by inappropriate regulation of hyperactivated B and T cells, has not been clearly defined. In the current study, we performed flow cytometry analysis of studied CD19(+) CD24(high)CD38(high) Breg subpopulations in blood samples from 30 patients with DM, 37 diseased controls and 23 healthy controls. A significant decrease was observed in the frequency of Bregs in DM patients compared to that in diseased controls (p < 0.0001) and in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). And the prevalence of Bregs deficiency (defined as Bregs/B cells < 0.50% in this study) in DM patients went as high as 73.3%. Furthermore, DM patients with positive myositis specific autoantibody often had lower Bregs levels than negative patients (p = 0.036), and lower level of Bregs was also found in DM patients with interstitial lung disease than in DM patients without (p = 0.041). In a follow-up study, seven DM patients were considered to be in remission stage, and their Breg levels were found to have significantly increased after treatment (p = 0.022). Our research revealed that Breg deficiency is an immunopathogenic feature of DM and provided insights into the design of new immunotherapy target for DM clinical interventions. PMID:27270362

  20. Significant decrease in peripheral regulatory B cells is an immunopathogenic feature of dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenli; Tian, Xiaolan; Lu, Xin; Peng, Qinglin; Shu, Xiaoming; Yang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanli; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xuezhi; Liu, Qingyan; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are critical in maintaining self-tolerance. Their role in dermatomyositis (DM), an autoimmune disease characterized by inappropriate regulation of hyperactivated B and T cells, has not been clearly defined. In the current study, we performed flow cytometry analysis of studied CD19+ CD24highCD38high Breg subpopulations in blood samples from 30 patients with DM, 37 diseased controls and 23 healthy controls. A significant decrease was observed in the frequency of Bregs in DM patients compared to that in diseased controls (p < 0.0001) and in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). And the prevalence of Bregs deficiency (defined as Bregs/B cells < 0.50% in this study) in DM patients went as high as 73.3%. Furthermore, DM patients with positive myositis specific autoantibody often had lower Bregs levels than negative patients (p = 0.036), and lower level of Bregs was also found in DM patients with interstitial lung disease than in DM patients without (p = 0.041). In a follow-up study, seven DM patients were considered to be in remission stage, and their Breg levels were found to have significantly increased after treatment (p = 0.022). Our research revealed that Breg deficiency is an immunopathogenic feature of DM and provided insights into the design of new immunotherapy target for DM clinical interventions. PMID:27270362

  1. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Akhoondzadeh, Shahin; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Dastpak, Arezoo; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Rezai, Afsaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Emami, Tara

    2005-11-14

    Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control. PMID:16154305

  2. Clinic significance of markedly decreased α-klothoin women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cuifang; Wang, Yueqiao; Wang, Jingyi; Lei, Di; Sun, Yanmei; Lei, Sicong; Hu, Min; Tian, Yatao; Li, Rui; Wang, Suqing

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Klotho is a novel gene and the secret form, α-klotho (α-KL), is related to preeclampsia. We conducted this cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China. We used immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, western blot, ELISA to measure α-KL expression in placenta and its secretion in maternal and umbilical cord serum, and analyzed correlations between α-KL level and other parameters in normal and preeclampsia pregnancy. We found that both mRNA and protein expression of placental α-KL in women with PE was significantly lower than that in normal pregnancy. Also, expression level of α-KL in both maternal and umbilical cord was markedly decreased in PE patients. Further analyses showed that serum α-KL exhibited positive association with fetal birth weight, and reverse association with oxidative stress and renal function markers. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested α-KL might be a potential predictor for preeclampsia. PMID:27347309

  3. Clinic significance of markedly decreased α-klothoin women with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cuifang; Wang, Yueqiao; Wang, Jingyi; Lei, Di; Sun, Yanmei; Lei, Sicong; Hu, Min; Tian, Yatao; Li, Rui; Wang, Suqing

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Klotho is a novel gene and the secret form, α-klotho (α-KL), is related to preeclampsia. We conducted this cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China. We used immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, western blot, ELISA to measure α-KL expression in placenta and its secretion in maternal and umbilical cord serum, and analyzed correlations between α-KL level and other parameters in normal and preeclampsia pregnancy. We found that both mRNA and protein expression of placental α-KL in women with PE was significantly lower than that in normal pregnancy. Also, expression level of α-KL in both maternal and umbilical cord was markedly decreased in PE patients. Further analyses showed that serum α-KL exhibited positive association with fetal birth weight, and reverse association with oxidative stress and renal function markers. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested α-KL might be a potential predictor for preeclampsia. PMID:27347309

  4. Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic marek's disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5ΔMeq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101ΔMeq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101ΔMeq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101ΔMeq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101ΔMeq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101ΔMeq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens. PMID:21205328

  5. Acute and chronic administration of the branched-chain amino acids decreases nerve growth factor in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Mello-Santos, Lis Mairá; Furlanetto, Camila B; Jeremias, Isabela C; Mina, Francielle; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-12-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme complex branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding branched-chain α-keto acids. In this study, we examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of BCAA on protein levels and mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) considering that patients with MSUD present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Considering previous observations, it is suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction of MSUD. We also investigated the influence of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine) in order to verify the influence of oxidative stress in the modulation of NGF levels. Our results demonstrated decreased protein levels of NGF in the hippocampus after acute and chronic administration of BCAA. In addition, we showed a significant decrease in the expression of ngf in the hippocampus only following acute administration in 10-day-old rats. Interestingly, antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the decrease in NGF levels by increasing ngf expression. In conclusion, the results suggest that BCAA is involved in the regulation of NGF in the developing rat. Thus, it is possible that alteration of neurotrophin levels during brain maturation could be of pivotal importance in the impairment of cognition provoked by BCAA. Moreover, the decrease in NGF levels was prevented by antioxidant treatment, reinforcing that the hypothesis of oxidative stress can be an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in MSUD. PMID:23559405

  6. Topical administration of diminazene aceturate decreases inflammation in endotoxin-induced uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Changwei; Lei, Chunyan; Chen, Zihe; Zheng, Shijie; Yang, Hongxia; Qiu, Yiguo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our previous study demonstrated that an intraperitoneal injection of Diminazene Aceturate (DIZE) attenuated uveitis by activating ocular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects on the ocular anterior segment of a topical administration of a DIZE solution and explored the downstream target molecules involved in the anti-inflammatory mechanism after ACE2 activation. Methods Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats was induced by a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 200 μg) in 0.1 ml of sterile saline. DIZE (0.025, 0.05, or 0.1%) and dexamethasone (0.1%) solutions were applied topically (10 μl eyedrops) to both eyes 6X every two hours before and after LPS injection. The inflammation of the ocular anterior segment was observed and the clinical scores were evaluated 24 h after LPS injection. The total protein concentration and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the aqueous humor were determined. CD11b-positive cells adjacent to the iris ciliary body (ICB) were stained by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS or NF-κB subunit p65 in the ICB, were analyzed by real time RT–PCR. The protein expression of NF-κB p65 and the phosphorylated protein of p38 MAPK were detected by western blotting. Results A topical administration of DIZE decreased clinical scores and the total protein concentration, as well as TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the aqueous humor. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS in the ICB, were downregulated. DIZE reduced the recruitment of CD11b-positive cells adjacent to the ICB. Furthermore, DIZE downregulated the expressions of NF-κB subunit p65 at protein and mRNA levels and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK protein in the ICB. Conclusions A topical administration of DIZE suppressed

  7. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file. 10.70 Section 10.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... appropriate employees, and show all persons to whom copies were sent; (4) Avoid defamatory...

  8. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney. PMID:26485038

  9. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney. PMID:26485038

  10. A Novel Thin Film Nitinol Covered Neurovascular Stent Significantly Decreases Intra-Aneurysmal Flow In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Youngjae; Hur, Soojung; Shayan, Mahdis; Kealey, Colin; Levi, Daniel; Mohanchandra, Kp; di Carlo, Dino; Carman, Gregory

    2013-11-01

    A novel thin film nitinol (TFN) stent has been developed to promote aneurysm quiescence by diminishing flow across the aneurysm's neck. Laboratory aneurysm models were used to assess the flow changes produced by stents covered with different patterns of TFN. Flow diversion stents were constructed by covering Wingspan stents (Boston Scientific, DxL:4x20mm) with TFNs (i.e., 77 and 82 percent porosity). The flow changes that occur after deployment of two different porous TFN covered stent in intracranial aneurysm models were evaluated in vitro. The 82 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced the intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity by 86.42 percent, while a 77 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced to intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity to 93.44 percent compared to a nonstented model. Local wall shear rates were also significantly reduced in wide-neck aneurysm model (i.e., 97.52 - 98.92 percent) with TFN stent placement. The results showed that TFN covered stents significantly reduced intra-aneurysmal flow velocity magnitudes and local wall shear rates. This suggests that TFN covered stents with both 77 and 82 percent porosity have great potential to promote thrombosis in both wide-necked and fusiform aneurysm sacs.

  11. Moderate Hypothermia Significantly Decreases Hippocampal Cell Death Involving Autophagy Pathway after Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yichao; Lin, Yingying; Feng, Jun-feng; Jia, Feng; Gao, Guo-yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here, we evaluated changes in autophagy after post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) followed by moderate hypothermia in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham injury with normothermia group (37°C); sham injury with hypothermia group (32°C); TBI with normothermia group (TNG; 37°C); and TBI with hypothermia group (THG; 32°C). Injury was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. Moderate hypothermia (32°C) was achieved by partial immersion in a water bath (0°C) under general anesthesia for 4 h. All rats were killed at 24 h after fluid percussion TBI. The ipsilateral hippocampus in all rats was analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining; terminal deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining was used to determine cell death in ipsilateral hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, as well as transmission electron microscopy performed to assess changes in autophagy. At 24 h after TBI, the cell death index was 27.90±2.36% in TNG and 14.90±1.52% in THG. Expression level of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly increased after TBI and were further up-regulated after post-TBI hypothermia. Further, ultrastructural observations showed that there was a marked increase of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in ipsilateral hippocampus after post-TBI hypothermia. Our data demonstrated that moderate hypothermia significantly attenuated cell death and increased autophagy in ipsilateral hippocampus after fluid percussion TBI. In conclusion, autophagy pathway may participate in the neuroprotective effect of post-TBI hypothermia. PMID:25942484

  12. Manipulation of dietary methionine+cysteine and threonine in broilers significantly decreases environmental nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Donato, D C Z; Sakomura, N K; Silva, E P; Troni, A R; Vargas, L; Guagnoni, M A N; Meda, B

    2016-06-01

    The intensification of livestock have increased the emission of pollutants to the environment, leading to a growing interest in seeking strategies that minimise these emissions. Studies have shown that it is possible to manipulate diets by reducing CP levels and thus reducing nitrogen (N) excretion, without compromising performance. However, there is no knowledge of any study that has focused on reducing N excretion and relating this reduction to individual amino acids. This study investigated the effect of dietary methionine+cysteine (MC) and threonine (THR), the two most limiting amino acids for broiler production, on nitrogen excretion (NE) and nitrogen deposition (ND) and determined the efficiency of utilisation of both amino acids for protein deposition. Six trials were conducted to measure the NE and ND in broiler chickens during three rearing phases in response to dietary amino acid. The efficiency of utilisation of the amino acids was calculated by linear regression of body protein deposition and the amino acid intake. Despite the differences between sexes and phases, the efficiency of utilisation was the same, being 0.60 and 0.59 for MC and THR, respectively. The rate of NE behaved exponentially, increasing with amino acid intake, and can exceed 50% of N intake, being higher than ND. On average, for a reduction in intake of each unit of MC or THR (mg) there is a reduction of 0.5% of NE. Although this reduction seems low, considering that it corresponds to changes in one amino acid only, the impact on a large scale would be significant. Knowledge of how animals respond to NE and ND/protein deposition according to amino acid dietary content may represent new efforts towards reducing the impact on environment. PMID:27076031

  13. Significance of decreased serum interleukin-10 levels in the progression of cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Diao, Zeng-Yan; Wang, Cui-Lan; Qi, Hong-Shun; Jia, Guo-Yong; Yan, Chuan-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory cytokine and its serological detection may have an important role in the process of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated whether serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with cerebral infarction or not in the general population. Identified comprehensive searching was performed covering PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed studies independently. Information was extracted separately and classed into Asians and Caucasians. Summary standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used with the utilization of Z test. Nine studies ranged from 2003 to 2014 were collected for meta-analysis. Results identified a negative association between serum IL-10 levels and cerebral infarction (SMD = 1.80, 95 % CI 0.79-2.81, P < 0.001). Country-subgroup analysis showed that low IL-10 level may be the main risk factor for cerebral infarction in India (SMD = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.13-1.75, P < 0.001) and Croatia (SMD = 2.96, 95 % CI 2.48-3.44, P < 0.001). In the ethnicity-stratified subgroup analysis, serum IL-10 levels were negatively correlated with cerebral infarction in Asians (SMD = 2.52, 95 % CI 0.47-4.57, P = 0.016), while not in Caucasians (P > 0.05). The lower serum IL-10 concentration was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of cerebral infarction in this meta-analysis. More prospective studies should be conducted to provide stronger evidence justifying the use of IL-10 as new biomarker to identify a predisposition toward cerebral infarction. PMID:25847570

  14. Decreased expression of hsa_circ_001988 in colorectal cancer and its clinical significances

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuning; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jiajin; Pan, Fei; Li, Bing; Yan, Yongfeng; Jia, Baoqing; Liu, Hongyi; Li, Shiyou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Circular RNA (circRNA) is a type of RNAs which, unlike the better known linear RNA, forms a covalently closed continuous loop. They have emerged recently as a new player in governing fundamental biological processes. However it remains elusive about the correlation of hsa_circ_001988 abundance with colorectal cancer. To investigate the circular RNA expression in colorectal cancer, the targeted hsa_circ_001988 was selected from next generation sequence data base generated in house and then designed divergent primers to amplify hsa_circ_001988 and sequenced it for validation. The expression of hsa_circ_001988 in 31 matched colorectal cancer tissue and normal colon mucosa was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We used ΔCt method and investigated the differences between tumor tissues and normal colon mucosa by paired t-test. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to analyze the relationship between hsa_circ_001988 expression level and clinic pathological factors of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was built by SPSS to evaluate the diagnostic values. The expression of hsa_circ_001988 was significantly correlated with differentiation (P<0.05) and perineural invasion (P<0.05). The area under ROC curve of hsa_circ_001988 was 0.788 (P<0.05). Those results indicate that hsa_circ_001988 may become a novel potential biomarker in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and a potential novel target for the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:26884878

  15. Correlates of individual differences in compensatory nicotine self-administration in rats following a decrease in nicotine unit dose

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The ability of tobacco harm reduction strategies to produce significant reductions in toxin exposure is limited by compensatory increases in smoking behavior. Characterizing factors contributing to the marked individual variability in compensation may be useful for understanding this phenomenon and assessing the feasibility of harm reduction interventions. Objective To use an animal model of human compensatory smoking that involves a decrease in unit dose supporting nicotine self-administration (NSA) to examine potential contributors to individual differences in compensation. Methods Rats were trained for NSA during daily 23 hr sessions at a unit dose of 0.06 mg/kg/inf until responding was stable. The unit dose was then reduced to 0.03 mg/kg/inf for at least 10 sessions. Following reacquisition of NSA at the training dose and extinction, single-dose nicotine pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Results Decreases in nicotine intake following dose reduction were proportionally less than the decrease in unit dose, indicating partial compensation. Compensatory increases in infusion rates were observed across the course of the 23 hr sessions. The magnitude of compensation differed considerably between rats. Rats exhibiting the highest baseline infusion rates exhibited the lowest levels of compensation. Nicotine pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly correlated with compensation. Infusion rates immediately returned to pre-reduction levels when baseline conditions were restored. Conclusions These findings provide initial insights into correlates of individual differences in compensation following a reduction in nicotine unit dose. The present assay may be useful for characterizing mechanisms and potential consequences of the marked individual differences in compensatory smoking observed in humans. PMID:19475400

  16. Subchronic haloperidol administration decreases aminopeptidase N activity and [Met5]enkephalin metabolism in rat striatum and cortex.

    PubMed

    Konkoy, C S; Waters, S M; Davis, T P

    1996-02-15

    Previously we have shown that subchronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of haloperidol decreases the degradation of [Met5]enkephalin by regional brain slices (Waters et al., 1995, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 274, 783). In the present study, subchronic (7-day i.p.) administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) decreased the accumulation of aminopeptidase-derived fragments Tyr and Gly-Gly-Phe-Met on cortical and striatal slices. The accumulation of Tyr-Gly-Gly, however, was not altered by haloperidol treatment on slices from either region. Further, aminopeptidase N activity was decreased in P2 membranes isolated from either the cortex or striatum of haloperidol-treated animals. These data suggest that the haloperidol-induced decrease in [Met5]enkephalin metabolism results, at least in part, from a reduction in the activity of aminopeptidase N. PMID:8851165

  17. Method of Administration of PROMIS Scales Did Not Significantly Impact Score Level, Reliability or Validity

    PubMed Central

    Bjorner, Jakob B.; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Study Design and Setting Two non-overlapping parallel forms each containing 8 items from each of three PROMIS item banks (Physical Function, Fatigue and Depression) were completed by 923 adults with COPD, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICC), and convergent/discriminant validity. Results In difference score analyses, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the pre-specified MID of 0.2 SD. Parallel forms reliabilities were very high (ICC=0.85-0.93). Only one across mode ICC was significantly lower than the same mode ICC. Tests of validity showed no differential effect by MOA. Participants preferred screen interface over PQ and IVR. Conclusion We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels or psychometric properties of IVR, PQ or PDA administration as compared to PC. PMID:24262772

  18. Reversible and persistent decreases in cocaine self-administration after cholinesterase inhibition: different effects of donepezil and rivastigmine.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Yang, Yungao; He, Shuangteng

    2011-02-01

    We recently observed that pretreatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor, tacrine can produce long-lasting reductions in cocaine-reinforced behavior, described as persistent attenuation. In addition to inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase, tacrine can potentiate actions of dopamine. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of donepezil (which selectively inhibits AChE) and rivastigmine (which inhibits both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase) on cocaine self-administration. High self-administration rats self-administered different doses of cocaine under a fixed ratio-5 schedule. Over a 4-day period, vehicle, donepezil, or rivastigmine was infused as animals were maintained in home cages (21 h per day), with signs of cholinergic stimulation (fasciculation, vacuous jaw movements, yawning, and diarrhea) scored by a blinded observer. Both compounds dose-dependently decreased cocaine self-administration, but differed in the potency and temporal pattern of their effects. Self-administration of low-dose cocaine was decreased to a greater degree by rivastigmine than donepezil (50% effective doses of 2.33 and 6.21 mg/kg/day, respectively), but this early effect did not continue beyond sessions immediately after treatment with rivastigmine. Group means for cocaine self-administration were decreased at some time points occurring between 1 and 3 days after the treatment with 10 mg/kg/day of donepezil (late effects), with decreases of more than 80% observed in some individual rats that persisted for 1 week or longer. Early, but not late, effects were correlated with signs of cholinergic stimulation. In summary, pretreatment with donepezil, but not rivastigmine produced persistent reductions in cocaine-reinforced behavior, which were not associated with signs of cholinergic stimulation. PMID:22173266

  19. Intrathecal administration of clonidine or yohimbine decreases the nociceptive behavior caused by formalin injection in the marsh terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa)

    PubMed Central

    Makau, Christopher M; Towett, Philemon K; Abelson, Klas S P; Kanui, Titus I

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of noradrenergic system in the control of nociception is documented in some vertebrate animals. However, there are no data showing the role of this system on nociception in the marsh terrapins. Methodology In this study, the antinociceptive action of intrathecal administration of the α2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine was evaluated in the African marsh terrapin using the formalin test. The interaction of clonidine and yohimbine was also evaluated. Results Intrathecal administration of clonidine (37.5 or 65 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Yohimbine, at a dose of 25 μg/kg, significantly blocked the effect of clonidine (65 μg/kg). However, administration of yohimbine (40 or 53 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Intrathecal administration of yohimbine (53 μg/kg) followed immediately by intrathecal injection of the serotonergic methysergide maleate (20 μg/kg) resulted in a significant reversal of the antinociceptive effect of yohimbine. Conclusion The present study documented the intrathecal administration of drugs in the marsh terrapin, a technique that can be applied in future studies on these animals. The data also suggest the involvement of both α2-adrenoreceptors and 5HT receptors in the modulation of nociception in testudines. PMID:25365809

  20. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters. PMID:27245709

  1. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23–25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  2. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  3. Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor antagonists decrease heroin self-administration in long- but not short-access rats

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, Thomas N.; Funk, Cindy K.; Cottone, Pietro; Richardson, Heather N.; Chen, Scott A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of the stress-related corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has been implicated in the development of drug dependence. The present study examined the effects of administering CRF type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists on heroin self-administration in animals allowed short (1 hour) or long (8–12 hours) access to intravenous heroin self-administration sessions. The nonpeptide CRF1 antagonists MJL-1-109-2 (1 hour versus 8 hours access) or R121919 (1 hour versus 12 hours access) were systemically injected in both short- and long-access rats. MJL-1-109-2 (10 mg/kg) and R121919 (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced heroin self-administration in long-access animals without altering heroin intake in short-access animals. Both MJL-1-109-2 and R121919 decreased first-hour intravenous heroin self-administration selectively in long-access rats, with R121919 decreasing cumulative heroin intake across the 12-hour session. The results demonstrate that blockade of the CRF–CRF1 receptor system attenuates the increased heroin intake of rats with extended access to the drug. PMID:19291009

  4. Neonatal Neurocritical Care Service Is Associated With Decreased Administration of Seizure Medication.

    PubMed

    Wietstock, Sharon O; Bonifacio, Sonia L; McCulloch, Charles E; Kuzniewicz, Michael W; Glass, Hannah C

    2015-08-01

    This cohort study examines medication use in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and seizures before and after implementation of a Neonatal Neurocritical Care Service (N = 108), which included increased seizure monitoring. Nearly all neonates received phenobarbital (96% pre- vs 95% post-Neonatal Neurocritical Care Service) and total loading dose did not vary among groups (33 [95% confidence interval 29-37] vs 30 [26-34] mg/kg). After adjustment for seizure burden, neonates managed during the Neonatal Neurocritical Care Service era, on average, received 30 mg/kg less cumulative phenobarbital (95% confidence interval 15-46 mg/kg) and were on maintenance 5 fewer days (95% confidence interval 3-8 days) than those who were treated prior to implementation of the service. In spite of the enhanced ability to detect seizures because of improved monitoring and increased vigilance by bedside practitioners, implementation of the Neonatal Neurocritical Care Service was associated with decreased use of potentially harmful phenobarbital treatment among neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:25380602

  5. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer.

  6. Decreased expression of Beclin-1 is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Huang, Shaohui; Wen, Haojie; Chen, Xue; Chu, Hongying; Li, Qiuli; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    The autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 is critical in the regulation of tumourigenesis and progression, but its role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate Beclin-1 expression and its significance in OTSCC. Beclin-1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis in 14 OTSCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues as well as in 5 OTSCC cell lines and a normal tongue epithelial cell line. Beclin-1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 133 OTSCC specimens, and the correlation between Beclin-1 expression and clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, MTT and colony formation assays were performed to investigate the effect of Beclin-1 on the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. It was demonstrated that Beclin-1 expression was significantly decreased in the majority of the 14 OTSCC tissues and the 5 OTSCC cell lines relative to the matched non-cancerous tissues and the normal tongue epithelial cell line, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that decreased Beclin-1 expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical tumour-node-metastasis stage, and a poor prognosis in patients with OTSCC. The in vitro assays indicated that the overexpression of Beclin-1 significantly inhibits the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. These results demonstrate that Beclin-1 acts as a tumour suppressor in the development or progression of OTSCC and that Beclin-1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for patients with OTSCC. PMID:27356955

  7. Decreased expression of Beclin‑1 is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Huang, Shaohui; Wen, Haojie; Chen, Xue; Chu, Hongying; Li, Qiuli; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2016-08-01

    The autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 is critical in the regulation of tumourigenesis and progression, but its role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate Beclin‑1 expression and its significance in OTSCC. Beclin‑1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis in 14 OTSCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues as well as in 5 OTSCC cell lines and a normal tongue epithelial cell line. Beclin‑1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 133 OTSCC specimens, and the correlation between Beclin‑1 expression and clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, MTT and colony formation assays were performed to investigate the effect of Beclin‑1 on the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. It was demonstrated that Beclin‑1 expression was significantly decreased in the majority of the 14 OTSCC tissues and the 5 OTSCC cell lines relative to the matched non‑cancerous tissues and the normal tongue epithelial cell line, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that decreased Beclin‑1 expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical tumour‑node‑metastasis stage, and a poor prognosis in patients with OTSCC. The in vitro assays indicated that the overexpression of Beclin‑1 significantly inhibits the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. These results demonstrate that Beclin‑1 acts as a tumour suppressor in the development or progression of OTSCC and that Beclin‑1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for patients with OTSCC. PMID:27356955

  8. Augmented behavioral response and enhanced synaptosomal calcium transport induced by repeated cocaine administration are decreased by calcium channel blockers

    PubMed Central

    Mills, K.; Ansah, T.A.; Ali, S.F.; Mukherjee, S.; Shockley, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that calcium influx via L-type calcium channels is necessary for psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. In addition, chronic amphetamine upregulates subtype Cav1.2-containing L-type calcium channels. In the present studies, we assessed the effect of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on cocaine-induced behavioral sentitization and determined whether the functional activity of L-type calcium channels is altered after repeated cocaine administration. Rats were administered daily intraperitoneal injections of either flunarizine (40 mg/kg), diltiazem (40 mg/kg) or cocaine (20 mg/kg) and the combination of the CCB’s and cocaine for 30 days. Motor activities were monitored on Day 1, and every 6th day during the 30-day treatment period. Daily cocaine administration produced increased locomotor activity. Maximal augmentation of behavioral response to repeated cocaine administration was observed on Day 18. Flunarizine pretreatment abolished the augmented behavioral response to repeated cocaine administration while diltiazem was less effective. Measurement of tissue monoamine levels on Day 18 revealed cocaine-induced increases in DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens. By contrast to behavioral response, diltiazem was more effective in attenuating increases in monoamine levels than flunarizine. Cocaine administration for 18 days produced increases in calcium-uptake in synaptosomes prepared from the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex. Increases in calcium-uptake were abolished by flunarizine- and diltiazem-pretreatment. Taken together, the augmented cocaine-induced behavioral response on Day 18 may be due to increased calcium uptake in the nucleus accumbens leading to increased dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) release. Flunarizine and diltiazem attenuated the behavioral response by decreasing calcium uptake and decreasing neurochemical release. PMID:17689567

  9. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    PubMed

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P < .05. There were 164 burn center admissions between Memorial Day and Labor Day in 2010 (n = 82) and 2011 (n = 82). Compared with all summer burn center admissions, patients injured by campfires were younger (18 vs 37 years; P = .002) with smaller total surface area burns (3.2 vs 6.2%; P = .41) and had shorter lengths of stay (10-11 vs 6-7 days; P = .62). There was more than a 3-fold decrease in burn admissions due to recreational fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of

  10. Self-administration of ethanol, cocaine, or nicotine does not decrease the soma size of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Mazei-Robison, Michelle S; Appasani, Raghu; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Taylor, Seth R; Picciotto, Marina R; Koob, George F; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Our previous observations show that chronic opiate administration, including self-administration, decrease the soma size of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rodents and humans, a morphological change correlated with increased firing rate and reward tolerance. Given that a general hallmark of drugs of abuse is to increase activity of the mesolimbic DA circuit, we sought to determine whether additional drug classes produced a similar morphological change. Sections containing VTA were obtained from rats that self-administered cocaine or ethanol and from mice that consumed nicotine. In contrast to opiates, we found no change in VTA DA soma size induced by any of these other drugs. These data suggest that VTA morphological changes are induced in a drug-specific manner and reinforce recent findings that some changes in mesolimbic signaling and neuroplasticity are drug-class dependent. PMID:24755634

  11. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A. . E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts ({>=}1,600 cm{sup 3}, n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT.

  12. Mutation in GDP-fucose synthesis genes of Sinorhizobium fredii alters Nod factors and significantly decreases competitiveness to nodulate soybeans.

    PubMed

    Lamrabet, Y; Bellogín, R A; Cubo, T; Espuny, R; Gil, A; Krishnan, H B; Megias, M; Ollero, F J; Pueppke, S G; Ruiz-Sainz, J E; Spaink, H P; Tejero-Mateo, P; Thomas-Oates, J; Vinardell, J M

    1999-03-01

    We mutagenized Sinorhizobium fredii HH103-1 with Tn5-B20 and screened about 2,000 colonies for increased beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of the flavonoid naringenin. One mutant, designated SVQ287, produces lipochitooligosaccharide Nod factors (LCOs) that differ from those of the parental strain. The nonreducing N-acetylglucosamine residues of all of the LCOs of mutant SVQ287 lack fucose and 2-O-methylfucose substituents. In addition, SVQ287 synthesizes an LCO with an unusually long, C20:1 fatty acyl side chain. The transposon insertion of mutant SVQ287 lies within a 1.1-kb HindIII fragment. This and an adjacent 2.4-kb HindIII fragment were sequenced. The sequence contains the 3' end of noeK, nodZ, and noeL (the gene interrupted by Tn5-B20), and the 5' end of nolK, all in the same orientation. Although each of these genes has a similarly oriented counterpart on the symbiosis plasmid of the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, there are significant differences in the noeK/nodZ intergenic region. Based on amino acid sequence homology, noeL encodes GDP-D-mannose dehydratase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, and nolK encodes a NAD-dependent nucleotide sugar epimerase/dehydrogenase. We show that expression of the noeL gene is under the control of NodD1 in S. fredii and is most probably mediated by the nod box that precedes nodZ. Transposon insertion into neoL has two impacts on symbiosis with Williams soybean: nodulation rate is reduced slightly and competitiveness for nodulation is decreased significantly. Mutant SVQ287 retains its ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other legumes, but final nodule number is attenuated on Cajanus cajan. PMID:10065558

  13. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1981: Water-Quality committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This review of 1981 developments is divided into four basic parts. The first covers legislative, judicial, and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA); the second covers judicial and administrative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); the third covers judicial developments respecting private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 109 references.

  14. The introduction of sialendoscopy has significantly contributed to a decreased number of excised salivary glands in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Lykke, Eva; Wagner, Niels; Nielsen, Troels; Waersted, Stian; Arndal, Helge

    2016-08-01

    Excision has been the treatment of choice in benign non-tumorous obstructive disorders of the major salivary glands, when symptoms persisted in spite of conservative measures. Unfortunately surgical resection has been associated with a relatively high rate of adverse effects. To meet the need for a less invasive treatment modality for benign obstructive non-tumorous disorders (i.e., salivary stones or stenosis), sialendoscopy has been developed and implemented in several countries here among Denmark. This study is a 13-year retrospective registry-based study using The Danish National Patient Register. ICD-10 codes used for non-tumorous obstructive disease of the salivary glands were identified and used to extract patients potentially eligible for sialendoscopy in order to compare sialendoscopic surgery and extirpations of salivary glands. In 2012 sialendoscopy accounted for almost 20 % of all surgical interventions on the major salivary glands due to benign non-tumorous disease. Nationally and regionally the total number of resected major salivary glands due to benign obstructive disease also decreased significantly during the study period. A positive outcome, like the ones described here, will inspire further development and dissemination of gland preserving techniques, to great benefit for the patients. PMID:26308523

  15. Decrease of global methylation improves significantly hepatic differentiation of Ad-MSCs: possible future application for urea detoxification.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, C; Culmes, M; Schyschka, L; Yan, X; Damm, G; Wang, Z; Kleeff, J; Thasler, W E; Hengstler, J; Stöckle, U; Ehnert, S; Nüssler, A K

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is considered to be an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation. Cells can be used to bridge patients waiting for a donor organ, decrease mortality in acute liver failure, and support metabolic liver diseases. The limited availability of primary human hepatocytes for such applications has led to the generation of alternative hepatocyte-like cells from various adult stem or precursor cells. The aim of this study was to generate hepatocyte-like cells from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for clinical applications, which are available "off the shelf." Epigenetic changes in hepatocyte-like cells were induced by 5-azacytidine, which, in combination with other supplements, leads to significantly improved metabolic and enzymatic activities compared to nontreated cells. Cells with sufficient hepatic features were generated with a four-step protocol: 5-azacytidine (step 1); epidermal growth factor (step 2); fibroblast growth factor-4, dexamethasone, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite, and nicotinamide (step 3); and hepatocyte growth factor, dexamethasone, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite, and nicotinamide (step 4). Generated differentiated cells had higher phase I (CYP1A1/2, CYP2E1, CYP2B6, CYP3A4) and phase II activities compared to the undifferentiated cells. A strong expression of CYP3A7 and a weak expression of 3A4, as well as the important detoxification markers α-fetoprotein and albumin, could also be detected at the mRNA level. Importantly, urea metabolism (basal, NH4-stimulated, NH4- and ornithine-stimulated) was comparable to freshly isolated human hepatocytes, and unlike cryopreserved human hepatocytes, this activity was maintained after 6 months of cryopreservation. These findings suggest that these cells may be suitable for clinical application, especially for treatment of urea cycle disorders. PMID:22507189

  16. Annual committee report on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1980: Water Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This review of 1980 developments is divided into three parts. The first covers judicial and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA) such as industrial guidelines and standards; the second covers judicial administrative and legislative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); and the third covers judicial developments in the areas of private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 320 references.

  17. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1982: Environmental Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Judicial developments during 1982 dominated activities involving the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rotenticide Act, and Marine Sanctuaries, with some changes in administrative procedures and no legislative developments. The Endangered Species Act was amended to expedite changes to the lists and to alter exemption and international trade requirements. Several lawsuits challenged review standards and litigation claims. 231 references. (DCK)

  18. Oral Administration of Lactococcus lactis Expressing Synthetic Genes of Myelin Antigens in Decreasing Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kasarello, Kaja; Kwiatkowska-Patzer, Barbara; Lipkowski, Andrzej W.; Bardowski, Jacek K.; Szczepankowska, Agnieszka K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis is a human autoimmunological disease that causes neurodegeneration. One of the potential ways to stop its development is induction of oral tolerance, whose effect lies in decreasing immune response to the fed antigen. It was shown in animal models that administration of specific epitopes of the three main myelin proteins – myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), myelin basic protein (MBP), and proteolipid protein (PLP) – results in induction of oral tolerance and suppression of disease symptoms. Use of bacterial cells to produce and deliver antigens to gut mucosa seems to be an attractive method for oral tolerance induction in treatment of diseases with autoimmune background. Material/Methods Synthetic genes of MOG35-55, MBP85-97, and PLP139-151 myelin epitopes were generated and cloned in Lactococcus lactis under a CcpA-regulated promoter. The tolerogenic effect of bacterial preparations was tested on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which is the animal model of MS. EAE was induced in rats by intradermal injection of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate into hind paws. Results Rats were administered preparations containing whole-cell lysates of L. lactis producing myelin antigens using different feeding schemes. Our study demonstrates that 20-fold, but not 4-fold, intragastric administration of autoantigen-expressing L. lactis cells under specific conditions reduces the clinical symptoms of EAE in rats. Conclusions The present study evaluated the use of myelin antigens produced in L. lactis in inhibiting the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. Obtained results indicate that application of such recombinant cells can be an attractive method of oral tolerance induction. PMID:26026273

  19. Oral administration of synthetic retinoid Am80 (Tamibarotene) decreases brain beta-amyloid peptides in APP23 mice.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kohichi; Nishi, Kentaro; Suenobu, Michita; Ohtsuka, Hideyuki; Maeda, Akira; Nagatomo, Kenichiro; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Nakagomi, Madoka; Shudo, Koichi; Nakayama, Hitoshi

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a synthetic retinoid Am80 (tamibarotene) exhibits any improving effects on amyloid precursor protein (APP)23 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease. Am80 was orally administered in feed to 20-week (5-month)-old APP23 mice at a dose of 0 (control) or 0.5 mg/kg/d for 14 weeks. The Am80 treatment reduced significantly the insoluble Abeta levels in brain, in particular Abeta(42), while it gave no apparent effects on the soluble Abeta levels. The results suggest that oral administration of Am80 may have potency to reduce the extracellular Abeta(42) of insoluble and possibly oligomeric or protofibril forms, which are related to the cause and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease. The Am80 treatment showed no significant effect on spatial learning and memory of APP23 mice by Morris water maze analysis. The main reason for the absence of significance seems based on the large deviation and some mice both in the treated and the non-treated groups would neither swim nor make efforts to reach the platform. PMID:19571405

  20. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; p<0.05). NECA decreased the core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption, which is an index of heat production, tail skin temperature, which is an index of heat loss, and extracellular dopamine (DA) release at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, caffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. PMID:26604076

  1. Diazepam administration prevents testosterone decrease and lipofuscin accumulation in testis of mouse exposed to chronic noise stress.

    PubMed

    Ruffoli, R; Carpi, A; Giambelluca, M A; Grasso, L; Scavuzzo, M C; Giannessi F, F

    2006-10-01

    Lipofuscin is an autofluorescent and undegradable material, which accumulates in tissues during ageing and under different types of stress. Among these, oxidative stress represents a major trigger for lipofuscin formation. However, prolonged noise exposure is also an effective stressful stimuli. Diazepam may inhibit lipofuscinogenesis in liver and prevent the noise-induced reduction of the steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation in mouse testis, and to evaluate the effects of diazepam administration. Eight-week old mice were either exposed for 6 weeks (6 h day(-1)) to white-noise (group A), or received diazepam (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) before noise exposures (group B), while a further group was used as control (group C). Light fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed lipofuscin in large amounts in the Leydig cells in mice of group A, which concomitantly had low serum testosterone levels; pre-treatment with diazepam occluded both effects. The present study indicates that: (i) chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation at the level of the Leydig cells and a decrease in testosterone; (ii) all these effects are suppressed by pre-treatment with diazepam. As the Leydig cells represent the only cellular type of the interstitial testicular tissue having peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, these results could be explained by the capacity of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors to prevent reactive oxygen species damage and to increase the resistance of these cells to oxidative stress. PMID:16961568

  2. Mesothelin Expression in Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas Correlates Significantly with Basal-Like Phenotype, Distant Metastases and Decreased Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tozbikian, Gary; Brogi, Edi; Kadota, Kyuichi; Catalano, Jeffrey; Akram, Muzaffar; Patil, Sujata; Ho, Alice Y.; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Weigelt, Britta; Norton, Larry; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Wen, Hannah Yong

    2014-01-01

    Mesothelin is a cell surface associated antigen expressed on mesothelial cells and in some malignant neoplasms. Mesothelin-targeted therapies are in phase I/II clinical trials. The clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of mesothelin expression in triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC) has not been fully assessed. We evaluated the expression of mesothelin and of basal markers in tissue microarrays of 226 TNBC and 88 non-TNBC and assessed the clinicopathologic features of mesothelin-expressing breast carcinomas. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of mesothelin expression on the disease-free and overall survival of patients with TNBC. We found that mesothelin expression is significantly more frequent in TNBC than in non-TNBC (36% vs 16%, respectively; p = 0.0006), and is significantly correlated with immunoreactivity for basal keratins, but not for EGFR. Mesothelin-positive and mesothelin-negative TNBC were not significantly different by patients’ race, tumor size, histologic grade, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases. Patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC were older than patients with mesothelin-negative TNBC, developed more distant metastases with a shorter interval, and had significantly lower overall and disease-free survival. Based on our results, patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC could benefit from mesothelin-targeted therapies. PMID:25506917

  3. Fossil plants indicate that the most significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 happened prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany was utilized to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the stomatal proxy, which relies on the inverse relationship between pCO2 and leaf stomatal density, we show that a ~40% decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oliogocene climate transition. The results endorse the theory that pCO2 drawdown was the main forcer of the Eocene-Oligocene climate change, and a 'tipping point' was reached in the latest Eocene, triggering the plunge of the Earth System into icehouse conditions.

  4. Neonatal finasteride administration decreases dopamine release in nucleus accumbens after alcohol and food presentation in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous levels of the neurosteroid (NS) allopregnanolone (AlloP) during neonatal stages are crucial for the correct development of the central nervous system (CNS). In a recent work we reported that the neonatal administration of AlloP or finasteride (Finas), an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase needed for AlloP synthesis, altered the voluntary consumption of ethanol and the ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) levels in adulthood, suggesting that neonatal NS manipulations can increase alcohol abuse vulnerability in adulthood. Moreover, other authors have associated neonatal NS alterations with diverse dopaminergic (DAergic) alterations. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP alter the DAergic response in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during alcohol intake in rats. We administered AlloP or Finas from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND9. At PND98, we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 12 days. On the last day of consumption, we measured the DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in NAcc in response to ethanol intake. The samples were obtained by means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats, and DA and DOPAC levels were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). The results revealed that neonatal Finas increased ethanol consumption in some days of the consumption phase, and decreased the DA release in the NAcc in response to solutions (ethanol+glucose) and food presentation. Taken together, these results suggest that neonatal NS alterations can affect alcohol rewarding properties. PMID:27139934

  5. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel powder prevents UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity via suppression of overexpression of MMPs in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yao, Ruiquing; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the effects of oral Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing Aloe sterols on skin elasticity and the extracellular matrix in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated hairless mice. Ten-week-old hairless mice were fed diets containing 0.3% AVGP for 8 weeks and irradiated UVB for 6 weeks. Mice treated with AVGP showed significant prevention of the UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity. To investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression of skin elasticity loss, we measured the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and -13. AVGP prevented both the UVB-induced increases in MMPs expressions. Moreover, we investigated hyaluronic acid (HA) content of mice dorsal skin and gene expression of HA synthase-2 (Has2). In the results, AVGP oral administration prevented UVB-induced decreasing in skin HA content and Has2 expression and attenuates the UVB-induced decrease in serum adiponectin, which promotes Has2 expression. These results suggested that AVGP has the ability to prevent the skin photoaging. PMID:27045316

  6. A novel hyper-elastic thin film nitinol covered stent significantly decreases intra-aneurysmal flow in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Youngjae; Hur, Soojung C.; Kealey, Colin P.; Levi, Daniel S.; Mohanchandra, K. P.; Di Carlo, Dino; Carman, Gregory P.

