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  1. Delayed Administration of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dreixler, John C.; Poston, Jacqueline N.; Balyasnikova, Irina; Shaikh, Afzhal R.; Tupper, Kelsey Y.; Conway, Sineadh; Boddapati, Venkat; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Roth, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed treatment after ischemia is often unsatisfactory. We hypothesized that injection of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) conditioned medium after ischemia could rescue ischemic retina, and in this study we characterized the functional and histological outcomes and mechanisms of this neuroprotection. Methods. Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure for 55 minutes. Conditioned medium (CM) from rat BMSCs or unconditioned medium (uCM) was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed 7 days after ischemia using electroretinography, at which time we euthanized the animals and then prepared 4-μm-thick paraffin-embedded retinal sections. TUNEL and Western blot were used to identify apoptotic cells and apoptosis-related gene expression 24 hours after injections; that is, 48 hours after ischemia. Protein content in CM versus uCM was studied using tandem mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics methods were used to model protein interactions. Results. Intravitreal injection of CM 24 hours after ischemia significantly improved retinal function and attenuated cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer. CM attenuated postischemic apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression. By spectral counting, 19 proteins that met stringent identification criteria were increased in the CM compared to uCM; the majority were extracellular matrix proteins that mapped into an interactional network together with other proteins involved in cell growth and adhesion. Conclusions. By restoring retinal function, attenuating apoptosis, and preventing retinal cell loss after ischemia, CM is a robust means of delayed postischemic intervention. We identified some potential candidate proteins for this effect. PMID:24699381

  2. Improving Administrative Efficiency through Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Key adult education management functions (planning, directing personnel, organizing work, staffing, and evaluating) can be enhanced through appropriate technologies. Of particular interest to administrators are computer-based communications, management information systems, and desktop application software such as spreadsheets, groupware, and…

  3. Recent BRCAPRO upgrades significantly improve calibration

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Emanuele; Chipman, Jonathan; Cheng, Su-Chun; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The recent release of version 2.0-8 of the BayesMendel package contains an updated BRCAPRO risk prediction model, which includes revised modeling of Contralateral Breast Cancer (CBC) penetrance, provisions for pedigrees of mixed ethnicity and an adjustment for mastectomies among family members. We estimated penetrance functions for contralateral breast cancer by a combination of parametric survival modeling of literature data and deconvolution of SEER9 data. We then validated the resulting updated model of CBC in BRCAPRO by comparing it with the previous release (BayesMendel 2.0-7), using pedigrees from the Cancer Genetics Network (CGN) Model Validation Study. Version 2.0-8 of BRCAPRO discriminates BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers from non-carriers with similar accuracy compared to the previous version (increase in AUC: 0.0043), is slightly more precise in terms of RMSE (decrease in RMSE: 0.0108), and it significantly improves calibration (ratio of observed to expected events of 0.9765 in version 2.0-8, compared to 0.8910 in version 2.0-7). We recommend that the new version be used in clinical counseling, particularly in settings where families with CBC are common. PMID:24891549

  4. Use of Psychological Tests in an Administrative Staff Improvement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard W.; North, Stewart D.

    All School Administrators and Nominees for administrative positions enrolled in an Administrative Staff Improvement Program at Green Bay, Wisconsin, completed a battery of psychological tests (Miller Analogies Test, Concept Mastery Test, and Strong Vocational Interest Blank). The enrollees scored above average on the MAT compared with graduate…

  5. Glucosamine administration during resuscitation improves organ function after trauma hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaolong; Zou, Lu-Yun; Bounelis, Pam; Chaudry, Irshad; Chatham, John C; Marchase, Richard B

    2006-06-01

    Stress-induced hyperglycemia is necessary for maximal rates of survival after severe hemorrhage; however, the responsible mechanisms are not clear. One consequence of hyperglycemia is an increase in hexosamine biosynthesis, which leads to increases in levels of O-linked attachment of N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. This modification has been shown to lead to improved survival of isolated cells after stress. In view of this, we hypothesized that glucosamine (GlcNH2), which more selectively increases the levels of O-GlcNAc administration after shock, will have salutary effects on organ function after trauma hemorrhage (TH). Fasted male rats that underwent midline laparotomy were bled to a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mmHg for 90 min and then resuscitated with Ringer lactate (four times the shed blood volume). Administration of 2.5 mL of 150 mmol L GlcNH2 midway during resuscitation improved cardiac output 2-fold compared with controls that received 2.5 mL of 150 mmol L NaCl. GlcNH2 also improved perfusion of various organs systems, including kidney and brain, and attenuated the TH-induced increase in serum levels of IL-6 (902+/-224 vs. 585+/-103 pg mL) and TNF-alpha (540+/-81 vs. 345+/-110 pg mL) (values are mean+/-SD). GlcNH2 administration resulted in significant increase in protein-associated O-GlcNAc in the heart and brain after TH. Thus, GlcNH2 administered during resuscitation improves recovery from TH, as assessed by cardiac function, organ perfusion, and levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines. This protection correlates with enhanced levels of nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation and suggests that increased O-GlcNAc could be the mechanism that links stress-induced hyperglycemia to improved outcomes. PMID:16721268

  6. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file. 10.70 Section 10.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... appropriate employees, and show all persons to whom copies were sent; (4) Avoid defamatory...

  7. Personnel Administration in Education: Leadership for Instructional Improvement. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ben M.; And Others

    The central thesis of this book is that personnel administration must be concerned more with the process of educational change and less with the filling of openings, more with instructional change and less with instructional personnel per se. The 12 chapters deal with these personnel administration topics: (1) the improvement of instruction…

  8. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  9. Significant improvements in long trace profiler measurement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Bresloff, C.J.

    1996-07-01

    A Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical efforts and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-}0.1{degrees}C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. We illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500mm, trace length. We are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500mm long trace length, and we are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 run.

  10. Significant improvements in Long Trace Profiler measurement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Bresloff, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument. The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical errors and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-} 0.1 C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. The authors illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500 mm trace length. They are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500 mm long trace length, and they are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200 mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 nm.

  11. Sonocrystallization yields monoclinic paracetamol with significantly improved compaction behavior.

    PubMed

    Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Elliott, James A; Eddleston, Mark D; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Jones, William

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted crystallization (sonocrystallization) was used to prepare a mixture of nano- and micrometer-sized crystals of the monoclinic form of paracetamol-a widely used analgesic known for its particularly problematic mechanical behavior under compression (i.e. poor tabletability). The nano- and micrometer-sized crystals yielded a powder which exhibits elastic moduli and bulk cohesions that are significantly higher than those observed in samples consisting of macrometer-sized crystals, thus leading to enhanced tabletability without the use of excipients, particle coating, salt, or cocrystal formation. Experimental compaction and finite element analysis were utilized to rationalize the significantly improved compaction behavior of the monoclinic form of paracetamol. PMID:25370777

  12. Impaired hypertrophy in myoblasts is improved with testosterone administration.

    PubMed

    Deane, Colleen S; Hughes, David C; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Lewis, Mark P; Stewart, Claire E; Sharples, Adam P