    2011-04-01

    A novel hyper-elastic thin film nitinol (HE-TFN) covered stent has been developed to promote aneurysm quiescence by diminishing flow across the aneurysm's neck. Laboratory aneurysm models were used to assess the flow changes produced by stents covered with different patterns of HE-TFN. The flow diverters were constructed by covering Wingspan stents (Boston Scientific) with HE-TFNs (i.e., 82 and 77% porosity) and deployed in both in vitro wide-neck and fusiform glass aneurysm models. In wide-neck aneurysms, the 82% porous HE-TFN stent reduced mean flow velocity in the middle of the sac by 86.42+/-0.5%, while a 77% porous stent reduced the velocity by 93.44+/-4.99% (n=3). Local wall shear rates were also significantly reduced by about 98% in this model after device placement. Tests conducted on the fusiform aneurysm revealed smaller intra-aneurysmal flow velocity reduction to 48.96+/-2.9% for 82% porous and to 59.2+/-6.9% for 77% porous stent, respectively. The wall shear was reduced by approximately 50% by HE-TFN stents in fusiform models. These results suggest that HE-TFN covered stents have potential to promote thrombosis in both wide-necked and fusiform aneurysm sacs.

  7. Oral administration of soluble β-glucans extracted from Grifola frondosa induces systemic antitumor immune response and decreases immunosuppression in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yuki; Inoue, Hiroko; Ohta, Hiroya; Miyake, Ayumi; Konishi, Morichika; Nanba, Hiroaki

    2013-07-01

    Maitake D (MD)-Fraction is a highly purified soluble β-glucan derived from Grifola frondosa (an oriental edible mushroom). Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of MD-Fraction has been reported to inhibit tumor growth via enhancement of the host immune system. In this study, we demonstrated that oral administration of MD-Fraction as well as i.p. injection significantly inhibited tumor growth in murine tumor models. After oral administration, MD-Fraction was not transferred to the blood in its free form but was captured by antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) present in the Peyer's patch. The captured MD-Fraction was then transported to the spleen, thereby inducing the systemic immune response. Our study showed that MD-Fraction directly induced DC maturation via a C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 pathway. The therapeutic response of orally administered MD-Fraction was associated with (i) induced systemic tumor-antigen specific T cell response via dectin-1-dependent activation of DCs, (ii) increased infiltration of the activated T cells into the tumor and (iii) decreased number of tumor-caused immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Our preclinical study suggests that MD-Fraction is a useful oral therapeutic agent in the management of patients with cancer. PMID:23280601

  8. Repeated cocaine administration decreases calcineurin (PP2B) but enhances DARPP-32 modulation of sodium currents in rat nucleus accumbens neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiu-Ti; Ford, Kerstin; White, Francis J

    2005-05-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that repeated cocaine (COC) administration reduces voltage-sensitive sodium and calcium currents (I(Na) or VSSCs and I(Ca) or VSCCs, respectively) in medium spiny nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons of rats. The present findings further indicate that chronic COC-induced I(Na) reduction in NAc neurons is regulated by decreased dephosphorylation and enhanced phosphorylation of Na(+) channels. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that dephosphorylation of Na(+) channels by calcineurin (CaN) enhanced I(Na), while inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) by phosphorylated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (M(r)=32 kDa) (DARPP-32) at the site of threonine 34 (p-Thr.34-DARPP-32) suppressed I(Na), in freshly dissociated NAc neurons of saline-pretreated rats. However, the effects of CaN on enhancing I(Na) were significantly attenuated, and the action of p-Thr.34-DARPP-32 to decrease I(Na) was mimicked, although not potentiated, by repeated COC pretreatment. Dephosphorylation of Na(+) channels by PP1 also enhanced I(Na), but this effect of PP1 on I(Na) was not apparently affected by repeated COC administration. Western blot analysis indicates that the protein levels of CaN and DARPP-32 were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, while the PP1 levels were unchanged, in the COC-withdrawn NAc as compared to saline-pretreated controls. Combined with previous findings, our results indicate that both CaN and PP1 modulate the increase in I(Na) via enhancing dephosphorylation, while p-Thr.34-DARPP-32 reduces I(Na) by inhibiting PP1-induced dephosphorylation, thereby stabilizing the phosphorylation state, of Na(+) channels in NAc neurons. They also suggest that chronic COC-induced I(Na) reduction may be attributed to a reduction in Ca(2+) signaling, which disrupts the physiological balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Na(+) channels. PMID:15726118

  9. Positive Modulation of GABAB Receptors Decreased Nicotine Self-administration and Counteracted Nicotine-induced Enhancement of Brain Reward Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Neil E.; Vlachou, Styliani; Guery, Sebastien; Kaupmann, Klemens; Froestl, Wolfgang; Markou, Athina

    2008-01-01

    Acute administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonists decreases nicotine, cocaine, ethanol, and heroin self-administration, and also decreases food-maintained responding and suppresses locomotor activity at high doses. GABAB receptor positive modulators may represent potentially improved therapeutic compounds because of their fewer side-effects than receptor agonists. The present study investigated the effects of administration of the GABAB receptor positive modulators 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol (CGP7930) and N-[(1R,2R,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-2-methyl-5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-pyrimidinamine (BHF177), and co-administration of the GABAB receptor positive modulator N,N'-dicyclopentyl-2-methylsulfanyl-5-nitro-pyrimidine-4,6-diamine (GS39783) with the GABAB receptor agonist (3-amino-2[S]-hydroxypropyl)-methylphosphinic acid (CGP44532) on nicotine- and food-maintained responding under fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement. Furthermore, the effects of BHF177 and CGP44532 on nicotine-induced enhancement of brain reward function were evaluated. The results indicated that administration of CGP7930 decreased nicotine self-administration under an FR5 schedule. Administration of either GS39783 or CGP44532 selectively decreased nicotine self-administration, while co-administration of these compounds had additive effects. BHF177 administration selectively decreased nicotine-, but not food-, maintained responding under FR5 and progressive-ratio schedules. The nicotine-induced enhancement of brain reward function was blocked by BHF177 or CGP44532, although the highest doses of both compounds, particularly CGP44532, decreased brain reward function when administered alone, suggesting an additive, rather than interactive, effect. Overall, the present results indicate that GABAB receptor positive modulators, similarly to GABAB receptor agonists, attenuated the reinforcing and reward

  10. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  11. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    PubMed

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  12. Temporal profile of magnetic resonance angiography and decreased ratio of regulatory T cells after immunological adjuvant administration to mice lacking RNF213, a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Kanoke, Atsushi; Fujimura, Miki; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Ito, Akira; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Sato-Maeda, Mika; Kure, Shigeo; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-07-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with an unknown etiology and is characterized by an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Recent studies identified the RNF213 gene (RNF213) as an important susceptibility gene for MMD; however, the mechanisms underlying the RNF213 abnormality related to MMD have not yet been elucidated. We previously reported that Rnf213-deficient mice and Rnf213 p. R4828K knock-in mice did not spontaneously develop MMD, indicating the importance of secondary insults in addition to genetic factors in the pathogenesis of MMD. The most influential secondary insult is considered to be an immunological reaction because RNF213 is predominantly expressed in immunological tissues. Therefore, we herein attempted to evaluate the role of an immunological stimulation as a supplementary insult to the target disruption of RNF213 in the pathophysiology of MMD. Rnf213-deficient mice were treated with strong immunological adjuvants including muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-Lys (L18), and then underwent time-sequential magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) up to 40 weeks of age. The results obtained did not reveal any characteristic finding of MMD, and no significant difference was observed in MRA findings or the anatomy of the circle of Willis between Rnf213-deficient mice and wild-type mice after the administration of MDP-Lys (L18). The ratio of regulatory T cells after the administration of MDP-Lys (L18) was significantly decreased in Rnf213-deficient mice (p<0.01), suggesting the potential role of the RNF213 abnormality in the differentiation of regulatory T cells. Although the mechanisms underlying the development of MMD currently remain unclear, the RNF213 abnormality may compromise immunological self-tolerance, thereby contributing to the development of MMD. PMID:26972532

  13. Maternal Intravenous Administration of Azithromycin Results in Significant Fetal Uptake in a Sheep Model of Second Trimester Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J.; Spiller, O. Brad; Ireland, Demelza J.; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  14. Maternal intravenous administration of azithromycin results in significant fetal uptake in a sheep model of second trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J; Spiller, O Brad; Ireland, Demelza J; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  15. Intranasal administration of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) rapidly and significantly increases whole-brain GDNF level in rats.

    PubMed

    Bender, T S; Migliore, M M; Campbell, R B; John Gatley, S; Waszczak, B L

    2015-09-10

    Previous studies have shown that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts significant neuroprotective effects on substantia nigra (SN) neurons in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine GDNF brain levels and distribution to target regions (i.e. striatum and SN) following intranasal administration of GDNF at different time points after administration. Brain levels increased significantly within 1h following a single 50-μg dose of GDNF in a liposomal formulation, returning to baseline by 24h. In a second study, different doses of GDNF (10-150 μg) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were studied at the 1-h time point. Dose-dependent increases in brain GDNF levels were observed with apparent saturation of uptake at doses above 100 μg. Liposomes delivered 10-fold more GDNF to brain than PBS despite yielding similar neuroprotective efficacy in the 6-OHDA model, suggesting incomplete release of GDNF from liposomes in tissue. In a third study, autoradiography was performed on brain sections taken 1h after intranasal (125)I-labeled GDNF. Radioactivity was detected throughout the brain along the rostral-to-caudal axis, indicating that nasally administered GDNF can reach target areas. Collectively, these results demonstrate that intranasal administration of GDNF in liposomes or PBS achieves significant increases in GDNF in target brain areas, supporting use of intranasal administration as a non-invasive means of delivering GDNF to the brain to protect dopamine neurons and arrest disease progression in PD. PMID:26166725

  16. The intra-nasal administration of insulin induces significant hypoglycaemia and classical counterregulatory hormonal responses in normal man.

    PubMed

    Paquot, N; Scheen, A J; Franchimont, P; Lefebvre, P J

    1988-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the metabolic and hormonal consequences of intra-nasal administration of insulin in normal man. Lyophylisated regular porcine insulin (Insuline Ordinaire Organon) diluted with a non ionic detergent (Laureth-9 0,25%) was administered intra-nasally in 8 overnight fasted healthy volunteers using a calibrated aerosol delivery device (90 microliters = 9 U of insulin/spray) up to a total insulin dose close to 1 U/kg body weight. After intra-nasal insulin administration, plasma insulin levels rose from 5 +/- 1 to 38 +/- 10 mU/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 15, blood glucose concentrations decreased from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 45, plasma C-peptide levels diminished from 327 +/- 31 to 174 +/- 28 mumol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 60 and plasma free fatty acids concentrations fell from 336 +/- 109 to 130 +/- 31 mumol/l (2p less than 0.05) at min 30. The fall in blood glucose resulted in a prompt increase in plasma glucagon levels (from 78 +/- 28 to 150 +/- 24 ng/l at min 45; 2p less than 0.05) and in later rises in plasma growth hormone and cortisol concentrations. There was a close relationship between the individual maximal decreases in blood glucose levels and the individual maximal increases in plasma insulin (r = 0.81), glucagon (r = 0.88), cortisol (r = 0.87) and growth hormone (r = 0.76) concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3292305

  17. Evidence that chronic administration of 17β-oestradiol decreases the vasopressor responses to adrenergic system stimulation in streptozotocin-diabetic female rats.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Cota, Selene J; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilu; Gómez-Viquez, Norma L; Centurión, David

    2014-05-01

    In vitro studies have indicated that 17β-oestradiol exerts beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by activating the nitric oxide pathway. However, these effects have not been demonstrated in vivo in the systemic vasculature of rats made diabetic through streptozotocin induction. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of 17β-oestradiol on vasopressor responses induced by sympathetic stimulation or i.v. injections of noradrenaline, methoxamine and B-HT 933 in sham-operated or ovariectomised, diabetic or non-diabetic female rats. Thus, rats were ovariectomised or sham-operated for this experiment. One week later, the animals were treated with streptozotocin (60mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle. Two weeks later, these rats were treated daily with 17β-oestradiol (10μg/kg, s.c.) or its vehicle for five weeks. Next, under anaesthesia, the animals were pithed and prepared for blood pressure and heart rate measurements. 17β-oestradiol failed to modify the vasopressor responses to (i) sympathetic stimulation, noradrenaline, methoxamine or B-HT 933 in sham-operated non-diabetic rats; (ii) sympathetic stimulation or B-HT 933 in sham-operated diabetic rats; (iii) noradrenaline or methoxamine in ovariectomised non-diabetic rats. In contrast, 17β-oestradiol significantly decreased the vasopressor responses to (i) noradrenaline and methoxamine in sham-operated diabetic rats; (ii) sympathetic stimulation or B-HT 933 in ovariectomised non-diabetic rats; and (iii) sympathetic stimulation, noradrenaline, methoxamine or B-HT 933 in ovariectomised diabetic rats. These results suggest that chronic administration of 17β-oestradiol decreases the vasopressor responses to adrenergic system stimulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. This report describes the first in vivo study reporting this effect of 17β-oestradiol in diabetes. PMID:24513052

  18. Decrease in the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes of rat liver following the administration of tilorone hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Leeson, G A; Biedenbach, S A; Chan, K Y; Gibson, J P; Wright, G J

    1976-01-01

    Tilorone hydrochloride, 2,7-bias(2-(diethylamino)ethoxy(fluoren-9-one dihydrochloride, has been studied to determine its effect on the drug-metabolizing enzymes of the liver of male Charles River CD strain rats. Single and multiple doses of tilorone-HCl, 100 mg/kg/day po, were used. Most experiments were performed 24 hr after the last dose, except for a study 5 hr after dosing, and those in which the duration of effects of tilorone hydrochloride were determined. The hexobarbital sleeping time was prolonged after both single doses and four doses of tilorone hydrochloride. The 4-dose regimen prolonged the zoxazolamine paralysis time but the single dose did not. A decrease in microsomal protein was observed after the single- and 4-dose regimens but not after 21 daily doses of tilorone-HCl. Cytochrome P-450 content of microsomes was decreased by the single doses, 100 and 250 mg/kg po, and by 4 and 21 doses of 100 mg/kg/day po. Activities of aminopyrine demethylase and hexobarbital oxidase also were decreased by the above regimens, but the activity of hexobarbital oxidase was affected more markedly. Electron micrographs of rat liver, after treatment with tilorone-HCl, 100 mg/kg/day for 21 days, revealed many membranous structures in the form of whorls. PMID:6227

  19. Serum thyroxine concentration before and after administration of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone decreases with chronological age in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Park, J.F.; Kinnas, T.C.; Stevens, D.L.

    1983-06-01

    Thyroid function in the dog was evaluated as a function of increasing chronological age. Ninety-one dogs between the ages of 14.6 and 160.8 months were evaluated. Basal serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) concentration, basal serum thyroxine (T/sub 4/) and serum T/sub 4/ concentration following stimulation by thyrotropin were found to decrease with age. The results suggested that age may be an important factor in interpreting thyroid profiles in the dog. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A single administration of methamphetamine to mice early in the light period decreases running wheel activity observed during the dark period.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Watabe, Kaname; Kubo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko

    2012-01-01

    Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decreases, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. Such decreases may be observed after chronic treatment or even after single drug administrations. In the present study, the effect of acute methamphetamine (METH) on running wheel activity, horizontal locomotion, appetitive behavior (food access), and consummatory behavior (food and water intake) was investigated in mice. A multi-configuration behavior apparatus designed to monitor the five behaviors was developed, where combined measures were recorded simultaneously. In the first experiment, naïve male ICR mice showed gradually increasing running wheel activity over three consecutive days after exposure to a running wheel, while mice without a running wheel showed gradually decreasing horizontal locomotion, consistent with running wheel activity being a positively motivated form of natural motor activity. In experiment 2, increased horizontal locomotion and food access, and decreased food intake, were observed for the initial 3h after acute METH challenge. Subsequently, during the dark phase period decreased running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion were observed. The reductions in running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion may be indicative of reduced dopaminergic function, although it remains to be seen if these changes may be more pronounced after more prolonged METH treatments. PMID:22079320

  1. Administration of a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist decreases the proviral reservoir in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Winckelmann, Anni A; Munk-Petersen, Lærke V; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Hjelholt, Thomas J; Montefiori, David; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S; Tolstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can reactivate HIV from latently infected cells in vitro. We aimed to investigate the TLR-9 agonist, CPG 7909's in vivo effect on the proviral HIV reservoir and HIV-specific immunity. This was a post-hoc analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled vaccine trial. HIV-infected adults were randomized 1:1 to receive pneumococcal vaccines with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 as adjuvant at 0, 3 and 9 months. In patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy we quantified proviral DNA at 0, 3, 4, 9, and 10 months (31 subjects in the CPG group and 37 in the placebo-adjuvant group). Furthermore, we measured HIV-specific antibodies, characterized T cell phenotypes and HIV-specific T cell immunity. We observed a mean reduction in proviral DNA in the CPG group of 12.6% (95% CI: -23.6-0.0) following each immunization whereas proviral DNA in the placebo-adjuvant group remained largely unchanged (6.7% increase; 95% CI: -4.2-19.0 after each immunization, p = 0.02). Among participants with additional cryo-preserved PBMCs, HIV-specific CD8+ T cell immunity as indicated by increased expression of degranulation marker CD107a and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1β) tended to be up-regulated following immunization with CPG 7909 compared with placebo as adjuvant. Further, increasing proportion of HIV-specific CD107a and MIP1β-expressing CD8+ T cells were strongly correlated with decreasing proviral load. No changes were observed in T cell phenotype distribution, HIV-specific CD4+ T cell immunity, or HIV-specific antibodies. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal vaccination decreased proviral load. Reductions in proviral load correlated with increasing levels of HIV specific CD8+ T cells. Further investigation into the potential effect of TLR9 agonists on HIV latency is warranted. PMID:23637967

  2. Corticosterone administration in drinking water decreases high-fat diet intake but not preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2016-04-15

    One of the mechanisms through which regular exercise contributes to weight maintenance could be by reducing intake and preference for high-fat (HF) diets. Indeed, we previously demonstrated that wheel-running rats robustly reduced HF diet intake and preference. The reduced HF diet preference by wheel running can be so profound that the rats consumed only the chow diet and completely avoided the HF diet. Because previous research indicates that exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases circulating levels of corticosterone, this study tested the hypothesis that elevation of circulating corticosterone is involved in wheel running-induced reduction in HF diet preference in rats.Experiment 1 measured plasma corticosterone levels under sedentary and wheel-running conditions in the two-diet-choice (high-carbohydrate chow vs. HF) feeding regimen. The results revealed that plasma corticosterone is significantly increased and positively correlated with the levels of running in wheel-running rats with two-diet choice.Experiments 2 and 3 determined whether elevated corticosterone without wheel running is sufficient to reduce HF diet intake and preference. Corticosterone was elevated by adding it to the drinking water. Compared with controls, corticosterone-drinking rats had reduced HF diet intake and body weight, but the HF diet preference between groups did not differ. The results of this study support a role for elevated corticosterone on the reduced HF diet intake during wheel running. The elevation of corticosterone alone, however, is not sufficient to produce a robust reduction in HF diet preference. PMID:26818055

  3. [Decrease of affinity between arterial proteoglycans and LDL isolated from smokers and non-smokers with vitamin E and C administration].

    PubMed

    Barón, Luz; Romero-Vecchione, Eduardo; López, Flor

    2004-06-01

    LDL interaction with arterial proteoglycans and its oxidative modification is closely related to atherosclerosis. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the individual administration of vitamin E and a combination of vitamin E and C on LDL affinity for arterial proteoglycans in smokers and non-smokers subjects. Twenty smokers and ten non-smokers healthy subjects received by the oral route placebos of vitamins E and C for 15 days; then vitamin E (400 mg/d) for 30 days and finally vitamin E plus vitamin C (1000 mg/d) during the following 30 days. During the vitamin E supplementation period, the affinity of LDL for arterial proteoglycans decreased 19.3% in smokers and 25.2% in non-smokers. When the subjects received vitamin E plus vitamin C, the affinity of LDL for arterial proteoglycans decreased 25.6% and 30.1% in smokers and non-smokers respectively. In conclusion, simultaneous administration of vitamins E and C showed a synergistic effect to diminish the affinity of the LDL by arterial proteoglycans, that was greater than caused by the administration of vitamin E alone. These finding suggest a potential antiatherogenic effect of both antioxidant vitamins. PMID:15211983

  4. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Abrigo, Johanna; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PMID:27579157

  5. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PMID:27579157

  6. Chronic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate decreases age-related histological atrophic testicular changes and improves sexual behavior in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montiel, H L; Vásquez López, C M; González-Loyola, J G; Vega-Anaya, G C; Villagrán-Herrera, M E; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Saldaña, C; Ramos Gómez, M; García Horshman, P; García Solís, P; Solís-S, J C; Robles-Osorio, M L; Ávila Morales, J; Varela-Echavarría, A; Paredes Guerrero, R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a multifactorial universal process and constitutes the most important risk factor for chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it is a natural process, pathological aging arises when these changes occur quickly and the body is not able to adapt. This is often associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and a decrease in the endogenous antioxidant systems, constituting a physiopathological state commonly found in chronic-degenerative diseases. At the testicular level, aging is associated with tissue atrophy, decreased steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior disorders. This situation, in addition to the elevated generation of ROS in the testicular steroidogenesis, provides a critical cellular environment causing oxidative damage at diverse cellular levels. To assess the effects of a reduction in the levels of ROS, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was chronically administered in senile Wistar rats. TPP causes an activation of intermediate metabolism routes, enhancing cellular respiration and decreasing the generation of ROS. Our results show an overall decrease of atrophic histological changes linked to aging, with higher levels of serum testosterone, sexual activity, and an increase in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in TPP-treated animals. These results suggest that TPP chronic administration decreases the progression of age-related atrophic changes by improving the intermediate metabolism, and by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24371036

  7. Intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in brain of young rats.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Miriam S W; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Zapelini, Hugo G; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy resulting from dysfunction of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-ketoacids. This disorder is clinically characterized by ketoacidosis, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. However, the effect of accumulating α-ketoacids in MSUD on neurotrophic factors has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the brains of young male rats. Ours results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of KIC decreased BDNF levels in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, without induce a detectable change in pro-BDNF levels. Moreover, NGF levels in the hippocampus were reduced after intracerebroventricular administration of KIC. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of KIC on demyelination and memory processes may be mediated by reduced trophic support of BDNF and NGF. Moreover, lower levels of BDNF and NGF are consistent with the hypothesis that a deficit in this neurotrophic factor may contribute to the structural and functional alterations of brain underlying the psychopathology of MSUD, supporting the hypothesis of a neurodegenerative process in MSUD. PMID:26586008

  8. No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2014-08-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. PMID:24953998

  9. [Multiparameter analysis of the ergometric test. Significance of the failure of systolic blood pressure to decrease during recovery phase as an index of coronary disease].

    PubMed

    Doria, G; Scaccianoce, G; Artale, S; Francaviglia, B; Platania, F; Circo, A

    1990-10-01

    Ergometric tests were performed in 27 patients who had previously undergone coronarography following instrumental findings and/or symptoms which seemed highly indicative of ischemic cardiopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic importance of the failure of systolic blood pressure to decrease during the third minute of the recovery phase of the test as an index of coronary disease. In particular, as reported by other studies, the ratio between systolic blood pressure at the third minute of recovery and maximum systolic blood pressure during the test was also assessed values above 0.7 were considered pathological. Sixteen out the 27 patients examined showed lesions which were hemodynamically significant, whereas 11 patients were free of lesions and 9 had previous myocardial necrosis. The level of the above ratio in subjects without significant coronary lesions was 0.66 +/- 0.05, whereas it was 0.85 +/- 0.04 (p less than 0.01) in patients with coronary disease. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative prognostic values were respectively 91.6%, 62%, 64.7% and 90.9%. In patients with lesions to the three main arteries both the sensitivity and the specificity were 100%. In the same patients, the ST criteria were 85.7%, 50%, 81.8% and 74.3%. PMID:2074932

  10. Climate condition of the significant precipitation decrease over the middle-eastern region of Inner Mongolia, China in recent 10 years (2001-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tao; Jiang, Xuegong; Hu, Yinghua

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the 50-year mean climatological value (1961-2010), the precipitation of middle-eastern Inner Mongolia exhibited a significant decrease during the past 10 years (2001-2010). To identify the climatic causes, a comprehensive investigation was conducted by inspecting climatic factors from this 50-year period, which appear to work together in connecting closely to the precipitation. Significant positive correlations with precipitation were found in sea level pressure (SLP) difference between the area of (30° N-20° S; 50-160° E) and the northeastern Pacific Ocean, between the Northern Atlantic and the northeastern Pacific Oceans, and sea surface temperature difference between the northeastern and northwestern Pacific in the previous year, while negative connections were found in the 500-hPa temperature difference between the Antarctic and the belt region around 60° S. During the period of 2001-2010, East Asia was prevailingly controlled by a huge high, which was regarded as one of unfavorable factors for producing rain or snow. Other factors were the enlarged 500 hPa temperature differences between the Antarctic and the zones around 60° S and the Equator, the negative SLP difference between the East Asia, northern Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. Finally, the unique wind flows and associated moisture transports also played a key role in the precipitation reduction for the first decade of the twenty-first century.

  11. Nucleus accumbens shell excitability is decreased by methamphetamine self-administration and increased by 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Steven M.; Clark, Mary J.; Traynor, John R.; Hu, Xiu-Ti; Napier, T. Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine profoundly increases brain monoamines and is a widely abused psychostimulant. The effects of methamphetamine self-administration on neuron function are not known for the nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in addictive behaviors, including drug-seeking. One therapeutic target showing preclinical promise at attenuating psychostimulant-seeking is 5-HT2C receptors; however, the effects of 5-HT2C receptor ligands on neuronal physiology are unclear. 5-HT2C receptor agonism decreases psychostimulant-mediated behaviors, and the putative 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist, SB 206553, attenuates methamphetamine-seeking in rats. To ascertain the effects of methamphetamine, and 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism, on neuronal function in the nucleus accumbens, we evaluated methamphetamine, SB 206553, and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist and Ro 60-0175, on neuronal excitability within the accumbens shell subregion using whole-cell current-clamp recordings in forebrain slices ex vivo. We reveal that methamphetamine self-administration decreased generation of evoked action potentials. In contrast, SB 206553 and Ro 60-0175 increased evoked spiking, effects that were prevented by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB 242084. We also assessed signaling mechanisms engaged by 5-HT2C receptors, and determined that accumbal 5-HT2C receptors stimulated Gq, but not Gi/o. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine-induced decreases in excitability of neurons within the nucleus accumbens shell were abrogated by both 5-HT2C inverse agonism and agonism, and this effect likely involved activation of Gq–mediated signaling pathways. PMID:25229719

  12. Pioglitazone significantly prevented decreased rate of neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells which was reduced by Pex11β knock-down.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, M; Ghaedi, K; Shoaraye Nejati, A; Nematollahi, M; Shiralyian, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2016-01-15

    Peroxisomes constitute special cellular organelles which display a variety of metabolic functions including fatty acid oxidation and free radical elimination. Abundance of these flexible organelles varies in response to different environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated that PEX11β, a peroxisomal membrane elongation factor, is involved in the regulation of size, shape and number of peroxisomes. To investigate the role of PEX11β in neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), we generated a stably transduced mESCs line that derives the expression of a short hairpin RNA against Pex11β gene following doxycycline (Dox) induction. Knock-down of Pex11β, during neural differentiation, significantly reduced the expression of neural progenitor cells and mature neuronal markers (p<0.05) indicating that decreased expression of PEX11β suppresses neuronal maturation. Additionally, mRNA levels of other peroxisome-related genes such as PMP70, Pex11α, Catalase, Pex19 and Pex5 were also significantly reduced by Pex11β knock-down (p<0.05). Interestingly, pretreatment of transduced mESCs with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist (pioglitazone (Pio)) ameliorated the inhibitory effects of Pex11β knock down on neural differentiation. Pio also significantly (p<0.05) increased the expression of neural progenitor and mature neuronal markers besides the expression of peroxisomal genes in transduced mESC. Results elucidated the importance of Pex11β expression in neural differentiation of mESCs, thereby highlighting the essential role of peroxisomes in mammalian neural differentiation. The observation that Pio recovered peroxisomal function and improved neural differentiation of Pex11β knocked-down mESCs, proposes a potential new pharmacological implication of Pio for neurogenesis in patients with peroxisomal defects. PMID:26562432

  13. Microflow liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry--an approach to significantly increase sensitivity, decrease matrix effects, and reduce organic solvent usage in pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Uclés Moreno, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Reichert, Barbara; Lozano Fernández, Ana; Hernando Guil, María Dolores; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

    2015-01-20

    This manuscript reports a new pesticide residue analysis method employing a microflow-liquid chromatography system coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (microflow-LC-ESI-QqQ-MS). This uses an electrospray ionization source with a narrow tip emitter to generate smaller droplets. A validation study was undertaken to establish performance characteristics for this new approach on 90 pesticide residues, including their degradation products, in three commodities (tomato, pepper, and orange). The significant benefits of the microflow-LC-MS/MS-based method were a high sensitivity gain and a notable reduction in matrix effects delivered by a dilution of the sample (up to 30-fold); this is as a result of competition reduction between the matrix compounds and analytes for charge during ionization. Overall robustness and a capability to withstand long analytical runs using the microflow-LC-MS system have been demonstrated (for 100 consecutive injections without any maintenance being required). Quality controls based on the results of internal standards added at the samples' extraction, dilution, and injection steps were also satisfactory. The LOQ values were mostly 5 μg kg(-1) for almost all pesticide residues. Other benefits were a substantial reduction in solvent usage and waste disposal as well as a decrease in the run-time. The method was successfully applied in the routine analysis of 50 fruit and vegetable samples labeled as organically produced. PMID:25495653

  14. Systemic L-Kynurenine sulfate administration disrupts object recognition memory, alters open field behavior and decreases c-Fos immunopositivity in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Varga, Dániel; Herédi, Judit; Kánvási, Zita; Ruszka, Marian; Kis, Zsolt; Ono, Etsuro; Iwamori, Naoki; Iwamori, Tokuko; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József; Gellért, Levente

    2015-01-01

    L-Kynurenine (L-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway (KP). The systemic administration of L-KYN sulfate (L-KYNs) leads to a rapid elevation of the neuroactive KP metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). An elevated level of KYNA may have multiple effects on the synaptic transmission, resulting in complex behavioral changes, such as hypoactivity or spatial working memory deficits. These results emerged from studies that focused on rats, after low-dose L-KYNs treatment. However, in several studies neuroprotection was achieved through the administration of high-dose L-KYNs. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the systemic administration of a high dose of L-KYNs (300 mg/bwkg; i.p.) would produce alterations in behavioral tasks (open field or object recognition) in C57Bl/6j mice. To evaluate the changes in neuronal activity after L-KYNs treatment, in a separate group of animals we estimated c-Fos expression levels in the corresponding subcortical brain areas. The L-KYNs treatment did not affect the general ambulatory activity of C57Bl/6j mice, whereas it altered their moving patterns, elevating the movement velocity and resting time. Additionally, it seemed to increase anxiety-like behavior, as peripheral zone preference of the open field arena emerged and the rearing activity was attenuated. The treatment also completely abolished the formation of object recognition memory and resulted in decreases in the number of c-Fos-immunopositive-cells in the dorsal part of the striatum and in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. We conclude that a single exposure to L-KYNs leads to behavioral disturbances, which might be related to the altered basal c-Fos protein expression in C57Bl/6j mice. PMID:26136670

  15. Intramuscular Administration of Drotaverine Hydrochloride Decreases Both Incidence of Urinary Retention and Time to Micturition in Orthopedic Patients under Spinal Anesthesia: A Single Blinded Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Bałkota, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) increases the duration of hospitalization and frequency and risk of urinary bladder catheterization. The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of intramuscularly administered drotaverine hydrochloride in the prevention of POUR in orthopedic patients. Methods. Two hundred and thirty patients 17–40 years of age undergoing lower limb orthopedic procedures under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. The study group received 40 mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intramuscularly; the second group was the control. The main outcome measure was (1) the time to micturition and (2) the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization and time to catheterization. Results. Two hundred and one patients of 230 enrolled participants completed the study. Compared to the control group, the male patients in study group exhibited a shorter time to spontaneous micturition (441 versus 563 minutes, 95% CI of the difference of means between 39 and 205 minutes) and a lower incidence of urinary bladder catheterization (4/75 versus 10/54) (RR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.1–0.87; P = 0.0175). Conclusions. Intramuscular administration of drotaverine hydrochloride decreased the time to spontaneous micturition and decreased the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization in male patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. This trial is registered with NCT02026427. PMID:26185766

  16. Prolonged sirolimus administration after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is associated with decreased risk for moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Alsina, Melissa; Ayala, Ernesto; Betts, Brian C; Fernandez, Hugo F; Field, Teresa; Jim, Heather; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Locke, Frederick L; Mishra, Asmita; Nishihori, Taiga; Ochoa-Bayona, Leonel; Perez, Lia; Riches, Marcie; Anasetti, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    Effective pharmacological strategies employed in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation should prevent serious chronic graft-versus-host disease and facilitate donor-recipient immune tolerance. Based on demonstrated pro-tolerogenic activity, sirolimus (rapamycin) is an agent with promise to achieve these goals. In a long-term follow-up analysis of a randomized phase II trial comparing sirolimus/tacrolimus versus methotrexate/tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prevention in matched sibling or unrelated donor transplant, we examined the impact of prolonged sirolimus administration (≥ 1 year post-transplant). Median follow-up time for surviving patients at time of this analysis was 41 months (range 27-60) for sirolimus/tacrolimus and 49 months (range 29-63) for methotrexate/tacrolimus. Sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had significantly lower National Institutes of Health Consensus moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (34% vs. 65%; P=0.004) and late acute graft-versus-host disease (20% vs. 43%; P=0.04). While sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had lower prednisone exposure and earlier discontinuation of tacrolimus (median time to tacrolimus discontinuation 368 days vs. 821 days; P=0.002), there was no significant difference in complete immune suppression discontinuation (60-month estimate: 43% vs. 31%; P=0.78). Prolonged sirolimus administration represents a viable approach to mitigate risk for moderate-severe chronic and late acute graft-versus-host disease. Further study of determinants of successful immune suppression discontinuation is needed. PMID:25840599

  17. Prolonged sirolimus administration after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is associated with decreased risk for moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Alsina, Melissa; Ayala, Ernesto; Betts, Brian C.; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Field, Teresa; Jim, Heather; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Locke, Frederick L.; Mishra, Asmita; Nishihori, Taiga; Ochoa-Bayona, Leonel; Perez, Lia; Riches, Marcie; Anasetti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Effective pharmacological strategies employed in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation should prevent serious chronic graft-versus-host disease and facilitate donor-recipient immune tolerance. Based on demonstrated pro-tolerogenic activity, sirolimus (rapamycin) is an agent with promise to achieve these goals. In a long-term follow-up analysis of a randomized phase II trial comparing sirolimus/tacrolimus versus methotrexate/tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prevention in matched sibling or unrelated donor transplant, we examined the impact of prolonged sirolimus administration (≥ 1 year post-transplant). Median follow-up time for surviving patients at time of this analysis was 41 months (range 27–60) for sirolimus/tacrolimus and 49 months (range 29–63) for methotrexate/tacrolimus. Sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had significantly lower National Institutes of Health Consensus moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (34% vs. 65%; P=0.004) and late acute graft-versus-host disease (20% vs. 43%; P=0.04). While sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had lower prednisone exposure and earlier discontinuation of tacrolimus (median time to tacrolimus discontinuation 368 days vs. 821 days; P=0.002), there was no significant difference in complete immune suppression discontinuation (60-month estimate: 43% vs. 31%; P=0.78). Prolonged sirolimus administration represents a viable approach to mitigate risk for moderate-severe chronic and late acute graft-versus-host disease. Further study of determinants of successful immune suppression discontinuation is needed. PMID:25840599

  18. Reversal of age-related increase in brain protein oxidation, decrease in enzyme activity, and loss in temporal and spatial memory by chronic administration of the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, J.M.; Starke-Reed, P.E.; Oliver, C.N.; Landum, R.W.; Cheng, M.S.; Wu, J.F.; Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Oxygen free radicals and oxidative events have been implicated as playing a role in bringing about the changes in cellular function that occur during aging. Brain readily undergoes oxidative damage, so it is important to determine if aging-induced changes in brain may be associated with oxidative events. Previously we demonstrated that brain damage caused by an ischemia/reperfusion insult involved oxidative events. In addition, pretreatment with the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) diminished the increase in oxidized protein and the loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity that accompanied ischemia/reperfusion injury in brain. We report here that aged gerbils had a significantly higher level of oxidized protein as assessed by carbonyl residues and decreased GS and neutral protease activities as compared to young adult gerbils. We also found that chronic treatment with the spin-trapping compound PBN caused a decrease in the level of oxidized protein and an increase in both GS and neutral protease activity in aged Mongolian gerbil brain. In contrast to aged gerbils, PBN treatment of young adult gerbils had no significant effect on brain oxidized protein content or GS activity. Male gerbils, young adults (3 months of age) and retired breeders (15-18 months of age), were treated with PBN for 14 days with twice daily dosages of 32 mg/kg. If PBN administration was ceased after 2 weeks, the significantly decreased level of oxidized protein and increased GS and neutral protease activities in old gerbils changed in a monotonic fashion back to the levels observed in aged gerbils prior to PBN administration. We also report that old gerbils make more errors than young animals and that older gerbils treated with PBN made fewer errors in a radial arm maze test for temporal and spatial memory than the untreated aged controls.

  19. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  20. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  1. Galectin-8 expression decreases in cancer compared with normal and dysplastic human colon tissue and acts significantly on human colon cancer cell migration as a suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, N; Bronckart, Y; Camby, I; Legendre, H; Lahm, H; Kaltner, H; Hadari, Y; Van Ham, P; Yeaton, P; Pector, J-C; Zick, Y; Salmon, I; Danguy, A; Kiss, R; Gabius, H-J

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Galectins are β-galactoside binding proteins. This ability may have a bearing on cell adhesion and migration/proliferation in human colon cancer cells. In addition to galectins-1 and -3 studied to date, other members of this family not investigated in detail may contribute to modulation of tumour cell features. This evident gap has prompted us to extend galectin analysis beyond the two prototypes. The present study deals with the quantitative determination of immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 in normal, benign, and malignant human colon tissue samples and in four human colon cancer models (HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1) maintained both in vitro as permanent cell lines and in vivo as nude mice xenografts. The role of galectin-8 (and its neutralising antibody) in cell migration was investigated in HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1 cell lines. Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 and its overall ability to bind to sugar ligands (revealed glycohistochemically by means of biotinylated histochemically inert carrier bovine serum albumin with α- and β-d-galactose, α-d-glucose, and lactose derivatives as ligands) were quantitatively determined using computer assisted microscopy. The presence of galectin-8 mRNA in the four human colon cancer cell lines was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In vitro, cellular localisation of exogenously added galectin-8 in the culture media of these colon cancer cells was visualised by fluorescence microscopy. In vitro galectin-8 mediated effects (and the influence of its neutralising antibody) on migration levels of living HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1 cells were quantitatively determined by computer assisted phase contrast microscopy. Results: A marked decrease in immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 occurred with malignancy development in human colon tissue. Malignant colon tissue exhibited a significantly lower galectin-8 level than normal or

  2. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Public Lands and Land-Use Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme Court made three major land-use decisions during 1983, two dealing with federalism and the third with federal jiduciary obligation. The US Forest Service Small Tracts Act added flexibility to the disposal of small tracts. Court cases relating to national forests dealt with title disputes, oil and gas leasing, Indian religious practices, dual permitting under the Wilderness Act, and licensing hydro projects on Indian lands. The committee reports uneven administrative progress by the Forests Service in managing the forests. Legislation relating to Department of Interior Management Lands focuses on Outer Continental Shelf and federal coal leases and wilderness areas. The Supreme Court made several decisions involving the classification of sand and gravel as minerals, trespass, nonimpairment standards, herbicides, and other issues. 132 references.

  3. Administration of hydrogen-saturated saline decreases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and improves high-density lipoprotein function in high-fat diet-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zong, Chuanlong; Song, Guohua; Yao, Shutong; Li, Luqin; Yu, Yang; Feng, Lei; Guo, Shoudong; Luo, Tian; Qin, Shucun

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen (dihydrogen; H(2)) has an antiatherosclerotic effect in apolipoprotein (apo) E knockout mice. The goals of this study were to further characterize the effects of H(2) on the content, composition, and biological activities of plasma lipoproteins in golden hamsters. Plasma analysis by enzymatic method and fast protein liquid chromatography showed that 4-week intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-saturated saline remarkably decreased plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of apolipoproteins from ultracentrifugally isolated plasma lipoproteins revealed a marked decrease of apo B100 and apo B48 in LDL. A profound decrease of apo E level in very low-density lipoprotein was also observed. Besides, we determined the functional quality of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles isolated from H(2)-treated and control mice. H(2) significantly improved HDL functionality assessed in 2 independent ways, namely, (1) stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells by measuring HDL-induced [(3)H]cholesterol efflux and (2) protection against LDL oxidation as a measure of Cu(2+)-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation. Administration of hydrogen-saturated saline decreases plasma LDL cholesterol and apo B levels and improves hyperlipidemia-injured HDL functions, including the capacity of enhancing cellular cholesterol efflux and playing antioxidative properties, in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. PMID:22153840

  4. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  5. Administrators' Perceptions of Factors Related to Student Retention at Colleges with a Significant Black Student Enrollment Affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wesley B.

    2013-01-01

    This study described and explored the factors perceived as relevant to student retention by administrators at colleges and universities with significant Black student populations. The sample was 31 institutions affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) that had Black student enrollment of 20% or more. The study sought to…

  6. Acute, but not repeated, administration of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 decreases conditioned footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Prus, Adam J.; Hillhouse, Todd M.; LaCrosse, Amber L.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin is an endogenous neuropeptide that has significant interactions with monoamine neurotransmitter systems. To date, neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonists, such as PD149163, have been primarily evaluated for the treatment for schizophrenia, drug addiction, and pain. Recently, PD149163 was found to attenuate fear-potentiated startle in rats, an experimental procedure used for screening anxiolytic drugs. The present study sought to extend these findings through testing PD149163 in a conditioned footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) model. Conditioning was conducted in Male Wistar rats using chambers equipped with shock grid floors and an ultrasonic vocalization detector. PD149163 and the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist buspirone produced a statistically significant reduction of 22 kHz USV counts. The typical antipsychotic haloperidol also reduced 22 kHz USV counts, but did so at cataleptic doses. Ten days of repeated administration of PD149163 abolished the inhibitory effects of PD149163 on 22 kHz USVs. These findings further support an anxiolytic profile for PD149163. However, tolerance to these effects may limit the utility of these drugs for the treatment of anxiety. PMID:24275076

  7. From 9/11 to Recession: Historically Significant Events in America and Their Impact on Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnema, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Federally sponsored research funding sources are not stagnant programs. Many things influence the nature of research, not all of them purely scientific. Historically significant events draw public attention to causes, and in the age of immediate information those events can have a powerful and lasting impact on research funding. September 11, 2001…

  8. Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%

    PubMed Central

    Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

  9. Delayed Administration of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dreixler, John C.; Poston, Jacqueline N.; Balyasnikova, Irina; Shaikh, Afzhal R.; Tupper, Kelsey Y.; Conway, Sineadh; Boddapati, Venkat; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Roth, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed treatment after ischemia is often unsatisfactory. We hypothesized that injection of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) conditioned medium after ischemia could rescue ischemic retina, and in this study we characterized the functional and histological outcomes and mechanisms of this neuroprotection. Methods. Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure for 55 minutes. Conditioned medium (CM) from rat BMSCs or unconditioned medium (uCM) was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed 7 days after ischemia using electroretinography, at which time we euthanized the animals and then prepared 4-μm-thick paraffin-embedded retinal sections. TUNEL and Western blot were used to identify apoptotic cells and apoptosis-related gene expression 24 hours after injections; that is, 48 hours after ischemia. Protein content in CM versus uCM was studied using tandem mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics methods were used to model protein interactions. Results. Intravitreal injection of CM 24 hours after ischemia significantly improved retinal function and attenuated cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer. CM attenuated postischemic apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression. By spectral counting, 19 proteins that met stringent identification criteria were increased in the CM compared to uCM; the majority were extracellular matrix proteins that mapped into an interactional network together with other proteins involved in cell growth and adhesion. Conclusions. By restoring retinal function, attenuating apoptosis, and preventing retinal cell loss after ischemia, CM is a robust means of delayed postischemic intervention. We identified some potential candidate proteins for this effect. PMID:24699381

  10. The incidence and significance of acute kidney injury following emergent contrast administration in patients with STEMI and stroke.

    PubMed

    Marchick, Michael Robert; Allen, Brandon Russell; Weeks, Emily Cassin; Shuster, Jonathan Jacob; Elie, Marie-Carmelle

    2016-09-01

    The authors have investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and short-term mortality following an activated STEMI and stroke alert at a tertiary referral and academic center. A single center, retrospective chart review of STEMI and stroke activation patients from January 2010 to March 2012. Data was collected and reviewed from an institutional database following IRB-approval. Inclusion criteria were STEMI patients taken for cardiac catheterization, excluding patients receiving hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Primary outcome measures were the incidence of AKI using the RIFLE criteria and short-term mortality. 745 patients were included (488 stroke, 257 STEMI). The median age was 65, and 39 % were female. Overall inpatient mortality was 7.0 %. 5.4 % (40/745) of patients experienced some degree of AKI (8.6 % of STEMI, 3.7 % of stroke patients). Overall, 30 % of patients with AKI died during their hospitalization. AKI was associated with a 7.1-fold (95 % CI 3.4-15.1) increase in mortality in the entire cohort. Among STEMI patients, AKI was associated with a 66.6-fold (95 % CI 12.9-343.4) increase in mortality. These findings follow similar trends published among critically ill patients with AKI. The risk of death with concomitant AKI in this hospital population is significant and deserves future study. Early recognition and awareness in the emergency department is paramount to the patient's survival. Future studies should focus on modalities to improve early recognition and preventative therapies. PMID:26910240

  11. Significant decrease of ADP release rate underlies the potent activity of dimethylenastron to inhibit mitotic kinesin Eg5 and cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Linlin; Sun, Xiaodong; Xie, Songbo; Yu, Haiyang; Zhong, Diansheng

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • DIMEN displays higher anti-proliferative activity than enastron. • DIMEN induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis more significantly than enastron. • DIMEN blocked the conformational change of ADP-binding pocket more effectively. • DIMEN hindered ADP release more potently than enastron. - Abstract: Eg5 is a mitotic kinesin that plays a crucial role in the formation of bipolar mitotic spindles, by hydrolyzing ATP to push apart anti-parallel microtubules. Dimethylenastron is potent specific small molecule inhibitor of Eg5. The mechanism by which dimethylenastron inhibits Eg5 function remains unclear. By comparing with enastron, here we report that dimethylenastron prevents the growth of pancreatic and lung cancer cells more effectively, by halting mitotic progression and triggering apoptosis. We analyze their interactions with ADP-bound Eg5 crystal structure, and find that dimethylenastron binds Eg5 motor domain with higher affinity. In addition, dimethylenastron allosterically blocks the conformational change of the “sandwich”-like ADP-binding pocket more effectively. We subsequently use biochemical approach to reveal that dimethylenastron slows ADP release more significantly than enastron. These data thus provide biological, structural and mechanistic insights into the potent inhibitory activity of dimethylenastron.

  12. Activation of brain serotonergic system by repeated intracerebral administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) decreases the expression and activity of liver cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Rysz, Marta; Bromek, Ewa; Daniel, Władysława A

    2016-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that brain serotonergic system may be involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of cytochrome P450 expression. Intracerebral injection of the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine affected serum hormone concentration and increased the expression and activity of the hormone-dependent isoforms CYP1A1/2, CYP2C11 and CYP3A1. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stimulation of brain serotonergic system on cytochrome P450 expression in the liver. The serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) was injected for 5 days to the lateral ventricles of rat brain. Afterwards, the brain concentrations of serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid 5-HIAA, serum hormone levels and liver cytochrome P450 expression and activity were measured. 5-HTP potently increased the concentration of serotonin and its metabolite 5-HIAA in all the brain structures studied including the hypothalamus. The brain concentrations of noradrenaline or dopamine and its metabolites were not changed in that structure. At the same time, a significant decrease in the serum concentration of the growth hormone and an increase in that of thyroxine were observed. In the liver, the activity of CYP1A, CYP2A, CYP2B, CYP2C11 and CYP3A was diminished, which positively correlated with a decrease in the respective CYP protein levels and a reduction in the mRNA levels of CYP1A2, CYP2A2, CYP2C11, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2. The obtained results provide evidence to prove that brain serotonergic system negatively regulates liver cytochrome P450 expression via endocrine system and suggest mechanisms by which this enzyme may be regulated by drugs with a serotonergic profile such as antidepressants. PMID:26581122

  13. N- and C-terminal truncations of a GH10 xylanase significantly increase its activity and thermostability but decrease its SDS resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fei; Huang, Jingxuan; Liu, Xingchen; Hu, Hang; Long, Liangkun; Chen, Kaixiang; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    XynII from Volvariella volvacea has high sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistance, with the potential for industrial applications under harsh conditions. It consists of a single glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) catalytic domain but contains an additional unique 10 and 4 amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. In this study, five XynII derivatives with N- and/or C-terminus deletions were constructed to determine the effects of these regions on enzyme activity, substrate specificity, thermostability, and SDS resistance. Our results revealed that N- and/or C-terminal truncations significantly increased enzyme activity and thermostability, but reduced SDS resistance. Specifically, the XynIIΔNC4 mutant had 2.53-fold more catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) towards beechwood xylan than wild-type and 3.0-fold more thermostability (t 1/2 [55°C]). XynIIΔNC4 displayed 3.33-, 4.38-, 1.37-, and 1.98-fold more activity against xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, and xylohexaose, respectively, than XynII did. However, its half-life (t 1/2) in 4 % SDS was only 1.72 h, while that of XynII was 4.65 h. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that deletion of N- and C-terminal segments caused minor changes in secondary structure. Our observations suggest that the extra N- and C-terminal segments in wild-type XynII evolved to strengthen the interaction between these regions of the protein, making the local structure more rigid and reducing structural flexibility. In this way, N- and C-terminal truncations increased the thermostability and activity of XynII on different xylans and linear xylooligosaccharides, but reduced its resistance to SDS. PMID:26621803

  14. Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response: an IRT-based analysis from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function, fatigue, and depression) were completed by 923 adults (age 18–89) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized crossover design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. Results Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported equivalence of factor structure across MOA. Analyses by item response theory found no differences in item location parameters and strongly supported the equivalence of scores across MOA. Conclusions We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis. PMID:23877585

  15. Bacteriophage administration significantly reduces Shigella colonization and shedding by Shigella-challenged mice without deleterious side effects and distortions in the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Volker; Ukhanova, Maria; Reinhard, Mary K; Li, Manrong; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We used a mouse model to establish safety and efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail, ShigActive™, in reducing fecal Shigella counts after oral challenge with a susceptible strain. Groups of inbred C57BL/6J mice challenged with Shigella sonnei strain S43-NalAcR were treated with a phage cocktail (ShigActive™) composed of 5 lytic Shigella bacteriophages and ampicillin. The treatments were administered (i) 1 h after, (ii) 3 h after, (iii) 1 h before and after, and (iv) 1 h before bacterial challenge. The treatment regimens elicited a 10- to 100-fold reduction in the CFU's of the challenge strain in fecal and cecum specimens compared to untreated control mice, (P < 0.05). ShigActiveTM treatment was at least as effective as treatment with ampicillin but had a significantly less impact on the gut microbiota. Long-term safety studies did not identify any side effects or distortions in overall gut microbiota associated with bacteriophage administration. Shigella phages may be therapeutically effective in a “classical phage therapy” approach, at least during the early stages after Shigella ingestion. Oral prophylactic “phagebiotic” administration of lytic bacteriophages may help to maintain a healthy gut microbiota by killing specifically targeted bacterial pathogens in the GI tract, without deleterious side effects and without altering the normal gut microbiota. PMID:26909243

  16. Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-fen; Jin, Jing-fen; Feng, Xiu-qin; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Ling-ling; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Zhou, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background Medication errors may occur during prescribing, transcribing, prescription auditing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring. Medication administration errors (MAEs) are those that actually reach patients and remain a threat to patient safety. The Joint Commission International (JCI) advocates medication error prevention, but experience in reducing MAEs during the period of before and after JCI accreditation has not been reported. Methods An intervention study, aimed at reducing MAEs in hospitalized patients, was performed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China, during the journey to JCI accreditation and in the post-JCI accreditation era (first half-year of 2011 to first half-year of 2014). Comprehensive interventions included organizational, information technology, educational, and process optimization-based measures. Data mining was performed on MAEs derived from a compulsory electronic reporting system. Results The number of MAEs continuously decreased from 143 (first half-year of 2012) to 64 (first half-year of 2014), with a decrease in occurrence rate by 60.9% (0.338% versus 0.132%, P<0.05). The number of MAEs related to high-alert medications decreased from 32 (the second half-year of 2011) to 16 (the first half-year of 2014), with a decrease in occurrence rate by 57.9% (0.0787% versus 0.0331%, P<0.05). Omission was the top type of MAE during the first half-year of 2011 to the first half-year of 2014, with a decrease by 50% (40 cases versus 20 cases). Intravenous administration error was the top type of error regarding administration route, but it continuously decreased from 64 (first half-year of 2012) to 27 (first half-year of 2014). More experienced registered nurses made fewer medication errors. The number of MAEs in surgical wards was twice that in medicinal wards. Compared with non-intensive care units, the intensive care units exhibited higher occurrence rates of MAEs

  17. Occurrence of yawning and decrease of prolactin levels via stimulation of dopamine D2-receptors after administration of SND 919 in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, S; Yamada, K; Nagashima, M; Domae, M; Shirakawa, K; Furukawa, T

    1989-07-01

    SND 919 [S)-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6-propylamino-benzothiazole) is expected to have a potent and selective dopamine D2-receptor agonistic activity. From this information, the present study was performed to investigate effects of SND 919 on yawning behavior and prolactin secretion in rats. Subcutaneous injections of SND 919 (25-500 micrograms/kg, s.c.) elicited yawning responses. Its dose-response curve was bell-shaped with maximal effects at a dose of 100 micrograms/kg. Yawning behavior was also evoked by the putative dopamine autoreceptor agonists, talipexole (6-allyl-2-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-thiazolo [4,5-d]azepine) (B-HT 920) (5-100 micrograms/kg, s.c.) and (+)-3-PPP ((+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine) (5-15 mg/kg, s.c.). The yawning induced by SND 919 (100 micrograms/kg, s.c.) as well as talipexole (25 micrograms/kg, s.c.) was inhibited by pretreatment with dopamine D2-receptor antagonists such as spiperone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and YM-09151-2 (cis-N-(1-benzyl-2-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)-5-chloro-2-methoxy-4-met hylamino- benzamide) (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), or the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). However, the yawning was not affected by the dopamine D1-receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (R(+)-8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-7-o l) (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Stereotypy such as licking and biting was not observed following the administration of SND 919, talipexole and (+)-3-PPP. Administration of SND 919, talipexole or (+)-3-PPP in respective yawn-inducing doses caused a reduction in both the basal prolactin levels and the alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine-induced hyperprolactinemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2571944

  18. A therapeutic combination of metyrapone and oxazepam increases brain levels of GABA-active neurosteroids and decreases cocaine self-administration in male rats.

    PubMed

    Schmoutz, Christopher D; Guerin, Glenn F; Runyon, Scott P; Dhungana, Suraj; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2015-09-15

    In rodents, the behavioral and neurochemical effects resulting from the pharmacological blockade of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are unclear. Metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, has been demonstrated to reduce cocaine-related behaviors, especially in a low-dose combination with oxazepam, a benzodiazepine. Although this combination therapy (MET/OX) also reduces drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in both rodents and cocaine-dependent humans, these effects are not correlated with plasma glucocorticoid levels. In this brief report, we present data demonstrating that this MET/OX combination enhances brain levels of the GABA-active steroid metabolites, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) and allopregnanolone. Male rats, trained to self-administer cocaine or that received yoked-saline infusions, were pretreated with MET/OX, at doses that reduced cocaine-motivated responding, or vehicle. Allopregnanolone and THDOC were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala in the brains from these rats. THDOC levels were enhanced following MET/OX pretreatment in both brain regions, regardless of cocaine self-administration experience. However, allopregnanolone was selectively enhanced in the rats that self-administered cocaine, but not in rats in the yoked-saline group. Thus, the MET/OX combination increased neurosteroid content in brain regions important for drug addiction. These neurosteroids have been shown to reduce cocaine-related behaviors and may contribute to the behavioral effects of MET/OX combination therapy. PMID:26003946

  19. Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Laura A; Bassis, Christine M; Walacavage, Kim; Hashway, Sara; Leroueil, Pascale R; Morishita, Masako; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobials in a number of applications, including topical wound dressings and coatings for consumer products and biomedical devices. Ingestion is a relevant route of exposure for AgNPs, whether occurring unintentionally via Ag dissolution from consumer products, or intentionally from dietary supplements. AgNP have also been proposed as substitutes for antibiotics in animal feeds. While oral antibiotics are known to have significant effects on gut bacteria, the antimicrobial effects of ingested AgNPs on the indigenous microbiome or on gut pathogens are unknown. In addition, AgNP size and coating have been postulated as significantly influential towards their biochemical properties and the influence of these properties on antimicrobial efficacy is unknown. We evaluated murine gut microbial communities using culture-independent sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments following 28 days of repeated oral dosing of well-characterized AgNPs of two different sizes (20 and 110 nm) and coatings (PVP and Citrate). Irrespective of size or coating, oral administration of AgNPs at 10 mg/kg body weight/day did not alter the membership, structure or diversity of the murine gut microbiome. Thus, in contrast to effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeat dosing of AgNP, at doses equivalent to 2000 times the oral reference dose and 100-400 times the effective in vitro anti-microbial concentration, does not affect the indigenous murine gut microbiome. PMID:26525505

  20. Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories

    PubMed Central

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Concina, Giulia; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injection into the higher order auditory cortex Te2, on the remote emotional memories of either threat or incentive experiences in rats. We found that intra-Te2 nicotine injection decreased the fear-evoked responses to a tone previously paired with footshock. This effect was cue- and dose-specific and was not due to any interference with auditory stimuli processing, innate anxiety and fear processes, or with motor responses. Nicotine acts acutely in the presence of threat stimuli but it did not determine the permanent degradation of the fear-memory trace, since memories tested one week after nicotine injection were unaffected. Remarkably, nicotine did not affect the memory of a similar tone that was paired to incentive stimuli. We conclude from our results that nicotine, when acting acutely in the auditory cortex, relieves the fear charge embedded by learned stimuli. PMID:26319210

  1. Oral administration of Aloe vera and honey reduces Walker tumour growth by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, Rebeka; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2011-04-01

    Cancer is diagnosed in approximately 11 million people and is responsible for almost 8 million deaths worldwide every year. Research in cancer control has shown the importance of co-adjuvant therapies. Aloe vera may reduce tumour mass and metastasis rates, while honey may inhibit tumour growth. This study verified the influence of Aloe vera and honey on tumour growth and in the apoptosis process by assessing tumour size, the cell proliferation rate (Ki67-LI) and Bax/Bcl-2 expression at 7, 14 and 20 days after Walker 256 carcinoma implant in Wistar rats distributed into two groups: the WA group - tumour-bearing rats that received a gavage with a 670 µL/kg dose of Aloe vera and honey solution daily, and the CW group - tumour-bearing rats which received only a 0.9% NaCl solution. The effect of Aloe vera and honey against tumour growth was observed through a decrease in relative weight (%) and Ki67-LI in tumours from the WA group compared with those from the CW group. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in tumours from the WA group at all tested timepoints. These data suggest Aloe vera and honey can modulate tumour growth by reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis susceptibility. PMID:20839215

  2. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  3. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 shows significant decreases in NET density in the human brain in Alzheimer's disease: a post-mortem autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Brockschnieder, Damian; Nag, Sangram; Pavlova, Elena; Kása, Péter; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Légrádi, Adám; Gulya, Károly; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Halldin, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Earlier post-mortem histological and autoradiographic studies have indicated a reduction of cell numbers in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a corresponding decrease in norepinephrine transporter (NET) in brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as compared to age-matched healthy controls. In order to test the hypothesis that the regional decrease of NET is a disease specific biomarker in AD and as such, it can be used in PET imaging studies for diagnostic considerations, regional differences in the density of NET in various anatomical structures were measured in whole hemisphere human brain slices obtained from AD patients and age-matched control subjects in a series of autoradiographic experiments using the novel selective PET radioligand for NET (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2). (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) appears to be a useful imaging biomarker for quantifying the density of NET in various brain structures, including the LC and the thalamus wherein the highest densities are found in physiological conditions. In AD significant decreases of NET densities can be demonstrated with the radioligand in both structures as compared to age-matched controls. The decreases in AD correlate with the progress of the disease as indicated by Braak grades. As the size of the LC is below the spatial resolution of the PET scanners, but the size of the thalamus can be detected with appropriate spatial accuracy in advanced scanners, the present findings confirm our earlier observations with PET that the in vivo imaging of NET with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) in the thalamus is viable. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of such an imaging approach for the early detection of changes in thalamic NET densities as a disease-specific biomarker and the possible use of (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) as a molecular imaging biomarker in AD. PMID:20211213

  4. Significant School Law Cases Pending Before the U.S. Supreme Court. What Do They Portend for the Governance and Administration of the Public Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    Civil rights is the central theme of the cases affecting public school governance that the U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear this term. This paper discusses those cases in detail. It also notes that the cases the court refuses to hear have as significant an impact on school district governance as those cases it actually hears. School law cases…

  5. Ornithine In Vivo Administration Disrupts Redox Homeostasis and Decreases Synaptic Na(+), K (+)-ATPase Activity in Cerebellum of Adolescent Rats: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria (HHH) Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Ângela; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Hickmann, Fernanda Hermes; de Oliveira Monteiro, Wagner; Sitta, Angela; de Moura Coelho, Daniela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Wajner, Moacir

    2015-08-01

    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a defect in the transport of ornithine (Orn) into mitochondrial matrix leading to accumulation of Orn, homocitrulline (Hcit), and ammonia. Affected patients present a variable clinical symptomatology, frequently associated with cerebellar symptoms whose pathogenesis is poorly known. Although in vitro studies reported induction of oxidative stress by the metabolites accumulating in HHH syndrome, so far no report evaluated the in vivo effects of these compounds on redox homeostasis in cerebellum. Therefore, the present work was carried out to investigate the in vivo effects of intracerebellar administration of Orn and Hcit on antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione concentrations and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), lipid oxidation (malondialdehyde concentrations), as well as on the activity of synaptic Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, an enzyme highly vulnerable to free radical attack, in the cerebellum of adolescent rats. Orn significantly increased malondialdehyde levels and the activities of all antioxidant enzymes, and reduced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. In contrast, glutathione concentrations were not changed by Orn treatment. Furthermore, intracerebellar administration of Hcit was not able to alter any of these parameters. The present data show for the first time that Orn provokes in vivo lipid oxidative damage, activation of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, and reduction of the activity of a crucial enzyme involved in neurotransmission. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may contribute at least partly to explain the neuropathology of cerebellum abnormalities and the ataxia observed in patients with HHH syndrome. PMID:25772141

  6. Does clozapine decrease smoking?

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose; Diaz, Francisco J; Josiassen, Richard C; Cooper, Thomas B; Simpson, George M

    2005-06-01

    McEvoy et al.'s study in 1999, which used cotinine levels but had limited power, suggested that clozapine treatment may be associated with a mild smoking decrease (particularly when plasma clozapine levels are > 150 ng/ml). Some naturalistic studies also suggest that clozapine treatment may be associated with a mild smoking decrease. The present study included 38 schizophrenic daily smokers from a double-blind clozapine trial. Five analyses were tested for significant decreases in plasma cotinine levels from a haloperidol baseline to: (1) the end of clozapine trials regarding clozapine doses (100, 300 or 600 mg/day), (2) the end of the clozapine trial where the highest plasma clozapine level was achieved, (3) the end of the clozapine trial where a clozapine level in the 150-450 ng/ml range was achieved, (4) the end of the first clozapine trial regardless of clozapine dose, and (5) the end of the last clozapine trial in the study. The first and straightforward analysis by dose showed no clozapine effects on smoking. The second and the third analyses (an attempt to mimic the design by McEvoy et al. [McEvoy, J.P., Freudenreich, O., Wilson, W.H., 1999. Smoking and therapeutic response to clozapine in patients with schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiat. 46, 125-129.]) also indicated that there was not a significant effect of clozapine on smoking. The fourth and five analyses were also negative. None of the five analyses in our clozapine trial demonstrated that clozapine had major effects on smoking. This study cannot rule out that in some subjects, clozapine treatment may be associated with a small decrease in smoking. New prospective longitudinal studies using repeated cotinine and clozapine levels are needed to explore whether clozapine may reduce smoking in some patients. PMID:15951089

  7. Carotenoids, Birdsong and Oxidative Status: Administration of Dietary Lutein Is Associated with an Increase in Song Rate and Circulating Antioxidants (Albumin and Cholesterol) and a Decrease in Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Stefania; Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites), we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits. PMID:25549336

  8. A prospective, randomized study of cryotherapy during administration of high-dose melphalan to decrease the severity and duration of oral mucositis in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lilleby, K; Garcia, P; Gooley, T; McDonnnell, P; Taber, R; Holmberg, L; Maloney, D G; Press, O W; Bensinger, W

    2006-06-01

    Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to receive melphalan 200 mg/m(2) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation were randomly assigned to receive oral cryotherapy or room temperature normal saline rinses 30 min before and for 6 h after high-dose therapy. Patients were evaluated for the development of mucositis using the National Cancer Institute grading system as well as evaluation of secondary measures such as days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), narcotic use, hospitalization, weight loss and resumption of oral caloric intake for 28 days after transplant. Patients self-scored their pain, swallowing, drinking, eating, sleeping and taste alterations for 28 days. The primary end point of this trial was the incidence of grades 3-4 mucositis. Compared to the normal saline group, patients using cryotherapy experienced less grade 3-4 mucositis, 14 vs 74%, P=0.0005. Patients receiving cryotherapy also had statistically lower uses of narcotics and TPN, although there were no differences in length of hospitalization or weight loss. Patient-reported pain was significantly lower and activities were significantly better in the cryotherapy group. PMID:16633359

  9. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  10. Vitamin B12 Conjugation of Peptide-YY3–36 Decreases Food Intake Compared to Native Peptide-YY3–36 Upon Subcutaneous Administration in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kelly E.; Elfers, Clinton T.; Burke, Rachael M.; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Holz, George G.; Blevins, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to peptide-based therapies include rapid clearance, ready degradation by hydrolysis/proteolysis, and poor intestinal uptake and/or a need for blood brain barrier transport. This work evaluates the efficacy of conjugation of vitamin B12 (B12) on sc administered peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)3–36 function. In the current experiments, a B12-PYY3–36 conjugate was tested against native PYY3–36, and an inactive conjugate B12-PYYC36 (null control) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrated similar agonism for the neuropeptide Y2 receptor by the B12-PYY3–36 conjugate (EC50 26.5 nM) compared with native PYY3–36 (EC50 16.0 nM), with the null control having an EC50 of 1.8 μM. In vivo experiments were performed in young adult male Sprague Dawley rats (9 wk). Daily treatments were delivered sc in five 1-hour pulses, each pulse delivering 5–10 nmol/kg, by implanted microinfusion pumps. Increases in hindbrain Fos expression were comparable 90 minutes after B12-PYY3–36 or PYY3–36 injection relative to saline or B12-PYYC36. Food intake was reduced during a 5-day treatment for both B12-PYY3–36- (24%, P = .001) and PYY3–36-(13%, P = .008) treated groups relative to baseline. In addition, reduction of food intake after the three dark cycle treatment pulses was more consistent with B12-PYY3–36 treatment (−26%, −29%, −27%) compared with the PYY3–36 treatment (−3%, −21%, −16%), and B12-PYY3–36 generated a significantly longer inhibition of food intake vs PYY3–36 treatment after the first two pulses (P = .041 and P = .036, respectively). These findings demonstrate a stronger, more consistent, and longer inhibition of food intake after the pulses of B12-PYY3–36 conjugate compared with the native PYY3–36. PMID:25658456

  11. Vitamin B12 conjugation of peptide-YY(3-36) decreases food intake compared to native peptide-YY(3-36) upon subcutaneous administration in male rats.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kelly E; Elfers, Clinton T; Burke, Rachael M; Chepurny, Oleg G; Holz, George G; Blevins, James E; Roth, Christian L; Doyle, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    Challenges to peptide-based therapies include rapid clearance, ready degradation by hydrolysis/proteolysis, and poor intestinal uptake and/or a need for blood brain barrier transport. This work evaluates the efficacy of conjugation of vitamin B12 (B12) on sc administered peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)(3-36) function. In the current experiments, a B12-PYY(3-36) conjugate was tested against native PYY(3-36), and an inactive conjugate B12-PYYC36 (null control) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrated similar agonism for the neuropeptide Y2 receptor by the B12-PYY(3-36) conjugate (EC50 26.5 nM) compared with native PYY(3-36) (EC50 16.0 nM), with the null control having an EC50 of 1.8 μM. In vivo experiments were performed in young adult male Sprague Dawley rats (9 wk). Daily treatments were delivered sc in five 1-hour pulses, each pulse delivering 5-10 nmol/kg, by implanted microinfusion pumps. Increases in hindbrain Fos expression were comparable 90 minutes after B12-PYY(3-36) or PYY3-36 injection relative to saline or B12-PYYC36. Food intake was reduced during a 5-day treatment for both B12-PYY(3-36)- (24%, P = .001) and PYY(3-36)-(13%, P = .008) treated groups relative to baseline. In addition, reduction of food intake after the three dark cycle treatment pulses was more consistent with B12-PYY(3-36) treatment (-26%, -29%, -27%) compared with the PYY(3-36) treatment (-3%, -21%, -16%), and B12-PYY(3-36) generated a significantly longer inhibition of food intake vs. PYY(3-36) treatment after the first two pulses (P = .041 and P = .036, respectively). These findings demonstrate a stronger, more consistent, and longer inhibition of food intake after the pulses of B12-PYY(3-36) conjugate compared with the native PYY(3-36). PMID:25658456

  12. Testosterone Administration Decreases Generosity in the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Paul J.; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-01-01

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially. PMID:20016825

  13. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-01-01

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially. PMID:20016825

  14. Continuous nutrient administration decreases insulin sensitivity in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that chronic TPN compared to intermittent feeding of a formula results in hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in neonatal pigs. We hypothesized that the route of feeding (IV vs enteral) rather than the nature of the diet (elemental vs polymeric) or the feeding regimen (cont...

  15. The Significance of National Association for the Education of Young Children Accreditation in Elevating Quality of Early Childhood Education: Administrators', Teachers', and Parents' Beliefs about Accreditation and Its Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardanyan, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    The following is a doctoral dissertation that studied administrators', teachers', and parents' perceptions and attitudes related to an early childhood center/preschool accreditation experience. A qualitative case study of one preschool center focused on the influence that the decision to pursue accreditation and implement the National Association…

  16. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  17. Effect of endotoxin administration in pregnant camels

    PubMed Central

    AL-Dughaym, A.M.; Homeida, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin at a dose of 0.05 μg/kg bodyweight to pregnant camels resulted in abortion. The injection of endotoxin caused significant increases in the plasma concentration of 13,14-dihydro-15-prostaglandin F2α, the metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG F2α) and cortisol and a significant decrease in the concentration of progesterone. It is suggested that endotoxin caused abortion in camels was a consequence of endotoxin induced PG F2α secretion resulting in luteal regression and decreased progesterone concentration. PMID:23961064

  18. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  19. Peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles decreases premature release of physically loaded combretastatin A4 in whole blood and increases its mean residence time and subsequent potency against primary murine breast tumors after IV administration

    PubMed Central

    Wakaskar, Rajesh R.; Bathena, Sai Praneeth R.; Tallapaka, Shailendra; Ambardekar, Vishakha V.; Gautum, Nagsen; Thakare, Rhishikesh N.; Simet, Samantha M.; Curran, Stephen M.; Singh, Rakesh K.; Dong, Yuxiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Determine the feasibility and potential benefit of peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles on the premature release of physically loaded hydrophobic drug in whole blood and subsequent potency against solid tumors. Methods Individual Pluronic F127 polymer micelles (F127 PM) peripherally cross-linked with ethylenediamine at 76% of total PEO blocks (X-F127 PM) were physically loaded with combretastatin A4 (CA4) by the solid dispersion method and compared to CA4 physically loaded in uncross-linked F127 PM, CA4 in DMSO in vitro, or water-soluble CA4 phosphate (CA4P) in vivo. Results X-F127 PM had similar CA4 loading and aqueous solubility as F127 PM up to 10 mg CA4 / mL at 22.9 wt% and did not aggregate in PBS or 90% (v/v) human serum at 37°C for at least 24 h. In contrast, X-F127 PM decreased the unbound fraction of CA4 in whole blood (fu) and increased the mean plasma residence time and subsequent potency of CA4 against the vascular function and growth of primary murine 4T1 breast tumors over CA4 in F127 PM and water-soluble CA4P after IV administration. Conclusions Given that decreasing the fu is an indication of decreased drug release, peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles may be a simple approach to decrease premature release of physically loaded hydrophobic drug in the blood and increase subsequent potency in solid tumors. PMID:25223962

  20. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  1. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  2. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.; Keough, E.M.; Ramberg-Laskaris, K.; McCullough, J.L.; O'Donnell, T.F. Jr.; Melaragno, A.; Valeri, C.R.; Weiblen, B.

    1984-07-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency.

  3. Calbindins decreased after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins

  4. The Impact of Bar Code Medication Administration Technology on Reported Medication Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holecek, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The use of bar-code medication administration technology is on the rise in acute care facilities in the United States. The technology is purported to decrease medication errors that occur at the point of administration. How significantly this technology affects actual rate and severity of error is unknown. This descriptive, longitudinal research…

  5. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  6. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  7. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  8. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  9. A Change of Administration: A Significant Organizational Life Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Deborah E.

    The case study presented in this paper illustrates how the succession process for principals is similar to that described by Gabarro in his study of corporate succession. Leader succession involves five major stages: (1) taking hold; (2) immersion; (3) reshaping; (4) consolidation; and (5) refinement. Success most frequently occurs in conjunction…

  10. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. PMID:21796701

  11. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness decreases through childhood.

    PubMed

    Riiser, Amund; Hovland, Vegard; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin Lødrup

    2012-02-01

    Limited knowledge exists about development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) through adolescence. We aimed to assess changes in and risk factors for BHR in adolescence. From a Norwegian birth cohort 517 subjects underwent clinical examinations, structured interviews and methacholine challenges at age 10 and 16. BHR was divided into four categories: no BHR (cumulative methacholine dose required to reduce FEV(1) by 20% (PD(20)) >16 μmol), borderline BHR (PD(20) ≤16 and >8 μmol), mild to moderate BHR (PD(20) ≤8 and >1 μmol), and severe BHR (PD(20) ≤ 1 μmol). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors and possible confounders. The number of children with PD(20) ≤ 8 decreased from 172 (33%) to 79 (15%) from age 10-16 (p < 0.001). Most children (n = 295, 57%) remained in the same BHR (category) from age 10-16 (50% with no BHR), whereas the majority 182 (82%) of the 222 children who changed BHR category, had decreased severity at age 16. PD(20) ≤ 8 at age 10 was the major risk factor for PD(20) ≤ 8 6 years later (odds ratio 6.3), without significant confounding effect (>25% change) of gender, active rhinitis, active asthma, height, FEV(1)/FVC, or allergic sensitization. BHR decreased overall in severity through adolescence, was stable for the majority of children and only a minority (8%) had increased BHR from age 10 to 16. Mild to moderate and severe BHR at age 10 were major risk factors for PD(20) ≤ 8 at 16 years and not modified by asthma or body size. PMID:22015380

  12. Octreotide effectively decreases mucosal damage in experimental colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Eliakim, R; Karmeli, F; Okon, E; Rachmilewitz, D

    1993-01-01

    The effect of octreotide, a synthetic analogue of somatostatin, on the modulation of the acetic acid model of experimental colitis was examined. Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of 2 ml of 5% acetic acid. The inflammatory response elicited by the acetic acid resulted in increased colonic synthesis of platelet activating factor, leukotriene B4 and decreased mucosal somatostatin levels. Subcutaneous administration of octreotide (10 micrograms/rat) 1 hour before or immediately after damage induction, as well as 1 and 23 hours after acetic acid application, resulted in a significant reduction in mucosal damage. The protective effect was accompanied by a significant reduction in platelet activating factor activity, leukotriene B4, and vasoactive intestinal peptide concentrations. There were no significant changes in mucosal leukotriene C4 and calcitonin gene related peptide levels. This study shows that acetic acid induced colitis is pharmacologically manipulated by octreotide. The mechanism of action of octreotide has not yet been fully determined. The potential use of octreotide in treating active inflammatory bowel disease remains to be evaluated. Images Figure 5 PMID:8381760

  13. Alterations in energy balance following exenatide administration.

    PubMed

    Bradley, David P; Kulstad, Roger; Racine, Natalie; Shenker, Yoram; Meredith, Melissa; Schoeller, Dale A

    2012-10-01

    Exenatide is a medication similar in structure and effect to native glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone with glucose-lowering properties. The aim of the study was to measure the change in total energy expenditure (TEE) and body composition during exenatide administration and by deduction the relative contributions of energy expenditure and energy intake to exenatide-induced weight loss. Forty-five obese (body mass index, 30-40 kg·m⁻²) subjects were identified. After exclusion criteria application, 28 subjects entered into the study and 18 subjects (12 female, 6 male) completed the study, which consisted of 6 visits over 14 weeks and injection of exenatide for an average of 84 ± 5 days. Respiratory gas analysis and doubly labeled water measurements were performed before initiation of exenatide and after approximately 3 months of exenatide administration. The average weight loss from the beginning of injection period to the end of the study in completed subjects was 2.0 ± 2.8 kg (p = 0.01). Fat mass declined by 1.3 ± 1.8 kg (p = 0.01) while the fat-free mass trended downward but was not significant (0.8 ± 2.2 kg, p = 0.14). There was no change in weight-adjusted TEE (p = 0.20), resting metabolic rate (p = 0.51), or physical activity energy expenditure (p = 0.38) and no change in the unadjusted thermic effect of a meal (p = 0.37). The significant weight loss because of exenatide administration was thus the result of decreasing energy intake. In obese nondiabetic subjects, exenatide administration did not increase TEE and by deduction the significant weight loss and loss of fat mass was due to decreased energy intake. PMID:22735035

  14. Relaxin Decreases the Severity of Established Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Robert G.; Heimann, Dean G.; Singh, Sudhir; Simpson, Ronda L.; Tuma, Dean J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by excess collagen deposition, decreased extracellular matrix degradation, and activation of the hepatic stellate cells. The hormone relaxin has shown promise in the treatment of fibrosis in a number of tissues, but the effect of relaxin on established hepatic fibrosis is unknown. Aims The aim of this study was to determine the effect of relaxin on an in vivo model after establishing hepatic fibrosis. Methods Male mice were made fibrotic by carbon tetrachloride treatment for 4 weeks, followed by treatment with two doses of relaxin (25 or 75 ug/kg/day) or vehicle for 4 weeks, with continued administration of carbon tetrachloride. Results Relaxin significantly decreased total hepatic collagen and smooth muscle actin content at both doses, and suppressed collagen I expression at the higher dose. Relaxin increased the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP13 and MMP3, decreased expression of MMP2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2), and increased the overall level of collagen degrading activity. Relaxin decreased TGFβ-induced Smad2 nuclear localization in mouse hepatic stellate cells. Conclusions The results suggest that relaxin reduced collagen deposition and HSC activation in established hepatic fibrosis despite the presence of continued hepatic insult. This reduced fibrosis was associated with increased expression of the fibrillar collagen-degrading enzyme MMP13, decreased expression of TIMP2, and enhanced collagen degrading activity, and impaired TGFβ signaling, consistent with relaxin's effects on activated fibroblastic cells. The results suggest that relaxin may be an effective treatment for the treatment of established hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23870027

  15. The Library Administrator's Automation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    One of the most significant decisions in a library administrator's career is the decision to automate one or more of a library's operations. This book describes the present state of local library automation; the planning, selection, and implementation process; and the library administrator's role in the process. The bulk of the text provides a…

  16. STEM Talent Increases, Jobs Decrease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, alternative-route program officials say they are seeing increasing enrollments from career-changers with strong backgrounds in the highly sought-after fields of math, science, and technology. But the extent to which school district administrators are primed to take advantage of larger--and in some cases stronger--talent pools in…

  17. Density increment and decreased survival of rat red blood cells induced by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Kunimoto, M.; Miura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were injected with CdCl/sub 2/ subcutaneously to examine in vivo effects of Cd on density and survival of red blood cells. During the 7 days after administration of 1.0 mg Cd/kg, the following sequence of events occurred: (1) a progressive increase in the amount of more dense red blood cells concomitant with a decrease in that of light red blood cells from the first to the third day; (2) an increase in the spleen weight at the third day; (3) a decrease in the hematocrit value and an increase in the amount of light red blood cells at the fifth day; and (4) a recovery of the hematocrit value at the seventh day. Five days after administration, the hematocrit value decreased in a dose-dependent mode and the decrease was significant at the 1% level at 1.0 and 1.5 mg Cd/kg. A highly significant splenomegaly was also observed at 0.5 to 1.5 mg Cd/kg. In order to label red blood cells in vivo, (/sup 3/H) diisopropylfluorophosphate ((/sup 3/H)DFP) was injected into rats. At Day 11, Cd at either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg was administered to (/sup 3/H)DFP-prelabeled animals. Cd administration accelerated /sup 3/H-labeled red cell clearance from the blood. Six days after Cd administration, the radioactivity of red blood cells was 76 and 68% of the control at 0.5 and 1.0 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In vitro treatment of rat red density and accelerated in vivo clearance of red blood cells from the recipient circulation. These results show that Cd at low dose can cause anemia by increasing red cell density and by accelerating red cell sequestration, presumably in the spleen.

  18. Administrative trends in U.S. dental schools.

    PubMed

    Fu, Martin M; Rodriguez, Angel; Chen, Rebecca Y; Fu, Earl; Liao, Shu-Yi; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the administrative trends in U.S. dental schools at the beginning and end of a thirteen-year period and to identify the predictive factors for those changes. Administrative trends were measured by the difference in the number of major administrative positions for 1997 and 2010 reported in American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and American Dental Association (ADA) publications. Secondary measures (program length, student enrollment, and tuition) were also gathered. The mean numbers of administrative positions per school significantly increased over the study period, while the mean number of clinical science departments per school significantly decreased. The change in the number of directors was positively correlated with the change in student enrollment, but inversely correlated with the change in number of vice/associate/assistant deans. The change in the number of clinical science departments was positively correlated with changes in student enrollment and out-of-state tuition, but inversely correlated with the change in in-state tuition. The number of all departments per U.S. dental school significantly decreased in this period. The schools that had consolidation of clinical science departments were less likely to have increases in student enrollment and out-of-state tuition, but more likely to have increases in in-state tuition. PMID:25362691

  19. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M. Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  20. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  1. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  2. The effects of amphetamine, butorphanol, and their combination on cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Pennock, Michael M; Pitts, Elizabeth G; Walker, Katherine L; Lang, Kimberly C

    2014-11-01

    There have been recent calls to examine the efficacy of drug-combination therapies in the treatment of substance use disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of a novel stimulant-opioid combination to reduce cocaine self-administration, and to compare these effects to those of each drug administered alone. To this end, male Long-Evans rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Once self-administration was acquired, rats were divided into four different groups and treated chronically for 20 days with (1) saline, (2) the psychomotor stimulant and monoamine releaser amphetamine, (3) the mu/kappa opioid agonist butorphanol, or (4) a combination of amphetamine and butorphanol. During chronic treatment, cocaine self-administration was examined on both fixed ratio (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. On the FR schedule, butorphanol significantly decreased cocaine self-administration, but this effect was not enhanced by amphetamine. On the PR schedule, amphetamine and butorphanol non-significantly decreased cocaine self-administration when administered alone but significantly decreased cocaine self-administration when administered in combination. These data suggest that under some conditions (e.g., when the response requirement of cocaine is high), a dual stimulant-opioid pharmacotherapy may be more effective than a single-drug monotherapy. PMID:25127681

  3. The Effects of Amphetamine, Butorphanol, and Their Combination on Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Pennock, Michael M.; Pitts, Elizabeth G.; Walker, Katherine L.; Lang, Kimberly C.