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the ability of testosterone (T) to restore differentiation in multiple population doubled (PD) murine myoblasts, previously shown to have a reduced differentiation in monolayer and bioengineered skeletal muscle cultures vs. their parental controls (CON) (Sharples et al., 2011, 2012 [7,26]). Cells were exposed to low serum conditions in the presence or absence of T (100nM)±PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) for 72h and 7 days (early and late muscle differentiation respectively). Morphological analyses were performed to determine myotube number, diameter (μm) and myonuclear accretion as indices of differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Changes in gene expression for myogenin, mTOR and myostatin were also performed. Myotube diameter in CON and PD cells increased from 17.32±2.56μm to 21.02±1.89μm and 14.58±2.66μm to 18.29±3.08μm (P≤0.05) respectively after 72h of T exposure. The increase was comparable in both PD (+25%) and CON cells (+21%) suggesting a similar intrinsic ability to respond to exogenous T administration. T treatment also significantly increased myonuclear accretion (% of myotubes expressing 5+ nuclei) in both cell types after 7 days exposure (P≤0.05). Addition of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) in the presence of T attenuated these effects in myotube morphology (in both cell types) suggesting a role for the PI3K pathway in T stimulated hypertrophy. Finally, PD myoblasts showed reduced responsiveness to T stimulated mRNA expression of mTOR vs. CON cells and T also reduced myostatin expression in PD myoblasts only. The present study demonstrates testosterone administration improves hypertrophy in myoblasts that basally display impaired differentiation and hypertrophic capacity vs. their parental controls, the action of testosterone in this model was mediated by PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23714396

  13. Improving an Administrator Evaluation Program: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Robert E.; McGarry, Joseph P.

    1986-01-01

    A New Jersey school district uses the following criteria to evaluate an administrator's performance: (1) performance of specific job functions; (2) progress toward attainment of goals; (3) personal traits and professional attributes; (4) indicators of pupil progress; and (5) a professional improvement plan to remedy previous "needs performance…

  14. Improving Performance through Knowledge Translation in the Veterans Health Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Joseph; Perlin, Jonathan B.

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) provides a case study for linking performance measurement, information technology, and aligned research efforts to facilitate quality improvement in a large, complex health system. Dialogue between clinical researchers and VA leaders occurs through structured activities (e.g., the Quality Enhancement…

  15. Rehearsal significantly improves immediate and delayed recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Hessen, Erik

    2011-10-01

    A repeated observation during memory assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is that patients who spontaneously employ a memory rehearsal strategy by repeating the word list more than once achieve better scores than patients who only repeat the word list once. This observation led to concern about the ability of the standard test procedure of RAVLT and similar tests in eliciting the best possible recall scores. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a rehearsal recall strategy of repeating the word list more than once would result in improved scores of recall on the RAVLT. We report on differences in outcome after standard administration and after experimental administration on Immediate and Delayed Recall measures from the RAVLT of 50 patients. The experimental administration resulted in significantly improved scores for all the variables employed. Additionally, it was found that patients who failed effort screening showed significantly poorer improvement on Delayed Recall compared with those who passed the effort screening. The general clear improvement both in raw scores and T-scores demonstrates that recall performance can be significantly influenced by the strategy of the patient or by small variations in instructions by the examiner. PMID:22074064

  16. An improved optical identity authentication system with significant output images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Liu, Ming-tang; Yao, Shu-xia; Xin, Yan-hui

    2012-06-01

    An improved method for optical identity authentication system with significant output images is proposed. In this method, a predefined image is digitally encoded into two phase-masks relating to a fixed phase-mask, and this fixed phase-mask acts as a lock to the system. When the two phase-masks, serving as the key, are presented to the system, the predefined image is generated at the output. In addition to simple verification, our method is capable of identifying the type of input phase-mask, and the duties of identity verification and recognition are separated and, respectively, assigned to the amplitude and phase of the output image. Numerical simulation results show that our proposed method is feasible and the output image with better image quality can be obtained.

  17. Warfarin improves neuropathy in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Henry Gomez, Teny; Holkova, Beata; Noreika, Danielle; Del Fabbro, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old man who was referred to a palliative care clinic with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)-associated neuropathy, responding to a therapeutic trial of warfarin. Electromyography showed distal symmetric sensory axonal neuropathy. The patient reported having had improvement of his neuropathic symptoms while taking warfarin postoperatively for thromboprophylaxis 1 year prior, and recurrence of his symptoms after the warfarin was discontinued. The patient was rechallenged with a trial of warfarin, targeting an international normalised ratio of 1.5-2.0. His pain scores decreased from 5/10 to 3/10 at 1 month and symptom improvement was maintained through 24 months of follow-up. Warfarin had a remarkable impact on our patient's symptoms and quality of life. The mechanisms mediating the symptomatic benefit with warfarin are unclear; however, a placebo effect is unlikely. Further studies may help guide the use of warfarin for MGUS-associated neuropathy. PMID:27317760

  18. Method of Administration of PROMIS Scales Did Not Significantly Impact Score Level, Reliability or Validity

    PubMed Central

    Bjorner, Jakob B.; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Study Design and Setting Two non-overlapping parallel forms each containing 8 items from each of three PROMIS item banks (Physical Function, Fatigue and Depression) were completed by 923 adults with COPD, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICC), and convergent/discriminant validity. Results In difference score analyses, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the pre-specified MID of 0.2 SD. Parallel forms reliabilities were very high (ICC=0.85-0.93). Only one across mode ICC was significantly lower than the same mode ICC. Tests of validity showed no differential effect by MOA. Participants preferred screen interface over PQ and IVR. Conclusion We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels or psychometric properties of IVR, PQ or PDA administration as compared to PC. PMID:24262772

  19. Ceramic Composite Intermediate Temperature Stress-Rupture Properties Improved Significantly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Hurst, Janet B.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are considered to be potential materials for future aircraft engine parts such as combustor liners. It is envisioned that on the hot side (inner surface) of the combustor liner, composites will have to withstand temperatures in excess of 1200 C for thousands of hours in oxidizing environments. This is a severe condition; however, an equally severe, if not more detrimental, condition exists on the cold side (outer surface) of the combustor liner. Here, the temperatures are expected to be on the order of 800 to 1000 C under high tensile stress because of thermal gradients and attachment of the combustor liner to the engine frame (the hot side will be under compressive stress, a less severe stress-state for ceramics). Since these composites are not oxides, they oxidize. The worst form of oxidation for strength reduction occurs at these intermediate temperatures, where the boron nitride (BN) interphase oxidizes first, which causes the formation of a glass layer that strongly bonds the fibers to the matrix. When the fibers strongly bond to the matrix or to one another, the composite loses toughness and strength and becomes brittle. To increase the intermediate temperature stress-rupture properties, researchers must modify the BN interphase. With the support of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, significant improvements were made as state-of-the-art SiC/SiC composites were developed during the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program. Three approaches were found to improve the intermediate-temperature stress-rupture properties: fiber-spreading, high-temperature silicon- (Si) doped boron nitride (BN), and outside-debonding BN.