    2014-01-01

    There have been recent calls to examine the efficacy of drug-combination therapies in the treatment of substance use disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of a novel stimulant-opioid combination to reduce cocaine self-administration, and to compare these effects to those of each drug administered alone. To this end, male Long-Evans rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Once self-administration was acquired, rats were divided into four different groups and treated chronically for 20 days with (1) saline, (2) the psychomotor stimulant and monoamine releaser amphetamine, (3) the mu/kappa opioid agonist butorphanol, or (4) a combination of amphetamine and butorphanol. During chronic treatment, cocaine self-administration was examined on both fixed ratio (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. On the FR schedule, butorphanol significantly decreased cocaine self-administration, but this effect was not enhanced by amphetamine. On the PR schedule, amphetamine and butorphanol non-significantly decreased cocaine self-administration when administered alone but significantly decreased cocaine self-administration when administered in combination. These data suggest that under some conditions (e.g., when the response requirement of cocaine is high), a dual stimulant-opioid pharmacotherapy may be more effective than a single-drug monotherapy. PMID:25127681

  4. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what…

  5. Pentoxifylline Decreases Serum Level of Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Abadi, Ghazaleh Allah; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels. PMID:24375159

  6. Rosa damascena decreased mortality in adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahtab; Zarban, Asghar; Pham, Steven; Wang, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The effects of a rose-flower extract, Rosa damascena, on the mortality rate of Drosophila melanogaster was evaluated in this study. R. damascena is a potent antioxidant that has many therapeutic uses in addition to its perfuming effects. Supplementing Drosophila with this rose extract resulted in a statistically significant decrease in mortality rate in male and female flies. Moreover, the observed anti-aging effects were not associated with common confounds of anti-aging properties, such as a decrease in fecundity or metabolic rate. PMID:18361732

  7. The effects of repeated parenteral administration of chelating agents on the distribution and excretion of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Paternain, J.L.; Corbella, J.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of repeated ip administration of gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) on the distribution and excretion of uranium were assessed in male Swiss mice. Only Tiron significantly increased the amount of uranium excreted into urine and feces. A significant decrease in the concentration of uranium in liver, spleen and bone was observed after administration of Tiron, whereas injection of gallic acid or DTPA resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of the metal in the liver. The results show that Tiron was consistently the most effective chelator of those tested in the treatment of uranium poisoning after repeated daily administration of the metal.

  8. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M L; Nokia, M S; Govindaraju, K P; Shors, T J

    2012-11-01

    Drinking alcohol in moderation is often considered a health-conscious behavior, associated with improved cardiovascular and brain health. However, "moderate" amounts of alcohol include drinking 3-4 alcohol beverages in a day, which is closer to binge drinking and may do more harm than good. Here we examined how daily drinking of moderate-high alcohol alters the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were provided free access to a liquid replacement diet that was supplemented with either 4% ethanol or Maltodextrin for a period of 2 weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus was assessed after the final day of drinking. A subset of rats was also exposed to a motor skill or associative learning task to examine the functional effects of alcohol consumption. The drinking regime resulted in an average blood alcohol concentration of approximately 0.08%, which is comparable to the human legal driving limit in many countries. This level of intoxication did not impair motor skill learning or function in either sex, nor did the alcohol consumption disrupt associative learning 2 days after drinking. Therefore, moderate alcohol consumption did not disrupt basic sensory, motor or learning processes. However, the number of cells produced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was reduced by nearly 40%. Thus, even moderate consumption of alcohol for a relatively short period of time can have profound effects on structural plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:22906480

  9. Reduction of thioredoxin significantly decreases its partial specific volume and adiabatic compressibility.

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, S. M.; Richards, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    The partial specific volume and adiabatic compressibility were determined at several temperatures for oxidized and reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Oxidized thioredoxin had a partial specific volume of 0.785-0.809 mL/g at the observed upper limit for all proteins whereas the partial specific volume of reduced thioredoxin was 0.745-0.755 mL/g, a value in the range found for a majority of proteins. The adiabatic compressibility of oxidized thioredoxin was also much larger (9.8-18 x 10(-12) cm2 dyne-1) than that of the reduced protein (3.8-7.3 x 10(-12)). Apart from the region immediately around the small disulfide loop, the structures of the oxidized (X-ray, crystal) and reduced protein (nuclear magnetic resonance, solution) are reported to be very similar. It would appear that alterations in the solvent layer in contact with the protein surface must play a major role in producing these large changes in the apparent specific volumes and compressibilities in this system. Some activities of thioredoxin require the reduced structure but are not electron transfer reactions. The large changes in physical parameters reported here suggest the possibility of a reversible metabolic control function for the SS bond. PMID:1304879

  10. OX40 agonist therapy enhances CD8 infiltration and decreases immune suppression in the tumor.

    PubMed

    Gough, Michael J; Ruby, Carl E; Redmond, William L; Dhungel, Birat; Brown, Alexis; Weinberg, Andrew D

    2008-07-01

    Acquisition of full T-cell effector function and memory differentiation requires appropriate costimulatory signals, including ligation of the costimulatory molecule OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134). Tumors often grow despite the presence of tumor-specific T cells and establish an environment with weak costimulation and immune suppression. Administration of OX40 agonists has been shown to significantly increase the survival of tumor-bearing mice and was dependent on the presence of both CD4 and CD8 T cells during tumor-specific priming. To understand how OX40 agonists work in mice with established tumors, we developed a model to study changes in immune cell populations within the tumor environment. We show here that systemic administration of OX40 agonist antibodies increased the proportion of CD8 T cells at the tumor site in three different tumor models. The function of the CD8 T cells at the tumor site was also increased by administration of OX40 agonist antibody, and we observed an increase in the proportion of antigen-specific CD8 T cells within the tumor. Despite decreases in the proportion of T regulatory cells at the tumor site, T regulatory cell function in the spleen was unaffected by OX40 agonist antibody therapy. Interestingly, administration of OX40 agonist antibody caused significant changes in the tumor stroma, including decreased macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and decreased expression of transforming growth factor-beta. Thus, therapies targeting OX40 dramatically changed the tumor environment by enhancing the infiltration and function of CD8 T cells combined with diminished suppressive influences within the tumor. PMID:18593921

  11. A possible mechanism for the decrease in serum thyroxine level by phenobarbital in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Haraguchi, Koichi; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo; Degawa, Masakuni

    2010-12-15

    Effects of phenobarbital (PB) on the levels of serum thyroid hormones such as total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine were examined in male mice, hamsters, rats, and guinea pigs. One day after the final administration of PB (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once daily for 4 days), significant decreases in the levels of the serum total T{sub 4} and free T{sub 4} occurred in mice, hamsters, and rats, while a significant decrease in the level of serum triiodothyronine was observed in hamsters and rats among the animals examined. In addition, a significant decrease in the level of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was observed in only hamsters among the rodents examined. Significant increases in the level and activity of hepatic T{sub 4}-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A) after the PB administration occurred in mice, hamsters, and rats, while the increase in the amount of biliary [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}-glucuronide after an intravenous injection of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} to the PB-pretreated animals occurred only in rats. In mice, rats, and hamsters, but not guinea pigs, PB pretreatment promoted the clearance of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} from the serum, led to a significant increase in the steady-state distribution volumes of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}, and raised the concentration ratio (Kp value) of the liver to serum and the liver distribution of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}. The present findings indicate that the PB-mediated decreases in the serum T{sub 4} level in mice, hamsters, and rats, but not guinea pigs, occur mainly through an increase in the accumulation level of T{sub 4} in the liver.

  12. Changes in endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability after systemic lipopolysaccharide administration in the subfornical organ.

    PubMed

    Morita-Takemura, Shoko; Nakahara, Kazuki; Tatsumi, Kouko; Okuda, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tatsuhide; Isonishi, Ayami; Wanaka, Akio

    2016-09-15

    The subfornical organ (SFO) has highly permeable fenestrated vasculature and is a key site for immune-to-brain communications. Recently, we showed the occurrence of continuous angiogenesis in the SFO. In the present study, we found that systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduced the vascular permeability and endothelial cell proliferation. In LPS-administered mice, the SFO vasculature showed a significant decrease in the immunoreactivity of plasmalemma vesicle associated protein-1, a marker of endothelial fenestral diaphragms. These data suggest that vasculature undergoes structural change to decrease vascular permeability in response to systemic LPS administration. PMID:27609286

  13. Enterostomy can decrease the mortality of patients with Fournier gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Dong; Zhu, Wei-Fang; Qiao, Jian-Jun; Lin, Jian-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the significance of enterostomy in the emergency management of Fournier gangrene. METHODS: The clinical data of 51 patients (49 men and 2 women) with Fournier gangrene who were treated at our hospital over the past 12 years were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according the surgical technique performed: enterostomy combined with debridement (the enterostomy group, n = 28) or debridement alone (the control group, n = 23). Patients in the enterostomy group received thorough debridement during surgery and adequate local drainage after surgery, as well as administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The clinical data and outcomes in both groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The surgical procedures were successful in both patient groups. In the enterostomy group, 10 (35.8%) patients required skin grafting with a total of six debridement procedures. While in the control group, six (26.1%) patients required four debridement procedures. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Following surgery, the time to normal body temperature (6 d vs 8 d, P < 0.05) and average length of hospital stay (14.3 ± 7.8 d vs 20.1 ± 8.9 d, P < 0.05) were shorter in the enterostomy group. The case fatality rate was lower in the enterostomy group than that in the control group (3.6% vs 21.7%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Enterostomy can decrease the case fatality rate of patients with Fournier gangrene. PMID:24976731

  14. Combination Administrative Positions in North Dakota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Robert E.

    Decreasing enrollments and financial problems have led to considerable restructuring in North Dakota schools. One form of restructuring was the creation of dual-role administrative positions combining two or all of the roles of superintendent, elementary principal, and secondary principal. In 1987, 47 of 51 administrators holding such positions…

  15. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  16. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  17. Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Decreases Allogeneic Transfusion Requirements in Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Andrew J; Sanders, Thomas L; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Bernese (Ganz) periacetabular osteotomy is associated with significant blood loss and the need for perioperative transfusion. Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss and minimizes transfusion rates in total joint arthroplasty. However, no reports have described its use in patients undergoing Bernese periacetabular osteotomy. This study reports the use of intravenous tranexamic acid in these patients. The study included 137 patients (150 hips) who underwent isolated periacetabular osteotomy at a single institution between 2003 and 2014. Of these, 68 patients (75 hips) received intravenous tranexamic acid 1 g at the time of incision and 1 g at the time of closure. A group of 69 patients (75 hips) served as control subjects who underwent periacetabular osteotomy without administration of intravenous tranexamic acid. Thromboembolic disease was defined as deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurring within 6 weeks of surgery. Outcomes measured included transfusion requirements, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin values, operative times, and thromboembolic disease rates. Aspirin was used as the thromboembolic prophylactic regimen in 95% of patients. The rate of allogeneic transfusion was 0 in the tranexamic acid group compared with 21% in the control group (P=.0001). No significant difference was found in the autologous cell salvage requirement (.96 vs 1.01; P=.43) or the thromboembolic disease rate between the tranexamic acid group and the control group (2.67% vs 1.33%; P=.31). The use of intravenous tranexamic acid led to a decreased transfusion requirement with no increased risk of thromboembolic disease in this contemporary cohort of patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy. PMID:26726988

  18. Protective effects of coenzyme q(10) on decreased oxidative stress resistance induced by simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Kettawan, Aikkarach; Takahashi, Takayuki; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Kishi, Takeo; Okamoto, Tadashi

    2007-05-01

    The effects of simvastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), on oxidative stress resistance and the protective effects of coenzyme Q (CoQ) were investigated. When simvastatin was administered orally to mice, the levels of oxidized and reduced CoQ(9) and CoQ(10) in serum, liver, and heart, decreased significantly when compared to those of control. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by Fe(2+)-ascorbate in liver and heart mitochondria also increased significantly with simvastatin. Furthermore, cultured cardiac myocytes treated with simvastatin exhibited less resistance to oxidative stress, decreased time to the cessation of spontaneous beating in response to H(2)O(2) addition, and decreased responsiveness to electrical field stimulation. These results suggested that oral administration of simvastatin suppresses the biosynthesis of CoQ, which shares the same biosynthesis pathway as cholesterol up to farnesyl pyrophosphate, thus compromising the physiological function of reduced CoQ, which possesses antioxidant activity. However, these undesirable effects induced by simvastatin were alleviated by coadministering CoQ(10) with simvastatin to mice. Simvastatin also reduced the activity of NADPH-CoQ reductase, a biological enzyme that converts oxidized CoQ to the corresponding reduced CoQ, while CoQ(10) administration improved it. These findings may also support the efficacy of coadministering CoQ(10) with statins. PMID:18398496

  19. Organization/Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  20. Decrease in major amputations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Frans; Moysidis, Theodoros; Kanya, Susanne; Babadagi-Hardt, Zeynep; Luther, Bernd; Kröger, Knut

    2015-06-01

    A decrease in rate of amputation has been reported from many countries. This study aims to study the trends in amputation rates in Germany. On the basis of DRG-system, detailed lists of all amputations coded as minor amputations (OPS 5-864) and major amputations (OPS 5-865) performed between 2005 and 2010 were provided by the Federal Statistical Office. There was a significant decrease in age-adjusted major amputation rates per 100 000 population in Germany from 27·0 in 2005 to 22·9 in 2010 (15·2%, P ≪ 0·001) in males and from 19·7 in 2005 to 14·4 in 2010 (26·9%, P ≪ 0·001) in females. Overall, minor amputation rates did not show such a decrease but increased in males (from 47·4 in 2005 to 57·8 in 2010, 21·9%, P ≪ 0·001) and remained almost unchanged in females (23·1 in 2005 and 23·9 in 2010, not significant). Reduction in major amputation rates were even more pronounced in people above 80 years, especially in males from 216 to 150 (30·5%) and in females from 168 to 117 (30·4%). The present data demonstrate an increasing overall burden of foot lesions as indicated by an increase in incidence of minor amputations but an ongoing success in the fight against amputation, resulting in a significant decrease in major amputation rates in Germany, in the 6-year period from 2005 to 2010. PMID:23738682

  1. [Decreasing incidence of stent thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Lemesle, G; Delhaye, C

    2011-12-01

    Stent thrombosis (ST) remains a major pitfall of stent implantation in contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) leading to high rates of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Many predictors of ST have been reported worldwide but the strongest have to be highlighted regarding the catastrophic prognosis of such an event. Because platelet aggregation has a pivotal role in ST pathogenesis, the new antiplatelet regimens combining aspirin and P2Y12 receptor inhibitors have led to a remarkable decrease in the ST incidence, especially in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this article, our purpose is to review the evolution of ST incidence since first stent use in PCI. We will also overview the main predictors of ST focusing on ACS and clopidogrel low response. PMID:22054519

  2. Effect of acute thioacetamide administration on rat brain phospholipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, J.; Aylagas, H.; Miro-Obradors, M.J.; Arce, C.; Palacios-Alaiz, E.; Cascales, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Brain phospholipid composition and the ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate incorporation into brain phospholipids of control and rats treated for 3 days with thioacetamide were studied. Brain phospholipid content, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid did not show any significant change by the effect of thioacetamide. In contrast, thioacetamide induced a significant decrease in the levels of phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol. After 75 minutes of intraperitoneal label injection, specific radioactivity of all the above phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine significantly increased. After 13 hours of isotope administration the specific radioactivity of almost all studied phospholipid classes was elevated, except for phosphatidic acid, the specific radioactivity of which did not change and for diphosphatidylglycerol which showed a decrease in specific radioactivity. These results suggest that under thioacetamide treatment brain phospholipids undergo metabolic transformations that may contribute to the hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide.

  3. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption. PMID:21186925

  4. Pharmacologic blockade of FAK autophosphorylation decreases human glioblastoma tumor growth and synergizes with temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Huang, Grace; Ho, Baotran; Yemma, Michael; Morrison, Carl D; Lee, Jisook; Eliceiri, Brian P; Cance, William G

    2013-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are characterized by aggressive tumor growth with a mean survival of 15 to 18 months and frequently developed resistance to temozolomide. Therefore, strategies that sensitize glioma cells to temozolomide have a high translational impact. We have studied focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a tyrosine kinase and emerging therapeutic target that is known to be highly expressed and activated in glioma. In this report, we tested the FAK autophosphorylation inhibitor, Y15, in DBTRG and U87 glioblastoma cells. Y15 significantly decreased viability and clonogenicity in a dose-dependent manner, increased detachment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, caused apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion in both cell lines. In addition, Y15 treatment decreased autophosphorylation of FAK in a dose-dependent manner and changed cell morphology by causing cell rounding in DBTRG and U87 cells. Administration of Y15 significantly decreased subcutaneous DBTRG tumor growth with decreased Y397-FAK autophosphorylation, activated caspase-3 and PARP. Y15 was administered in an orthotopic glioma model, leading to an increase in mouse survival. The combination of Y15 with temozolomide was more effective than either agent alone in decreasing viability and activating caspase-8 in DBTRG and U87 cells in vitro. In addition, the combination of Y15 and temozolomide synergistically blocked U87 brain tumor growth in vivo. Thus, pharmacologic blockade of FAK autophosphorylation with the oral administration of a small-molecule inhibitor Y15 has a potential to be an effective therapy approach for glioblastoma either alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents such as temozolomide. PMID:23243059

  5. Are urban noise pollution levels decreasing?

    PubMed

    Arana, M

    2010-04-01

    The majority of acoustic impact studies developed over the last 50 years have used a similar acoustic parameter (L(eq), L(dn)) but the noise mapping methodology has been very uneven. The selection of the measurement points, the measurement periods, or the evaluation indices have not followed a unique criterion. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the sound pollution levels between different cities from those studies, at least in a rigorous sense. Even more, different studies carried out in the same city by different researchers during different years and using different methodologies are not conclusive whether the acoustic pollution increases or decreases. The present paper shows results, with statistical significance, about the evolution of the acoustic pollution obtained for two Spanish cities, Pamplona and Madrid. In both cases, it can be concluded that noise pollution decreases over time (P<0.01). PMID:20369990

  6. Lack of clinically significant drug interactions between nevirapine and buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Moody, David E; Morse, Gene D; Ma, Qing; Rainey, Petrie M

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether drug interactions of clinical importance occur between buprenorphine, an opioid partial agonist medication used in treatment of opioid dependence, and the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) nevirapine. Opioid-dependent, buprenorphine/naloxone-maintained, HIV-negative volunteers (n = 7) participated in 24-hour sessions to determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine alone and of buprenorphine and nevirapine following administration of 200 mg nevirapine daily for 15 days. Opiate withdrawal symptoms, cognitive effects, and adverse events were determined prior to and following nevirapine administration. Modest decreases were observed for AUC for buprenorphine and its metabolites. There was a trend for more rapid clearance of both buprenorphine (p = .08) and buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (p = .08). While no single effect reached statistical significance, the joint probability that the consistent declines in all measures of exposure were due to chance was extremely low, indicating that nevirapine significantly reduces overall exposure to buprenorphine and buprenorphine metabolites. Clinically significant consequences of the interaction were not observed. Buprenorphine did not alter nevirapine pharmacokinetics. Dose adjustments of either buprenorphine or nevirapine are not likely to be necessary when these drugs are coadministered for the treatment of opiate dependence and HIV disease. PMID:20132119

  7. Brain glycogen decreases during prolonged exercise

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Brain glycogen could be a critical energy source for brain activity when the glucose supply from the blood is inadequate (hypoglycaemia). Although untested, it is hypothesized that during prolonged exhaustive exercise that induces hypoglycaemia and muscular glycogen depletion, the resultant hypoglycaemia may cause a decrease in brain glycogen. Here, we tested this hypothesis and also investigated the possible involvement of brain monoamines with the reduced levels of brain glycogen. For this purpose, we exercised male Wistar rats on a treadmill for different durations (30–120 min) at moderate intensity (20 m min−1) and measured their brain glycogen levels using high-power microwave irradiation (10 kW). At the end of 30 and 60 min of running, the brain glycogen levels remained unchanged from resting levels, but liver and muscle glycogen decreased. After 120 min of running, the glycogen levels decreased significantly by ∼37–60% in five discrete brain loci (the cerebellum 60%, cortex 48%, hippocampus 43%, brainstem 37% and hypothalamus 34%) compared to those of the sedentary control. The brain glycogen levels in all five regions after running were positively correlated with the respective blood and brain glucose levels. Further, in the cortex, the levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), potential involved in degradation of the brain glycogen, increased during prolonged exercise and negatively correlated with the glycogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that brain glycogen could decrease with prolonged exhaustive exercise. Increased monoamines together with hypoglycaemia should be associated with the development of decreased brain glycogen, suggesting a new clue towards the understanding of central fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:21521757

  8. Role of neutrophils in hepatotoxicity induced by oral acetaminophen administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, G S; Nadig, D E; Kokoska, E R; Solomon, H; Tiniakos, D G; Miller, T A

    1998-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common analgesic and antipyretic compound which, when administered in high doses, has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, secondary to hepatic toxicity. To date, the mechanism(s) whereby APAP induces liver injury remains to be delineated. This study investigated the potential role of neutrophils as contributors to liver injury in rats administered sublethal doses of APAP. Oral APAP administration (650 mg/kg) was associated with increases in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels indicating biochemical evidence of significant liver damage. Furthermore, histological analyses verified significant hepatocellular necrosis as well as enhanced myeloperoxidase staining in these liver specimens. However, if animals were pretreated with antineutrophil sera prior to APAP administration, neutrophil counts remained depressed, ALT levels were significantly decreased, and the degree of liver injury was attenuated on a histological level. Taken together these data suggest that neutrophils mediate, at least in part, the hepatotoxic effects of oral acetaminophen administration in rats. PMID:9878321

  9. Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors. PMID:23958351

  10. Rapid weight loss decreases serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Karila, T A M; Sarkkinen, P; Marttinen, M; Seppälä, T; Mero, A; Tallroth, K

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effects of a rapid weight reduction program under authentic pre-competition conditions, eighteen elite wrestlers were studied with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after two to three weeks' weight reduction regimens. In order to establish the degree of dehydration and hormonal status, blood samples were collected to obtain blood chemistry, electrolytes and endocrinological parameters after both DXA measurements. The mean weight loss was 8.2 +/- 2.3 % and it was constituted by the mean reductions of fat mass of 16 +/- 6.9 % (p < or = 0.001) and lean body mass of 7.9 +/- 2.5 %. The rapid weight reduction caused significant dehydration which was noticed as increased blood hemoglobin (7.8 +/- 5.9 %, p < or = 0.001), hematocrit (11.3 +/- 6.8 %, p < or = 0.001), and serum creatinine (35 +/- 23 %, p < or = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in serum testosterone (63 +/- 33 %, p < or = 0.001) and luteinizing hormone (54 +/- 47 %, p < or = 0.001) concentrations. A reduced body weight correlated with decreased serum testosterone concentration (r = 0.53, p < or = 0.024). Serum sex hormone binding globulin concentration increased significantly (40 +/- 21 %, p < or = 0.001). The results suggest that even short-term weight reduction may have marked effects on body composition, blood chemistry and hormonal parameters. It may constitute a possible health risk at least in a growing adolescent athlete. PMID:18516767

  11. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  12. N-acetylcysteine decreases binge eating in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Hurley, M M; Resch, J M; Maunze, B; Frenkel, M M; Baker, D A; Choi, S

    2016-07-01

    Binge-eating behavior involves rapid consumption of highly palatable foods leading to increased weight gain. Feeding in binge disorders resembles other compulsive behaviors, many of which are responsive to N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is a cysteine prodrug often used to promote non-vesicular glutamate release by a cystine-glutamate antiporter. To examine the potential for NAC to alter a form of compulsive eating, we examined the impact of NAC on binge eating in a rodent model. Specifically, we monitored consumption of standard chow and a high-fat, high carbohydrate western diet (WD) in a rodent limited-access binge paradigm. Before each session, rats received either a systemic or intraventricular injection of NAC. Both systemic and central administration of NAC resulted in significant reductions of binge eating the WD without decreasing standard chow consumption. The reduction in WD was not attributable to general malaise as NAC did not produce condition taste aversion. These results are consistent with the clinical evidence of NAC to reduce or reverse compulsive behaviors, such as, drug addiction, skin picking and hair pulling. PMID:26975440

  13. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  14. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  15. Decreased thyroidal response to thyrotropin in diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, N.; Brown, T.R.; Shivers, B.; Lucas, S.; Mack, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of diabetes mellitus on the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone ws investigated in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Thyroid glands were labeled in vivo with 131I for 2 h. In control animals, TSH stimulated the synthesis of PB127I and 131I-labeled iodothyronines and simultaneously decreased the proportion of 131I-. These effects of TSH were not observed in diabetic animals but were demonstrable in diabetic animals treated with insulin. For studies of hormone secretion, labeled thyroid glands were cultured in vitro in medium containing 1 mM mononitrotyrosine. The rate of the hydrolysis of labeled thyroglobulin was measured as the proportion of 131I-labeled iodotyrosines and 131I-labeled iodothyronines recovered at the end of culture and was used as an index of thyroid secretion. TSH in vivo stimulated the rate of thyroglobulin hydrolysis for 6 h, with a peak occurring after 2 h. The diabetic mice had a diminished response to TSH, which improved on treatment with insulin. The addition of TSH and insulin to the culture medium significantly increased the rate of thyroglobulin hydrolysis in glands of diabetic mice over that resulting from the addition of dibutyryl cAMP alone. The generation of thyroidal cAMP in response to TSH was higher in diabetic mice than in controls. The rise in plasma T4 and T3 2 h after the administration of TSH was less in diabetic mice than in control mice or diabetic mice treated with insulin. Our studies, therefore, indicate that the thyroidal response to TSH is decreased in diabetes mellitus. The defect appears to be at a step beyond the generation of cAMP.

  16. Animal Models of Social Contact and Drug Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Social learning theories of drug abuse propose that individuals imitate drug use behaviors modeled by social peers, and that these behaviors are selectively reinforced and/or punished depending on group norms. Historically, animal models of social influence have focused on distal factors (i.e., those factors outside the drug-taking context) in drug self-administration studies. Recently, several investigators have developed novel models, or significantly modified existing models, to examine the role of proximal factors (i.e., those factors that are immediately present at the time of drug taking) on measures of drug self-administration. Studies using these newer models have revealed several important conclusions regarding the effects of social learning on drug abuse: 1) the presence of a social partner influences drug self-administration, 2) the behavior of a social partner determines whether social contact will increase or decrease drug intake, and 3) social partners can model and imitate specific patterns of drug self-administration. These findings are congruent with those obtained in the human laboratory, providing support for the cross-species generality and validity of these preclinical models. This mini-review describes in detail some of the preclinical animal models used to study social contact and drug self-administration to guide future research on social learning and drug abuse. PMID:26159089

  17. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging and ACL Administrator Edwin Walker at the HCBS Conference (08/29/ ... Remarks by Assistant Secretary on Aging and ACL Administrator Kathy Greenlee at the n4a Answers on Aging ...

  18. The New Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen dramatic changes in administrative computing, including more systems, more applications, a new group of computer users, and new opportunities for computer use in campus administration. (Author/MSE)

  19. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  20. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as “incurable” diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  1. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  2. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  3. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  4. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  5. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  6. Exogenous NAD(+) decreases oxidative stress and protects H2O2-treated RPE cells against necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Ke-Ke; Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-Li; Wang, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Pei-Quan; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death by inducing ATP depletion and DNA repair, is believed to be a prominent pathology in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, we showed that and 0.1 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) administration significantly blocked RPE cell death induced by 300 μM H2O2. Further investigation showed that H2O2 resulted in increased intracellular ROS level, activation of PARP-1 and subsequently necrotic death of RPE cells. Exogenous NAD(+) administration significantly decreased intracellular and intranuclear ROS levels in H2O2-treated RPE cells. In addition, NAD(+) administration to H2O2-treated RPE cells inhibited the activation of PARP-1 and protected the RPE cells against necrotic death. Moreover, exogenous NAD(+) administration up-regulated autophagy in the H2O2-treated RPE cells. Inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 blocked the decrease of intracellular and intranuclear ROS level. Besides, inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 abolished the protection of exogenous NAD(+) against H2O2-induced cell necrotic death. Taken together, our findings indicate that that exogenous NAD(+) administration suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protects RPE cells against PARP-1 mediated necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy. The results suggest that exogenous NAD(+) administration might be potential value for the treatment of AMD. PMID:27240523

  7. Exogenous NAD+ decreases oxidative stress and protects H2O2-treated RPE cells against necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Ke-ke; Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-li; Wang, Yi-xiao; Zhao, Pei-quan; Wang, Zhao-yang

    2016-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death by inducing ATP depletion and DNA repair, is believed to be a prominent pathology in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, we showed that and 0.1 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) administration significantly blocked RPE cell death induced by 300 μM H2O2. Further investigation showed that H2O2 resulted in increased intracellular ROS level, activation of PARP-1 and subsequently necrotic death of RPE cells. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly decreased intracellular and intranuclear ROS levels in H2O2-treated RPE cells. In addition, NAD+ administration to H2O2-treated RPE cells inhibited the activation of PARP-1 and protected the RPE cells against necrotic death. Moreover, exogenous NAD+ administration up-regulated autophagy in the H2O2-treated RPE cells. Inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 blocked the decrease of intracellular and intranuclear ROS level. Besides, inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 abolished the protection of exogenous NAD+ against H2O2-induced cell necrotic death. Taken together, our findings indicate that that exogenous NAD+ administration suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protects RPE cells against PARP-1 mediated necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy. The results suggest that exogenous NAD+ administration might be potential value for the treatment of AMD. PMID:27240523

  8. Brain and Muscle Redox Imbalance Elicited by Acute Ethylmalonic Acid Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2’,7’-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy. PMID:26010931

  9. Brain and muscle redox imbalance elicited by acute ethylmalonic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2',7'-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy. PMID:26010931

  10. Nitric oxide production and energy state in the heart after endotoxin administration.

    PubMed

    Nishigaki, R; Aramaki, T; Hirakawa, K; Asano, G

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate nitric oxide (NO) production and the energy state of the heart after endotoxin administration, Wistar rats were injected i.p. with 10 mg/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin). Morphologic changes, plasma nitrite concentration, expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cardiac energy state, as reflected by several metabolites, were observed chronologically 0 (control), 4, 6 and 8 h after endotoxin administration. Electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated arrhythmia after endotoxin administration. Biochemically, NO production increased in blood and iNOS increased in the heart. The amount of myocardial beta-ATP measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) increased transiently and then decreased. This transient increase might be a hyperdynamic response to endotoxin administration. At 4 and 6 h after endotoxin administration, pH measured by 31P-MRS was slightly decreased, but this decline was not statistically significant. On the other hand, the amount of lactate in heart samples increased in the 1H magnetic resonance spectra (1H-MRS). Ultrastructurally, in cardiovascular tissue, intracytoplasmic organelles were observed to be injured in blood vessels and cardiomyocytes associated with mast cell infiltration. These results suggest significant metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in the heart after endotoxin administration. PMID:9707010

  11. Decreased cyclosporin A absorption after treatment with GoLytely lavage solution in rats.

    PubMed

    Santa, T; Nishihara, K; Horie, S; Kotaki, H; Sawada, Y; Kawabe, K; Iga, T

    1994-07-01

    Recently we observed a case in which the cyclosporin A absorption decreased after treatment with GoLytely lavage solution in a kidney transplant patient. In this study, we confirmed the decrease of the blood concentration of cyclosporin A after oral administration by GoLytely (Macrogol 3350) based on experiments with rats. The peak blood cyclosporin A concentration, and the area under the blood drug concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h in the GoLytely-administered group were significantly lower than the control group. In the case of gastrointestinal dysfunction such as diarrhoea, or in treatment with laxatives such as GoLytely lavage solution, whole blood cyclosporin levels must be carefully monitored, and intravenous cyclosporin A may be more suitable for providing adequate immunosuppression. PMID:7996392

  12. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  14. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  15. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Significant terms. 1351.1 Section 1351.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS...

  16. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  17. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  18. Nitric oxide decreases coagulation protein function in rabbits as assessed by thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, V G

    2001-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is administered via infusion of donors such as nitroglycerin or in inhaled form for treatment of ischemia and pulmonary hypertension, respectively. In rabbits, the NO donor, DETANONOate, decreases whole blood clotting function as assessed by thromboelastographic variables (R, reaction time; alpha, angle; and G, a measure of clot strength). I hypothesized that DETANONOate-derived NO would adversely affect coagulation protein and platelet function. Blood obtained from ear arteries of conscious rabbits (n = 8) anticoagulated with sodium citrate. The blood was then incubated with 0 or 10mM DETANONOate for 30 min. After incubation and recalcification, thromboelastography was performed for 60 min under four conditions: 1) 0mM DETANONOate, 2) 0mM DETANONOate with platelet inhibition with cytochalasin D, 3) 10mM DETANONOate, and 4) 10mM DETANONOate with platelet inhibition. DETANONOate significantly (P < 0.05) increased R and decreased alpha and G in samples with or without platelet inhibition, compared with samples not exposed to DETANONOate. Lastly, the percentage of total G (G(T)) attributable to platelet function (G(P)) was significantly more in the absence of DETANONOate (G(P) = 92.3% +/- 1.6%; mean +/- SD) than after exposure to DETANONOate (G(P) = 90.2% +/- 2.3%). DETANONOate-derived NO significantly decreased coagulation protein function and platelet function. Coagulation protein function may be similarly affected in clinical situations involving the administration of NO or NO donors. PMID:11159223

  19. Aspartame decreases evoked extracellular dopamine levels in the rat brain: an in vivo voltammetry study.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Brian P; Cummings, Deirdre R; Skaggs, Tricia A

    2007-12-01

    Conflicting reports exist concerning the effect aspartame (APM, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) has upon brain biogenic amines. In the following study, in vivo voltammetry was utilized to measure evoked extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum of rats in order to assess APM's effect. Time-course experiments revealed a significant decline in evoked extracellular DA levels within 1h of a single systemic dose (500mg/kg i.p.) when compared to vehicle-injected controls. The effect was frequency dependent and showed a significant decrease utilizing high frequency stimulation parameters (50 and 60Hz). In order to further determine APM's potential to alter evoked extracellular DA levels, extended stimulation periods were employed to deplete releasable stores both before and after APM administration in intact and 6-OHDA partially lesioned animals. The extended stimulation periods were applied at 60Hz for 2,5,10 and 20s durations. APM decreased DA levels under these conditions in both intact and 6-OHDA partially lesioned animals by an average of 34% and 51%, respectively. Kinetic analysis performed on frequency series indicated that the diminished DA levels corresponded to a significant reduction in DA release. These findings suggest that APM has a relatively potent effect of decreasing evoked extracellular DA levels when administered systemically under the conditions specified. PMID:17976663

  20. Labetalol does not decrease placental perfusion in the hypertensive term-pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Ahokas, R A; Mabie, W C; Sibai, B M; Anderson, G D

    1989-02-01

    The acute effect of labetalol hydrochloride, a combined nonspecific beta-adrenergic and postsynaptic alpha 1-adrenergic blocker, on maternal hemodynamics and organ perfusion was investigated in 10 hypertensive, term-pregnant, spontaneously hypertensive rats with the use of the radioactive-labeled microsphere technique. The normal fall in blood pressure during pregnancy was prevented by the reduction of litter size to two conceptuses on day 7 of gestation. Labetalol (1 to 6 mg/kg) effectively lowered mean arterial pressure 22% by decreasing cardiac output 16%; total peripheral resistance was not significantly decreased. Thus, the blood pressure lowering effect of labetalol was due primarily to its beta-adrenergic blocking effect. Regional flows to the carcass and splanchnic circulation were decreased 19% and 15%, respectively, after labetalol administration. Uterine wall and ovarian perfusion were significantly reduced, but placental perfusion was not significantly altered. Because labetalol lowers blood pressure without reducing placental perfusion, it may be a useful alternative to hydralazine for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. PMID:2916636

  1. 13 CFR 108.585 - Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company Voluntary Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 108.585 Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. You must... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in NMVC...

  2. Decreased plasma isoleucine concentrations after upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Dejong, C H; Meijerink, W J; van Berlo, C L; Deutz, N E; Soeters, P B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decrease in arterial isoleucine values after intragastric blood administration in pigs has been observed. This contrasted with increased values of most other amino acids, ammonia, and urea. After an isonitrogenous control meal in these pigs all amino acids including isoleucine increased, and urea increased to a lesser extent, suggesting a relation between the arterial isoleucine decrease and uraemia after gastrointestinal haemorrhage. METHODS: To extend these findings to humans, plasma amino acids were determined after gastrointestinal haemorrhage in patients with peptic ulcers (n = 9) or oesophageal varices induced by liver cirrhosis (n = 4) and compared with preoperative patients (n = 106). RESULTS: After gastrointestinal haemorrhage, isoleucine decreased in all patients by more than 60% and normalised within 48 hours. Most other amino acids increased and also normalised within 48 hours. Uraemia occurred in both groups, hyperammonaemia was seen in patients with liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous findings in animals and healthy volunteers that plasma isoleucine decreases after simulated upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. This supports the hypothesis that the absence of isoleucine in blood protein causes decreased plasma isoleucine values after gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and may be a contributory factor to uraemia and hyperammonaemia in patients with normal and impaired liver function, respectively. Intravenous isoleucine administration after gastrointestinal haemorrhage could be beneficial and will be the subject of further research. PMID:8881800

  3. 76 FR 74806 - Adjustment of the Amount of an Administrative Costs Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Adjustment of the Amount of an Administrative Costs Assessment AGENCY: Bureau of... decreasing the amount of the administrative costs assessment set forth in the Acreage Limitation Rules and... administrative costs assessment is being decreased to $230. DATES: The decrease in the amount of...

  4. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  5. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  6. [Clinical significance of gastrointestinal decontamination under protected environment].

    PubMed

    Nagao, T; Yonekura, S; Komatsuda, M; Nozaki, H; Arimori, S; Sawamura, S; Ozawa, A; Sasaki, S

    1991-01-01

    Many infections are caused by the patient's own oro-intestinal microbial flora under a protected environment. Thirty-eight patients with acute leukemia and two patients with blast crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia were treated under a protected environment with or without prophylactic antibiotics. Antibiotics used for decontamination were vancomycin (V), polymyxin B (P) and nystatin (N). The number of patients in the VPN, PN and the no antibiotic group were 13, 13 and 14, respectively. While the intestinal microbial flora was almost completely eliminated in VPN group, the number of bacteria decreased slightly in PN group. The mean number of pharyngeal and anorectal bacterial species decreased most markedly in the VPN group, but there were no significant differences among the three groups. The number of febrile days was significantly lower in the VPN and PN group than the no antibiotics group with neutrophil counts of less than 100 microliters. The average number of episodes of infection per patient was lowest in VPN group and highest in the no antibiotic group. These data indicate that VPN administration is effective for eliminating intestinal bacterial flora and resultantly protecting endogenous infections. PMID:2066589

  7. Tracheoesophageal fistula length decreases over time.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nancy; Kearney, Ann; Damrose, Edward J

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that the length of the tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis changes over time and to determine whether the prosthesis length over time increased, decreased, or showed no predictable change in size. A retrospective chart review was performed at a tertiary care referral center. Patients who underwent either primary or secondary tracheoesophageal puncture between January 2006 and August 2014 were evaluated. Patients were excluded if the tracheoesophageal prosthesis size was not consistently recorded or if they required re-puncturing for an extruded prosthesis. Data analyzed included patient demographics and the length of the tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis at each change. A total of 37 patients were identified. The mean age was 64 years. Seventy-six percent were male. 24 % underwent primary tracheoesophageal puncture and 76 % underwent secondary tracheoesophageal puncture. The length of the prosthesis decreased over time (median Kendall correlation coefficient = -0.60; mean = -0.44) and this correlation between length and time was significant (p = 0.00085). Therefore, in conclusion, tracheoesophageal prosthesis length is not constant over time. The tracheoesophageal wall thins, necessitating placement of shorter prostheses over time. Patients with a tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis will require long-term follow-up and repeat sizing of their prosthesis. Successful tracheoesophageal voicing will require periodic reevaluation of these devices, and insurers must, therefore, understand that long-term professional care will be required to manage these patients and their prostheses. PMID:26951219

  8. Anti-obesity effect of intranasal administration of galanin-like peptide (GALP) in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Haruaki; Shiba, Kanako; Hirako, Satoshi; Wada, Nobuhiro; Yamanaka, Satoru; Nogi, Yukinori; Takenoya, Fumiko; Nonaka, Naoko; Hirano, Tsutomu; Inoue, Shuji; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) has an anti-obesity effect in rats and mice. It has been reported that the uptake of GALP by the brain is higher after intranasal administration than with intravenous injection. This study therefore aimed to clarify the effect of intranasal administration of GALP on the feeding behavior of lean and obese mice. Autoradiography revealed the presence of (125)I-GALP in the olfactory bulb and the brain microcirculation. The body weights of ob/ob mice gradually increased during vehicle treatment, but remained unchanged in response to repeated intranasal administration of GALP, with both ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice displaying significantly decreased food intake, water intake and locomotor activity when treated with GALP. These results suggest that intranasal administration is an effective route whereby GALP can exert its effect as an anti-obesity drug. PMID:27323911

  9. Anti-obesity effect of intranasal administration of galanin-like peptide (GALP) in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Haruaki; Shiba, Kanako; Hirako, Satoshi; Wada, Nobuhiro; Yamanaka, Satoru; Nogi, Yukinori; Takenoya, Fumiko; Nonaka, Naoko; Hirano, Tsutomu; Inoue, Shuji; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) has an anti-obesity effect in rats and mice. It has been reported that the uptake of GALP by the brain is higher after intranasal administration than with intravenous injection. This study therefore aimed to clarify the effect of intranasal administration of GALP on the feeding behavior of lean and obese mice. Autoradiography revealed the presence of 125I-GALP in the olfactory bulb and the brain microcirculation. The body weights of ob/ob mice gradually increased during vehicle treatment, but remained unchanged in response to repeated intranasal administration of GALP, with both ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice displaying significantly decreased food intake, water intake and locomotor activity when treated with GALP. These results suggest that intranasal administration is an effective route whereby GALP can exert its effect as an anti-obesity drug. PMID:27323911

  10. NKT cell activation by local α-galactosylceramide administration decreases susceptibility to HSV-2 infection.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marie Beck; Jensen, Simon Kok; Hansen, Anne Louise; Winther, Henriette; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Reinert, Line Sinnathamby; Holm, Christian Kanstrup

    2015-06-01

    NKT cells are a subgroup of T cells, which express a restricted TCR repertoire and are critical for the innate immune responses to viral infections. Activation of NKT cells depends on the major histocompatibility complex-related molecule CD1d, which presents bioactive lipids to NKT cells. The marine sponge derived lipid αGalCer has recently been demonstrated as a specific agonist for activation of human and murine NKT cells. In the present study we investigated the applicability of αGalCer pre-treatment for immune protection against intra-vaginal HSV-2 infection. We found that C57BL/6 WT mice that received local pre-treatment with αGalCer prior to intra-vaginal HSV-2 infection had a lower mean disease score, mortality and viral load in the vagina following infection, compared to mice that did not receive αGalCer pre-treatment. Further, we found increased numbers of CD45 and NK1.1 positive cells in vaginal tissue and elevated levels of IFN-γ in the vaginal tissue and in vaginal fluids 24h after αGalCer pre-treatment. Collectively our data demonstrate a protective effect of αGalCer induced activation of NKT cells in the innate immune protection against viral infection. PMID:25648689

  11. Decreased insulin sensitivity due to continuous nutrient administration in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic TPN compared to intermittent formula feeding has been shown to induce hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in neonatal pigs. We hypothesized that the route of feeding (IV vs. enteral) rather than the nature of the diet (elemental vs polymeric) or the feeding regimen (continuous vs interm...