  20. SHIFTX2: significantly improved protein chemical shift prediction.

    PubMed

    Han, Beomsoo; Liu, Yifeng; Ginzinger, Simon W; Wishart, David S

    2011-05-01

    A new computer program, called SHIFTX2, is described which is capable of rapidly and accurately calculating diamagnetic (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts from protein coordinate data. Compared to its predecessor (SHIFTX) and to other existing protein chemical shift prediction programs, SHIFTX2 is substantially more accurate (up to 26% better by correlation coefficient with an RMS error that is up to 3.3× smaller) than the next best performing program. It also provides significantly more coverage (up to 10% more), is significantly faster (up to 8.5×) and capable of calculating a wider variety of backbone and side chain chemical shifts (up to 6×) than many other shift predictors. In particular, SHIFTX2 is able to attain correlation coefficients between experimentally observed and predicted backbone chemical shifts of 0.9800 ((15)N), 0.9959 ((13)Cα), 0.9992 ((13)Cβ), 0.9676 ((13)C'), 0.9714 ((1)HN), 0.9744 ((1)Hα) and RMS errors of 1.1169, 0.4412, 0.5163, 0.5330, 0.1711, and 0.1231 ppm, respectively. The correlation between SHIFTX2's predicted and observed side chain chemical shifts is 0.9787 ((13)C) and 0.9482 ((1)H) with RMS errors of 0.9754 and 0.1723 ppm, respectively. SHIFTX2 is able to achieve such a high level of accuracy by using a large, high quality database of training proteins (>190), by utilizing advanced machine learning techniques, by incorporating many more features (χ(2) and χ(3) angles, solvent accessibility, H-bond geometry, pH, temperature), and by combining sequence-based with structure-based chemical shift prediction techniques. With this substantial improvement in accuracy we believe that SHIFTX2 will open the door to many long-anticipated applications of chemical shift prediction to protein structure determination, refinement and validation. SHIFTX2 is available both as a standalone program and as a web server ( http://www.shiftx2.ca ). PMID:21448735

  1. Quality improvement in nursing: Administrative mandate or professional responsibility?

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Shigeko

    2012-01-01

    For professionals, providing quality service and striving for excellence are ethical responsibilities. In many hospitals in the U.S., however, there is evidence indicating current quality improvement (QI) involving nurses is not always driven by their professional accountability and professional values. QI has become more an administrative mandate than an ethical standard for nurses. In this paper, the tension between QI as nurses’ professional ethics and an administrative mandate will be described, and the implicit ideal-reality gap of QI will be examined. The threat to professional nursing posed by the current approach to QI will be examined, and ways to incorporate nursing professional values in a practical QI effort will be explored. PMID:23127240

  2. Improving Efficiency and Reducing Administrative Burden through Electronic Communication

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katlyn E; Ludens, Gail M; Ghosh, Amit K; Mundell, William C; Fleming, Kevin C; Majka, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Background: The InBox messaging system is an internal, electronic program used at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, to facilitate the sending, receiving, and answering of patient-specific messages and alerts. A standardized InBox was implemented in the Division of General Internal Medicine to decrease the time physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners (clinicians) spend on administrative tasks and to increase efficiency. Methods: Clinicians completed surveys and a preintervention InBox pilot test to determine inefficiencies related to administrative burdens and defects (message entry errors). Results were analyzed using Pareto diagrams, value stream mapping, and root cause analysis to prioritize administrative-burden inefficiencies to develop a new, standardized InBox. Clinicians and allied health staff were the target of this intervention and received standardized InBox training followed by a postintervention pilot test for clinicians. Results: Sixteen of 28 individuals (57%) completed the preintervention survey. Twenty-eight clinicians participated in 2 separate 8-day pilot tests (before and after intervention) for the standardized InBox. The number of InBox defects was substantially reduced from 37 (Pilot 1) to 7 (Pilot 2). Frequent InBox defects decreased from 25% to 10%. More than half of clinicians believed the standardized InBox positively affected their work, and 100% of clinicians reported no negative affect on their work. Conclusions: This project demonstrated the successful implementation of the standardized InBox messaging system. Initial assessments show substantial reduction of InBox entry defects and administrative tasks completed by clinicians. The findings of this project suggest increased clinician and allied health staff efficiency, satisfaction, improved clinician work-life balance, and decreased clinician burden caused by administrative tasks. PMID:23596365

  3. Significant improvement in IR surface-temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Briles, S.D.; Bennett, G.A.; Larkin, T.H.; Worcester, P.

    1989-06-01

    Obtaining infrared (IR) surface-temperature measurements of miniature square targets on the order of 1.6 mm with a spatial resolution of 15 ..mu..m has recently become possible using the Barnes Engineering Computherm System, but the accuracy and precision of the measurements have been limited. The objective of this work is to provide a calibration procedure that will improve by a factor of 8 the accuracy and precision of the two-dimensional temperature measurement. The IR microscope detects energy emitted by the target and displays it as a radiance image. Heating the target to two known temperatures permits calculation of the target emissivity using the radiances at each pixel in the two-dimensional field. An error is induced in the emissivity calculation by substituting the thermal-well temperature for the known target surface temperature. At the same time, the radiance image is distorted by two functions that affect the measurement accuracy. The precision of the instrument is altered by a random noise field function. The noise functions were investigated to determine whether they were added to or multiplied by the radiance equation. A plot of image-radiance means shows the same trends as the added noise functions suggested by the prediction. Correction of the induced distortions improved the accuracy noticeably. Further improvement in the accuracy is accomplished by using a syringe thermocouple to measure the actual surface temperatures used for the emissivity calculations. Investigation of the random noise field shows that it is zero-mean and Gaussian in nature. We can therefore average images over time to improve the precision. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  5. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    PubMed

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. PMID:23528675

  6. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  7. Direct ChIP-Seq significance analysis improves target prediction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing of protein-bound DNA fragments (ChIP-Seq) is an effective high-throughput methodology for the identification of context specific DNA fragments that are bound by specific proteins in vivo. Despite significant progress in the bioinformatics analysis of this genome-scale data, a number of challenges remain as technology-dependent biases, including variable target accessibility and mappability, sequence-dependent variability, and non-specific binding affinity must be accounted for. Results and discussion We introduce a nonparametric method for scoring consensus regions of aligned immunoprecipitated DNA fragments when appropriate control experiments are available. Our method uses local models for null binding; these are necessary because binding prediction scores based on global models alone fail to properly account for specialized features of genomic regions and chance pull downs of specific DNA fragments, thus disproportionally rewarding some genomic regions and decreasing prediction accuracy. We make no assumptions about the structure or amplitude of bound peaks, yet we show that our method outperforms leading methods developed using either global or local null hypothesis models for random binding. We test prediction performance by comparing analyses of ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip, motif-based binding-site prediction, and shRNA assays, showing high reproducibility, binding-site enrichment in predicted target regions, and functional regulation of predicted targets. Conclusions Given appropriate controls, a direct nonparametric method for identifying transcription-factor targets from ChIP-Seq assays may lead to both higher sensitivity and higher specificity, and should be preferred or used in conjunction with methods that use parametric models for null binding. PMID:26040656

  8. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1981: Water-Quality committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This review of 1981 developments is divided into four basic parts. The first covers legislative, judicial, and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA); the second covers judicial and administrative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); the third covers judicial developments respecting private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 109 references.

  9. Does Graduate Training in Educational Administration Improve America's Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Emil J.; Brent, Brian O.; McNamara, James H.

    1997-01-01

    The United States is one of few nations requiring considerable administrator training to become certified. Private-school students outperform their public-school peers, even though private-school administrators have considerably less graduate training than public-sector administrators. Using 1987-88 Schools and Staffing Survey data, this article…

  10. Annual committee report on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1980: Water Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This review of 1980 developments is divided into three parts. The first covers judicial and administrative developments under the Clean Water Act (CWA) such as industrial guidelines and standards; the second covers judicial administrative and legislative developments under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); and the third covers judicial developments in the areas of private rights of action and the federal common law of nuisance. 320 references.

  11. IMPROVING (SOFTWARE) PATENT QUALITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Arti K.

    2014-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that patent quality, particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”) could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software. PMID:25221346

  12. IMPROVING (SOFTWARE) PATENT QUALITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Rai, Arti K

    2013-11-24

    The available evidence indicates that patent quality, particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software. PMID:25221346

  13. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1982: Environmental Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Judicial developments during 1982 dominated activities involving the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rotenticide Act, and Marine Sanctuaries, with some changes in administrative procedures and no legislative developments. The Endangered Species Act was amended to expedite changes to the lists and to alter exemption and international trade requirements. Several lawsuits challenged review standards and litigation claims. 231 references. (DCK)

  14. Faculty Position Advertisements in Educational Administration: Analysis and a Theoretical Framework for Improving Administrative Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.

    This study examined faculty recruitment advertisements placed by educational administration departments during one faculty recruitment cycle. The study reviewed 108 faculty recruitment advertisements placed by educational administration departments in "The Chronicle of Higher Education," using 22 criteria identified by the literature as effective…

  15. [Orally administered polaprezinc significantly improves taste disorders in ovarian cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Shota; Yanase, Toru; Hata, Yuki; Tamura, Ryo; Tsuneki, Ikunosuke; Tamura, Masaki; Kurabayashi, Takumi

    2011-04-01

    The subject was a 75-year-old female who was receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin(TC)chemotherapy every other week after surgery for ovarian cancer. She greatly complained of taste disorders after four cycles(of every other week administration) of TC chemotherapy. To understand how the taste disorder was caused by chemotherapy objectively, taste examinations were conducted for the patient in our department. These examinations were conducted after receiving the informed consent from the patient. The authors conducted taste examinations for the patient using serum zinc measurement, tongue cell culture, electrogustometry, and filter paper disc tests(before and after starting chemotherapy), and found that her serum zinc level fell significantly after four cycles of chemotherapy. Orally disintegrating tablets of polaprezinc were then administered to the patient, after which the subjective symptom of taste disorder improved. Her serum zinc level increased, and the electrogustometric threshold rapidly fell(an improvement). The filter paper disc test showed some improvement, particularly in the glossopharyngeal nerve and the greater petrosal nerve field. PMID:21499007

  16. Long-Term Administration of Oxandrolone Improves Lung Function in Pediatric Burned Patients.

    PubMed

    Sousse, Linda E; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Lee, Jong O; Andersen, Clark R; Zovath, Andrew J; Finnerty, Celeste C; Suman, Oscar E

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric burned population. We have previously reported that the administration of a synthetic testosterone derivative, oxandrolone, significantly reduced hypermetabolism, and significantly increased height percentile, bone mineral content, lean body mass, and strength in pediatric burned patients. We hypothesize that the administration of oxandrolone will improve pulmonary function in burned pediatric subjects. A subset of severely burned pediatric subjects from a prospective clinical trial (n = 222) were included in our study (n = 54, 7-18 years, ≥30% TBSA burn). The subjects were previously randomized to either the control arm (n = 35) or the oxandrolone arm (0.1 mg/kg twice/day for 12 months, n = 19). Maximum voluntary ventilation, the ratio between forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity, and diffusion capacity were measured 6 months following burn injury, and results were compared between burned subjects with and without oxandrolone administration. Maximum expired ventilation (VEmax) was also measured in a subset of burned subjects. Subjects treated with oxandrolone had a significantly higher maximum voluntary ventilation (98 ± 53 L/min vs 115 ± 56 with treatment, P = .03). During maximal exercise, subjects treated with oxandrolone had a significantly higher VEmax compared with untreated subjects (32.0 ± 8.7 L/min vs 43.7 ± 13.6 with treatment, P = .02). The administration of oxandrolone was associated with improved lung function in pediatric burned patients. PMID:27171844

  17. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  18. Improving Administrative-Related Staff Behaviors at a State Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitz, Diane E. D.; Repp, Alan C.

    1979-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of indigenous contingencies in altering administratively related behaviors (including (1) completing federally required reports on student progress, (2) tardiness, and (3) completing weekly timesheets) with 87 employees at a residence for moderately or severely retarded individuals. (Author/PHR)

  19. Victorian Government Policies towards Improving School Administration and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, David

    2009-01-01

    Victoria in Australia is one of the schools systems which encouraged schools to develop more open school cultures supported by school committees, clubs and councils with community representatives since 1958. In the early 1970s, school administration was decentralized into several regions by posting bureaucrats with delegated authority to the newly…

  20. Glucosamine administration improves survival rate after severe hemorrhagic shock combined with trauma in rats.

    PubMed

    Nöt, Laszlo G; Marchase, Richard B; Fülöp, Norbert; Brocks, Charlye A; Chatham, John C

    2007-09-01

    We have previously shown that glucosamine administration resulted in higher cardiac output and improved tissue perfusion after trauma-hemorrhage with resuscitation in rats, which was associated with the increased levels of protein O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of glucosamine on the survival, without resuscitation, in rats. Adult male rats underwent midline laparotomy and 55% of total blood volume was withdrawn for 25 min under isoflurane anesthesia. At the end of the hemorrhage period, 2.5 mL of 150 mM glucosamine or equivalent osmolarity of mannitol solution was injected intravenously for 10 min. The survival time, mean blood pressure, heart rate, and central body temperature were monitored continuously; then, the O-GlcNAc levels in heart, brain, liver, and muscle were measured by means of Western blot analysis. Glucosamine administration significantly increased the survival rate in comparison with mannitol administration (percentage of survival after 2 h, 47% vs. 20%; P < 0.05). The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the glucosamine group for 18 min after treatment. The protein O-GlcNAc levels, assessed 30 min after glucosamine treatment, were significantly increased in the heart, brain, and liver. These data demonstrate that i.v. glucosamine administration improves the survival rate after trauma-hemorrhage without resuscitation; this effect may be related to the glucosamine-induced increase in protein O-glycosylation. Furthermore, the increase in mean arterial pressure may suggest a vasoactive and/or positive inotropic effect of glucosamine in hypovolemic shock. PMID:17545939

  1. Organization Complexity and Primary Care Providers' Perceptions of Quality Improvement Culture Within the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Canamucio, Anne; Lempa, Michele; Yano, Elizabeth M; Long, Judith A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined how aspects of quality improvement (QI) culture changed during the introduction of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient-centered medical home initiative and how they were influenced by existing organizational factors, including VHA facility complexity and practice location. A voluntary survey, measuring primary care providers' (PCPs') perspectives on QI culture at their primary care clinics, was administered in 2010 and 2012. Participants were 320 PCPs from hospital- and community-based primary care practices in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Ohio. PCPs in community-based outpatient clinics reported an improvement in established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation from 2010 to 2012. However, their peers in hospital-based clinics did not report any significant improvements in QI culture. In both years, compared with high-complexity facilities, medium- and low-complexity facilities had better scores on the scales assessing established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation. PMID:25414376

  2. Improving Productivity in Higher Education: Administration and Support Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massy, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Among the many reasons why college and university costs are rising are factors internal to the institutions which hold down productivity. Most efforts to improve productivity usually fail because they do not introduce new energy or information from the outside. In order to improve productivity, formal, non-quantitative evaluation should include a…