  12. Arts Educators' Perceptions regarding Decreased Administrative Support for Public School Arts Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated that there is a positive relationship between students who enroll in arts education courses and students who excel academically (Stuht & Gates, 2007). Not only has participation in arts education classes and programs assisted students in academic achievement, but also participation in the arts has helped students develop…

  13. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  14. Preparing College Administrators: Fact and Fancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalcup, Robert J.; Wilson, Jerry L.

    The universality of administrative functions and tasks is sufficiently established to make special preparation programs for any one group of higher education administrators unjustifiable. This thesis is based on research undertaken to determine if significant differences existed in the functions or tasks performed by presidents, vice-presidents of…

  15. Losartan decreases cardiac muscle fibrosis and improves cardiac function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Spurney, Christopher F; Sali, Arpana; Guerron, Alfredo D; Iantorno, Micaela; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Rayavarapu, Sree; van der Meulen, Jack; Hoffman, Eric P; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies showed that chronic administration of losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist, improved skeletal muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In this study, C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd(mdx)/J female mice were either untreated or treated with losartan (n = 15) in the drinking water at a dose of 600 mg/L over a 6-month period. Cardiac function was assessed via in vivo high frequency echocardiography and skeletal muscle function was assessed using grip strength testing, Digiscan monitoring, Rotarod timing, and in vitro force testing. Fibrosis was assessed using picrosirius red staining and Image J analysis. Gene expression was evaluated using real-time polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR). Percentage shortening fraction was significantly decreased in untreated (26.9% ± 3.5%) mice compared to losartan-treated (32.2% ± 4.2%; P < .01) mice. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced in losartan-treated mice (56 ± 6 vs 69 ± 7 mm Hg; P < .0005). Percentage cardiac fibrosis was significantly reduced in losartan-treated hearts (P < .05) along with diaphragm (P < .01), extensor digitorum longus (P < .05), and gastrocnemius (P < .05) muscles compared to untreated mdx mice. There were no significant differences in skeletal muscle function between treated and untreated groups. Chronic treatment with losartan decreases cardiac and skeletal muscle fibrosis and improves cardiac systolic function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. PMID:21304057

  16. Caffeine Attenuates Decreases in Leg Power Without Increased Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Beatriz G; Morales, Anderson P; Sampaio-Jorge, Felipe; Barth, Thiago; de Oliveira, Marcio B C; Coelho, Gabriela M D O; Leite, Tiago C

    2016-08-01

    Ribeiro, BG, Morales, AP, Sampaio-Jorge, F, Barth, T, de Oliveira, MBC, Coelho, GMdO, and Leite, TC. Caffeine attenuates decreases in leg power without increased muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2354-2360, 2016-Caffeine ingestion has been shown to be an effective ergogenic aid in several sports. Caffeine administration may increase exercise capacity, which could lead to a greater degree of muscle damage after exercise. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Six male handball athletes ingested placebo (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) (6 mg·kg body mass) capsules on 2 different occasions. Sixty minutes after ingestion of the capsules, serum CAF levels were evaluated. Thereafter, all participants performed a protocol of vertical jumps (VJs). The protocol consisted of 4 sets of 30 seconds of continuous VJs with 60 seconds of recovery between sets. Blood lactate (LAC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before and after the protocol. We found significant differences in serum CAF levels between PLA (0.09 ± 0.18 µg·ml) vs. CAF (6.59 ± 4.44 µg·ml) (p < 0.001). Caffeine elicited a 5.23% (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in the leg power compared with PLA. The CAF trial displayed higher LAC (p ≤ 0.05) compared with PLA (6.26 ± 2.01 vs. 4.39 ± 2.42 mmol·L, respectively) after protocol of VJs, whereas no difference in CK was observed between trials (p > 0.05). These results indicate that immediate ingestion of CAF (6 mg·kg body weight) can reduce the level of muscle fatigue and preserve leg power during the test, possibly resulting in increase in LAC. There was no increase in muscle damage, which indicates that immediate administration of (6 mg·kg body weight) CAF is safe. Thus, nutritional interventions with CAF could help athletes withstand a greater physiological overload during high-intensity training sessions. The results of this study would be applicable to sports and activities that require repetitive leg power. PMID

  17. Statins decrease dendritic arborization in rat sympathetic neurons by blocking RhoA activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo-Yang; Gonsiorek, Eugene A.; Barnhart, Chris; Davare, Monika A.; Engebose, Abby J.; Lauridsen, Holly; Bruun, Donald; Lesiak, Adam; Wayman, Gary; Bucelli, Robert; Higgins, Dennis; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that statins decrease sympathetic activity, but whether peripheral mechanisms involving direct actions on post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons contribute to this effect is not known. Because tonic activity of these neurons is directly correlated with the size of their dendritic arbor, we tested the hypothesis that statins decrease dendritic arborization in sympathetic neurons. Oral administration of atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day for 7 days) significantly reduced dendritic arborization in vivo in sympathetic ganglia of adult male rats. In cultured sympathetic neurons, statins caused dendrite retraction and reversibly blocked bone morphogenetic protein-induced dendritic growth without altering cell survival or axonal growth. Supplementation with mevalonate or isoprenoids, but not cholesterol, attenuated the inhibitory effects of statins on dendritic growth, whereas specific inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis mimicked these statin effects. Statins blocked RhoA translocation to the membrane, an event that requires isoprenylation, and constitutively active RhoA reversed statin effects on dendrites. These observations that statins decrease dendritic arborization in sympathetic neurons by blocking RhoA activation suggest a novel mechanism by which statins decrease sympathetic activity and protect against cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:19209406

  18. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  19. Vocational Education Administration Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, Karen, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This handbook for vocational administrators presents an overview of vocational education programs, services, and administrative structures in Alaska. The manual contains three parts. The first, brief section introduces secondary vocational education and lists its enabling legislation. The second part presents a detailed overview of vocational…

  20. Reframing Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sharon Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform administrators and organizational leaders that a change in the support offered to faculty and the environment of research administration is desirable. This recommendation is supported by the results of a Delphi study that was undertaken to gather expert opinions and recommendations from research faculty…

  1. Justifying Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin; Lakomski, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    The traditional conceptions of science dominating educational administration are mistaken. Unacceptable epistemologies, like those implicit in logical positivism, justify knowledge solely in terms of empirical adequacy. An improved science of educational administration embraces a coherent global theory accounting for all the phenomena of human…

  2. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  3. DIMENSIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMPHILL, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES WERE TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION, TO DEFINE THE NATURE OF THE JOB, AND TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE SELECTION OF ADMINISTRATORS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPAL WAS CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY BECAUSE OF THE HOST OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE CONDUCT OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, INCLUDING THE…

  4. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  5. Networked Administration Streamlines Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    An Iowa school district has retooled its computer systems for more standardized administration. In addition to administration, the district is doing inhouse databasing of financial accounting, and doing inhouse scheduling and grade reporting. A partnership with the Chamber of Commerce contributed $500,000 for the network system. (MLF)

  6. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  7. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  8. Administration for Student Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, J. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…

  9. Administration of Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Gene F.

    Computing at Stanford University has, until recently, been performed at one of five facilities. The Stanford hospital operates an IBM 370/135 mainly for administrative use. The university business office has an IBM 370/145 for its administrative needs and support of the medical clinic. Under the supervision of the Stanford Computation Center are…

  10. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in rural…

  11. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; Webb, L. Dean

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the societal and organizational changes affecting school business administration, describes major activities encompassed in the practice of school business administration, and reviews current literature specifically related to such activities as electronic data processing, fiscal planning and budgeting, purchasing and property management,…

  12. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  13. Handbook for Alumni Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles H., Ed.

    A definitive look at the field of alumni administration is presented, noting that the subject has until now received little attention. The 34 chapters are divided into nine sections: an overview of alumni administration; alumni as an essential resource; people management; budget and records; programming; communications; alumni education programs…

  14. Tigecycline Treatment Causes a Decrease in Fibrinogen Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Suming

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of tigecycline treatment on coagulation parameters, specifically fibrinogen, in patients with severe infections. We examined 20 cases of tigecycline-treated patients with severe infections, including hospital-acquired pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin and soft tissue infections, and bloodstream infections. We monitored the relative markers of coagulation and renal and liver function before, during, and after treatment. Fibrinogen (FIB) levels decreased significantly after the use of tigecycline and normalized after the cessation of treatment. FIB levels significantly decreased in the patients treated with the recommended dose or a higher treatment dose. The FIB levels decreased more in the higher-treatment-dose group. There was no difference in the decrease in FIB levels or the FIB level recovery by age. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged after tigecycline use. The TT decreased after the cessation of treatment, and the PT and APTT also decreased but not to a significant level. There was no change in platelet, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), or creatinine (Cr) levels associated with treatment. The use of tigecycline was associated with decreased FIB levels, which returned to normal after the cessation of treatment. A high-dose treatment group showed greater decreases in FIB levels than did patients treated with the recommended dose. The decline in FIB was not related to patient age. The use of tigecycline was associated with prolonged PT, APTT, and TT. PMID:25547356

  15. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  16. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  17. Erythropoietin stimulation decreases hepcidin expression through hematopoietic activity on bone marrow cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yusuke; Noguchi-Sasaki, Mariko; Yasuno, Hideyuki; Yorozu, Keigo; Shimonaka, Yasushi

    2012-12-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are now central to the treatment of renal anemia and are associated with improved clinical outcomes. It is well known that erythropoietin (EPO) is a key regulator of erythropoiesis through its promotion of red blood cell production. In order to investigate the role of ESA on iron metabolism, we analyzed the regulation of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by ESA treatment in a bone marrow transplant model in mouse. After treating C57BL/6 mice with continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.), recombinant human epoetin-β (rhEPO), or recombinant human carbamylated epoetin-β (rhCEPO), we investigated serum hepcidin concentrations and parameters of erythropoiesis. Serum hepcidin concentrations after rhEPO treatment were analyzed in mice subjected to total body irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation. C.E.R.A. administration caused long-term downregulation of serum hepcidin levels. Serum hepcidin levels in rhEPO-treated mice decreased significantly, whereas there was no change in rhCEPO-treated mice. The reduction in circulating hepcidin levels after rhEPO administration was not observed in irradiated mice. Finally, bone marrow transplantation recovered the response to rhEPO administration that downregulates hepcidin concentration in irradiated mice. These results indicate that ESA treatment downregulates serum hepcidin concentrations, mainly by indirect mechanisms affecting hematopoietic activity in bone marrow cells. PMID:23160767

  18. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Chien-Hsun; Shen, Ming-Ching; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Wen, Yao-Ke; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2009-03-01

    Nattokinase, a serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, is considered to be one of the most active functional ingredients found in natto. In this study, we hypothesized that nattokinase could reduce certain factors of blood clotting and lipids that are associated with an increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial was conducted on subjects of the following groups: healthy volunteers (Healthy Group), patients with cardiovascular risk factors (Cardiovascular Group), and patients undergoing dialysis (Dialysis Group). All subjects ingested 2 capsules of nattokinase (2000 fibrinolysis units per capsule) daily orally for 2 months. The laboratory measurements were performed on the screening visit and, subsequently, regularly after the initiation of the study. The intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all 45 enrolled subjects. By use of mixed model analysis, a significant time effect, but not group effect, was observed in the change from baseline of fibrinogen (P = .003), factor VII (P < .001), and factor VIII (P < .001), suggesting that the plasma levels of the 3 coagulation factors continuously declined during intake; also, the extents of decrease were similar between groups. After 2 months of administration, fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII decreased 9%, 14%, and 17%, respectively, for the Healthy Group; 7%, 13%, and 19%, respectively, for the Cardiovascular Group; and 10%, 7%, and 19%, respectively, for the Dialysis Group, whereas blood lipids were unaffected by nattokinase. No significant changes of uric acid or notable adverse events were observed in any of the subjects. In summary, this study showed that oral administration of nattokinase could be considered as a CVD nutraceutical by decreasing plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII. PMID:19358933

  19. Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose and scope of the position: The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance. As a member of the ESO Management the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of the personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. ESO employs in total approximately 650 staff members and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago (Chile). The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members.

  20. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  1. Induction of testicular damage by daily methamphetamine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced brain damage and apoptosis within the central nervous system are well documented. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of daily METH administration on the testes in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old, ~100 g, n = 64) were divided into two groups and treated with vehicle (saline, control) or METH (10 mg/kg) for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that daily administration of METH decreased the body, testicular and epididymis weights as well as the serum levels of total testosterone. The increased apoptotic index (Bad/Bcl2 expression ratio) and levels of cleaved caspase-3 indicated that apoptosis had occurred in the testes of the METH-treated rats. The oxidative stress levels increased as the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased. The overall sperm counts decreased at 15 and 90 days, where- as morphologically abnormal sperm counts increased at 30, 60 and 90 days in the METH-treated rats. This study demonstrates that daily exposure to METH significantly reduced the number and quality of sperm in rats. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms likely include the reduction of serum testosterone levels and the increase of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat testes. PMID:24621335

  2. Effect of Glutathione Administration on Serum Levels of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites in Patients with Paraquat Intoxication: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Based on preliminary in vitro data from a previous study, we proposed that 50 mg/kg glutathione (GSH) would be adequate for suppressing reactive oxygen species in patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. Methods Serum levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured before and after the administration of 50 mg/kg GSH to each of five patients with acute PQ intoxication. Results In one patient, extremely high pretreatment ROM levels began to decrease prior to GSH administration. However, in the remaining four cases, ROM levels did not change significantly prior to GSH administration. ROM levels decreased significantly after GSH administration in all cases. In two cases, ROM levels decreased below that observed in the general population; one of these patients died after a cardiac arrest at 3 hours after PQ ingestion, while the other represented the sole survivor of PQ intoxication observed in this study. In the survivor, ROM levels decreased during the first 8 hours of GSH treatment, and finally dropped below the mean ROM level observed in the general population. Conclusions Treatment with 50 mg/kg GSH significantly suppressed serum ROM levels in PQ-intoxicated patients. However, this dose was not sufficient to suppress ROM levels when the PQ concentration was extremely high. PMID:20830225

  3. Effects of Corticosteroids on Immunity in Man I. DECREASED SERUM IgG CONCENTRATION CAUSED BY 3 OR 5 DAYS OF HIGH DOSES OF METHYLPREDNISOLONE

    PubMed Central

    Butler, William T.; Rossen, Roger D.

    1973-01-01

    To study the effects of methylprednisolone on immune mechanisms in the absence of other immunosuppressive agents or immunologically mediated diseases, we gave 17 normal adult male volunteers 96 mg of methylprednisolone daily for 3-5 days and compared results with 12 untreated controls who were studied simultaneously, 86% of treated volunteers had significant decreases in the concentrations of serum IgG. 2-4 wk after methylprednisolone, the treated volunteers had a mean decrease in IgG of 22% compared with a decrease of only 1% in untreated controls. Likewise, significant decreases in IgA concentration occurred in 43% of treated volunteers, whereas significant decreases in IgM occurred in only 14%. The lowest immunoglobulin levels occurred during the 2nd wk after a 3 day course of methylprednisolone and during the 3rd wk after a 5 day course of drug. Slightly decreased plasma concentration of [125I]IgG was seen in six of seven volunteers who received a 5 day course but in only one of four who received a 3 day course of drug. However, an increase in the rate of plasma clearance of IgG occurred only during the treatment period itself. During the period when the serum concentration of IgG was falling, the specific activity of IgG in the serum was relatively higher in treated men than in controls indicating decreased entry of newly synthesized IgG into the circulation. These findings suggest that a short course of methylprednisolone treatment causes a pronounced and sustained decrease in serum IgG due to increased catabolism during drug administration and to decreased synthesis during and for a variable time after drug administration. PMID:4729056

  4. 5 CFR 530.323 - Setting pay when a special rate is discontinued or decreased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay when a special rate is discontinued or decreased. 530.323 Section 530.323 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY RATES AND SYSTEMS (GENERAL) Special Rate Schedules for Recruitment and Retention Setting An Employee's Rate of Pay...

  5. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  6. Decreased gallium uptake in acute hematogenous osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.G.; Gelfand, M.J.

    1983-07-01

    Decreased radiopharmaceutical uptake was noted on both bone and gallium scans in the case of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the right ilium (acetabular roof). This combination of findings is probably rare. The mechanism of decreased gallium uptake is unknown, but may be related to decreased blood flow.

  7. Dextromethorphan interactions with histaminergic and serotonergic treatments to reduce nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Scott A; Hall, Brandon J; Wells, Corinne; Slade, Susan; Jaskowski, Paul; Morrison, Margaret; Rezvani, Amir H; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    2016-03-01

    Combining effective treatments with diverse mechanisms of action for smoking cessation may provide better therapy by targeting multiple points of control in the neural circuits underlying addiction. Previous research in a rat model has shown that dextromethorphan, which has α3β4 nicotinic and NMDA glutamatergic antagonist actions, significantly decreases nicotine self-administration. We have found in the rat model that the H1 histamine antagonist pyrilamine and the serotonin 5HT2C agonist lorcaserin also significantly reduce nicotine self-administration. The current studies were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dextromethorphan with pyrilamine and lorcaserin on nicotine self-administration in rats. Young adult female rats were fitted with jugular IV catheters and trained to self-administer a nicotine infusion dose of 0.03-mg/kg/infusion. In an initial dose-effect function study of dextromethorphan, we found a monotonic decrease in nicotine self-administration over a dose range of 1 to 30-mg/kg with the lowest effective dose of 3-mg/kg. Then, with two separate cohorts of rats, dextromethorphan (0, 3.3, and 10-mg/kg) interactions with pyrilamine (0, 4.43, and 13.3-mg/kg) were investigated as well as interactions with lorcaserin (0, 0.3125 and 0.625-mg/kg). In the pyrilamine-dextromethorphan interaction study, an acute dose of pyrilamine (13.3-mg/kg) as well as an acute dose of dextromethorphan caused a significant decrease in nicotine self-administration. There were mutually augmenting effects of these two drugs. The combination of dextromethorphan (10-mg/kg) and pyrilamine (13.3-mg/kg) significantly lowered nicotine self-administration relative to either 10-mg/kg of dextromethorphan alone (p<0.05) or 13.3-mg/kg of pyrilamine alone (p<0.0005). In the lorcaserin-dextromethorphan study, an acute dose of lorcaserin (0.312-mg/kg) as well as an acute dose of dextromethorphan (10-mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in nicotine self-administration

  8. The effect of D-serine administration on cognition and mood in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Caroline; Vargas-Lopes, Charles; Marques, Priscila; Dantas, Camila; Manhães, Alex C.; Leite, Homero; Panizzutti, Rogerio

    2016-01-01

    Background D-serine is an endogenous co-agonist of the N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) that plays a crucial role in cognition including learning processes and memory. Decreased D-serine levels have been associated with age-related decline in mechanisms of learning and memory in animal studies. Here, we asked whether D-serine administration in older adults improves cognition. Results D-serine administration improved performance in the Groton Maze learning test of spatial memory and learning and problem solving (F(3, 38)= 4.74, p = 0.03). Subjects that achieved higher increases in plasma D-serine levels after administration improved more in test performance (r2=−0.19 p = 0.009). D-serine administration was not associated with any significant changes in the other cognitive tests or in the mood of older adults (p > 0.05). Methods Fifty healthy older adults received D-serine and placebo in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. We studied the effect of D-serine administration on the performance of cognitive tests and an analogue mood scale. We also collected blood samples to measure D-serine, L-serine, glutamate and glutamine levels. Conclusions D-serine administration may be a strategy to improve spatial memory, learning and problem solving in healthy older adults. Future studies should evaluate the impact of long-term D-serine administration on cognition in older adults. PMID:26933803

  9. Levosimendan displays anti-inflammatory effects and decreases MPO bioavailability in patients with severe heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Matti; Meyer, Sven; Knors, Henning; Klinke, Anna; Radunski, Ulf K.; Rudolph, Tanja K.; Rudolph, Volker; Spin, Joshua M.; Tsao, Philip S.; Costard-Jäckle, Angelika; Baldus, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of decompensated heart failure often includes administration of levosimendan. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is released during polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) degranulation, and mediates dysregulation of vascular tone in heart failure. We evaluated the effects of levosimendan-treatment on MPO in patients with acute decompensation of chronic heart failure over a one week course. Plasma MPO levels were significantly decreased after levosimendan treatment (from 252.1 ± 31.1 pmol/l at baseline to 215.02 ± 27.96 pmol/l at 6 h, p < 0.05). Ex vivo incubation of whole blood with levosimendan decreased MPO release after PMN-stimulation (8.2 ± 1.4-fold increase at baseline vs. 6.0 ± 1.1-fold increase with levosimendan). MPO levels also significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure over the time course. In a multivariate linear model, the main contributor to systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure was level of PMN elastase. MPO contributed only in heparin-treated patients, suggesting a more significant role for endothelial-bound MPO than for circulating MPO or elastase with respect to blood pressure regulation. We here provide the first evidence that levosimendan treatment inhibits MPO release by PMNs in decompensated heart failure patients. This mechanism may regulate endothelial function and vascular tone in heart failure patients. PMID:25867530

  10. [Either calcium carbonate or sevelamer decreases urinary oxalate excretion in chronic renal failure patients].

    PubMed

    Caravaca, F; Ruiz, A B; Escola, J M; Hernández Gallego, R; Cerezo, I; Fernández, N; Barroso, S; Martín, M V

    2007-01-01

    The rate of oxalate absorbed from intestine is highly influenced by calcium intake in healthy subjects. It is unknown whether commonly used phosphate binders modify intestinal absorption and renal excretion of oxalate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aims to determine if calcium carbonate or sevelamer influences on urinary oxalate excretion. Twenty patients with CKD (stage 4 and 5 pre-dialysis) were included. Two treatment (1500 mg of calcium carbonate or 2400 mg of sevelamer), two-period (21 days each), crossover study with balanced assignment of the order of administration, and two washout periods were the main characteristics of this study design. Laboratory analyses in each phase included: serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, bicarbonate, total cholesterol, and 24 h urinary excretion of oxalate, creatinine, and urea. Creatinine clearance, protein catabolic rate (PNNA), total urinary oxalate excretion, and urinary oxalate / creatinine ratio were determined. Seventeen patients completed both treatment sequences. Total urinary oxalate excretion and urinary oxalate / creatinine ratios decreased significantly with respect to washout periods either after sevelamer or calcium carbonate treatment. The decrease in urinary oxalate excretion was greater after calcium carbonate (41.2+/-17.4%) than after sevelamer treatment (30.4+/-23.8%). There were not significant changes in renal function or PNNA values throughout the study periods. In conclusion, either calcium carbonate or sevelamer significantly reduces urinary oxalate excretion in CKD patients. Further studies will be needed to ascertain whether the type of phosphate binder influences on the accumulation of oxalate in CKD patients. PMID:17944584

  11. Decrease in blood histamine in drug-treated parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Coelho, M H; Silva, I J; Azevedo, M S; Manso, C F

    1991-04-01

    Blood histamine and serum histaminase activity were determined in a group of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and in a group of healthy controls. Untreated PD patients present significantly higher blood histamine than normal controls. Therapy with L-dopa + cardidopa results in a significant decrease in blood histamine. This decrease becomes more accentuated when anticholinergics are added to this therapy. No significant changes were detected in plasma histaminase. The authors suggest, as a hypothesis, that the CNS contributes to blood histamine concentration and that its rise is the result of increased neuronal destruction. PMID:1910360

  12. Effects of daily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-04-01

    Opioid abuse remains a significant public health problem; together with the greater availability of marijuana in some regions there is an increasing likelihood that opioids and marijuana will be used together. Polydrug abuse is associated with increased toxicity and poorer treatment outcome; thus, a better understanding of the consequences of repeated coadministration of these drugs will facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment strategies. This study examined the effects of daily treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and its discontinuation on self-administration of heroin in rhesus monkeys (n=4) lever-pressing under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule. Heroin self-administration (0.32-32 μg/kg/infusion, intravenously) generated an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve. Administered acutely, Δ-THC (0.01-0.32 mg/kg, subcutaneously) dose dependently decreased responding for heroin and flattened the self-administration dose-effect curve. Daily treatment with Δ-THC (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/12 h, subcutaneously) either had no effect on or decreased responding for heroin. In addition, daily treatment did not significantly impact extinction of heroin self-administration or resumption of responding for heroin after extinction. Discontinuation of daily Δ-THC treatment did not systematically impact rates of heroin self-administration. These data suggest that repeated administration of a cannabinoid receptor agonist likely does not increase, and possibly decreases, the positive reinforcing effects of a mu opioid receptor agonist. PMID:26397756

  13. Administration of different Lactobacillus strains in fermented oatmeal soup: in vivo colonization of human intestinal mucosa and effect on the indigenous flora.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, M L; Molin, G; Jeppsson, B; Nobaek, S; Ahrné, S; Bengmark, S

    1993-01-01

    In vivo colonization by different Lactobacillus strains on human intestinal mucosa of healthy volunteers was studied together with the effect of Lactobacillus administration on different groups of indigenous bacteria. A total of 19 test strains were administered in fermented oatmeal soup containing 5 x 10(6) CFU of each strain per ml by using a dose of 100 ml of soup per day for 10 days. Biopsies were taken from both the upper jejunum and the rectum 1 day before administration was started and 1 and 11 days after administration was terminated. The administration significantly increased the Lactobacillus counts on the jejunum mucosa, and high levels remained 11 days after administration was terminated. The levels of streptococci increased by 10- to 100-fold in two persons, and the levels of sulfite-reducing clostridia in the jejunum decreased by 10- to 100-fold in three of the volunteers 1 day after administration was terminated. In recta, the anaerobic bacterium counts and the gram-negative anaerobic bacterium counts decreased significantly by the end of administration. Furthermore, a decrease in the number of members of the Enterobacteriaceae by 1,000-fold was observed on the rectal mucosa of two persons. Randomly picked Lactobacillus isolates were identified phenotypically by API 50CH tests and genotypically by the plasmid profiles of strains and by restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8439146

  14. Serving the Space Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jack E.; Thompson, Arthur W.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to establish an upward mobility program that afforded employees an opportunity to improve their credibility in job opportunity selection under the directives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Author/RK)

  15. Copyright Implications for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol Mann

    1994-01-01

    Discusses copyright compliance policies for school administrators and the librarian's role in policy implementation. Topics addressed include fines; court litigation; monitoring compliance; training sessions for teachers and staff; computer software audits; and sources for more information. (LRW)

  16. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  17. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  18. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  19. The Purchasing Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joyce E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the professional purchasing administrator's most common areas of responsibility: (1) staffing the department, (2) maintaining professional objectivity in vendor relationships, (3) following bidding policies, (4) receiving user input and feedback, and (5) seeking local equipment service and maintenance. (MLF)

  20. Introducing Public Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jay W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of documents and the analysis of definitions are recommended as a means for adding zest to an introduction to public administration course to obtain student interest and motivation. (Author/ND)

  1. The α1 Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist Prazosin Reduces Heroin Self-Administration in Rats with Extended Access to Heroin Administration

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, Thomas N.; Walker, Brendan M.; Cottone, Pietro; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that noradrenergic antagonists alleviate some of the symptoms of opiate withdrawal and dependence. Clinical studies also have shown that modification of the noradrenergic system may help protect patients from relapse. The present study tested the hypothesis that a dysregulated noradrenergic system has motivational significance in heroin self-administration in dependent rats. Prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered to adult male Wistar rats with a history of limited (1 h/day; short access) or extended (12 h/day; long access) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Prazosin dose-dependently reduced heroin self-administration in long-access rats but not short-access rats, with 2 mg/kg of systemic prazosin significantly decreasing 1 h and 2 h heroin intake. Prazosin also reversed some changes in meal pattern associated with extended heroin access, including the taking of smaller and briefer meals (at 3 h), while also increasing total food intake and slowing the eating rate within meals (both 3 h and 12 h). The data show that the α1-adrenergic system may contribute to mechanisms that promote dependence in rats with extended drug access, while also stimulating their food intake by restoring meals to the normal size and duration. PMID:18703080

  2. Ceruloplasmin decreases respiratory burst reaction during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeeva, Elena Y; Semenova, Elena V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Aplin, Kirill D; Timofeeva, Kseniya E; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Filatov, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    Testing of pregnant women reveals weakening of neutrophil-mediated effector functions, such as reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides data confirming the phenomenon, gained through application of the flow cytometry technique. Key factors influencing neutrophil functional activity in blood plasma of pregnant women have not been detected so far. At the same time, concentration of ceruloplasmin - a copper-containing glycoprotein - is known to increase in blood significantly during pregnancy. We observed the negative correlation between ceruloplasmin concentration in blood plasma of pregnant women and the intensity of respiratory burst of neutrophils. Fractionation of plasma using gel-filtration revealed that ceruloplasmin-containing fraction demonstrated suppression of the respiratory burst reaction. Partial elimination of ceruloplasmin from the blood of pregnant women, performed with the help of specific antibodies and followed by immunoprecipitation, leads to an increased respiratory burst reaction. On the contrary, addition of ceruloplasmin to blood samples of healthy donors noticeably decreases the respiratory burst reaction. The results presented prove that change in ceruloplasmin level in plasma is necessary and sufficient for modulating the ability of neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species during pregnancy. PMID:27266720

  3. Aneurysm strength can decrease under calcification.

    PubMed

    Volokh, Konstantin Y; Aboudi, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Aneurysms are abnormal dilatations of vessels in the vascular system that are prone to rupture. Prediction of the aneurysm rupture is a challenging and unsolved problem. Various factors can lead to the aneurysm rupture and, in the present study, we examine the effect of calcification on the aneurysm strength by using micromechanical modeling. The calcified tissue is considered as a composite material in which hard calcium particles are embedded in a hyperelastic soft matrix. Three experimentally calibrated constitutive models incorporating a failure description are used for the matrix representation. Two constitutive models describe the aneurysmal arterial wall and the third one - the intraluminal thrombus. The stiffness and strength of the calcified tissue are simulated in uniaxial tension under the varying amount of calcification, i.e. the relative volume of the hard inclusion within the periodic unit cell. In addition, the triaxiality of the stress state, which can be a trigger for the cavitation instability, is tracked. Results of the micromechanical simulation show an increase of the stiffness and a possible decrease of the strength of the calcified tissue as compared to the non-calcified one. The obtained results suggest that calcification (i.e. the presence of hard particles) can significantly affect the stiffness and strength of soft tissue. The development of refined experimental techniques that will allow for the accurate quantitative assessment of calcification is desirable. PMID:26717251

  4. Superoxide dismutase activity as a measure of hepatic oxidative stress in cattle following ethionine administration.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Okada, Keiji; Goryo, Masanobu; Oishi, Akihiro; Yasuda, Jun

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess if oxidative stress, as measured by alterations in the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and erythrocytes of cattle, could be induced following dl-ethionine administration. Whole blood, serum and liver biopsy samples were collected 0, 4, 7 and 10 days after intra-peritoneal ethionine administration to five cows. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn SOD) and catalase were assessed in the liver biopsies which were also examined histopathologically. Significant increases in hepatic Cu, Zn SOD concentrations (P<0.01) were noted on days 7 and 10 post-treatment. Hepatic catalase activity decreased significantly (P<0.01) on days 4, 7 and 10 post-treatment and erythrocyte Cu, Zn SOD activity was significantly increased on day 10. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P<0.01) in non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on day 4 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and phospholipid levels on days 4 (P<0.05), 7 (P<0.01) and 10 (P<0.01). In this model system, dl-ethionine administration was effective in inducing oxidative stress particularly reflected in the liver. PMID:18585936

  5. A novel D2-dopaminergic and alpha2-adrenoceptor receptor agonist induces substantial and prolonged IOP decrease in normotensive rabbits.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Jouko; Rautio, Jarkko; Razzetti, Roberta; Järvinen, Tomi

    2003-06-01

    The effects of a novel and selective D2-dopaminergic/alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, CHF1035, and its metabolite CHF1024 on intraocular pressure (IOP) were determined in rabbits. Because CHF1035 is a mixture of two enantiomers, CHF1800 (+) and CHF1810 (-), pure enantiomers were also studied to determine possible differences in IOP-decreasing ability depending on the stereochemistry of the molecule. CHF1035, CHF1800 (+), CHF1810 (-), CHF1024, brimonidine and 0.9% NaCl were administered topically to rabbits and IOP was then measured at fixed time intervals. The dose-response profile (0.01-1.0% w/v) was determined for CHF1035. CHF1035 and its metabolite CHF1024 significantly lowered IOP in the treated eyes. CHF1035 showed a maximum IOP decrease (7.6 +/- 1.5 mmHg) 5 h post-dosing, whereas the metabolite CHF1024 showed a maximum decrease in IOP (7.0 +/- 0.8 mmHg) 3 h post-dosing. The maximum IOP decrease produced by CHF1035 in the treated eye was comparable with that produced by brimonidine (7.8 +/- 0.9 mmHg), but CHF1035 had a significantly longer duration of action. Unlike brimonidine, CHF1035 and CHF1024 did not decrease IOP in the untreated eye. CHF1810 (-) lowered the IOP more than CHF1800 (+). No irritation, evaluated as eyelid closure, was observed after topical administration of any of the compounds. Only in the case of CHF1035 1% solution, two rabbits out of six closed the eye for 30-45 s. In conclusion, CHF1035 and its metabolite CHF1024 significantly decreased the IOP in rabbits, and are potential novel IOP lowering agents. Especially, CHF1035 produced a substantial decrease in IOP for a prolonged period of time, and thus may prove useful in glaucoma therapy. PMID:12841939

  6. Use of Electronic Medication Administration Records to Reduce Perceived Stress and Risk of Medication Errors in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Alenius, Malin; Graf, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Concerns have been raised about the effects of current medication administration processes on the safety of many of the aspects of medication administration. Keeping electronic medication administration records could decrease many of these problems. Unfortunately, there has not been much research on this topic, especially in nursing homes. A prospective case-control survey was consequently performed at two nursing homes; the electronic record system was introduced in one, whereas the other continued to use paper records. The personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire of their perceptions of stress and risk of medication errors at baseline (n = 66) and 20 weeks after the intervention group had started recording medication administration electronically (n = 59). There were statistically significant decreases in the perceived risk of omitting a medication, of medication errors occurring because of communication problems, and of medication errors occurring because of inaccurate medication administration records in the intervention group (all P < .01 vs the control group). The perceived overall daily stress levels were also reduced in the intervention group (P < .05). These results indicate that the utilization of electronic medication administration records will reduce many of the concerns regarding the medication administration process. PMID:27270628

  7. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  8. Intranasal oxytocin administration is associated with enhanced endogenous pain inhibition and reduced negative mood states

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Anderson, Austen J. B.; Freeman, Emily L.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Robbins, Meredith T.; Ness, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether the administration of intranasal oxytocin was associated with pain sensitivity, endogenous pain inhibitory capacity, and negative mood states. Methods A total of 30 pain-free, young adults each completed three laboratory sessions on consecutive days. The first session (baseline) assessed ischemic pain sensitivity, endogenous pain inhibition via conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and negative mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). CPM was tested on the dominant forearm and ipsilateral masseter muscle using algometry (test stimulus) and the cold pressor task (conditioning stimulus; non-dominant hand). For the second and third sessions, participants initially completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and then self-administered a single (40IU/1mL) dose of intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized counter-balanced order. Thirty minutes post-administration, participants again completed the STAI and repeated assessments of ischemic pain sensitivity and CPM followed by the POMS. Results Findings demonstrated that ischemic pain sensitivity did not significantly differ across the three study sessions. CPM at the masseter, but not the forearm, was significantly greater following administration of oxytocin compared to placebo. Negative mood was also significantly lower following administration of oxytocin compared to placebo. Similarly, anxiety significantly decreased following administration of oxytocin but not placebo. Discussion This study incorporated a placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subjects crossover design with randomized administration of intranasal oxytocin and placebo. The data suggest that the administration of intranasal oxytocin may augment endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and reduce negative mood states including anxiety. PMID:25370147

  9. Designing Technology to Decrease Pneumonia in Intubated Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Swearer, Jillian Nichole; Hammer, Ciara Lucinda; Matthews, Susan Marie; Meunier, Jennifer Lynn; Medler, Krisie Lee; Kamer, Genevieve Stella; Fiedler, Dana Marie; Johnston, Courtney Lynn; Schmitt, Kami Rebekah; Sawyer, Angela Jane

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are at increased risk for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Sixty adult trauma intensive care unit patients were audited 3 months prepractice change, and 30 were audited postpractice change. Quality improvement interventions included staff education of a redesigned electronic medical record ventilator bundle and chlorhexidine gluconate administration timing practice change. Postpractice change audits revealed 2-hour chlorhexidine gluconate documentation increased from 38.3% to 73.3% and incidence of pneumonia in intubated patients decreased by 62%. Early initiation of chlorhexidine gluconate mouth care utilizing electronic medical record technology may help reduce pneumonia in intubated patients, hospital length of stay, overall health costs, and improve documentation. PMID:26352660

  10. Effect of Oral Ondansetron on Decreasing the Vomiting Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Golshekan, Kioomars; Badeli, Hamidreza; Rezaieian, Saman; Mohammadpour, Haniyeh; Hassanzadehrad, Afagh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral ondansetron in decreasing the vomiting due to acute gastroenteritis in children. Methods In a single center, randomized, double blind, controlled trial, the effect of oral ondansetron was compared with placebo on 176 patients between 1 and 10 years old with acute gastroenteritis. 30 minutes after drug administration, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was initiated. Severity of vomiting was evaluated during emergency department (ED) stay and 48 hours follow up. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS16. Findings Fifty two of children (58.5%) were males with the mean age of 3.12 (±2.30) years. Ten patients in ondansetron and 14 in placebo group had persistent vomiting during ED stay. After analyzing, there was no significant relation between vomiting in 4 and 48 hours and need for intra venous fluid therapy between the two groups although ondansetron generally decreased ORT failure (P=0.03). Conclusion Although administrayion of oral ondansetron in gastroenteritis could decrease failure of ORT, it seems that further well-conducted clinical studies are needed to determine effects of oral ondansetron precisely. PMID:24800017

  11. Decrease in bispectral index prior to cardiovascular collapse during Caesarean sections.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Kim, K W; Cho, C S; Kim, J H; Lee, S-I; Kim, K-T; Park, J S; Kim, J W; Choe, W J

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of significant reduction in bispectral index (BIS) associated with suspected amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) that occurred prior to change in haemodynamic variables. The patient was a 29-year-old nulliparous, who was admitted for Caesarean section under general anaesthesia in the 33rd week of pregnancy. After the baby was born, the BIS value suddenly decreased to 0, with suppression ratio of 100. One minute later, saturation decreased abruptly to 85%, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) decreased to 5 mmHg, peak inspiratory pressure increased to 35 cm H2O, and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) failed to obtain a reading. After administration of vasoactive drugs, the systolic BP was maintained at 100 mmHg or higher, the BIS value rose to 10-20, and the EtCO2 increased to 24-33 mmHg. In this case, the BIS monitoring may provide an earlier warning of impending cardiovascular collapse in the case of AFE. PMID:24112235

  12. 78 FR 69985 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Decreased Assessment Rate for Area No. 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Decreased Assessment Rate for.... SUMMARY: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Colorado Potato Administrative... per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order,...

  13. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  14. 77 FR 39150 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... decreases the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2012... avocados handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling...

  15. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  16. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  17. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  18. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. 107.585 Section 107.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in...