  3. Interdisciplinary Systems-Based Intervention to Improve IV Hydration during Parenteral Administration of Acyclovir

    PubMed Central

    Dubrofsky, Lisa; Kerzner, Ryan S; Delaunay, Chloë; Kolenda, Camille; Pepin, Jocelyne; Schwartz, Blair C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) hydration is considered a protective factor in reducing the incidence of acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity. A systems-based review of cases of acyclovir-associated acute kidney injury can be used to examine institution-, care provider-, and task-related factors involved in administering the drug and can serve as a basis for developing a quality improvement intervention to achieve safer administration of acyclovir. Objectives: To explore the effectiveness of the study institution’s inter-disciplinary quality improvement intervention in increasing the dilution of acyclovir before IV administration. Methods: After conducting a systems-based review for intervention development, a retrospective analysis was undertaken to compare IV administration of acyclovir in the 6-month periods before and after implementation of the intervention. The study population was a sequential sample of all patients over 18 years of age who were seen in the emergency department or admitted to a ward and who received at least one IV dose of acyclovir at the study institution. The primary outcome was the volume in which each acyclovir dose was delivered. The secondary outcomes were the hourly rate of fluid administration, the frequency of an increase in hourly hydration rate, and the incidence of acute kidney injury. Results: Eighty-four patients (44 in the pre-intervention period and 40 in the post-intervention period) received IV acyclovir and had evaluable data for the primary outcome. The median volume in which the acyclovir dose was administered was significantly higher in the post-intervention group (250 mL versus 100 mL, p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this study, an easily implemented intervention significantly increased the volume of IV fluid administered to patients receiving acyclovir. Adequately powered prospective studies are suggested to investigate the effectiveness of this intervention on the clinically relevant incidence of acyclovir

  4. Spontaneous improvement of laryngeal sarcoidosis resistant to systemic corticosteroid administration

    PubMed Central

    Tsubouchi, Kazuya; Hamada, Naoki; Ijichi, Kayo; Umezaki, Toshiro; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    We report herein a case of laryngeal sarcoidosis that was refractory to systemic corticosteroids, but that improved spontaneously. A 49-year-old woman complained of dysphagia and hoarseness with accompanying edematous swellings of both arytenoid regions. She was referred to our hospital after systemic corticosteroid therapy failed to achieve any improvement. Laryngoscopy showed marked edema of the epiglottis and both arytenoid regions. The flow–volume curve on spirometry showed flattening of the expiratory flows. Histopathological examination of the arytenoid region showed non-caseating epithelioid granulomas, and laryngeal sarcoidosis was diagnosed with the result of BAL study. She was observed without treatment as symptoms were mild. Although edema of the left arytenoid region seemed to be somewhat worsened after 6 months, she continued to be followed closely because of improvements in the flow–volume curve and increasing peak expiratory flow. By 1 year after onset, symptoms and epiglottal swelling had spontaneously improved. PMID:26392860

  5. Interleukin-15 Administration Improves Diaphragm Muscle Pathology and Function in Dystrophic mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt, Leah J.; Holmes, Anna Greer; Gregorevic, Paul; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Stupka, Nicole; Plant, David R.; Lynch, Gordon S.

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15, a cytokine expressed in skeletal muscle, has been shown to have muscle anabolic effects in vitro and to slow muscle wasting in rats with cancer cachexia. Whether IL-15 has therapeutic potential for diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is unknown. We examined whether IL-15 administration could ameliorate the dystrophic pathology in the diaphragm muscle of the mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD. Four weeks of IL-15 treatment improved diaphragm strength, a highly significant finding because respiratory function is a mortality predictor in DMD. Enhanced diaphragm function was associated with increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and decreased collagen infiltration. IL-15 administration was not associated with changes in T-cell populations or alterations in specific components of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. To determine the effects of IL-15 on myofiber regeneration, muscles of IL-15-treated and untreated wild-type mice were injured myotoxically, and their functional recovery was assessed. IL-15 had a mild anabolic effect, increasing fiber cross-sectional area after 2 and 6 days but not after 10 days. Our findings demonstrate that IL-15 administration improves the pathophysiology of dystrophic muscle and highlight a possible therapeutic role for IL-15 in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders especially in which muscle wasting is indicated. PMID:15793293

  6. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for Local Site Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhler, M.; Elmsheuser, J.; Hönig, F.; Legger, F.; Mancinelli, V.; Sciacca, G.

    2015-12-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, and CMS experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionality has been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This paper summarizes the different developments and optimizations of the HammerCloud web interface and gives an overview of typical use cases.

  7. Techniques to improve patient safety in hospitals: what nurse administrators need to know.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Mary J

    2014-10-01

    Nurse administrators are challenged to determine the best use of limited resources to support organizational patient safety improvement efforts. This article reviews the literature on techniques to reduce errors and improve patient safety in hospitals with a focus on team training initiatives. Implications for nurse administrators are discussed. PMID:25279512

  8. Improving Leadership in Student Affairs Administration: A Case Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Arthur

    The case approach to improving leadership in student affairs is offered as a key component of the process of learning how to become an effective leader. The 18 cases on diverse issues offered in this book are intended to provide learning opportunities for those who aspire to become student affairs leaders. The book contains an introduction about…

  9. Administrative Plans. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Personnel policies, job responsibilities, and accounting procedures are summarized for the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). This report first cites references to the established personnel and affirmative action procedures governing the program and then presents an organizational chart for the…

  10. Improving the timeliness of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial decolonization therapy administration: a descriptive account☆

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, H.L.; Hodson, J.; Richardson, S.J.; Stezhka, L.; Gill, M.J.; Coleman, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background It is important to ensure that the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial decolonization therapy occurs when patients are identified as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-colonized. Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) with embedded Clinical Decision Support (CDS) may help to facilitate this. Aim To investigate changes in the average time from patient admission to administration of MRSA decolonization antimicrobial therapy in the context of various national and local infection control interventions, including the use of CPOE. Methods Data concerning the time of admission and of administration of patients' first MRSA decolonization antimicrobials were extracted from a locally developed CPOE system (Prescribing Investigation and Communications System: PICS) which was introduced at a large university teaching hospital in the UK in 1998. Data were extracted retrospectively from January 2006 to March 2012. Findings A variety of relevant local and national interventions occurred from 2006 to 2012. Notably, the automatic charting of MRSA decolonization antimicrobial therapy was introduced in December 2007. There was a significant decline of 15.0% per year (95% confidence interval: 11.1–18.7%; P < 0.001) in the time taken from admission to administration of MRSA decolonization antimicrobial therapy during the study period. Conclusions Numerous factors may have contributed to the observed reductions in the time from admission to administration of MRSA decolonization antimicrobials, including the implementation of specific features within a CPOE system. By rapidly attending to positive MRSA colonizations there is decreased potential for MRSA to spread, which may help to reduce the prevalence of MRSA colonizations within hospitals and improve patient outcomes. PMID:24560977

  11. An Alternative to Current Therapies of Functional Dyspepsia: Self-Administrated Transcutaneous Electroacupuncture Improves Dyspeptic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ting; Li, Xueliang; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Liuqin; Wang, Meifeng; Zhou, Xiaopin; Zhang, Ranran; Chen, Jiande DZ

    2014-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia is of high prevalence with little treatment options. The aim of this study was to develop a new treatment method using self-management transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) for functional dyspepsia (FD). Twenty-eight patients with FD were enrolled and underwent a crossover clinical trial with 2-week TEA at ST36 and PC6 and 2-week sham-TEA at nonacupuncture sham-points. Questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of dyspepsia and quality of life. Physiological testing included gastric emptying and electrogastrography. It was found that (1) TEA but not sham-TEA significantly improved dyspeptic symptoms and 4 domains in quality of life; improvement was also noted in self-rated anxiety and depression scores; (2) gastric emptying was significantly and substantially increased with 2-week TEA but not sham-TEA; and (3) gastric accommodation was also improved with TEA but not sham-TEA, reflected as increased ingested nutrient volumes at the levels of satiety and maximum tolerance. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of self-administrated TEA method for functional dyspepsia, possibly attributed to improvement in gastric motility. PMID:25530791

  12. Maternal Intravenous Administration of Azithromycin Results in Significant Fetal Uptake in a Sheep Model of Second Trimester Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J.; Spiller, O. Brad; Ireland, Demelza J.; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  13. Maternal intravenous administration of azithromycin results in significant fetal uptake in a sheep model of second trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J; Spiller, O Brad; Ireland, Demelza J; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  14. Intranasal administration of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) rapidly and significantly increases whole-brain GDNF level in rats.