  19. Mice with neuropathic pain exhibit morphine tolerance due to a decrease in the morphine concentration in the brain.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Wataru; Kaneta, Mitsumasa; Nagae, Marina; Yuzuhara, Ami; Li, Xin; Suzuki, Haruka; Hanagata, Mika; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Suto, Wataru; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Miyashita, Kazuhiko; Masukawa, Daiki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Narita, Minoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2016-09-20

    The chronic administration of morphine to patients with neuropathic pain results in the development of a gradual tolerance to morphine. Although the detailed mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated, one of the known causes is a decrease in μ-opioid receptor function with regard to the active metabolite of morphine, M-6-G(morphine-6-glucuronide), in the ventrotegmental area of the midbrain. In this study, the relationship between the concentration of morphine in the brain and its analgesic effect was examined after the administration of morphine in the presence of neuropathic pain. Morphine was orally administered to mice with neuropathic pain, and the relationship between morphine's analgesic effect and its concentration in the brain was analysed. In addition, the expression levels of the conjugation enzyme, UGT2B (uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase), which has morphine as its substrate, and P-gp, which is a transporter involved in morphine excretion, were examined. In mice with neuropathic pain, the concentration of morphine in the brain was significantly decreased, and a correlation was found between this decrease and the decrease in the analgesic effect. It was considered possible that this decrease in the brain morphine concentration may be due to an increase in the expression level of P-gp in the small intestine and to an increase in the expression level and binding activity of UGT2B in the liver. The results of this study suggest the possibility that a sufficient analgesic effect may not be obtained when morphine is administered in the presence of neuropathic pain due to a decrease in the total amount of morphine and M-6-G that reach the brain. PMID:27102159

  20. Gastrodin improves cognitive dysfunction and decreases oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Zhenxing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the potential protective effects of gastrodin on reducing tissue oxidative stress and attenuating cognitive deficits in vascular dementia induced by cerebral chronic hyperfusion. To explore the detailed molecular mechanisms. Methods: 6 to 8 week old male Wistar rats were adopted as experimental animals. Animals were divided into the following groups: Group 1 (sham group with no occlusion), Group 2 (control group with 2VO procedure), Group 3 (sham group with gastrodin administration), Group 4 (2VO group with gastrodin administration). Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to test the learning and memory function of rats within different groups. MDA, glutathione peroxidase and total thiol assessment was done to reflect the oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the cell viability and apoptosis rate of SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and rescued by gastrodin treatments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by the 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. qPCR and Western blot (WB) were adopted to detect the molecular mechanisms related to the anti-apoptosis and ROS scavenging effects of gastrodin. Results: Our results indicated an obvious protective effect of gastrodin on vascular dementia induced brain ischemia. Administration of gastrodin could improve the impaired learning and memory function induced by 2VO procedure in rats. The levels of MDA were partially decreased by the administration of gastrodin. The levels of glutathione peroxidase and total thiol were partially restored by the administration of gastrodin. Cell viability was improved by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.05). Cell apoptosis rate was reduced by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.05). Gastrodin could scavenge ROS generation induced by pre

  1. Intravenous Medication Administration in Intensive Care: Opportunities for Technological Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jacqueline; Berner, Eta; Bothe, Olaf; Rymarchuk, Irina

    2008-01-01

    Medication administration errors have been shown to be frequent and serious. Error is particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as critical care. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of intravenous medication administration in five intensive care units. These data were used within the context of a larger study to design information system decision support to decrease medication administration errors in these settings. Nurses were observed during the course of their work and their intravenous medication administration process, medication order source, references used, calculation method, number of medications prepared simultaneously, and any interruptions occurring during the preparation and delivery phases of the administration event were recorded. In addition, chart reviews of medication administration records were completed and nurses were asked to complete an anonymous drop-box questionnaire regarding their experiences with medication administration error. The results of this study are discussed in terms of potential informatics solutions for reducing medication administration error. PMID:18998790

  2. Newborn Hypoxia/Anoxia Inhibits Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Decreases Cardiomyocyte Endowment in the Developing Heart: Role of Endothelin-1

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Alexandra N.; Gay, Maresha S.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    In the developing heart, cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation during a critical window around birth. Hypoxia is a major stress to preterm infants, yet its effect on the development and maturation of the heart remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis in a rat model that newborn anoxia accelerates cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation and results in reduced cardiomyocyte endowment in the developing heart via an endothelin-1-dependent mechanism. Newborn rats were exposed to anoxia twice daily from postnatal day 1 to 3, and hearts were isolated and studied at postnatal day 4 (P4), 7 (P7), and 14 (P14). Anoxia significantly increased HIF-1α protein expression and pre-proET-1 mRNA abundance in P4 neonatal hearts. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was significantly decreased by anoxia in P4 and P7, resulting in a significant reduction of cardiomyocyte number per heart weight in the P14 neonates. Furthermore, the expression of cyclin D2 was significantly decreased due to anoxia, while p27 expression was increased. Anoxia has no significant effect on cardiomyocyte binucleation or myocyte size. Consistently, prenatal hypoxia significantly decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation but had no effect on binucleation in the fetal heart. Newborn administration of PD156707, an ETA-receptor antagonist, significantly increased cardiomyocyte proliferation at P4 and cell size at P7, resulting in an increase in the heart to body weight ratio in P7 neonates. In addition, PD156707 abrogated the anoxia-mediated effects. The results suggest that hypoxia and anoxia via activation of endothelin-1 at the critical window of heart development inhibits cardiomyocyte proliferation and decreases myocyte endowment in the developing heart, which may negatively impact cardiac function later in life. PMID:25692855

  3. 9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION OF OUTPATIENT CLINIC ADDITION - U.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 600 South Seventieth Street, Lincoln, Lancaster County, NE

  4. Astronaut Administrator Richard Truly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, pilot of the Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-2 and Commander of Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-8, became NASA's eighth Administrator on July 1, 1989. One day earlier he concluded a 30 year Naval career retiring as a Vice Admiral. He was the first astronaut to head the nation's civilian space agency. Truly became Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Flight on February 20, 1986. In this position, he led the painstaking rebuilding of the Space Shuttle program less than one month after the Challenger disaster. This was highlighted by the much heralded 'Return to Flight' on September 29, 1988 with the launch of Shuttle Discovery, 32 months after Challenger's final flight. On February 12th, 1992 Richard Truly resigned as NASA Administrator at the request of President George Bush.

  5. Lidocaine decreases the xylazine-evoked contractility in pregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Piccinno, M; Rizzo, A; Mutinati, M; D'Onghia, G; Sciorsci, R L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of xylazine on basal uterine contractility of bovine pregnant uterine strips and that of lidocaine on xylazine-sensitized bovine pregnant uterine strips, at different stages of pregnancy. Basal contractility was evaluated in an isolated organ bath and the functionality of the strips throughout the experiment was evaluated using a dose of carbachol (10(-5)M). Uterine motility, expressed with amplitude, frequency of contractions as well as the area under the curve, was recorded in different stages of pregnancy and data were collected at 15-min intervals (5-min before and 5-min after xylazine administration and 5-min after lidocaine addition on the plateau contraction induced by xylazine). Uterine motility increased in all the stages of pregnancy after xylazine addition and gradually decreased after treatment with lidocaine. These data suggest that lidocaine might decrease the tonic effect induced by xylazine on bovine pregnant uteri. PMID:27474006

  6. Accelerated skeletal muscle recovery after in vivo polyphenol administration.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Kathryn H; Kruger, Maria J; Smith, Carine

    2012-09-01

    Acute skeletal muscle damage results in fiber disruption, oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated cell-specific contributions to the regeneration process after contusion-induced damage (rat gastrocnemius muscle) with or without chronic grape seed-derived proanthocyanidolic oligomer (PCO) administration. In this placebo-controlled study, male Wistar rats were subjected to PCO administration for 2 weeks, after which they were subjected to a standardised contusion injury. Supplementation was continued after injury. Immune and satellite cell responses were assessed, as well as oxygen radical absorption capacity and muscle regeneration. PCO administration resulted in a rapid satellite cell response with an earlier peak in activation (Pax7⁺, CD56⁺, at 4 h post-contusion) vs. placebo groups (PLA) (P<.001: CD56⁺ on Day 5 and Pax7⁺ on Day 7). Specific immune-cell responses in PLA followed expected time courses (neutrophil elevation on Day 1; sustained macrophage elevation from Days 3 to 5). PCO dramatically decreased neutrophil elevation to nonsignificant, while macrophage responses were normal in extent, but significantly earlier (peak between Days 1 and 3) and completely resolved by Day 5. Anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, increased significantly only in PCO (Day 3). Muscle fiber regeneration (MHC(f) content and central nuclei) started earlier and was complete by Day 14 in PCO, but not in PLA. Thus, responses by three crucial cell types involved in muscle recovery were affected by in vivo administration of a specific purified polyphenol in magnitude (neutrophil), time course (macrophages), or time course and activation state (satellite cell), explaining faster effective regeneration in the presence of proanthocyanidolic oligomers. PMID:22079208

  7. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  8. MCS Systems Administration Toolkit

    2001-09-30

    This package contains a number of systems administration utilities to assist a team of system administrators in managing a computer environment by automating routine tasks and centralizing information. Included are utilities to help install software on a network of computers and programs to make an image of a disk drive, to manage and distribute configuration files for a number of systems, and to run self-testss on systems, as well as an example of using amore » database to manage host information and various utilities.« less

  9. Antihypertensive drugs decrease risk of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jin; Yao, Wenliang; Furberg, Curt D.; Xue, Qian-Li; Mercado, Carla I.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Fried, Linda P.; Kawas, Claudia H.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether use of diuretics, angiotensin-1 receptor blockers (ARB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), calcium channel blockers (CCB), or β-blockers (BB) was associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia in participants with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Secondary longitudinal data analysis of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study in older adults at least 75 years of age with normal cognition (n = 1,928) or MCI (n = 320) over a median 6.1-year period using Cox proportional hazard models after adjusting for confounders. Results: Diuretic use was reported by 15.6%, ARB 6.1%, ACE-I 15.1%, CCB 14.8%, and BB 20.5%. Of the 2,248 participants, 290 (13%) developed AD dementia. Hazard ratio for incident AD dementia among participants with normal cognition was 0.51 in diuretic (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31–0.82), 0.31 in ARB (95% CI 0.14–0.68), 0.50 in ACE-I (95% CI 0.29–0.83), 0.62 in CCB (95% CI 0.35–1.09), and 0.58 in BB (95% CI 0.36–0.93) users and was not significantly altered when mean systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg. In participants with MCI, only diuretic use was associated with decreased risk (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% CI 0.20–0.73). Conclusions: Diuretic, ARB, and ACE-I use was, in addition to and/or independently of mean systolic blood pressure, associated with reduced risk of AD dementia in participants with normal cognition, while only diuretic use was associated with reduced risk in participants with MCI. PMID:23911756

  10. ACE2 Decreases Formation and Severity of Angiotensin II-induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Sean E.; Zhang, Xuan; Howatt, Deborah A.; Yiannikouris, Frederique; Gurley, Susan B.; Ennis, Terri; Curci, John A.; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cleaves angiotensin II (AngII) to form angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), which generally opposes effects of AngII. AngII infusion into hypercholesterolemic male mice induces formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This study tests the hypothesis that deficiency of ACE2 promotes AngII-induced AAAs, while ACE2 activation suppresses aneurysm formation. Approach and Results ACE2 protein was detectable by immunostaining in mice and human AAAs. Whole body deficiency of ACE2 significantly increased aortic lumen diameters and external diameters of suprarenal aortas from AngII-infused mice. Conversely, ACE2 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells had no effect on AngII-induced AAAs. In contrast to AngII-induced AAAs, ACE2 deficiency had no significant effect on external aortic diameters of elastase-induced AAAs. Since ACE2 deficiency promoted AAA formation in AngII-infused mice, we determined if ACE2 activation suppressed AAAs. ACE2 activation by administration of diminazine aceturate (DIZE, 30 mg/kg/day) to Ldlr−/− mice increased kidney ACE2 mRNA abundance and activity and elevated plasma Ang-(1-7) concentrations. Unexpectedly, administration of DIZE significantly reduced total sera cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations. Notably, DIZE significantly decreased aortic lumen diameters and aortic external diameters of AngII-infused mice resulting in a marked reduction in AAA incidence (from 73 to 29%). None of these effects of DIZE were observed in the Ace2−/y mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that ACE2 exerts a modulatory role in AngII-induced AAA formation, and that therapeutic stimulation of ACE2 could be a benefit to reduce AAA expansion and rupture in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system. PMID:25301841

  11. Peripheral chemerin administration modulates hypothalamic control of feeding.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; Orlando, Giustino; Ferrante, Claudio; Recinella, Lucia; Leone, Sheila; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Di Nisio, Chiara; Shohreh, Rugia; Manippa, Fabio; Ricciuti, Adriana; Vacca, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine that is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of chemerin on food intake, body weight and hypothalamic peptidergic and aminergic modulators which play a pivotal role in feeding regulation in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected, daily for 17 days at 9.00am, with either vehicle (saline; N=12) or chemerin (8μg/kg; N=12) and (16μg/kg; N=12). Food intake was recorded 24h after each administration. Animals were sacrificed 24h after the last injection. Total RNA was extracted from hypothalami and reverse transcribed to evaluate gene expression of agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), orexin-A, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of chemerin on dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin steady state concentrations in rat hypothalamus homogenate, and monoamine release from rat hypothalamic synaptosomes. Chemerin administration (8 and 16μg/kg) decreased both food intake and body weight compared to vehicle, possibly associated with a significant increase in serotonin synthesis and release, in the hypothalamus. On the other hand, the pattern of gene expression following chemerin administration indicates a minor role played by chemerin as a peripheral appetite-regulating signal. PMID:24269538

  12. Cardiotoxicity in rabbits after long-term nandrolone decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Vasilaki, Fotini; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Germanakis, Ioannis; Tzardi, Marias; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Ozcagli, Eren; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-01-22

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids is linked to a variety of cardiovascular complications. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible cardiovascular effects of nandrolone decanoate on young rabbits using echocardiography, histology and monitoring of telomerase activity, oxidative stress and biochemical markers. Fourteen rabbits were divided into three administration groups and the control group. Doses of 4mg/kg and 10mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate, given intramuscularly and subcutaneously, two days per week for six months were applied. A 4-months wash-out period followed. Focal fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrations of cardiac tissue were observed in the high dose groups. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) levels were significantly increased in the high dose groups, while catalase activity decreased. Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) is the main echocardiographic index primarily affected by nandrolone administration in rabbits. Despite the preserved systolic performance, histological lesions observed associated with distorted MPI values, point to diastolic impairment of the thickened myocardium due to nandrolone treatment. Oxidative stress accumulates and telomerase activity in cardiac tissue rises. Subcutaneous administration seems to be more deleterious to the cardiovascular system, as oxidative stress, telomerase activity and biochemical markers do not appear to return into normal values in the wash-out period. PMID:26541207

  13. Peripheral oxytocin administration reduces ethanol consumption in rats

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, Kaley; Loveless, Rebecca; DeLucca, Brandon; Wardley, Krystal; Deogan, Sumeet; Thomas, Cameron; Peris, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin interacts with mesolimbic dopamine neurons to mediate reward associated with filial behaviors, but also other rewarding behaviors such as eating or taking drugs of abuse. Based on its efficacy to decrease intake of other abused substances, oxytocin administration is implicated as a possible treatment for excessive alcohol consumption. We tested this hypothesis by measuring ethanol intake in male Sprague–Dawley rats injected with oxytocin or saline using two different ethanol self-administration paradigms. First, a dose–response curve was constructed for oxytocin inhibition of fluid intake using a modified drinking-in-the-dark model with three bottles containing .05% saccharine, 10% ethanol in saccharine, and 15% ethanol in saccharine. Doses of oxytocin tested were 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/kg (I.P.). Next, rats received 0.3 mg/kg oxytocin preceding operant sessions in which they were trained to lever-press for either plain gelatin or ethanol gelatin in order to compare oxytocin inhibition of ethanol intake versus caloric intake. For the three-bottle choice study, rats consumed significantly less ethanol when treated with the three higher doses of oxytocin on the injection day. In the operant study, 0.3 mg/kg oxytocin significantly decreased ethanol gel consumption to a greater extent than plain gel consumption, both in terms of the amount of gel eaten and calories consumed. These data affirm oxytocin's efficacy for decreasing ethanol intake in rats, and confirm clinical studies suggesting oxytocin as a potential treatment for alcoholism. PMID:26519603

  14. Disinfection practices in intravenous drug administration.

    PubMed

    Helder, Onno K; Kornelisse, René F; Reiss, Irwin K M; Ista, Erwin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a feedback intervention on adherence to disinfection procedures during intravenous medication preparation and administration. We found that full adherence to the protocols significantly improved from 7.3% to 21.5% (P < .001) regarding medication preparation and from 7.9% to 15.5% (P = .012) regarding medication administration. However, disinfection practices still need improvement. PMID:26899528

  15. Intravenous theophylline rapidly decreases post-lumbar puncture headaches.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Ufuk; Ünal-Artık, H Aybüke; İnan, Leven E; Yoldaş, Tahir

    2016-09-01

    When managing therapy for the post-lumbar puncture headaches (PLPHs), an efficacious, fast-acting, practical and safe method is preferred. Invasive methods have known complications and oral medications might be problematic when nausea and vomiting occurs with severe headaches. The aim of this study was to highlight the brief initial time for a remarkable decrease of PLPH pain levels after the administration of IV theophylline infusion. We observed that IV theophylline infusion has a rapid and marked effect on decreasing pain in PLPHs. At 30 min of theophylline infusion, mean VAS levels were decreased by 47.1 % and at 60 min of infusion, the decrease of pain was 61.9 %. We conclude that IV theophylline infusion is a rapidly effective, noninvasive, practical and low-cost way to treat PLPHs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight both the efficacy and the speed of the effect of pain relief in PLPHs. PMID:26563407

  16. Telecommunications administration standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gustwiller, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  17. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  18. Central Administration. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Because the configuration of the central administration of Duke University has recently been modified, this report was prepared: (1) to describe the changes and rearrangements thus far introduced; (2) to propose desirable clarifications not yet provided; (3) to recommend certain additional changes where these may already appear to be needed; and…

  19. Guidebook for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Fritz, Ed.

    To provide guidance and advice regarding day-to-day responsibilities of new and experienced school administrators and superintendents in New York State, this compendium of knowledge and advice submitted by practitioners is presented with emphasis on all major aspects of superintendency. The section on general aspects of superintendency includes…

  20. Redis database administration tool

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  1. Female Administrator Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlitschek, Elizabeth Ann

    The number of women in educational administration is declining, despite official efforts to end sex discrimination. Women are hampered on the way to obtaining an adequate education, finding roadblocks from sex bias in elementary readers to discrimination in graduate programs; are considered responsible for home and children even when working full…

  2. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  3. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  4. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of successful…

  5. Information for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowitz, Gerald T.; And Others

    Modern management theory, based on the reduction of uncertainties, demands the collection and manipulation of large amounts of information. School Administrators choke in the process of trying to digest a proliferation of data, only some of which are useful. The aims of the study were to explore the extent to which large amounts of data could be…

  6. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  7. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  8. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  9. Hispanic Administrators in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Hispanic administrators in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The data was obtained from Kentucky school Superintendents or their designees in 175 public school districts. The Hispanic survey contained six questions. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on April 21, 2008. A follow-up survey…

  10. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  11. "Complicating" Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Colleen S.

    Administrators desiring to lead organizations that will adapt and survive in a complex environment like today's public schools need to develop what Karl Weick calls "complicated" understanding of "requisite variety." The law of requisite variety states that a diverse and complicated environment demands similar diversity from its inhabitants if…

  12. A Treatise on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  13. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  14. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  15. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  16. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  18. Using Administrative Data. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLeonardi, Joan W.; Yuan, Ying-Ying T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of administrative data to child welfare researchers. Considers issues in using client records--confidentiality, selection of data, historical data, sampling reliability, replication of findings, and access to data--that can be resolved in standardized ways. Notes other problematic issues, such as greater distance from subject,…

  19. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  20. Administrative Effectiveness in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.; Cameron, Kim S.

    1985-01-01

    Determinants of organizational and administrative effectiveness in higher education are discussed, and eight administrator characteristics associated with maintaining and enhancing institutional effectiveness are identified. (MSE)

  1. Pharmacokinetics of ruboxistaurin are significantly altered by rifampicin-mediated CYP3A4 induction

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Kwee Poo; Lowe, Stephen L; Lim, Ming Tung; Voelker, James R; Burkey, Jennifer L; Wise, Stephen D

    2006-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rifampicin co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of ruboxistaurin and its active metabolite, N-desmethyl ruboxistaurin and, in addition, to compare the changes in pharmacokinetics of ruboxistaurin and N-desmethyl ruboxistaurin with the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol : cortisol ratio. Ruboxistaurin is a specific protein-kinase-C β inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of diabetic microvascular complications. Methods This was a two-period, one-sequence study. Sixteen healthy male subjects completed both study periods. In period one, a single 64 mg oral dose of ruboxistaurin was administered. In period two, 600 mg rifampicin was administered daily for 9 days, during which another single 64 mg ruboxistaurin dose was administered on day 7. Blood samples were collected and assayed for ruboxistaurin and N-desmethyl ruboxistaurin. CYP3A4 induction was assessed by ratios of urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol : cortisol (6β-OHC : C) obtained via 24 h and morning-spot sampling techniques. Results Following repeated doses of rifampicin, both the mean Cmax and AUC(0,∞) of ruboxistaurin were significantly reduced by approximately 95% (P ≤ 0.001). For the metabolite, the mean Cmax decreased by 68% (P ≤ 0.001), and AUC(0,∞) decreased by 77% (P ≤ 0.001). The tmax values did not appear affected. The 6β-OHC : C ratios from both 24 h and morning spot methods increased significantly, consistent with CYP3A4 induction. Conclusions The effect of rifampicin co-administration on the exposure of ruboxistaurin is consistent with ruboxistaurin being a substrate of CYP3A4. Therefore, co-administration with known CYP3A4 inducing agents (rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, etc.) may decrease the concentrations of ruboxistaurin and N-desmethyl-ruboxistaurin. In this study, 6β OHC : C ratios substantially underestimated the impact of rifampicin on ruboxistaurin. PMID:16433874

  2. Leadership Behaviors of Vocational Education Administrators in the Midwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shirley L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Leadership behaviors of vocational education administrators in 15 midwestern states were studied. The administrators, representing four institutional types, responded to Part LB of the Boss' Management Styles Survey and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The MANOVA procedure revealed statistically significant differences among administrative roles with…

  3. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  4. Sham-feeding decreases cardiac output in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H B; Jensen, E W; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, S L; Burcharth, F; Christensen, N J

    1992-07-01

    The cardiovascular effect of sham-feeding was measured in seven healthy non-obese human subjects by the Fick principle using the carbon dioxide rebreathing method. The subjects were resting in the sitting position and were exposed to the sight and smell but not the taste of a breakfast meal. Cardiac output decreased significantly from a mean value of 4.0 1 min-1 to 3.5 1 min-1 during sham-feeding (Friedman, P = 0.004). The cardiac output returned to basal values in all seven subjects when the sensory stimulus was removed. The decrease in cardiac output was due to a decreased stroke volume, whereas heart rate and blood pressure did not change. The mechanism of the decrease in cardiac output during sham-feeding remains to be established. PMID:1505165

  5. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  6. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  7. Treadmill exercise reduces self-administration of morphine in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Alaei, Hojjat Allah; Naderi, Asieh; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Zahed, Reza

    2009-06-01

    Exercise can activate the same pathways as morphine. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of short-term and mid-term exercises on the self-administration of morphine in rats. Male Wistar rats were initially trained to receive small pellets of food by pressing the active lever in self-administration apparatus. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Saline, Morphine, Exercise 1 (11 days) and Exercise 2 (30 days). Their jugular vein was cannulated. The animals were placed in self-administration apparatus and allowed to self-administer morphine (0.5mg per infusion all test groups) or saline (Saline group) during consecutive days, for 2h/sessions. In the group 1 the rats were running before each session of self-administration and of group Exercise 2, 30 days before surgery as well as before each session. The pressing numbers of active and passive levers in each group and among different groups were compared. The number of active lever pressing of Morphine group was significantly higher than Saline group (p<0.001). In Exercise 1 and Exercise 2 groups, the number of active lever pressing was significantly lower than Morphine group (p<0.001). As exercise can activate many neurotransmitter systems involved in the addiction process and increase the release of endorphins, it is likely that could decrease the morphine self-administration in this experimental setup. PMID:19131225

  8. Bergenin decreases the morphine-induced physical dependence via antioxidative activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaesuk; Lee, Yeonju; Yun, Kyunghwa; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in the development of physical dependence induced by morphine. Bergenin, a polyphenol found in many Asian, African, and South American medicinal plants, is a potent antinarcotic agent with wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including antioxidant action. In the present study, we observed that bergenin decreased the development of physical dependence induced by morphine in mice and the antioxidant activity of bergenin plays a role in the antinarcotic effects through adapting to morphine-induced oxidative stress in the brain. The naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptom (jumping frequency) was significantly ameliorated (50% of control group) by administration of bergenin (20 mg/kg) in morphine-treated mice. Furthermore, morphine-induced down-regulation of glutathione (GSH) contents was reversed by bergenin administration in the frontal cortex and liver. Bergenin had no effects on the increased levels of nfr2-dependent antioxidant enzyme HO1 and NQO1 in the frontal cortex, striatum, and liver of morphine-treated mice. However, the morphine-induced increase in nrf2 nuclear translocation in the frontal cortex and striatum was inhibited by bergenin treatment. These results suggest that bergenin has a potential antinarcotic effect via regulation of GSH contents and oxidative stress. PMID:25542428

  9. Decreased exposure of atorvastatin in diabetic rats partly due to induction of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2.

    PubMed

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Liu, Can; Zhang, Mian; Ling, Zhaoli; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Chen, Yang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    1. Atorvastatin is frequently prescribed for lowering blood cholesterol and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin in diabetic rats. 2. Diabetes was induced in rats by combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (35 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin following oral (10 mg/kg) and intravenous (2 mg/kg) administrations to rats were measured by LC-MS. Metabolism and uptake of atorvastatin in primary hepatocytes of experimental rats were assessed. Protein expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2 were further investigated. 3. Clearances of atorvastatin in diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administrations were remarkably increased, leading to marked decreases in area-under-the-plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). The estimated oral and systematic clearances of atorvastatin in diabetic rats were 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold of control rats, respectively. Metabolism and uptake of atorvastatin in primary hepatocytes isolated from diabetic rats were significantly increased, which were consistent with the up-regulated protein expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2. 4. All these results demonstrated that the plasma exposure of atorvastatin was significantly decreased in diabetic rats, which was partly due to the up-regulated activities and expressions of both hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2. PMID:26864241

  10. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders. PMID:3557809

  11. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23046746

  12. Inflammation is associated with decreased functional connectivity within corticostriatal reward circuitry in depression

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Li, Zhihao; Haroon, Ebrahim; Woolwine, Bobbi J.; Jung, Moon Y.; Hu, Xiaoping; Miller, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is associated with alterations in corticostriatal reward circuitry. One pathophysiologic pathway that may drive these changes is inflammation. Biomarkers of inflammation (e.g. cytokines and C-reactive protein [CRP]) are reliably elevated in depressed patients. Moreover, administration of inflammatory stimuli reduces neural activity and dopamine release in reward-related brain regions in association with reduced motivation and anhedonia. Accordingly, we examined whether increased inflammation in depression affects corticostriatal reward circuitry to lead to deficits in motivation and goal-directed motor behavior. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 48 medically-stable, unmedicated outpatients with major depression. Whole-brain, voxel-wise functional connectivity was examined as a function of CRP using seeds for subdivisions of the ventral and dorsal striatum associated with motivation and motor control. Increased CRP was associated with decreased connectivity between ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)(corrected P<0.05), which in turn correlated with increased anhedonia (R=−0.47, P=0.001). Increased CRP similarly predicted decreased dorsal striatal to vmPFC and pre-supplementary motor area connectivity, which correlated with decreased motor speed (R=0.31 to 0.45, P<0.05) and increased psychomotor slowing (R=−0.35, P=0.015). Of note, mediation analyses revealed that these effects of CRP on connectivity mediated significant relationships between CRP and anhedonia and motor slowing. Finally, connectivity between striatum and vmPFC was associated with increased plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist (R=−0.33 to −0.36, P<0.05). These findings suggest that decreased corticostriatal connectivity may serve as a target for anti-inflammatory or pro-dopaminergic treatment strategies to improve motivational and motor deficits in patients with increased inflammation including

  13. Effects of acute administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on pulmonary hemodynamics of anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Jandhyala, B S; Malloy, K P; Buckley, J P

    1976-07-01

    I.v. administration of delta9-THC (2.5 mg/kg) To anesthetized dogs resulted in a decrease in heart rate, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), and a significant increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and total pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The increase in PVR to delta9-THC was significantly reduced by cardiac pacing, and was virtually abolished either by bilateral vagotomy or by pretreatment with hexamethonium. The data indicated the delta9-THC induced elevation of PVR was mediated via reflexogenic mechanisms involving afferent vagi and efferent autonomic pathways. PMID:954827

  14. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  15. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  16. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  17. 7. Administrative structures.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research. PMID:24785804

  18. Dramatic decrease of carnitine esters after interruption of exogenous carnitine supply in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bene, Judit; Csiky, Botond; Wittmann, Istvan; Sulyok, Endre; Melegh, Bela

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine supplementation is extensively used in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) to improve dialysis-related clinical symptoms. In a series of studies, we investigated the dynamics of carnitine pool in carnitine-supplemented HD patients; here we report dramatic decrease with special changes of the ester profile due to interruption of the exogenous intake after the last HD session. Serum samples were collected from 18 L-carnitine-repleted end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients before the L-carnitine supplementation, after completion of a carnitine supplementation period treatment (12 weeks, 1 g/IV/HD), right before the HD session, and 44 h after the dialysis. Levels of free carnitine (FC) and the individual esters were determined using electrospray MS/MS technique. Normally, L-carnitine supplementation causes significant elevation of all carnitine compounds to supraphysiological levels, which reaches a standard steady-state-like profile. In this study we found a dramatic decrease in the level of FC, and in short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines (ACs) 44 h after the last dialysis. At the end of this interdialytic period, FC levels increased to only 65% of the predialysis level, whereas the amounts of C2 and C3 esters recovered to only 50%. The level of C6 was 65% of the predialysis level, whereas the amount of C8 chain length ACs returned to 72% of the predialysis level. No significant change was seen in AC concentrations above C10 chain length. Omission of one single dosage of supplemental carnitine in long-term administration schemes results in dramatic decrease and reprofiling of carnitine esters even after the usual 44 h of interdialytic period. PMID:22417076

  19. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  20. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  1. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  2. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  3. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... financial and administrative functions, such as personnel, payroll, property management, etc., the Secretary... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial...

  4. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  5. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  6. Shock drift mechanism for Forbush decreases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Sarris, E. T.; Dodopoulos, C.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the way in which Forbush decreases can arise from variable drifts in nonuniform shocks, where the variation in shock strength along the shock front causes both the shock drift distance and the energy gain to become variable. More particles can then be transported out of a given region of space and energy interval than were transported in, so a spacecraft passing through this region can observe a Forbush decrease in this energy interval despite shock energization and compression. A simple example of how this can occur is presented.

  7. Shock drift mechanism for Forbush decreases

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.F.; Sarris, E.T.; Dodopoulos, C. Thrace Democritus Univ., Xanthe )

    1990-02-01

    Consideration is given to the way in which Forbush decreases can arise from variable drifts in nonuniform shocks, where the variation in shock strength along the shock front causes both the shock drift distance and the energy gain to become variable. More particles can then be transported out of a given region of space and energy interval than were transported in, so a spacecraft passing through this region can observe a Forbush decrease in this energy interval despite shock energization and compression. A simple example of how this can occur is presented. 20 refs.

  8. The decrease in mid-stratospheric tropical ozone since 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedoluha, G. E.; Siskind, D. E.; Lambert, A.; Boone, C.

    2015-04-01

    While global stratospheric O3 has begun to recover, there are localized regions where O3 has decreased since 1991. Specifically, we use measurements from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) for the period 1991-2005 and the NASA Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) for the period 2004-2013 to demonstrate a significant decrease in O3 near ~ 10 hPa in the tropics. O3 in this region is very sensitive to variations in NOy, and the observed decrease can be understood as a spatially localized, yet long-term increase in NOy. In turn, using data from MLS and from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), we show that the NOy variations are caused by decreases in N2O which are likely linked to long-term variations in dynamics. To illustrate how variations in dynamics can affect N2O and O3, we show that by decreasing the upwelling in the tropics, more of the N2O can photodissociate with a concomitant increase in NOy production (via N2O + O(1D) → 2NO) at 10 hPa. Ultimately, this can cause an O3 decrease of the observed magnitude.

  9. The decrease in mid-stratospheric tropical ozone since 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedoluha, G. E.; Siskind, D. E.; Lambert, A.; Boone, C.

    2015-01-01

    While global stratospheric O3 has begun to recover, there are localized regions where O3 has decreased since 1991. Specifically, we use measurements from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) for the period 1991-2005 and the NASA/Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) for the period 2004-2013 to demonstrate a significant decrease in O3 near ~10 hPa in the tropics. O3 in this region is very sensitive to variations in NOy, and the observed decrease can be understood as a spatially localized, yet long term increase in NOy. In turn, using data from MLS and from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), we show that the NOy variations are caused by decreases in N2O which are likely linked to long term variations in dynamics. To illustrate how variations in dynamics can affect N2O and O3, we show that by decreasing the upwelling in the tropics, more of the N2O can photodissociate with a concomitant increase in NOy production (via N2O+O(1D → 2 NO) at 10 hPa. Ultimately, this can cause an O3 decrease of the observed magnitude.

  10. Thermoregulatory set point decreases after hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin W; Whitehurst, Marvin E; Gordon, Christopher J; Carroll, Robert G

    2005-03-01

    Hemorrhage in rats causes a drop in body core temperature that is proportional to the hemorrhage volume. We tested the hypothesis that the hemorrhagic hypothermia is due to a downward shift in the thermoregulatory set point. If so, rats subjected to hemorrhage would prefer a cooler ambient temperature to enhance heat loss during the posthemorrhage period. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with carotid arterial catheters and biotelemetry temperature probes. Two days later, rats were placed in a temperature gradient chamber that allowed the rat to move between ambient temperatures of 15 degrees C to 40 degrees C. Rat location within the gradient was recorded as the selected ambient temperature. After 48 h, a 24 mL/kg hemorrhage was induced via the carotid cannula followed by a 24-h recovery period in the gradient. Body core and selected ambient temperatures significantly decreased after hemorrhage. Within 50 min, selected ambient temperature decreased by 11 degrees C, and returned to normal 100 min after hemorrhage. Within 80 min after hemorrhage, core temperature decreased by 2.3 degrees C, and returned to normal by 8 h after hemorrhage. Expanded analysis of the first hour after hemorrhage showed that reduction in selected ambient temperature preceded the drop in body core temperature. Importantly, the decrease in selected ambient temperature persisted even during the peak decrease in body core temperature. These results indicate that a decrease in thermoregulatory set point contributes to the drop in body core temperature after hemorrhage. PMID:15718921

  11. Nitrate leaching concentrations in the Netherlands decreased more than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumans, Leo; Fraters, Dico; Wattel, Esther

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of EU environmental directives and national policies into measures has led to a decrease in nitrogen (N) surplus in agriculture, notably at dairy farms in the 1995-2002 period. In addition, N emissions to air from agricultural fields have been reduced, and atmospheric N deposition on nature areas subsequently lessened. The nitrate concentrations in root zone leaching at dairy farms and nature areas in the Sand region of the Netherlands also decreased. These decreases were larger than would be expected based on the decreases in net loads. We have formulated and tested hypotheses to explain these extra decreases at farms and in nature areas. Dairy farms cover about 60% of the area in the sandy region of the Netherlands. They have shown a nitrate leaching decrease of 100 mg/l during the 1992-2010 period (67%). The N-surplus at dairy farms decreased from about 340 to 180 kg/ha in this period (47%). Other farm management factors may have caused the additional decrease in root zone leaching concentration on farm level. The main potential factors are the ratio grassland - arable land, the grazing intensity and the ratio artificial fertilizer N - manure N. There are no indications that the ratio grassland - arable land or the ratio artificial fertilizer N - manure N significantly changed between 1992 and 2010. The mowing percentage, as an indicator for grazing intensity, increased from about 180 to 290% in the study period. About 80% (80 mg/l) of the decrease at dairy farms can be attributed to a lower N-surplus and about 20% (20 mg/l) is postulated to be caused by an increasing mowing percentage or less fodder grazing. Nature areas cover about 20% of the area in the Sand region. Nitrate concentrations in root zone leaching in nature areas showed a decrease of 55% in 2010 compared to 1990. Yet in rainwater, the concentration decrease is only 40%. Several factors may cause an additional decrease in nitrate concentration particularly an increase of plant

  12. Cocaine decreases cell survival and inhibits neurite extension of rat locus coeruleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Snow, D M; Smith, J D; Booze, R M; Welch, M A; Mactutus, C F

    2001-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is affiliated with neurobehavioral abnormalities in offspring that are associated with problems of attention. Given the putative role of the noradrenergic system in attentional processes, impairments in the noradrenergic system may underlie specific attentionally sensitive, neurobehavioral alterations. Recent data using a clinically relevant intravenous (iv) route of administration show that the norepinephrine cell bodies of the locus coeruleus (LC) are a primary target for in utero cocaine exposure. Cell survival and neurite outgrowth of LC neurons were studied using two paradigms: (1) in vitro, using a physiologically relevant concentration of cocaine, and (2) in vivo, using a clinically relevant intravenous rat model. Fetal cocaine exposure significantly decreased neuronal survival (in vitro: P=.0001, n=24; in vivo: P=.0337, n=30), reduced neurite initiation (in vitro: P=.001, n=24; in vivo: P=.0169, n=30), decreased the number of neurites elaborated (in vivo: P=.0031, n=30), and reduced total neurite length (in vivo: P=.0237, n=30). The results of this novel approach toward an understanding of noradrenergic neurons as they respond to cocaine during development suggest that cocaine may affect behavior by negatively regulating neuronal pathfinding and synaptic connectivity. PMID:11418264

  13. Exercise decreases susceptibility to homocysteine seizures: the role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hrncic, D; Rasic-Markovic, A; Lekovic, J; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Macut, D; Susic, V; Djuric, D; Stanojlovic, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise training on seizures induced by homocysteine thiolactone (HCT) in adult rats. Rats were assigned to: sedentary control; exercise control; sedentary+HCT; exercise+HCT group. Animals in the exercise groups ran 30 min daily on a treadmill for 30 consecutive days (belt speed 20 m/min), while sedentary rats spent the same time on the treadmill (speed 0 m/min). On the 31st day, the HCT groups received HCT (8.0 mmol/kg), while the control groups received vehicle. Afterwards, convulsive behavior and EEG activity were registered. Lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were ascertained in the rat hippocampus. No signs of seizures were registered in sedentary and exercise control rats. Seizure latency was increased, while number of seizure episodes and spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) in EEG were decreased in the exercise+HCT compared to the sedentary+HCT group. Seizure incidence, the severity thereof and duration of SWDs were not significantly different between these groups. Exercise partly prevented increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease of the SOD and CAT activity after HCT administration. These results indicate beneficial effects of exercise in model of HCT-induced seizures in rats, what could be, at least in part, a consequence of improved antioxidant enzymes activity. PMID:24227119

  14. Chronic brief restraint decreases in vivo binding of benzodiazepine receptor ligand to mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mosaddeghi, M; Burke, T F; Moerschbaecher, J M

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the effects of chronic brief restraint on in vivo benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor binding in mouse brain. Three groups of mice were used. Mice in group 1 were neither restrained nor injected (ACUTE control). Mice in group 2 were restrained for 5-6 s by grabbing the back skin and holding the subject upside-down at a 45 degrees angle as if to be injected (CHRONIC SHAM control) for 7 d. Mice in group 3 (CHRONIC SALINE) received daily single intraperitoneal (ip) injections of saline (5 mL/kg) for 7 d. On d 8 BZD receptors were labeled in vivo by administration of 3 microCi [3H]flumazenil (ip). The levels of ligand bound in vivo to cerebral cortex (CX), cerebellum (CB), brain stem (BS), striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), and hypothalamus (HY) were determined. Results indicated that the level of binding was significantly (p < 0.01) lower by 30-50% (depending on the brain region) in saline-injected or sham control groups compared to acute control animals. Furthermore, the values for sham control were similar to the saline-treated group. Our data suggest that exposure to chronic mild restraint produces a decrease in in vivo binding of [3H]flumazenil in mouse brain and supports the hypothesis that chronic mild stress produces a decrease in BZD receptor binding sites. PMID:8385464

  15. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease feelings of anger in substance abusers

    PubMed Central

    Buydens-Branchey, Laure; Branchey, Marc

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in the pathophysiology of some psychiatric disorders. In light of the existence of strong associations between high-frequency and high-severity aggressive behaviors and substance use disorders and of our observation that substance abusers have poor dietary habits, the possibility that the administration of supplements of n-3 PUFAs would decrease their anger levels was explored. A life long history of aggressive behaviors and problems with the law was obtained in 24 patients. Thirteen patients received on a daily basis capsules containing 3 g of n-3 PUFAs (EPA+DHA). Eleven patients received placebo capsules. The trial was double-blind, randomized, and lasted 3 months. An anger scale was administered at baseline and every month thereafter. Six PUFA group patients and eight placebo group patients were followed for an additional 3 months after treatment discontinuation. Four patients in each group had a history of assaultive behavior. The baseline fish and n-3 PUFA intakes of these 8 patients were significantly lower than those of the non-aggressive patients. When given for 3 months, n-3 PUFAs were superior to placebo in diminishing anger scores. These scores remained decreased for 3 months following treatment discontinuation. These data provide further support to emerging evidence indicating that supplementation with long-chain n-3 PUFAs could be beneficial in the treatment of some individuals with aggressive tendencies. PMID:17900705

  16. Genistein-Supplemented Diet Decreases Malaria Liver Infection in Mice and Constitutes a Potential Prophylactic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Prudêncio, Miguel; Gonçalves, Lígia A.; Casalou, Cristina; Buger, Dominik; Sauerwein, Robert; Haas, Werner; Mota, Maria M.