    PubMed

    Bender, T S; Migliore, M M; Campbell, R B; John Gatley, S; Waszczak, B L

    2015-09-10

    Previous studies have shown that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts significant neuroprotective effects on substantia nigra (SN) neurons in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine GDNF brain levels and distribution to target regions (i.e. striatum and SN) following intranasal administration of GDNF at different time points after administration. Brain levels increased significantly within 1h following a single 50-μg dose of GDNF in a liposomal formulation, returning to baseline by 24h. In a second study, different doses of GDNF (10-150 μg) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were studied at the 1-h time point. Dose-dependent increases in brain GDNF levels were observed with apparent saturation of uptake at doses above 100 μg. Liposomes delivered 10-fold more GDNF to brain than PBS despite yielding similar neuroprotective efficacy in the 6-OHDA model, suggesting incomplete release of GDNF from liposomes in tissue. In a third study, autoradiography was performed on brain sections taken 1h after intranasal (125)I-labeled GDNF. Radioactivity was detected throughout the brain along the rostral-to-caudal axis, indicating that nasally administered GDNF can reach target areas. Collectively, these results demonstrate that intranasal administration of GDNF in liposomes or PBS achieves significant increases in GDNF in target brain areas, supporting use of intranasal administration as a non-invasive means of delivering GDNF to the brain to protect dopamine neurons and arrest disease progression in PD. PMID:26166725

  15. Improved memory for reward cues following acute buprenorphine administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Terburg, David; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack

    2015-03-01

    In rodents, there is abundant evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in the processing of reward cues, but this system has remained understudied in humans. In humans, the happy facial expression is a pivotal reward cue. Happy facial expressions activate the brain's reward system and are disregarded by subjects scoring high on depressive mood who are low in reward drive. We investigated whether a single 0.2mg administration of the mixed mu-opioid agonist/kappa-antagonist, buprenorphine, would influence short-term memory for happy, angry or fearful expressions relative to neutral faces. Healthy human subjects (n38) participated in a randomized placebo-controlled within-subject design, and performed an emotional face relocation task after administration of buprenorphine and placebo. We show that, compared to placebo, buprenorphine administration results in a significant improvement of memory for happy faces. Our data demonstrate that acute manipulation of the opioid system by buprenorphine increases short-term memory for social reward cues. PMID:25569708

  16. Quality Improvement Methodologies Increase Autologous Blood Product Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Ashley B.; Preston, Thomas J.; Fitch, Jill A.; Harrison, Sheilah K.; Hersey, Diane K.; Nicol, Kathleen K.; Naguib, Aymen N.; McConnell, Patrick I.; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Whole blood from the heart–lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients’ charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  17. The Importance of Being Pluralistic. Improving the Preparation of School Administrators. Notes on Reform, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Policy Board for Educational Administration, Charlottesville, VA.

    To improve preparation of school administrators, attention must be given the issues of race, ethnicity, gender, and social class. Two studies are presented. One, entitled "Preparation of Educational Administrators for the 21st Century: Graduate Student Voices on Issues of Diversity" (Joan Poliner Shapiro, Laurence Parker) captures the perspectives…

  18. Purified high-dose anthocyanoside oligomer administration improves nocturnal vision and clinical symptoms in myopia subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Hyung K; Kim, Chan Y; Hong, Young J; Choe, Chul M; You, Tae W; Seong, Gong J

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of purified high-dose anthocyanoside oligomer administration on nocturnal visual function and clinical symptoms in low-to-moderate myopia subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and involved sixty subjects with asthenopia and refractive errors between -1.00 and -8.00 diopters in both eyes. Thirty subjects were administered a purified high-dose anthocyanoside oligomer (100 mg tablet comprising 85 % anthocyanoside oligomer), and thirty were given a placebo in tablet form twice daily for 4 weeks. Prior to the treatment, the placebo and anthocyanoside groups were similar in terms of age and contrast sensitivity. Before and after treatment, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their clinical symptoms and were also assessed for nocturnal visual function using contrast sensitivity testing. Questionnaire data analysis showed that, following treatment, twenty-two (73.3 %) anthocyanoside subjects showed improved symptoms, whereas only one placebo subject showed an improvement (Fisher's exact test, P<0.0001). Contrast sensitivity levels according to each cycle per degree significantly improved in the anthocyanoside group and remained stable in the placebo group. The mean contrast sensitivity change in the anthocyanoside group was 2.41 (SD) 1.91, compared with -0.66 (SD) 2.66 dB for the placebo group (unpaired Student's t test, P<0.0001). At all cycle per degree levels, contrast sensitivity changes in the anthocyanoside group were better than in the placebo group (unpaired Student's t test, P<0.05). The present data show that the administration of anthocyanoside oligomer appears to improve subjective symptoms and objective contrast sensitivity in myopia subjects with asthenopia. PMID:16022759

  19. Using the Significant Learning Taxonomy and Active Learning to Improve Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Larita J.; Brandon, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Like other members of the academy, accounting professors are challenged to improve student learning. We must help students move beyond the "bean counter" role and develop higher-level skills such as analysis, synthesis, and problem-solving. The Significant Learning Taxonomy was used as a template to improve learning in an introductory accounting…

  20. Intravenous Administration of Simvastatin Improves Cognitive Outcome following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mountney, Andrea; Boutté, Angela M; Gilsdorf, Janice; Lu, Xi-Chun; Tortella, Frank C; Shear, Deborah A

    2016-08-15

    Simvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor commonly used to reduce serum cholesterol. The beneficial effects of oral simvastatin have been reported in pre-clinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study was designed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of simvastatin in a model of severe penetrating TBI using an intravenous (IV) route of administration. Rats were subjected to unilateral frontal penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI), and simvastatin was delivered intravenously at 30 min and 6 h post-injury and continued once daily for either 4 or 10 days post-PBBI. Motor function was assessed on the rotarod and cognitive performance was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and the astrocytic biomarker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were quantified at 1 h, 4 h, and 24 h post-injury. Histopathological damage was assessed at the terminal end-point. Rotarod testing revealed significant motor deficits in all injury groups but no significant simvastatin-induced therapeutic benefits. All PBBI-injured animals showed cognitive impairment on the MWM test; however, 10-day simvastatin treatment mitigated these effects. Animals showed significantly improved latency to platform and retention scores, whereas the 4-day treatment regimen failed to produce any significant improvements. Biomarker and cytokine analysis showed that IV simvastatin significantly reduced GFAP, interleukin (IL)-1α, and IL-17 serum levels by 4.0-, 2.6-, and 7.0-fold, respectively, at 4 h post-injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that IV simvastatin provides significant protection against injury-induced cognitive dysfunction and reduces TBI-specific biomarker levels. Further research is warranted to identify the optimal dose and therapeutic window for IV delivery of simvastatin in models of severe TBI. PMID:26542887