    2008-01-01

    In tropical regions millions of people still live at risk of malaria infection. Indeed the emergence of resistance to chloroquine and other drugs in use in these areas reinforces the need to implement alternative prophylactic strategies. Genistein is a naturally occurring compound that is widely used as a food supplment and is thought to be effective in countering several pathologies. Results presented here show that genistein inhibits liver infection by the Plasmodium parasite, the causative agent of malaria. In vitro, genistein decreased the infection rates of both mouse and human hepatoma cells by inhibiting the early stages of the parasite's intracellular development. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of genistein decreased the liver parasite load of P. berghei-infected mice. Moreover, mice fed on a genistein-supplemented diet showed a significant reduction in Plasmodium liver infection as well as a reduced blood parasitemia and partial protection from severe disease. Since genistein is a safe, low-cost, natural compound that can be used permanently in a diet, we propose its use as a prophylactic agent against malaria for endemic populations and long-time travelers. PMID:18628947

  17. THE BISPHOSPHONATE ZOLEDRONIC ACID DECREASES TUMOR GROWTH IN BONE IN MICE WITH DEFECTIVE OSTEOCLASTS*

    PubMed Central

    Hirbe, Angela C.; Roelofs, Anke J.; Floyd, Desiree H.; Deng, Hongju; Becker, Stephanie N.; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Apicelli, Anthony J.; Xu, Zhiqiang; Prior, Julie L.; Eagleton, Mark C.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rogers, Michael J.; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs), bone targeted drugs that disrupt osteoclast function, are routinely used to treat complications of bone metastasis. Studies in preclinical models of cancer have shown that BPs reduce skeletal tumor burden and increase survival. Similarly, we observed in the present study that administration of the Nitrogen-containing BP (N-BP), zoledronic acid (ZA) to osteolytic tumor-bearing Tax+ mice beginning at 6 months of age led to resolution of radiographic skeletal lesions. N-BPs inhibit farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase, thereby inhibiting protein prenylation and causing cellular toxicity. We found that ZA decreased Tax+ tumor and B16 melanoma viability and caused the accumulation of unprenylated Rap1a proteins in vitro. However, it is presently unclear whether N-BPs exert anti-tumor effects in bone independent of inhibition of osteoclast (OC) function in vivo. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of treatment with ZA on B16 melanoma bone tumor burden in irradiated mice transplanted with splenic cells from src-/- mice, which have non-functioning OCs. OC-defective mice treated with ZA demonstrated a significant 88% decrease in tumor growth in bone compared to vehicle-treated OC-defective mice. These data support an osteoclast-independent role for N-BP therapy in bone metastasis. PMID:19442620

  18. [Is it possible to decrease cholesterol levels with dietary supplements?].

    PubMed

    Rodondi, Pierre-Yves; Degoumois, Florence; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Patients often use dietary supplements for cardiovascular prevention. An US study showed that 75% of patients with cardiovascular disease used dietary supplements. Red yeast rice, phytosterols and fibers can significantly decrease LDL. The level of monacolin in red yeast rice can vary between products and toxins can sometimes be found. Prospective studies showed that fibers could decrease cardiovascular risk. Others substances, like guggul, soy and artichoke leaf extracts, did not show a clear benefit for cardiovascular prevention. Measurements of cholesterol levels can help the physician to discuss with his patient about the effects of some dietary supplements. PMID:27089602

  19. [A Case of Advanced Colon Cancer with Long-Term and Re-Administration of Regorafenib].

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Tohru; Kato, Takuya; Kuratani, Yuki; Yamada, Kenji; Kenno, Sachiko; Shibaki, Taiichiro; Yanagida, Naoyuki; Inagaki, Mitsuhiro; Ikeue, Sunao; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    A 54-year-old woman diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer and multiple liver metastases underwent sigmoidectomy, partial hepatectomy, and RFA in September 2009. Because of postoperative liver and lung recurrence, 5 regimens with combinations of L-OHP/CPT-11 plus anti-VEGF antibody/anti-EGFR antibody was performed. Following these treatments, she underwent hepatic arterial infusion therapy with UFT/Krestin for progressive liver metastases. Starting in November 2014, regorafenib was administered, with an immediate decrease in tumor marker levels; tumor reduction demonstrated enhanced effect against liver metastases. After 8 months of administration, we stopped regorafenib and changed to TAS-102 due to diarrhea and eating disorders. However, TAS-102 was not effective; there were significant increases in tumor markers, liver function tests, and tumor size on computed tomography, and worsening of abdominal pain. After re-administration of regorafenib, a rapid decrease in tumor marker levels and improvement of liver dysfunction and abdominal pain were observed. Re-administration continued for 8 months until best supportive care was instituted. In cases with observed therapeutic effect of regorafenib, long-term or re-administration is possible, with extension of the prognosis depending on the adjustment, and without size reduction of metastatic tumors. PMID:27210098

  20. Effects of the CRF1 antagonist antalarmin on cocaine self-administration and discrimination in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K; Negus, S Stevens; Rice, Kenner C; Mendelson, Jack H

    2006-12-01

    Cocaine stimulates the rapid release of ACTH, and by inference, CRF in several species, suggesting that the HPA "stress" axis may contribute to the abuse-related effects of cocaine. The effects of a systemically-active CRF(1) receptor antagonist, antalarmin, on cocaine self-administration and cocaine discrimination were examined in rhesus monkeys. Antalarmin's acute (1-10 mg/kg, IV) and chronic (3.2 mg/kg IV) effects on IV cocaine self-administration were studied. The acute effects of 3.2 mg/kg IV antalarmin on the cocaine self-administration dose-effect curve (0.001-0.10 mg/kg/inj) were also examined. The acute effects of antalarmin (5 and 10 mg/kg, IM) on the cocaine discrimination dose-effect curve (0.013-1.3 mg/kg) were examined. Antalarmin did not significantly decrease the reinforcing or the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. Acute antalarmin administration produced a dose-dependent but non-significant decrease in self-administration of 0.01 mg/kg/inj cocaine but did not alter the cocaine dose-effect curve. Chronic daily antalarmin treatment did not significantly decrease cocaine-maintained responding. Antalarmin did not significantly alter either the cocaine discrimination dose-effect curve or the time course of the cocaine-training dose. Antalarmin (10 mg/kg) produced sedation, suggesting that it was centrally active, however, it did not attenuate cocaine's abuse-related effects in rhesus monkeys. PMID:17182090

  1. Effects of Repeated Oral Administration of Pazufloxacin Mesylate and Meloxicam on the Antioxidant Status in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Adil Mehraj; Rampal, Satyavan

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged antibiotic and antiinflammatory therapy for complicated infections exposes the body to xenobiotics that can produce several adverse effects for which oxidative damage is the proposed underlying mechanism. In this context, we evaluated the effect of pazufloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial, and meloxicam, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, on antioxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation in rabbits after oral administration for 21 d. Reduced glutathione levels were significantly decreased in rabbits (n = 4 per group) given pazufloxacin, meloxicam, or their combination. In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity was induced in the rabbits treated with pazufloxacin only. Administration of pazufloxacin and meloxicam, as single agents as well as in combination, produced significant lipid peroxidation compared with levels in untreated controls. In conclusion, both pazufloxacin and meloxicam potentially can induce oxidative damage in rabbits. PMID:25199097

  2. Decreasing Smoking Behavior through Subliminal Stimulation Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1979-01-01

    Determines whether subliminal perception can be used as a means for altering cigarette smoking behavior. Smoking behavior was not altered through subliminal perception as carried out in this study. There was evidence that smoking behavior was altered, but it was an unpredicted change. Some subjects decreased smoking patterns. (Author)

  3. Does toxic fescue decrease bull fertility?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the detrimental effects of toxic tall fescue on bull reproductive performance is minimal. In natural breeding, reduced bull performance could decrease the pregnancy rate of the cowherd. Scientists from ARS in Booneville, AR, and the University of Arkansas investigated the influence of f...

  4. Temporal Decrease in Upper Atmospheric Chlorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Salawitch, R. J.; Waters, J. W.; Drouin, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C.; Nassar, R.; Montzka, S.; Elkins, J.; Cunnold, D.; Waugh, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report a steady decrease in the upper stratospheric and lower mesospheric abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from August 2004 through January 2006, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. For 60(deg)S to 60(deg)N zonal means, the average yearly change in the 0.7 to 0.1 hPa (approx.50 to 65 km) region is -27 +/- 3 pptv/year, or -0.78 +/- 0.08 percent/year. This is consistent with surface abundance decrease rates (about 6 to 7 years earlier) in chlorine source gases. The MLS data confirm that international agreements to reduce global emissions of ozone-depleting industrial gases are leading to global decreases in the total gaseous chlorine burden. Tracking stratospheric HCl variations on a seasonal basis is now possible with MLS data. Inferred stratospheric total chlorine (CITOT) has a value of 3.60 ppbv at the beginning of 2006, with a (2-sigma) accuracy estimate of 7%; the stratospheric chlorine loading has decreased by about 43 pptv in the 18-month period studied here. We discuss the MLS HCl measurements in the context of other satellite-based HCl data, as well as expectations from surface chlorine data. A mean age of air of approx. 5.5 years and an age spectrum width of 2 years or less provide a fairly good fit to the ensemble of measurements.

  5. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  6. Decreasing informal caregiver burden with social media.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Tammi

    2014-05-01

    In 2008, there were 44 million informal family caregivers and the number is expected to rise in the next decade. Hospice clinicians need to explore ways to decrease the burden of care for these informal caregivers. The use of electronic technology and social media may be a key component in improving support at end of life in the home setting. PMID:24802601

  7. Domino System Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, R.

    Need a concise, practical explanation about the new features of Domino, and how to make some of the advanced stuff really work? You need answers and solutions from someone who's been in the trenches. You want information from someone like you, who has worked with the product for years, and understands what it is you need to know. Domino System Administration from New Riders is the answer-the first book on Domino that attacks the technology at the professional level, with practical, hands-on assistance to get Domino 5 running in your organization.

  8. [Changes in the relative levels of fatty acids in blood and myocardium in the Prague breed of rats with hereditary hypercholesteremia after administration of slow calcium channel blockers].

    PubMed

    Edelsteinová, S; Bukovská, A; Svec, P; Vozár, I; Kuzelová, M

    1992-07-01

    The present paper describes the effect of six-week oral administration of verapamil and diltiazem (1 mg.kg-1 of weight two times daily in 12 hour intervals) on the content of fatty acids of the serum and myocardium of PHHC rats. A cholesterol diet changes the content of fatty acids of the serum and myocardium of PHHC rats in comparison with control rats without the cholesterol diet. A significant decrease in the content of palmitic acid, a decrease in the content of stearic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and a significant increase in the content of oleic acid were observed in the serum. Long-term administration of the slow calcium channel blockers produces another decrease in the content of the bound form of arachidonic acid. Changes in the representation of other fatty acids are not marked. Long-term administration of a cholesterol diet produces an increase in the content of palmitic acid and stearic acid and a decrease in the content of oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid in the myocardium. Administration of verapamil results in a modification of the above-mentioned changes in all parameters excepting the content of arachidonic acid, the content of which was decreased in an even more marked manner. Administration of diltiazem produced an accumulation of both saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic and oleic acids) and produced a significant decrease in the content of linoleic acid and mainly the bound form of arachidonic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1451191

  9. 21 CFR 201.18 - Drugs; significance of control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; significance of control numbers. 201.18 Section 201.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.18 Drugs; significance of control numbers. The lot number on the label of a...

  10. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  11. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  12. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  13. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  14. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  15. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  16. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.323 Spills of national significance. (a) A discharge may be classified as a spill of national significance (SONS) by the Administrator of EPA...

  17. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial transaction. 561.404 Section 561.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  18. Decreasing trend of groundwater in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE

  19. Verruculogen: a new substance for decreasing of GABA levels in CNS.

    PubMed

    Hotujac, L; Muftić, R H; Filipović, N

    1976-01-01

    In our previous work we examined the mechanism of action of the new tremorogenic substance verruculogen isolated by Cole and coworkers. Examining the effect of various substances with known mechanisms of action on verruculogen-induced tremor, we concluded that this tremor was probably related to decrease of GABA levels in CNS. In order to further define the mechanisms of action of verruculogen, we determined brain GABA levels in animals in which tremor was produced by verruculogen administration. Verruculogen administration produced a decrease in GABA levels in mouse CNS. This finding substantiates our earlier suggestion that verruculogen-induced tremor is mediated by a loss of inhibitory GABA function. PMID:935244

  20. Differential antagonism of cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced disruptions of learning by haloperidol in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Winsauer, Peter J; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M; Roussell, Alison M

    2008-03-01

    Six rhesus monkeys responding under a three-component multiple schedule were administered haloperidol to determine its effects on cocaine self-administration and on cocaine's disruptive effects on the repeated acquisition and performance of response chains. In the absence of haloperidol, 0.0032-0.032 mg/kg/infusion of cocaine increased response rate and the number of infusions in the self-administration component when compared to saline administration, whereas 0.1-0.32 mg/kg/infusion decreased response rate and the number of infusions. When compared to saline administration, the two lowest infusion doses of cocaine had little or no effect on responding in the acquisition and performance components; however, higher infusion doses of cocaine dose-dependently decreased response rate in these components. In addition, the higher doses of cocaine also increased the percentage of errors in the acquisition and performance components. Pretreatment with haloperidol (0.0032 or 0.01 mg/kg, i.m.) antagonized the effects of low doses of cocaine on the number of infusions in the self-administration component, whereas only the 0.01-mg/kg dose antagonized the effects of high doses of cocaine on the number of infusions. Neither dose of haloperidol antagonized the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine on responding in the acquisition and performance components significantly; the highest dose of haloperidol alone decreased rates of responding in each component. Antagonism of cocaine's error-increasing effects by haloperidol was only evident at one dose of cocaine (0.032 mg/kg/infusion), and was more complete in the performance components than in the acquisition components. Together, these data show the limited suitability of haloperidol for selectively antagonizing cocaine self-administration in the context of a multiple schedule involving transition behavior, and show the lack of uniform antagonism across operant behaviors. PMID:18422020

  1. Ibuprofen administration attenuates serum TNF-{alpha} levels, hepatic glutathione depletion, hepatic apoptosis and mouse mortality after Fas stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cazanave, Sophie; Vadrot, Nathalie; Tinel, Marina; Berson, Alain; Letteron, Philippe; Larosche, Isabelle; Descatoire, Veronique; Feldmann, Gerard; Robin, Marie-Anne |; Pessayre, Dominique |

    2008-09-15

    Fas stimulation recruits neutrophils and activates macrophages that secrete tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), which aggravates Fas-mediated liver injury. To determine whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs modify these processes, we challenged 24-hour-fasted mice with the agonistic Jo2 anti-Fas antibody (4 {mu}g/mouse), and treated the animals 1 h later with saline or ibuprofen (250 mg/kg), a dual cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. Ibuprofen attenuated the Jo2-mediated recruitment/activation of myeloperoxidase-secreting neutrophils/macrophages in the liver, and attenuated the surge in serum TNF-{alpha}. Ibuprofen also minimized hepatic glutathione depletion, Bid truncation, caspase activation, outer mitochondrial membrane rupture, hepatocyte apoptosis and the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity 5 h after Jo2 administration, to finally decrease mouse mortality at later times. The concomitant administration of pentoxifylline (decreasing TNF-{alpha} secretion) and infliximab (trapping TNF-{alpha}) likewise attenuated the Jo2-mediated increase in TNF-{alpha}, the decrease in hepatic glutathione, and the increase in serum ALT activity 5 h after Jo2 administration. The concomitant administration of the COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560 (10 mg/kg) and the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (40 mg/kg) 1 h after Jo2 administration, also decreased liver injury 5 h after Jo2 administration. In contrast, SC-560 (10 mg/kg) or celecoxib (40 or 160 mg/kg) given alone had no significant protective effects. In conclusion, secondary TNF-{alpha} secretion plays an important role in Jo2-mediated glutathione depletion and liver injury. The combined inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 by ibuprofen attenuates TNF-{alpha} secretion, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial alterations, hepatic apoptosis and mortality in Jo2-treated fasted mice.

  2. Resolvins Decrease Oxidative Stress Mediated Macrophage and Epithelial Cell Interaction through Decreased Cytokine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Ruan; Phillips, Oluwakemi; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Fukumoto, Itsuko; Tamarapu Parthasarathy, Prasanna; Mandry, Maria; Cho, Young; Lockey, Richard; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a key hallmark of ALI and is mediated through ungoverned cytokine signaling. One such cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) has been demonstrated to be the most bioactive cytokine in ALI patients. Macrophages are the key players responsible for IL-1β secretion into the alveolar space. Following the binding of IL-1β to its receptor, “activated” alveolar epithelial cells show enhanced barrier dysfunction, adhesion molecule expression, cytokine secretion, and leukocyte attachment. More importantly, it is an important communication molecule between the macrophage and alveolar epithelium. While the molecular determinants of this inflammatory event have been well documented, endogenous resolution processes that decrease IL-1β secretion and resolve alveolar epithelial cell activation and tissue inflammation have not been well characterized. Lipid mediator Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) has demonstrated potent pro-resolutionary effects in vivo models of lung injury; however, the contribution of the alveoli to the protective benefits of this molecule has not been well documented. In this study, we demonstrate that AT-RvD1 treatment lead to a significant decrease in oxidant induced macrophage IL-1β secretion and production, IL-1β-mediated cytokine secretion, adhesion molecule expression, leukocyte adhesion and inflammatory signaling. Methods THP-1 macrophages were treated with hydrogen peroxide and extracellular ATP in the presence or absence of AT-RvD1 (1000–0.1 nM). A549 alveolar-like epithelial cells were treated with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of AT-RvD1 (0.1 μM). Following treatment, cell lysate and cell culture supernatants were collected for Western blot, qPCR and ELISA analysis of pro-inflammatory molecules. Functional consequences of IL-1β induced alveolar epithelial cell and macrophage activation were also measured following treatment with IL-1β ± AT-RvD1. Results Results demonstrate that

  3. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:3522147

  4. Subchronic administration of (R,S)-ketamine induces ketamine ring hydroxylation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moaddel, R; Sanghvi, M; Ramamoorthy, A; Jozwiak, K; Singh, N; Green, C; O'Loughlin, K; Torjman, M; Wainer, I W

    2016-08-01

    Subchronic administration of (R,S)-ketamine, (R,S)-Ket, is used in the treatment of neuropathic pain, in particular Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but the effect of this protocol on the metabolism of (R,S)-Ket is unknown. In this study, daily administration of a low dose of (R,S)-Ket for 14-days to Wistar rats was conducted to determine the impact of sub-chronic dosing on the pharmacokinetics of (R,S)-Ket and its major metabolites. The data indicate that, relative to a single administration of (R,S)-Ket, subchronic administration resulted in increased clearance of (R,S)-Ket and the N-demethylated metabolite norketamine measured as elimination half-life (t1/2) and decreased plasma concentrations of these compounds. Subchronic administration produced a slight decrease in t1/2 and an increase in plasma concentration of the major metabolite, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine, and produced significant increases in the plasma concentrations of the (2S,6R;2R,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4R;2R,4S)-hydroxynorketamine metabolites. The metabolism of (R,S)-Ket predominately occurs via two microsomal enzyme-mediated pathways: (R,S)-Ket⇒(R,S)-norketamine⇒(2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,4R;2R,4S)-hydroxynorketamine and the (R,S)-Ket⇒(2S,6R;2R,6S)-hydroxyketamine⇒(2S,6R;2R,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine. The results indicate that the activity of both metabolic pathways are increased by subchronic administration of (R,S)-Ket producing new metabolite patterns and potential differences in clinical effects. PMID:27017097

  5. Ghrelin Decreases Angiogenesis, HIF-1α and VEGF Protein Levels in Chronic Hypoxia in Lung Tissue of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei Bavil, Fariba; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Alihemmati, Alireza; Ghiyasi, Rafigheh; Mohaddes, Gisou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is a condition of decreased availability of oxygen. When cells are exposed to a low oxygen environment, they impel the hypoxia responses to adapt to new situation. The hypoxia response leads to the activation of various cellular signaling pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on angiogenesis, Hypoxia-Inducible-Factor-1α (HIF-1) and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in normobaric hypoxia situation. Methods: Twenty four animals were divided into 4 groups (n=6): control (C), ghrelin (Gh), hypoxia (H), and hypoxic animals that received ghrelin (H+Gh). Hypoxia (11%) was induced by an Environmental Chamber System GO2 Altitude. Animals in ghrelin groups received a subcutaneous injection of ghrelin (150 μg/kg/day) for 14 days. Results: Our results showed that hypoxia significantly (p<0.05) increased angiogenesis without any significant changes on HIF-1 and VEGF levels, whereas ghrelin significantly (p<0.05) decreased angiogenesis, expression of HIF-1 and VEGF in this condition. Ghrelin administration did not show any significant changes in normal conditions. Conclusion: Ghrelin had no effect on angiogenesis, expression of HIF-1 and VEGF in normal oxygen conditions but it reduced angiogenesis process in lung tissue with reducing the level of HIF and VEGF in hypoxic condition. Therefore, effect of ghrelin on angiogenesis could be related to blood oxygen level. PMID:26504752

  6. Effect of nitroglycerin administration on cardio-ankle vascular index

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Mao; Sato, Shuji; Noike, Hirofumi; Shirai, Kohji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference between effects of nitroglycerin (NTG) on the functional stiffness in patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) using a newly developed stiffness index, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). Subjects and methods The two subject groups in this study were normal controls (n=31) and CAD patients (n=25). The normal controls had no medical history and were not on regular medications. On the other hand, the CAD patients had received various treatments like antihypertensive drugs, hypoglycemic agents, and statins. This study was conducted in CAD patients under medications. After a single sublingual administration of NTG 0.3 mg, CAVI, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured every 5 minutes for 20 minutes. Comparisons of each parameter before and after taking NTG were evaluated for statistical significance using analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Tukey–Kramer test was used for post hoc comparisons. Results In the normal controls, CAVI significantly decreased from baseline after 5, 10, and 15 minutes (from 6.5±0.9 to 5.2±0.9, 5.5±0.9, and 5.7±0.9, respectively). Systolic BP and HR were not significantly changed. Diastolic BP significantly decreased from baseline after 5 and 10 minutes (from 72±8 to 64±9 and 63±9 mmHg, respectively). On the other hand, CAVI, HR, and diastolic BP were not changed significantly in CAD patients. Systolic BP was significantly decreased from baseline after 5, 10, and 15 minutes (from 147±16 to 131±14, 129±12, and 129±13 mmHg, respectively). In the comparison of the two groups, ΔCAVI was not significantly different between the normal controls and CAD patients (−1.4±0.7 vs −1.4±0.9, −1.1±0.7 vs −1.4±1.0, −0.8±0.7 vs −1.2±1.0, and −0.5±0.7 vs −1.1±1.0 at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively). ΔHR was not significantly different between the two groups. ΔSystolic BP in the CAD patients was significantly higher than

  7. Nilotinib exacerbates diabetes mellitus by decreasing secretion of endogenous insulin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshikiyo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Chong, Yong; Maki, Toshinobu; Akashi, Koichi; Kamimura, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    We report a 74-year-old female with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in accelerated phase with pre-existing severe type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hemorrhagic gastric ulcers who was successfully treated with nilotinib. We first considered second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of this patient, as they elicit a superior response compared with imatinib. We next selected nilotinib, rather than dasatinib, since the increased risk of bleeding associated with dasatinib represented a greater risk of fatality than aggravation of T2D with nilotinib. After improvement of hemorrhagic gastric ulcers and T2D with exogenous insulin therapy, we began nilotinib administration; insulin dose was increased to maintain her glucose levels whereas urine C-peptide level decreased. Conversely, when nilotinib was discontinued due to liver dysfunction, the dosage of injected insulin was decreased and urine C-peptide levels increased. After re-starting nilotinib, the required dose of insulin gradually increased again, and urine C-peptide level decreased, indicating that nilotinib may have impaired secretion of endogenous insulin. The patient obtained a complete cytogenetic response after 3 months of nilotinib treatment. Her T2D has since been well controlled by insulin therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that nilotinib treatment for patients with severe T2D may induce a reversible decrease in endogenous insulin secretion, although the precise underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We highly recommend sufficient screening and early intervention with exogenous insulin therapy for diabetic CML patients who receive nilotinib. PMID:23179903

  8. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  9. Histamine H3 receptor antagonist decreases cue-induced alcohol reinstatement in mice.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Saara; Mäki, Tiia; Rozov, Stanislav; Bäckström, Pia; Hyytiä, Petri; Piepponen, Petteri; Panula, Pertti

    2016-07-01

    We have earlier found that the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonism diminishes motivational aspects of alcohol reinforcement in mice. Here we studied the role of H3Rs in cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in C57BL/6J mice using two different H3R antagonists. Systemic administration of H3R antagonists attenuated cue-induced alcohol seeking suggesting that H3R antagonists may reduce alcohol craving. To understand how alcohol affects dopamine and histamine release, a microdialysis study was performed on C57BL/6J mice and the levels of histamine, dopamine and dopamine metabolites were measured in the nucleus accumbens. Alcohol administration was combined with an H3R antagonist pretreatment to reveal whether modulation of H3R affects the effects of alcohol on neurotransmitter release. Alcohol significantly increased the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens but did not affect histamine release. Pretreatment with H3R antagonist ciproxifan did not modify the effect of alcohol on dopamine release. However, histamine release was markedly increased with ciproxifan. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that H3R antagonism attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in mice. Alcohol alone does not affect histamine release in the nucleus accumbens but H3R antagonist instead increases histamine release significantly suggesting that the mechanism by which H3R antagonist inhibits alcohol seeking found in the present study and the decreased alcohol reinforcement, reward and consumption found earlier might include alterations in the histaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. These findings imply that selective antagonists of H3Rs could be a therapeutic strategy to prevent relapse and possibly diminish craving to alcohol use. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. PMID:26107118

  10. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  11. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  12. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  13. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for.... The file must contain: (1) Appropriate documentation of the basis for the decision, including...

  14. The cholestyramine-induced decrease of PYY postprandial response is negatively correlated with fat mass in obese women.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, A E; Resnik, M; Compri, E; Agosti, F; De Col, A; Monteleone, P; Marazzi, N; Bonomo, S M; Müller, E E; Sartorio, A

    2011-07-01

    Obese patients have decreased fasting and postprandial levels of peptide YY (PYY), an anorexigenic peptide produced by the L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Fatty nutrients are the most powerful stimulus for PYY release. Cholestyramine, an anion exchanger which adsorbs bile salts, reduces digestion of lipids. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cholestyramine or placebo on PYY secretion in obese women administered a high-fat meal [n=8; age: 30.9±2.7 years; BMI: 47.3±3.3 kg/m2]. Postprandial PYY levels in obese women given placebo significantly increased in plasma at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after meal ingestion. Cholestyramine administration significantly reduced postprandial PYY response at 15, 30, and 60 min. Percent fat mass (FM%) was negatively correlated with the percent increment of plasma PYY concentrations induced by meal administration at 30 min; conversely, there was a positive correlation between FM% and the percent decrement of plasma PYY concentrations induced by cholestyramine at the same time interval. These correlations failed to reach statistical significance when related to BMI. This study implies that in the obese state the altered PYY response to food consumption is a consequence of a dysfunction of L cells, which become less sensitive to the positive feedback effect of lipids. PMID:21769759

  15. Construction Noise Decreases Reproductive Efficiency in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Skye; Glickman, Gary; Norinsky, Rada; Quimby, Fred W; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2009-01-01

    Excessive noise is well known to impair rodent health. To better understand the effect of construction noise and to establish effective noise limits during a planned expansion of our vivarium, we analyzed the effects of construction noise on mouse gestation and neonatal growth. Our hypothesis was that high levels of construction noise would reduce the number of live births and retard neonatal growth. Female Swiss Webster mice were individually implanted with 15 B6CBAF1/J embryos and then exposed to 70- and 90-dBA concrete saw cutting noise samples at defined time points during gestation. In addition, groups of mice with litters were exposed to noise at 70, 80, or 90 dBA for 1 h daily during the first week after parturition. Litter size, birth weight, incidence of stillborn pups, and rate of neonatal weight gain were analyzed. Noise decreased reproductive efficiency by decreasing live birth rates and increasing the number of stillborn pups. PMID:19653943

  16. Joint Impedance Decreases during Movement Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ludvig, Daniel; Antos, Stephen A.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the joint influence how we interact with our environment and hence are important in the control of both posture and movement. Many studies have investigated how the mechanical properties—specifically the impedance—of different joints vary with different postural tasks. However, studies on how joint impedance varies with movement remain limited. The few studies that have investigated how impedance varies with movement have found that impedance is lower during movement than during posture. In this study we investigated how impedance changed as people transitioned from a postural task to a movement task. We found that subjects’ joint impedances decreased at the initiation of movement, prior to increasing at the cessation of movement. This decrease in impedance occurred even though the subjects’ torque and EMG levels increased. These findings suggest that during movement the central nervous system may control joint impedance independently of muscle activation. PMID:23366632

  17. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  18. Construction noise decreases reproductive efficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Skye; Glickman, Gary; Norinsky, Rada; Quimby, Fred W; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2009-07-01

    Excessive noise is well known to impair rodent health. To better understand the effect of construction noise and to establish effective noise limits during a planned expansion of our vivarium, we analyzed the effects of construction noise on mouse gestation and neonatal growth. Our hypothesis was that high levels of construction noise would reduce the number of live births and retard neonatal growth. Female Swiss Webster mice were individually implanted with 15 B6CBAF1/J embryos and then exposed to 70- and 90-dBA concrete saw cutting noise samples at defined time points during gestation. In addition, groups of mice with litters were exposed to noise at 70, 80, or 90 dBA for 1 h daily during the first week after parturition. Litter size, birth weight, incidence of stillborn pups, and rate of neonatal weight gain were analyzed. Noise decreased reproductive efficiency by decreasing live birth rates and increasing the number of stillborn pups. PMID:19653943

  19. Actigraphy-Based Sleep Parameters During the Reinstatement of Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Berro, Laís F.; Andersen, Monica L.; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate nighttime activity of nonhuman primates during extinction and cue- and drug-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine self-administration. Adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 5) self-administered methamphetamine (0.01 mg/kg/injection, i.v.) under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement. Saline infusions were then substituted for methamphetamine and stimulus light (drug-conditioned stimulus presented during drug self-administration) withheld until subjects reached extinction criteria. Drug- and cue-induced reinstatement effects were evaluated after i.v. non-contingent priming injections of methamphetamine (0.03, 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg). Activity-based sleep measures were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors a week before (baseline nighttime activity parameters) and throughout the protocol. Although methamphetamine self-administration did not significantly affect nighttime activity compared to baseline, sleep-like parameters were improved during extinction compared to self-administration maintenance. Priming injection of 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine, but not 0.03 or 0.3 mg/kg, induced significant reinstatement effects. These behavioral responses were accompanied by nighttime outcomes, with increased sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency in the night following 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine-induced reinstatement. In the absence of both drug and drug-paired cues (extinction conditions), nighttime activity decreased compared to self-administration maintenance. Additionally, effective reinstatement conditions impaired sleep-like measures. Our data indicate that the reintroduction of the stimulus light as a drug-paired cue increased nighttime activity. PMID:26882419

  20. [COMPARATIVE CEREBROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PREVENTIVE ADMINISTRATION OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXYBUTYRATE VERSUS MAGNESIUM SULFATE AND CAVINTON IN RATS WITH COMMON CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION].

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Litvinov, A A; Kurkin, D V; Volotova, E V; Darmanyan, A P; Ozerov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Dose-dependent cerebroprotective effect of magnesium hydroxybutyrate (MHB) on common carotid artery occlusion model in rats was established. Administration of 150 mg/kg MHB led to significant decrease in animal mortality (up to 9.3 times) in comparison to control (p < 0.05). This MHB dose also produced significant decrease of neurological deficit on the McGraw scale in comparison to control and magnesium sulfate (50% and 20%, respectively). The MHB treated animals also showed improved locomotor and exploratory performance in the open-field test and retained memory performance in the passive avoidance test and extrapolation escape task test. The administration of 150 mg/kg MHB produced three-fold (p < 0.05) decrease of brain edema in animals with cerebral blood flow impairment in comparison to animals treated with magnesium sulfate and cavinton. PMID:27455571

  1. Decreased proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus after exposure to the Morris water maze and its reversal by fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Námestková, Katerina; Simonová, Zuzana; Syková, Eva

    2005-08-30

    Granular cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus decreases during aging and after chronic stress, while it can be increased by physical activity or treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine. We investigated whether the physical and cognitive stimulation accompanied by stress in the commonly used Morris water maze affects the rate of proliferation and whether the induced changes can be influenced by antidepressant treatment with fluoxetine. Proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus were labeled by three injections of BrdU during the 24h preceding sacrifice. Early differentiation to neuronal progeny was studied by immunohistochemical staining for doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule binding protein expressed in newborn neurons. Acquisition learning in the water maze for 15 days caused a significant decrease in granular cell proliferation in the granular cell layer of the hippocampus. The decrease in the number of BrdU- and DCX-positive cells was reversed to control levels by the use of fluoxetine during the water maze training. Fluoxetine treatment alone increased the number of BrdU-positive cells, but did not increase the number of DCX-positive cells. We conclude that the exposure of adult male rats to water maze acquisition trials is a stressful experience that significantly suppresses the production of new granular cells and that this stressful effect can be blocked by the concomitant administration of the antidepressant fluoxetine. PMID:15941600

  2. Does precision decrease with set size?

    PubMed Central

    Mazyar, Helga; van den Berg, Ronald; Ma, Wei Ji

    2012-01-01

    The brain encodes visual information with limited precision. Contradictory evidence exists as to whether the precision with which an item is encoded depends on the number of stimuli in a display (set size). Some studies have found evidence that precision decreases with set size, but others have reported constant precision. These groups of studies differed in two ways. The studies that reported a decrease used displays with heterogeneous stimuli and tasks with a short-term memory component, while the ones that reported constancy used homogeneous stimuli and tasks that did not require short-term memory. To disentangle the effects of heterogeneity and short-memory involvement, we conducted two main experiments. In Experiment 1, stimuli were heterogeneous, and we compared a condition in which target identity was revealed before the stimulus display with one in which it was revealed afterward. In Experiment 2, target identity was fixed, and we compared heterogeneous and homogeneous distractor conditions. In both experiments, we compared an optimal-observer model in which precision is constant with set size with one in which it depends on set size. We found that precision decreases with set size when the distractors are heterogeneous, regardless of whether short-term memory is involved, but not when it is homogeneous. This suggests that heterogeneity, not short-term memory, is the critical factor. In addition, we found that precision exhibits variability across items and trials, which may partly be caused by attentional fluctuations. PMID:22685337

  3. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J

    2015-06-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+ / PDGFRβ+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRβ+ / αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  4. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+/PDGFRß+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRß+/αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  5. Operations Research and Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, T. C . E.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the uses of operations research (OR) in higher education administration by reviewing the higher education system's most significant operational problems: resource allocation, financial planning, budgeting, formation of student project groups, scheduling and classroom allocation, student registration, tuition and fee structure…

  6. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  7. 76 FR 72328 - Miscellaneous Administrative Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... amends the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to make miscellaneous non-substantive administrative changes to be... NASA. DATES: This direct final rule is effective January 23, 2012 unless Agency receives significant..., NASA will publish a timely withdrawal of the rule in the Federal Register. If no adverse comments...

  8. The Challenge of Creating Ethical Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey; Fisher, Alice

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of administrator ethics in the quality of students' education. Points out that research shows a significant shortcoming in ethical awareness among educational leadership students. Argues that the study of ethics should be an essential component of any educational leadership preparation program. (Contains 13 references.)…

  9. Influenza viral load and peramivir kinetics after single administration and proposal of regimens for peramivir administration against resistant variants.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masatoki; Ito, Masaki; Suzuki, Shigeo; Sakuma, Hiroko; Takeyama, Aya; Oda, Shinichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Koichi; Miyazaki, Kyohei; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2015-03-01

    We estimated the efficacy of the current single administration of peramivir on the basis of peramivir pharmacokinetics in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and determined the predictive peramivir concentration-time curve to assess its efficacy against viruses with decreased susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors. Serum, nasal swab, or aspiration samples were collected from 28 patients treated with 10 mg/kg body weight peramivir. The sequential influenza viral RNA load and susceptibility after peramivir administration were measured using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and neuraminidase inhibition assay. The peramivir concentrations in the serum and URT after a single administration at 10 mg/kg were measured, and the predictive blood and URT peramivir concentration-time curves were determined to assess various administration regimens against resistant variants. The peramivir concentration decreased to <0.1% of the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) at 24 h after administration. Rapid elimination of peramivir from the URT by 48 h after administration may contribute to an increase in the influenza A viral load after day 3 but not to a decrease in the influenza B viral load, despite the absence of a decrease in the susceptibility to peramivir. A longer maintenance of a high level of peramivir in the URT is expected by divided administration rather than once-daily administration. When no clinical improvement is observed in patients with normal susceptibility influenza A and B, peramivir readministration should be considered. In severe cases caused by resistant variants, better inhibitory effectiveness and less frequent adverse events are expected by divided administration rather than once-daily administration with an increased dosage. PMID:25547357

  10. Influenza Viral Load and Peramivir Kinetics after Single Administration and Proposal of Regimens for Peramivir Administration against Resistant Variants

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Masaki; Suzuki, Shigeo; Sakuma, Hiroko; Takeyama, Aya; Oda, Shinichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Koichi; Miyazaki, Kyohei; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the efficacy of the current single administration of peramivir on the basis of peramivir pharmacokinetics in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and determined the predictive peramivir concentration-time curve to assess its efficacy against viruses with decreased susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors. Serum, nasal swab, or aspiration samples were collected from 28 patients treated with 10 mg/kg body weight peramivir. The sequential influenza viral RNA load and susceptibility after peramivir administration were measured using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and neuraminidase inhibition assay. The peramivir concentrations in the serum and URT after a single administration at 10 mg/kg were measured, and the predictive blood and URT peramivir concentration-time curves were determined to assess various administration regimens against resistant variants. The peramivir concentration decreased to <0.1% of the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) at 24 h after administration. Rapid elimination of peramivir from the URT by 48 h after administration may contribute to an increase in the influenza A viral load after day 3 but not to a decrease in the influenza B viral load, despite the absence of a decrease in the susceptibility to peramivir. A longer maintenance of a high level of peramivir in the URT is expected by divided administration rather than once-daily administration. When no clinical improvement is observed in patients with normal susceptibility influenza A and B, peramivir readministration should be considered. In severe cases caused by resistant variants, better inhibitory effectiveness and less frequent adverse events are expected by divided administration rather than once-daily administration with an increased dosage. PMID:25547357

  11. Hematological and Immunological Changes Due to Short-term Oral Administration of Acephate.

    PubMed

    Sankhala, Laxmi N; Tripathi, Syamantak M; Bhavsar, S K; Thaker, Aswin M; Sharma, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate immunotoxicological effects of environmental chemical, subacute toxicity of repeated (28 day) oral administration of acephate (Ace) in BALB/c mice was assessed. Thirty two (sixteen male and sixteen female) mice were divided into four different groups with each group containing eight (four male and four female) mice. Mice of Group C1 were administered normal saline only and served as control. Group T1 was given 1/40(th) of apparent LD(50) (ALD(50)) (8.78 mg/kg), and group T2 was put on 1/30(th) of ALD(50) [11.7 mg/kg], while group T3 received 1/20(th) of ALD(50) [17.55 mg/kg] of Ace suspended in normal saline. The blood samples were collected from mice after 28 days of oral administration and analyzed for hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. The study showed that hematological parameters (monocytes and granulocytes) remained unaffected except total leukocyte count and lymphocyte which were decreased highly significantly [P≤0.01] in mice of group T3 on the 28(th) day of experiment. Serum total protein (TP) and serum globulin decreased significantly in mice of treatment groups dose dependently; however, no significant change was seen in serum albumin. Progressive increase in live body weight of mice decreased significantly in extremely toxic group only while spleen:body weight ratio decreased significantly in dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ace produced suppressed humoral immune response and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to Sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) was altered nonsignificantly. The results of this study describe the suppression of immune responses following exposure to Ace at low concentrations in experimental mice. PMID:22778515

  12. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  13. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  14. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office ACF Help Center (help-center) Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) ... Global Populations Hispanic Outreach Homelessness Human Trafficking LGBT Native Americans/Tribes Unaccompanied Children Grants & Funding Expand How to ...

  15. Selecting the Administrative Computing Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielec, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Important steps in the computing administrator selection process are outlined, including: reviewing the administrative computing organization, determining a search methodology, selecting a search or screening committee, narrowing the candidate pool, scheduling interviews and evaluating candidates, and conducting negotiations. (MSE)

  16. Administrative Implications of Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.

    1970-01-01

    The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)

  17. Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide.

    PubMed

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Kaelen, Mendel; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration). Within each report, specific linguistic references to mental spaces for the past, present and future were identified. Results revealed significantly fewer mental spaces for the past under LSD and this effect correlated with the general intensity of the drug's subjective effects. No differences in the number of mental spaces for the present or future were observed. Consistent with the previously proposed role of the default-mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory recollection and ruminative thought, decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the DMN correlated with decreased mental time travel to the past. These results are discussed in relation to potential therapeutic applications of LSD and related psychedelics, e.g. in the treatment of depression, for which excessive reflection on one's past, likely mediated by DMN functioning, is symptomatic. PMID:26979587

  18. Cobalamin inactivation decreases purine and methionine synthesis in cultured lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Boss, G R

    1985-07-01

    The megaloblastic anemia of cobalamin deficiency appears secondary to decreased methionine synthetase activity. Decreased activity of this enzyme should cause 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to accumulate intracellularly, and consequently, decrease purine and DNA synthesis; this is the basis of the "methylfolate trap" hypothesis of cobalamin deficiency. However, only some of the clinical and biochemical manifestations of cobalamin deficiency can be explained by the methylfolate trap. We investigated cobalamin deficiency by treating cultured human lymphoblasts with N2O since N2O inhibits methionine synthetase activity by inactivating cobalamin. We found that 4 h of N2O exposure reduced rates of methionine synthesis by 89%. Rates of purine synthesis were not significantly reduced by N2O when folate and methionine were present at 100 microM in the medium; however, at the physiologic methionine concentration of 10 microM, N2O decreased rates of purine synthesis by 33 and 57% in the presence of 100 microM folate and in the absence of folate, respectively. The dependency of rates of purine synthesis on methionine availability would be expected in cells with restricted methionine synthetic capacity because methionine is the immediate precursor of S-adenosylmethionine, a potent inhibitor of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate synthesis; methionine serves as a source of formate for purine synthesis; and rates of purine synthesis are dependent on the intracellular availability of essential amino acids. We conclude that cobalamin inactivation decreases purine synthesis by both methylfolate trapping and reduction of intracellular methionine synthesis. PMID:2862163

  19. Clinical significance of adaptive thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Major, G C; Doucet, E; Trayhurn, P; Astrup, A; Tremblay, A

    2007-02-01

    The epidemic of obesity is developing faster than the scientific understanding of an efficient way to overcome it, as reflected by the low success rate of short- and long-term weight loss interventions. From a clinical standpoint, this suggests that the body tends to defend a set point of possible genetic origin in the context of a weight-reducing program. As described in this paper, this limited therapeutic success may depend on adaptive thermogenesis, which represents in this case the decrease in energy expenditure (EE) beyond what could be predicted from the changes in fat mass or fat-free mass under conditions of standardized physical activity in response to a decrease in energy intake. This issue has been documented in recent studies that have shown in obese individuals adhering to a weight reduction program a greater than predicted decrease in EE, which in some cases was quantitatively sufficient to overcome the prescribed energy restriction, suggesting a role for adaptive thermogenesis in unsuccessful weight loss interventions and reduced body weight maintenance. As also discussed in this paper, this 'adaptive thermogenesis' can be influenced by environmental factors, which have not been frequently considered up to now. This is potentially the case for plasma organochlorine concentration and oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. It is concluded that health professionals should be aware that in some vulnerable individuals, adaptive thermogenesis can be multi-causal, and has the capacity to compensate, at least partly, for the prescribed energy deficit, possibly going beyond any good compliance of some patients. PMID:17260010

  20. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R.; Hrubec, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually. PMID:25483128

  1. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  2. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  3. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  4. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  5. Three Generations of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, F. G.