  1. Daily administration of atorvastatin and simvastatin for one week improves cardiac function in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Maria J; Cruz, Nildris; Quidgley, Jose; Torres, Hector; Hernandez, Cesar; Casiano, Hector; Rivera, Karines

    2014-01-01

    Short-term administration of statins during the perioperative period has been suggested to improve cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac and vascular surgery. The effectiveness of this therapy, the optimal administration time and the statin best suited to improve cardiac performance under hyperglycemic conditions, however, are unknown. In this study, we compared the effects of 10 mg/kg/day simvastatin (SV), pravastatin (PV) and atorvastatin (AV), on the CV status of fully anesthetized streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 4 weeks following diabetes induction. At this stage, cardiac function is compromised. The rats were anesthetized to mimic presurgical conditions. Cardiac status was evaluated twice by echocardiography, first 24 h after statin administration, and then after daily statin administration for 1 week. After 24 h of statin administration, CV parameters were not improved. Continued daily administration of SV and AV over a 1-week period, by contrast, significantly improved ejection fraction from 52.20 ± 2.33% before treatment to 64.89 ± 1.12% with AV and to 69.71 ± 2.30% with SV (n = 9, p < 0.05). The cardiac output index was also significantly improved from 51.13 ± 6.86 ml/min × 100 g body weight (BW) before treatment to 98.74 ± 13.78 ml/min × 100 g BW with AV and to 84.94 ± 8.64 ml/min × 100 g BW with SV. Only AV increased stroke volume from 0.50 ± 0.08 to 0.83 ± 0.13 ml (n = 9, p < 0.05). Unlike the other statins tested, PV provided no beneficial effects, regardless of the regimen of administration. Our results indicate that daily administration of AV and SV for 1 week enhances cardiac performance in fully anesthetized diabetic rats. This study of short-term statin administration may have strong clinical implications for improving perioperative outcomes in diabetic patients. PMID:24556594

  2. Improving Medication Administration Safety in a Community Hospital Setting Using Lean Methodology.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all health care organizations have goals of improving patient safety, but despite clear goals and considerable investments, gains have been limited. This article explores a community hospital's resounding success using Lean methodology to improve medication administration safety with process changes designed by engaged employees and leaders with the knowledge and skill to effect improvements. This article inspires an interdisciplinary approach to quality improvement using reproducible strategies. PMID:25599523

  3. Best Practices for Chemotherapy Administration in Pediatric Oncology: Quality and Safety Process Improvements (2015).

    PubMed

    Looper, Karen; Winchester, Kari; Robinson, Deborah; Price, Andrea; Langley, Rachel; Martin, Gina; Jones, Sally; Holloway, Jodi; Rosenberg, Susanne; Flake, Susan

    2016-05-01

    The administration of chemotherapy to children with cancer is a high-risk process that must be performed in a safe and consistent manner with high reliability. Clinical trials play a major role in the treatment of children with cancer; conformance to chemotherapy protocol requirements and accurate documentation in the medical record are critical. Inconsistencies in the administration and documentation of chemotherapy were identified as opportunities for errors to occur. A major process improvement was initiated to establish best practices for nurses who administer chemotherapy to children. An interdisciplinary team was formed to evaluate the current process and to develop best practices based on current evidence, protocol requirements, available resources, and safety requirements. The process improvement focused on the establishment of standardized and safe administration techniques, exact administration times, and consistent electronic documentation that could easily be retrieved in medical record audits. Quality improvement tools including SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation), process mapping, PDSA (Plan, Do. Study, Act) cycles, and quality metrics were used with this process improvement. The team established best practices in chemotherapy administration to children that have proven to be safe and reliable. Follow-up data have demonstrated that the project was highly successful and improved accuracy, patient and nurse safety, and effectiveness of chemotherapy administration. PMID:26668214

  4. PEGylation of interferon α2 improves lymphatic exposure after subcutaneous and intravenous administration and improves antitumour efficacy against lymphatic breast cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kaminskas, Lisa M; Ascher, David B; McLeod, Victoria M; Herold, Marco J; Le, Caroline P; Sloan, Erica K; Porter, Christopher JH

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of protein-based therapeutics with indications in the treatment of lymphatic diseases is expected to be improved by enhancing lymphatic disposition. This study was therefore aimed at examining whether PEGylation can usefully be applied to improve the lymphatic uptake of interferon α2 and whether this ultimately translates into improved therapeutic efficacy against lymph-resident cancer. The lymphatic pharmacokinetics of interferon α2b (IFN, 19 kDa) and PEGylated interferon α2b (IFN-PEG12, 31 kDa) or α2a (IFN-PEG40, 60 kDa) was examined in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats. IFN was poorly absorbed from the SC injection site (Fabs 36%) and showed little uptake into lymph after SC or IV administration (≤1%). In contrast, IFN-PEG12 was efficiently absorbed from the SC injection site (Fabs 82%) and approximately 20% and 8% of the injected dose was recovered in thoracic lymph over 30 hours after SC or IV administration respectively. IFN-PEG40, however, was incompletely absorbed from the SC injection site (Fabs 23%) and showed similar lymphatic access after SC administration to IFN-PEG12 (21%). The recovery of IFN-PEG40 in thoracic lymph after IV administration, however, was significantly greater (29%) when compared to IV IFN-PEG12. The anti-tumour efficacy of interferon against axillary metastases of a highly lymph-metastatic variant of human breast MDA-MB-231 carcinoma was significantly increased by SC administration of lymph-targeted IFN-PEG12 when compared to the administration of IFN on the ipsilateral side to the axillary metastasis. Optimal PEGylation may therefore represent a viable approach to improving the lymphatic disposition and efficacy of therapeutic proteins against lymphatic diseases. PMID:23499718

  5. Combined administration of hyperbaric oxygen and hydroxocobalamin improves cerebral metabolism after acute cyanide poisoning in rats.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M B; Olsen, N V; Hyldegaard, O

    2013-11-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) or intravenous hydroxocobalamin (OHCob) both abolish cyanide (CN)-induced surges in interstitial brain lactate and glucose concentrations. HBOT has been shown to induce a delayed increase in whole blood CN concentrations, whereas OHCob may act as an intravascular CN scavenger. Additionally, HBOT may prevent respiratory distress and restore blood pressure during CN intoxication, an effect not seen with OHCob administration. In this report, we evaluated the combined effects of HBOT and OHCob on interstitial lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations as well as lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in rat brain by means of microdialysis during acute CN poisoning. Anesthetized rats were allocated to three groups: 1) vehicle (1.2 ml isotonic NaCl intra-arterially); 2) potassium CN (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially); 3) potassium CN, OHCob (100 mg/kg intra-arterially) and subsequent HBOT (284 kPa in 90 min). OHCob and HBOT significantly attenuated the acute surges in interstitial cerebral lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations compared with the intoxicated rats given no treatment. Furthermore, the combined treatment resulted in consistent low lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations, as well as in low lactate-to-pyruvate ratios compared with CN intoxicated controls. In rats receiving OHCob and HBOT, respiration improved and cyanosis disappeared, with subsequent stabilization of mean arterial blood pressure. The present findings indicate that a combined administration of OHCob and HBOT has a beneficial and persistent effect on the cerebral metabolism during CN intoxication. PMID:23970528

  6. Administration of Piceatannol Complexed with α-Cyclodextrin Improves Its Absorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryouichi; Setoguchi, Yuko; Oritani, Yukihiro; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2016-05-11