    This paper compares two Australian educational administration texts published in 1963 to reflect critically on the radical changes that have occurred in educational administration in Australia since then. The books are "Headmasters for Better Schools," by Bassett, Crane, and Walker; and "Training the Administrator," by Cunningham and Radford. The…

  6. Special Education Administration Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watherman, Richard F.; Hollingsworth, Sue Ann

    Presented are course materials from a competency based education program in special education administration. It is explained that the Special Education Administration Training Program (SEATP) is designed for continuing education of administrators. Materials are divided into three self contained curriculum areas: fiscal management, personnel…

  7. The Future of Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    Past approaches to public administration, the diminishing distinctions between foreign and domestic policy, the role of the public administrator, and leadership qualities are discussed. As a relatively young discipline, public administration first focused on scientific management (1920's). It then shifted to the art and science of getting things…

  8. Administrative Uses of the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Dennis W.; Atkinson, Gene

    1983-01-01

    An outline of microcomputer applications for administrative computing in education is followed by discussions of aspects of office automation, database management systems, management information systems, administrative computer systems, and software. Several potential problems relating to administrative computing in education are identified.…

  9. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  10. Straight Talk about School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    In this report, the Association of California School Administrators examined some of the myths and misrepresentations about administration in California's public schools. Specifically, it examined the following five myths: (1) A lot of money that could be better spent in the classroom is being wasted on administration. (2) There are too many…

  11. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  12. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  13. Administration of antibiotics to ewes at the beginning of the dry-period.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Ioannis G; Fthenakis, George C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the significance of administration of antibiotics at the end of a lactation period/beginning of the dry-period in ewes. During the stage of active involution, there is an increased risk of new mastitis cases and recrudescence of subclinical infections that had occurred during the previous lactation period. The main pathogens involved in the so-called 'dry-period mastitis' are coagulase-negative staphylococci. The principle of antibiotic administration at the end of a lactation period involves the intramammary infusion of a preparation to both mammary glands of ewes in the flock. Although a variety of products is licensed for administration in ewes, preferably the product for administration should be selected on the results of susceptibility testing of bacteria to be isolated from samples from ewes in the flock. In many clinical studies from around the world, performed in dairy- or mutton-production flocks, administration of antimicrobial agents at the end of a lactation period has been found beneficial in curing intramammary infections present at cessation of a lactation period, as well as in minimising the risk for intramammary infections during the dry-period. In dairy flocks, there are also benefits from increase in milk yield and decrease flock bulk milk mean somatic cell counts during the subsequent lactation period. Antibiotic administration at drying-off may be performed to all animals in a flock ('complete') or only to those considered to be infected ('selective'). In all cases, after administration of the antibiotic, definite and complete cessation of the lactation period is essential for success of the procedure. Moreover, maintenance of the prescribed withdrawal periods is essential to safeguard public health. The procedure should always be applied as part of a strategic udder health management plan in a flock; implementation improves the welfare of animals and affords significant financial benefits to the

  14. Synergistic effect of decreased opioid activity and sleep deprivation on head-twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Ionov, Ilya D

    2010-07-01

    In schizophrenia, an opioidergic understimulation and a decreased sleep duration are found. The pathogenic significance of these factors is unknown. The present study assessed the influence of the combination of the factors on serotonergic 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors that are possibly related to psychosis development. 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced head-twitch response in mice was used as a model of 5-HT(2A) receptor functioning. Mice underwent sleep deprivation and/or a blockade of opioidergic receptors with naloxone. To evaluate the involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptor in effects observed, animals were pretreated with MDL 100,907, a potent and selective antagonist of 5-HT(2A) receptor. As was found, 4h of sleep deprivation followed by administration of naloxone significantly increases the frequency of head twitches, with sleep deprivation and naloxone being ineffective alone. The action of the "sleep deprivation-opioid understimulation" combination is antagonized completely by MDL 100,907. Thus, some schizophrenia-associated factors can synergistically enhance the activity of 5-HT(2A) receptors. These results suggest the above factors being pathogenically relevant in schizophrenia. PMID:20399224

  15. Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2007-09-01

    Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

  16. 5 CFR 894.511 - What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment? 894.511 Section 894.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND...

  17. 5 CFR 894.511 - What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment? 894.511 Section 894.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND...

  18. 5 CFR 894.511 - What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment? 894.511 Section 894.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND...

  19. 5 CFR 894.511 - What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment? 894.511 Section 894.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND...

  20. 5 CFR 894.511 - What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the QLEs that are consistent with decreasing my type of enrollment? 894.511 Section 894.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND...

  1. Significance determination: A rational reconstruction of decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kjellerup, U.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with some screening environmental impact assessments (EIAs) that have been reviewed and decided by an administrative board, the Appeal Board for Nature Protection. The practices developed by the Appeal Board show that the handling of significance in screening lacks focus, which leads to a mix of problems; namely, inconsistent argumentation and the development of practices not compliant with the usual understanding of EIA. The problems are found in project-related screening cases as well as in general screening cases. The article argues that structural barriers in Danish EIA regulations hinder the function of the EIA system in general. The article also touches upon the problems of implementing EIA into existing legal frameworks and present the view that a Board composed mainly of politicians cannot be the right body to enforce the procedural rules of the EIA-system.

  2. Effects of acute and chronic ketoconazole administration on hypothalamo--pituitary--adrenal axis activity and brain corticotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Smagin, Gennady N; Goeders, Nick E

    2004-11-01

    We have been investigating the effects of ketoconazole on cocaine reward in rats for several years now. However, we recently confirmed that ketoconazole-induced changes in cocaine self-administration and reinstatement do not always correspond with decreases in plasma corticosterone, which suggests that other mechanisms must be underlying the behavioral effects that we observe. This experiment was therefore designed to determine the effects of acute, repeated and chronic ketoconazole administration on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) content in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic brain sites in rats following the same dosing regimen that we use in our behavioral studies. Although ketoconazole significantly increased the concentration of ACTH in trunk blood, there were no significant effects on plasma cortisol, corticosterone or testosterone. There was also a significant increase in CRH content in the median eminence after the acute administration of ketoconazole that just failed to reach statistical significance following repeated or chronic administration. However, acute, repeated and chronic treatment with ketoconazole each significantly increased CRH content in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPC), but did not consistently affect the peptide in any other brain region studied. Since the MPC and CRH have been implicated in the neurobiology of cocaine, CRH-induced alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission may play an important role in this peptide's effects on cocaine responsiveness. Taken together with the results from previous studies, these data suggest that ketoconazole may affect cocaine reward, at least in part, through interactions with dopamine and CRH within the MPC. PMID:15288701

  3. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential. PMID:26220824

  4. Plasma atropine concentrations via intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration.

    PubMed

    Prete, M R; Hannan, C J; Burkle, F M

    1987-03-01

    To date, there have been limited studies on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous atropine and no pharmacokinetic studies on the endotracheal or intraosseous administration of atropine. This study examines the time to peak plasma concentration of atropine following intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration in anesthetized monkeys using a triple crossover design. Plasma atropine was assayed by a radioreceptor method. The time to peak plasma concentration of atropine was shortest with intravenous administration; and longest with endotracheal administration. The mean plasma concentration of atropine was significantly higher in intravenous administrations than in endotracheal administrations at 0.75 and 2 minutes; compared to that noted in intraosseous administrations, the concentration was significantly higher only at 0.75 minutes. The mean plasma concentration of atropine administered intraosseously was significantly higher than that of endotracheal administrations at 5 minutes and was greater than that of intravenous and endotracheal administrations for the samples collected from 5 to 30 minutes. The endotracheal and intraosseous routes provide alternatives to the intravenous administration of atropine when intravenous access is limited or not available. PMID:3828010

  5. Method for decreasing permeability around a wellbore

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.C.; Whittington, L.E.; Morrow, L.R.

    1988-01-26

    A method for decreasing formation permeability in an underground formation around a wellbore is described comprising: injecting an aqueous solution having a pH of about 0.9 to about 3.5 into the formation surrounding a wellbore, the aqueous solution comprising about 2% to about 20% by weight of lignosulfonate, about 2% to about 20% by weight of monomer of acrylic acid, a sufficient amount of an initiator of persulfate to copolymerize the lignosulfonate and the monomer, and about 0% to about 3.0% by weight of a metal slat having a cation of iron, titanium, vanadium, chromium or molybdenum.

  6. Decreased fibrinolytic activity in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mussoni, L; Pintucci, G; Romano, G; De Benedetti, F; Massa, M; Martini, A

    1990-01-01

    The basal fibrinolytic activity in 17 children with active juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) was investigated. It was found that patients with JCA, and particularly those with the systemic form, show decreased plasma fibrinolytic activity and a marked increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor. Additionally, it was found that patients with systemic JCA, but not those with the polyarticular or pauciarticular form, have increased circulating levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, and endothelial cell protein, suggesting possible endothelial cell participation in systemic JCA. PMID:2125408

  7. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  8. One day access to a running wheel reduces self-administration of d-methamphetamine, MDMA and Methylone

    PubMed Central

    Aarde, Shawn M.; Miller, Michelle L.; Creehan, Kevin M.; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise influences drug craving and consumption in humans and drug self-administration in laboratory animals, but the effects can be variable. Improved understanding of how exercise affects drug intake or craving would enhance applications of exercise programs to human drug users attempting cessation. Methods Rats were trained in the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of d-methamphetamine (METH; 0.05 mg/kg/inf), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 0.5 mg/kg/inf) or methylone (0.5 mg/kg/inf). Once IVSA was established, the effect of ~22 hrs of wheel access in the home cage on subsequent drug taking was assessed in a two cohort crossover design. Results Provision of home cage wheel access during the day prior to IVSA sessions significantly decreased the self-administration of METH, MDMA and methylone. At the individual level, there was no correlation between the amount a rat used the wheel and the size of the individual’s decrease in drug intake. Conclusions Wheel access can reduce self-administration of a variety of psychomotor stimulants. It does so immediately, i.e., without a need for weeks of exercise prior to drug access. This study therefore indicates that future mechanistic investigations should focus on acute effects of exercise. In sum, the results predict that exercise programs can be used to decrease stimulant drug use in individuals even with no exercise history and an established drug taking pattern. PMID:25863714

  9. Cardiorespiratory effects of induction and maintenance of anesthesia with ketamine-midazolam combination, with and without prior administration of butorphanol or oxymorphone.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J D; McGrath, C J; Smith, E P

    1994-04-01

    Cardiorespiratory effects of an IV administered bolus of ketamine (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.375 mg/kg) followed by IV infusion of ketamine (200 micrograms/kg/min) and midazolam (10 micrograms/kg/min) for 60 minutes was determined in 6 dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination was administered to dogs on 3 occasions to determine effects of prior administration of IV administered saline solution (1 ml), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), or oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg). The infusion rate of ketamine and midazolam was decreased by 25% for anesthetic maintenance after opioid administration. There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory variables after saline solution or butorphanol administration; however, oxymorphone caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and breathing rate. Bolus administration of ketamine-midazolam combination after saline solution caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and significant decreases in stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial oxygen content, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Opioid administration was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower values than was saline administration for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial and mixed venous pH and with higher values for stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension. Prior oxymorphone administration resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) values for mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension, and the lowest values for arterial oxygen tension, and arterial and mixed venous pH. Each treatment provided otherwise uncomplicated anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8017701

  10. Enrolled nurse medication administration.

    PubMed

    Kimberley, Anne; Myers, Helen; Davis, Sue; Keogh, Penny; Twigg, Di

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an initiative undertaken at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Perth, Western Australia to enhance the professional development of enrolled nurses to allow them to administer medications without the direct supervision of a registered nurse. This practice change proved to be a positive step for the hospital and for enrolled nurses. Benefits for patients were identified as greater continuity of care and increased timeliness of medication admiuistrqtion. The benefits for enrolled nurses were increased job satisfaction, improved morale and self esteem while the main benefit for registered nurses was decreased stres and workload. PMID:17929736

  11. Decreased NAA in Gray Matter is Correlated with Decreased Availability of Acetate in White Matter in Postmortem Multiple Sclerosis Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Li, S.; Clements, R.; Sulak, M.; Gregory, R.; Freeman, E.; McDonough, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which leads to progressive neurological disability. Our previous studies have demonstrated mitochondrial involvement in MS cortical pathology and others have documented decreased levels of the neuronal mitochondrial metabolite N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in the MS brain. While NAA is synthesized in neurons, it is broken down in oligodendrocytes into aspartate and acetate. The resulting acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, linking neuronal mitochondrial function to oligodendrocyte-mediated elaboration of myelin lipids in the CNS. In the present study we show that treating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with the electron transport chain inhibitor antimycin A decreased levels of NAA as measured by HPLC. To better understand the significance of the relationship between mitochondrial function and levels of NAA and its breakdown product acetate on MS pathology we then quantitated the levels of NAA and acetate in MS and control postmortem tissue blocks. Regardless of lesion status, we observed that levels of NAA were decreased 25 and 32 % in gray matter from parietal and motor cortex in MS, respectively, compared to controls. Acetate levels in adjacent white matter mirrored these decreases as evidenced by the 36 and 45 % reduction in acetate obtained from parietal and motor cortices. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced NAA levels in neurons may result in compromised myelination by oligodendrocytes due to decreased availability of acetate necessary for the synthesis of myelin lipids. PMID:24078261

  12. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  13. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic administration of reserpine and SKF-38393 in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Neisewander, J.L.; Lucki, I.; McGonigle, P. )

    1991-05-01

    Alterations in the density of dopamine receptor subtypes and behaviors mediated by the D1-selective agonist SKF-38393 were examined in rats treated chronically with reserpine, SKF-38393 or the combination of these drugs. Animals received either vehicle or reserpine (1 mg/kg s.c.) on days 1 to 28 and, in addition, half of each of these groups were treated with vehicle and half were treated with SKF-38393 (5-10 mg/kg s.c.) on days 15 to 29. Quantitative autoradiographic measurement of D1 receptors labeled with ({sup 3}H)SCH-23390 and D2 receptors labeled with ({sup 3}H)spiroperidol revealed that chronic administration of reserpine increased the density of both receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen, but not in the substantia nigra. Chronic administration of SKF-38393 alone did not alter D1 receptor density in any of these regions. However, chronic administration of the agonist in reserpinized animals decreased D1 receptor density in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate-putamen or substantia nigra, demonstrating that this partial agonist can selectively down-regulate D1 receptors when endogenous dopaminergic tone is removed. The chronic drug treatments also altered behavioral responses. Chronic administration of SKF-38393 alone produced sensitization of the oral dyskinesia response elicited by a challenge injection of the agonist, but no significant change in the grooming response. Acute administration of SKF-38393 in rats treated with reserpine for 14 days produced stereotypy which was not altered after chronic administration of the agonist. Surprisingly, chronic administration of reserpine alone produced a spontaneous oral dyskinesia, which was blocked dose-dependently by the D2-selective antagonist spiroperidol. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia.

  14. Vgi for Land Administration - a Quality Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, G.; Frank, A. U.

    2013-05-01

    Since the use of volunteered geographic information (VGI) or crowd sourced data (Goodchild, 2007) became more common, several people proposed the use of such methods of data collection for various fields. Success stories were Wikipedia encyclopaedia and OpenStreetMap (OSM), but also using VGI in land administration has been proposed. Robin McLaren proposed crowd sourcing as a way to get a new citizen collaboration model in land administration to enhance transparency and decrease costs (McLaren, 2011). Keenja et al. discussed the perception of VGI within the Dutch cadastre (Keenja, De Vries, Bennet, & Laarakker, 2012). Basiouka and Potsiou even discuss how crowd sourcing can be used to identify errors in the Hellenic cadastre (Basiouka & Potsiou, 2012). One problem of VGI is the quality control (compare Goodchild & Li, 2012). The problem with most data in a land administration system is that there is only a small group of people that can verify the correctness of information. The correct location of a boundary, for example, can only be assessed by the owners of the pieces of land touching at the boundary (and surveyors after investigation and measurement). How shall VGI then provide reliable data? Boundaries between areas of different use may be visible but land administration is often interested in ownership boundaries. In the paper we discuss the types of data used in land administration as discussed by Dale and McLaughlin (1999). These categories are then analyzed to identify the areas where VGI can actually provide reliable input. What we hope to learn from such an analysis is how to use the methodology of crowd sourcing for land administration, even if the data collection authoritatively.

  15. In vivo administration of IL-1 induces thymic hypoplasia and increased levels of serum corticosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, P.J.; Charrier, K.; Alpert, A.; Bressler, L.

    1988-09-01

    Administration of IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta to normal mice induces a decrease in thymic cellularity, the magnitude of which depends on the number of injections and dose of IL-1. Twice daily injections of 200 ng of IL-1 alpha or -beta for 4 days results in a 90% decrease in thymic cellularity, which regenerated after cessation of treatment. Study of thymocyte subpopulations revealed that the number of CD4+/CD8+ thymocytes was dramatically decreased in IL-1-treated mice. Functional assessment of the CD4-/CD8- population from treated animals showed that these cells had adequate mitogenic responses in vitro and that the proportion of these cells in cycle was not different from control CD4-/CD8- cells. IL-1 treatment also prevented the regeneration of thymic cellularity after irradiation. The use of strains of mice differing genetically at the Ly 1 locus to construct radiation bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that bone marrow-derived thymocyte precursors were able to seed the thymus in the IL-1-treated animals. Again, however, the CD4+/CD8+ thymocyte population was significantly decreased. Thymic repopulation occurred upon cessation of IL-1 therapy. Finally, we determined that a single i.p. injection of IL-1 caused a three-fold increase in serum corticosterone levels, which peaked approximately 3 h after IL-1 administration. Thus, an IL-1-dependent increase in serum corticosterone levels may be responsible for the observed thymic hypoplasia.

  16. Systemic and behavioral effects of intranasal administration of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Laurie L; Hsieh, Heidi; Eppert, Bryan L; Carreira, Vinicius S; Krishan, Mansi; Ingle, Taylor; Howard, Paul C; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Genter, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial properties is widespread. Much of the previous work on the toxicity of AgNPs has been conducted in vitro or following oral or intravenous administration in vivo. Intranasal (IN) instillation of AgNPs mimics inhalation exposure and allows further exploration of the toxicity of these particles via respiratory tract exposure. The present study involved 1) single-dose exposures to assess tissue distribution and toxicity and 2) repeated exposures to assess behavioral effects of IN AgNP exposure (nominally uncoated 25 nm AgNP). AgNP deposition was localized in the liver, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and brain. Decrease cellularity in spleen follicles was observed in treated mice, along with changes in cell number and populations in the spleen. The splenic GSH:GSSG ratio was also reduced following AgNP exposure. Expression of the oxidative stress-responsive gene Hmox1 was elevated in the hippocampus, but not cortex of treated mice, as was the level of HMOX1 protein. Mice receiving 7 days of IN exposure to 50 mg/kg AgNPs exhibited similar learning- and memory-related behaviors to control mice, except that treated mice spent significantly less time in the target quadrant of the Morris Water Maze during the acquisition phase probe trial. These findings indicate systemic distribution and toxicity following IN administration of AgNPs. PMID:26340819

  17. Systemic and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Administration of Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Laurie L.; Hsieh, Heidi; Eppert, Bryan L.; Carreira, Vinicius S.; Krishan, Mansi; Ingle, Taylor; Howard, Paul C.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Genter, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial properties is widespread. Much of the previous work on the toxicity of AgNPs has been conducted in vitro or following oral or intravenous administration in vivo. Intranasal (IN) instillation of AgNPs mimics inhalation exposure and allows further exploration of the toxicity of these particles via respiratory tract exposure. The present study involved 1) single-dose exposures to assess tissue distribution and toxicity and 2) repeated exposures to assess behavioral effects of IN AgNP exposure (nominally uncoated 25 nm AgNP). AgNP deposition was localized in the liver, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and brain. Decrease cellularity in spleen follicles was observed in treated mice, along with changes in cell number and populations in the spleen. The splenic GSH:GSSG ratio was also reduced following AgNP exposure. Expression of the oxidative stress-responsive gene Hmox1 was elevated in the hippocampus, but not cortex of treated mice, as was the level of HMOX1 protein. Mice receiving 7 days of IN exposure to 50 mg/kg AgNPs exhibited similar learning- and memory-related behaviors to control mice, except that treated mice spent significantly less time in the target quadrant of the Morris Water Maze during the acquisition phase probe trial. These findings indicate systemic distribution and toxicity following IN administration of AgNPs. PMID:26340819

  18. Prevention by nifedipine of cold pressor-induced decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, S.Z.; White, H.D.; Holman, B.L.; Nesto, R.W.; Mudge, G.H. Jr.; Muller, J.E.; Kozlowski, J.; Wynne, J.

    1983-06-01

    To examine the effects of nifedipine on changes in ventricular function produced by cold, the cold pressor test was administered to eight patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained at baseline and during the cold pressor stimulus both before and after administration of nifedipine, 10 mg buccally; thus, four serial radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained per patient. The cold pressor stimulus did not produce any significant difference in the mean (+/- standard deviation) peak rate-pressure product during the control or nifedipine test (10,900 +/- 3,390 versus 10,600 +/- 3,700). However, the increase in systolic blood pressure (p . 0.05) and the peak systolic blood pressure achieved (p less than 0.001) were greater during the control (134 +/- 19 to 160 +/- 25 mm Hg) than during the nifedipine (125 +/- 18 to 145 +/- 21 mm Hg) cold pressor test. The mean global left ventricular ejection fraction decreased during the control cold pressor test from a baseline value of 0.60 +/- 0.08 to 0.52 +/- 0.08 (p . 0.004). After nifedipine, this variable did not change during the repeat cold pressor test (0.63 +/- 0.09) compared with the repeat baseline value (0.63 +/- 0.11). Therefore, the difference in left ventricular ejection fraction response during control versus nifedipine cold pressor testing was highly significant (p less than 0.0001). In patients with obstructive coronary artery disease, nifedipine abolished the decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction observed during the control cold pressor test and may be of value to protect patients from cold-induced left ventricular dysfunction. The mechanism may be a combination of coronary artery vasodilation and systolic unloading of the left ventricle.

  19. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Heather L.; Shukrullah, Irfan; Veledar, Emir; Gutmann, Rebecca; London, Barry; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results. Subjects included 252 (83%) men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF) 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r = 0.12, P = .02). Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P = .05) and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P = .03). Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation. PMID:20369058

  20. Decreased Expression of DREAM Promotes the Degeneration of Retinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chintala, Shravan; Cheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic mechanisms that promote the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) in NMDA-mediated degeneration of the retina. NMDA, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and MK801 were injected into the vitreous humor of C57BL/6 mice. At 12, 24, and 48 hours after injection, expression of DREAM in the retina was determined by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Apoptotic death of cells in the retina was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferace dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Degeneration of RGCs in cross sections and in whole mount retinas was determined by using antibodies against Tuj1 and Brn3a respectively. Degeneration of amacrine cells and bipolar cells was determined by using antibodies against calretinin and protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha respectively. DREAM was expressed constitutively in RGCs, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, as well as in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). NMDA promoted a progressive decrease in DREAM levels in all three cell types over time, and at 48 h after NMDA-treatment very low DREAM levels were evident in the IPL only. DREAM expression in retinal nuclear proteins was decreased progressively after NMDA-treatment, and correlated with its decreased binding to the c-fos-DRE oligonucleotides. A decrease in DREAM expression correlated significantly with apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells and bipolar cells. Treatment of eyes with NMDA antagonist MK801, restored DREAM expression to almost normal levels in the retina, and significantly decreased NMDA-mediated apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells, and bipolar cells. Results presented in this study show for the first time that down-regulation of DREAM promotes the degeneration of RGCs, amacrine cells, and

  1. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, Zekai

    2015-11-01

    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  2. Measles: Still a Significant Health Threat.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Claire; Lanzi, Maria; Lindberg, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Measles (Rubeola), although considered eradicated in the United States, still causes periodic outbreaks. Vaccine refusal leads to vulnerable pockets of individuals who may become infected once the virus is imported from countries where it is endemic. In turn, these individuals may spread the virus to young infants and to other vulnerable individuals. Many healthcare providers are not familiar with this disease or with the factors that contribute to the risk of spread. Measles causes a serious febrile illness that may lead to pneumonia, blindness, deafness, neurological disorders, and even death. Patients with measles need supportive care and administration of oral vitamin A. The measles vaccine is highly effective and considered extremely safe, but misinformation about the safety of this and other vaccines has decreased immunization coverage in some areas of the country. Mandatory immunization laws exist in every state and have been upheld by courts including the United States Supreme Court, but laws and exemptions vary among states. Nurses can play a strong role in care of patients with measles, case identification, and prevention of transmission. Most importantly, because nurses hold positions of trust in their communities, they should be tireless frontline advocates for immunization. The purpose of this article is to provide information on measles, its transmission, signs and symptoms, treatment, prevention, and relevant laws and regulations. PMID:26110575

  3. Significant results: statistical or clinical?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The null hypothesis significance test method is popular in biological and medical research. Many researchers have used this method for their research without exact knowledge, though it has both merits and shortcomings. Readers will know its shortcomings, as well as several complementary or alternative methods, as such the estimated effect size and the confidence interval. PMID:27066201

  4. The Most Significant Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    1972-01-01

    A reexamination of the significant research done in the decade from 1956-1966 and a revision of this list to include work up to 1971. Human characteristics, equality of educational opportunity, development of the individual, nature of intelligence, methodology of educational research, and principles of learning are some of the areas covered. (RB)

  5. NICU Bedside Caregivers Sustain Process Improvement and Decrease Incidence of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Infants < 30 Weeks Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Sara J; Annibale, David J; Wagner, Carol L; Hulsey, Thomas C; Taylor, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate whether a respiratory care bundle, implemented through participation in the Vermont Oxford Network-sponsored Neonatal Intensive Care Quality Improvement Collaborative (NIC/Q 2005) and primarily dependent on bedside caregivers, resulted in sustained decrease in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in infants < 30 wk gestation. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Infants inborn between 23 wk and 29 wk + 6 d of gestation were included. Patients with congenital heart disease, significant congenital or lung anomalies, or death before intubation were excluded. Four time periods (T1–T4) were identified: T1: September 1,2002 to August 31,2004; T2: September 1, 2004 to August 31,2006; T3: September 1,2006 to August 31,2008; T4: September 1,2008 to August 31, 2010. Results A total of 1,050 infants were included in the study. BPD decreased significantly in T3 post-implementation of the respiratory bundle compared with T1 (29.9% vs 51.2%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.06 [95% CI 0.03-0.13], P = < .001). The decrease was not sustained into T4. There was a significant increase in the rate of BPD-free survival to discharge in T3 compared with T1 (53.1% vs 47%; aOR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.11-2.56], P = .01) that was also not sustained. The rate of infants requiring O2 at 28 d of life decreased significantly in T3 versus T1 (40.3% vs 69.9%, respectively; aOR = 0.12 [95% CI 0.07-0.20], P = < .001). Increases in the rate of surfactant administration by 1 h of life and rate of caffeine use were observed in T4 versus T1, respectively. There was a significant decrease in median ventilator days and a significant increase in the median number of noninvasive CPAP days throughout the study period. Conclusions In this study, implementation of a respiratory bundle managed primarily by nurses and respiratory therapists was successful in increasing the use of less invasive respiratory support in a

  6. 77 FR 21841 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...The Department of Agriculture (USDA) is adopting, as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that decreased the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent production years from $0.0007 to $0.0005 per pound of assessed weight pistachios. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the......

  7. Decreased excretion of glycosaminoglycans in patients with primary glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Tencer, J; Torffvit, O; Björnsson, S; Thysell, H; Grubb, A; Rippe, B

    1997-10-01

    Urine glycosaminoglycans (GAG) concentrations were measured in 150 patients with primary glomerulonephritides: endocapillary glomerulonephritis, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, membranous glomerulonephritis and minimal change nephropathy, and in 63 healthy controls and 19 patients with diabetes nephropathy. The urine GAG to creatinine ratios (GCR) were significantly reduced (p < 0.01) in all the glomerulonephritides investigated (0.20 mg/mmol in endocapillary glomerulonephritis, 1.60 mg/mmol in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, 1.74 mg/mmol in IgA nephropathy, 1.09 mg/mmol in membranous nephropathy, and 1.16 mg/mmol in minimal change nephropathy) compared to healthy controls (2.87 mg/mmol) but not compared to diabetes patients (1.17 mg/mmol). Also, the GCR in a group of 23 non-albuminuric glomerulonephritis patients (1.98 mg/mmol) was shown to be significantly decreased (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the GCR was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in endocapillary glomerulonephritis than in any of the other diseases studied. The GAG excretion per functioning glomerular area, calculated as fractional GAG excretion (FGE), was decreased in all the glomerulonephritides investigated compared to both healthy controls and diabetes nephropathy. The decreased GAG excretion in glomerulonephritides, obtained in the present study, might be a consequence of decreased synthesis or turnover of GAG in the functioning nephrons whereas the mechanisms for the reduced GAG excretion in diabetes nephropathy might be of a different nature. Urinary GAG excretion in this group of glomerular disorders and particularly in endocapillary glomerulonephritis, may lead to new approaches in non-invasive renal diagnostics and, particularly with regard to the differentiation of acute and chronic forms of glomerulonephritides. PMID:9352154

  8. Nursing home administrators' level of job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Job satisfaction has been shown to have a direct relationship to the quality of work. Are nursing home administrators satisfied with their work? How do they compare with their counterparts in other industries? The results of this survey, using the Job Description Index (JDI) and the Job in General (JIG) scale as published by Bowling Green State University, indicate that nursing home administrators have a more compressed rate of job satisfaction than their counterparts in other industries. They focus their dissatisfaction on their coworkers and pay. They demonstrate dissatisfaction by rotating their positions at a rate of every 31 months. This suggests some significant problems in the development and maintenance of quality care and some areas that could be addressed to raise the level of satisfaction among nursing home administrators. PMID:15499807

  9. Effects of chronic buspirone treatment on cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K; Fivel, Peter A; Kohut, Stephen J; Bergman, Jack

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine abuse and dependence is a major public health problem that continues to challenge medication-based treatment. Buspirone (Buspar) is a clinically available, non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic medication that acts on both serotonin and dopamine systems. In recent preclinical studies, acute buspirone treatment reduced cocaine self-administration at doses that did not also decrease food-reinforced behavior in rhesus monkeys (Bergman et al, 2012). The present study evaluated the effectiveness of chronic buspirone treatment on self-administration of cocaine and food. Five adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to self-administer cocaine and food during four 1-h daily sessions under a second-order schedule of reinforcement (FR2 [VR 16:S]). Buspirone (0.32 and 0.56 mg/kg/h) was administered intravenously through one lumen of a double-lumen catheter every 20 min for 23 h each day for 7-10 consecutive days. Each buspirone treatment period was followed by saline control treatment until drug- and food-maintained responding returned to baseline levels. Buspirone significantly reduced responding maintained by cocaine, and shifted the dose-effect curve downwards. Buspirone had minimal effects on food-maintained responding. In cocaine discrimination studies, buspirone (0.1-0.32 mg/kg, IM) did not antagonize the discriminative stimulus and rate-altering effects of cocaine in four of six monkeys. These findings indicate that buspirone selectively attenuates the reinforcing effects of cocaine in a nonhuman primate model of cocaine self-administration, and has variable effects on cocaine discrimination. PMID:23072835

  10. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. PMID:26658172

  11. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention. PMID:25701592

  12. Incomplete and transitory decrease of glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Schoors, Sandra; Cantelmo, Anna Rita; Georgiadou, Maria; Stapor, Peter; Wang, Xingwu; Quaegebeur, Annelies; Cauwenberghs, Sandra; Wong, Brian W; Bifari, Francesco; Decimo, Ilaria; Schoonjans, Luc; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During vessel sprouting, a migratory endothelial tip cell guides the sprout, while proliferating stalk cells elongate the branch. Tip and stalk cell phenotypes are not genetically predetermined fates, but are dynamically interchangeable to ensure that the fittest endothelial cell (EC) leads the vessel sprout. ECs increase glycolysis when forming new blood vessels. Genetic deficiency of the glycolytic activator PFKFB3 in ECs reduces vascular sprouting by impairing migration of tip cells and proliferation of stalk cells. PFKFB3-driven glycolysis promotes the tip cell phenotype during vessel sprouting, since PFKFB3 overexpression overrules the pro-stalk activity of Notch signaling. Furthermore, PFKFB3-deficient ECs cannot compete with wild-type neighbors to form new blood vessels in chimeric mosaic mice. In addition, pharmacological PFKFB3 blockade reduces pathological angiogenesis with modest systemic effects, likely because it decreases glycolysis only partially and transiently. PMID:24335389

  13. Cosmic ray decreases and magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    1993-01-01

    A study has been made of energetic particle data, obtained from IMP 8, in conjunction with solar wind field and plasma data at the times of reported magnetic clouds. It is shown that magnetic clouds can cause a depression of the cosmic ray flux but high fields are required. A depression of 3 percent in a neutron monitor requires a field of about 25 nT. Such high fields are found only in a subset of coronal ejecta. The principal cause for Forbush decreases associated with energetic shocks is probably turbulence in the postshock region, although some shocks will be followed by an ejecta with a high field. Each event is different. The lower-energy particles can help in identifying the dominant processes in individual events.

  14. Adolescent impatience decreases with increased frontostriatal connectivity

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Wouter; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Schweitzer, Julie B.; McClure, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period associated with an increase in impulsivity. Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, and in this study we focus on one of the underlying components: impatience. Impatience can result from (i) disregard of future outcomes and/or (ii) oversensitivity to immediate rewards, but it is not known which of these evaluative processes underlie developmental changes. To distinguish between these two causes, we investigated developmental changes in the structural and functional connectivity of different frontostriatal tracts. We report that adolescents were more impatient on an intertemporal choice task and reported less future orientation, but not more present hedonism, than young adults. Developmental increases in structural connectivity strength in the right dorsolateral prefrontal tract were related to increased negative functional coupling with the striatum and an age-related decrease in discount rates. Our results suggest that mainly increased control, and the integration of future-oriented thought, drives the reduction in impatience across adolescence. PMID:26100897

  15. Cosmic ray decreases and magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    1992-01-01

    Energetic particle data, obtained from IMP 8, in conjunction with solar wind field and plasma data at the times of reported magnetic clouds was studied. It is shown that magnetic clouds can cause a depression of the cosmic ray flux but high fields are required. A depression of 3 percent in a neutron monitor requires a field of about 25 nT. Such high fields are found only in a subset of coronal ejecta. The principal cause for Forbush decreases associated with energetic shocks is probably turbulence in the post-shock region although some shocks will be followed by an ejecta with a high field. Each event is different. The lower energy particles can help in identifying the dominant processes in individual events.

  16. Decreased adult neurogenesis in hibernating Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Hernández, Félix; DeFelipe, Javier; Ávila, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Generation of new neurons from adult neural stem cells occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles. In this article, we study the neurogenesis that takes place during the hibernation of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Using a variety of standard neurogenesis markers and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, we describe a preferential decrease in the proliferation of newborn neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the hibernating hamsters (torpor) rather than in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proliferative capacity is recovered after 3-4days of torpor when arousal is triggered under natural conditions (i.e., not artificially provoked). In addition, we show that tau3R, a tau isoform with three microtubule-binding domains, is a suitable marker to study neurogenesis both in the SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the Syrian hamster brain. PMID:27436535

  17. Decreasing dangerous infant behaviors through parent instruction.

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, J R; Friman, P C; Barone, V J; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

    1987-01-01

    One adult and three adolescent mothers with 1-year-old infants were taught to reduce their infants' potential for injury in the home. After being taught to increase their positive interactions with their infants, the mothers were taught to child-proof the home, to use playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and to give positive attention for safe behaviors. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate functional control. Potentially dangerous behaviors, observed during 10 min of free play, decreased from variable and, at times, high rates during baseline to stable near-zero rates after treatment. These target behaviors remained low at a 7-month follow-up assessment. PMID:3610895

  18. Gynura procumbens Merr. decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Hoe, See‐Ziau; Lee, Chen‐Neng; Mok, Shiueh‐Lian; Kamaruddin, Mohd Yusoff; Lam, Sau‐Kuen

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Gynura procumbens has been shown to decrease blood pressure via inhibition of the angiotensin‐converting enzyme. However, other mechanisms that may contribute to the hypotensive effect have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular effects of a butanolic fraction of Gynura procumbens in rats. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were given intravenous bolus injections of butanolic fraction at doses of 2.5–20 mg/kg in vivo. The effect of butanolic fraction on vascular reactivity was recorded in isolated rat aortic rings in vitro. RESULTS: Intravenous administrations of butanolic fraction elicited significant (p<0.001) and dose‐dependent decreases in the mean arterial pressure. However, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the heart rate was observed only at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg). In isolated preparations of rat aortic rings, phenylephrine (1×10‐6 M)‐ or potassium chloride (8×10‐2 M)‐precontracted endothelium‐intact and ‐denuded tissue; butanolic fraction (1×10‐6–1×10‐1 g/ml) induced similar concentration‐dependent relaxation of the vessels. In the presence of 2.5×10‐3 and 5.0×10‐3 g/ml butanolic fraction, the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1×10‐9–3×10‐5 M) and potassium chloride (1×10‐2–8×10‐2 M) were significantly antagonized. The calcium‐induced vasocontractions (1×10‐4–1×10‐2 M) were antagonized by butanolic fraction concentration‐dependently in calcium‐free and high potassium (6×10‐2 M) medium, as well as in calcium‐ and potassium‐free medium containing 1×10‐6 M phenylephrine. However, the contractions induced by noradrenaline (1×10‐6 M) and caffeine (4.5×10‐2 M) were not affected by butanolic fraction. CONCLUSION: Butanolic fraction contains putative hypotensive compounds that appear to inhibit calcium influx via receptor‐operated and/or voltage‐dependent calcium channels to cause vasodilation and a consequent fall in

  19. A model for chronic, intrahypothalamic thyroid hormone administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Bisschop, P H; Foppen, E; van Beeren, H C; Kalsbeek, A; Boelen, A; Fliers, E

    2016-04-01

    In addition to the direct effects of thyroid hormone (TH) on peripheral organs, recent work showed metabolic effects of TH on the liver and brown adipose tissue via neural pathways originating in the hypothalamic paraventricular and ventromedial nucleus (PVN and VMH). So far, these experiments focused on short-term administration of TH. The aim of this study is to develop a technique for chronic and nucleus-specific intrahypothalamic administration of the biologically active TH tri-iodothyronine (T3). We used beeswax pellets loaded with an amount of T3 based on in vitro experiments showing stable T3 release (∼5 nmol l(-1)) for 32 days. Upon stereotactic bilateral implantation, T3 concentrations were increased 90-fold in the PVN region and 50-fold in the VMH region after placing T3-containing pellets in the rat PVN or VMH for 28 days respectively. Increased local T3 concentrations were reflected by selectively increased mRNA expression of the T3-responsive genes Dio3 and Hr in the PVN or in the VMH. After placement of T3-containing pellets in the PVN, Tshb mRNA was significantly decreased in the pituitary, without altered Trh mRNA in the PVN region. Plasma T3 and T4 concentrations decreased without altered plasma TSH. We observed no changes in pituitary Tshb mRNA, plasma TSH, or plasma TH in rats after placement of T3-containing pellets in the VMH. We developed a method to selectively and chronically deliver T3 to specific hypothalamic nuclei. This will enable future studies on the chronic effects of intrahypothalamic T3 on energy metabolism via the PVN or VMH. PMID:26865639

  20. Decreased Zinc and Increased Copper in Individuals with Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Russo, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess plasma zinc and copper levels in individuals with anxiety and to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between copper and zinc concentration and improved symptoms. Subjects and methods: Serum from 38 individuals with anxiety and 16 neurotypical age, gender and size similar controls were tested for plasma zinc and copper concentration using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Zinc and copper levels, pre and post therapy, were compared and assessed for perceived anxiety symptoms. Results: In this preliminary study, individuals with anxiety had significantly higher plasma levels of Cu (P = 0.0348), Cu/Zn (P = 0.0493) and lower Zn (P = 0.0294) compared to controls. Zn levels normalized (increased to the normal range) and Cu/Zn significantly decreased after zinc therapy (P = 0.0004, P = 0.0033, respectively), but Cu did not significantly decrease (0.3577). These same patients improved significantly with respect to perceived overall symptoms after zinc and anti-oxidant therapy (P = 0.013). Discussion: These results suggest an association between Zn plasma levels and individuals with anxiety, demonstrate that zinc therapy is effective in increasing zinc plasma levels, and show that zinc supplementation may play a role in improved symptoms. PMID:23946656