    Piceatannol is polyphenolic antioxidant found in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds. The aim of this study was to improve the absorption of piceatannol using α-cyclodextrin (αCD). The solubility of piceatannol in neutral and acidic solutions increased in an αCD concentration-dependent manner. The maximum plasma concentration of intact piceatannol and the time-to-maximum plasma concentration of O-methylated piceatannol metabolites increased in rats administered αCD-piceatannol inclusion complexes (PICs). Administering the αCD inclusion complexes significantly increased the area under the concentration-time curve of total stilbene derivatives (0-3 h) in terms of the total amount of intact piceatannol, O-methylated piceatannol, conjugated piceatannol, and isorhapontigenin. Gastrointestinal ligation experiments demonstrated that substantially higher levels of piceatannol metabolites were present in the lower intestine (the ileum) at 1 h postintragastric αCD-PICs administration as compared to those observed following piceatannol administration only. These results suggested that αCD enhanced piceatannol movement and absorption in the small intestine. PMID:27078058

  7. Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H

    2014-03-01

    This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male mice were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulphate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five mice from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease compared to those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen in the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects. PMID:23137167

  8. Erythropoietin improves mood and modulates the cognitive and neural processing of emotion 3 days post administration.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Wise, Richard; Goodwin, Guy M; Harmer, Catherine J

    2008-02-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and is a promising candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorder. Recently, we demonstrated that Epo modulates memory-relevant hippocampal response and fear processing in human models of antidepressant drug action 1 week post-administration, and improves self-reported mood for 3 days immediately following administration. The present study explored the effects of Epo (40 000 IU) vs saline on self-reported mood and on neural and cognitive function in healthy volunteers 3 days post-administration to test the reliability of the rapid mood improvement and its neuropsychological basis. Neuronal responses during the processing of happy and fearful faces were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); facial expression recognition performance was assessed after the fMRI scan. Daily ratings of mood were obtained for 3 days after Epo/saline administration. During faces processing Epo enhanced activation in the left amygdala and right precuneus to happy and fearful expressions. This was paired with improved recognition of all facial expressions, in particular of low intensity happiness and fear. This is similar to behavioral effects observed with acute administration of serotonergic antidepressants. Consistent with our previous finding, Epo improved self-reported mood for all 3 days post-administration. Together, these results suggest that characterization of the effects of Epo in a clinically depressed group is warranted. PMID:17473836

  9. Success of patient training in improving proficiency of eyedrop administration among various ophthalmic patient populations

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Alexander; O’Neill, John; Holt, Mitchell; Georgiadis, Catherine; Wright, Martha M; Montezuma, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the success and usefulness of patient education in eyedrop self-administration technique via an educational handout and a short instructional video. Patients and methods We conducted a prospective study that included 34 patients who were self-administering ophthalmic drops. Of the total patients included, 12% had used drops for <12 months, and 88% had used drops for >12 months. Average age of patients in the study was 67 years, with an age range of 19–91 years. Of the total patients included, 82% had glaucoma, 6% had dry eyes, and 12% did not have a specific diagnosis. Subjects were video recorded and assessed by a trained observer on two occasions: at baseline and after they viewed a demonstrational video and handout. A maximum score of 15 points was awarded based on 15 criteria. A written self-assessment was administered at the end of each study. Results Pre- and post-teaching assessment scores improved significantly with education. Patients initially scored an average 2.53 points compared to a post-education score of 6.15 out of 15 points, demonstrating a 2.43 (P=0.008) factor of improvement. After education, 94% of patients versus 47% pre-teaching (P=0.0001) pulled down their lower eyelids. A total of 91% pre-teaching versus 59% post-teaching (P=0.0042) patients squeezed one drop into the lower fornix, 74% pre-teaching versus 26% post-teaching (P=0.0002) patients released the eyelid and closed the eye for 1 minute, and 56% pre-teaching versus 3% post-teaching (P=0.0001) patients applied nasal digital pressure on each eye. We found no significant difference in score changes between those who previously received education and those who had not (P=0.37). A total of 91% patients responded in a postassessment survey that they now feel more confident of their ability to self-administer eyedrops as their doctor prescribed and that the educational materials were responsible. Conclusion Participants demonstrated an

  10. Brain-Penetrating Nanoparticles Improve Paclitaxel Efficacy in Malignant Glioma Following Local Administration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poor drug distribution and short drug half-life within tumors strongly limit efficacy of chemotherapies in most cancers, including primary brain tumors. Local or targeted drug delivery via controlled-release polymers is a promising strategy to treat infiltrative brain tumors, which cannot be completely removed surgically. However, drug penetration is limited with conventional local therapies since small-molecule drugs often enter the first cell they encounter and travel only short distances from the site of administration. Nanoparticles that avoid adhesive interactions with the tumor extracellular matrix may improve drug distribution and sustain drug release when applied to the tumor area. We have previously shown model polystyrene nanoparticles up to 114 nm in diameter were able to rapidly diffuse in normal brain tissue, but only if coated with an exceptionally dense layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to reduce adhesive interactions. Here, we demonstrate that paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-co-PEG block copolymer nanoparticles with an average diameter of 70 nm were able to diffuse 100-fold faster than similarly sized PTX-loaded PLGA particles (without PEG coatings). Densely PEGylated PTX-loaded nanoparticles significantly delayed tumor growth following local administration to established brain tumors, as compared to PTX-loaded PLGA nanoparticles or unencapsulated PTX. Delayed tumor growth combined with enhanced distribution of drug-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles to the tumor infiltrative front demonstrates that particle penetration within the brain tumor parenchyma improves therapeutic efficacy. The use of drug-loaded brain-penetrating nanoparticles is a promising approach to achieve sustained and more uniform drug delivery to treat aggressive gliomas and potentially other brain disorders. PMID:25259648

  11. Chronic administration of sulbutiamine improves long term memory formation in mice: possible cholinergic mediation.

    PubMed

    Micheau, J; Durkin, T P; Destrade, C; Rolland, Y; Jaffard, R

    1985-08-01

    Thiamine deficiency in both man and animals is known to produce memory dysfunction and cognitive disorders which have been related to an impairment of cholinergic activity. The present experiment was aimed at testing whether, inversely, chronic administration of large doses of sulbutiamine would have a facilitative effect on memory and would induce changes in central cholinergic activity. Accordingly mice received 300 mg/kg of sulbutiamine daily for 10 days. They were then submitted to an appetitive operant level press conditioning test. When compared to control subjects, sulbutiamine treated mice learned the task at the same rate in a single session but showed greatly improved performance when tested 24 hr after partial acquisition of the same task. Parallel neurochemical investigations showed that the treatment induced a slight (+ 10%) but significant increase in hippocampal sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake. The present findings and previous results suggest that sulbutiamine improves memory formation and that this behavioral effect could be mediated by an increase in hippocampal cholinergic activity. PMID:4059305

  12. Automatic coronary lumen segmentation with partial volume modeling improves lesions' hemodynamic significance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M.; Lamash, Y.; Gilboa, G.; Nickisch, H.; Prevrhal, S.; Schmitt, H.; Vembar, M.; Goshen, L.

    2016-03-01

    The determination of hemodynamic significance of coronary artery lesions from cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) based on blood flow simulations has the potential to improve CCTA's specificity, thus resulting in improved clinical decision making. Accurate coronary lumen segmentation required for flow simulation is challenging due to several factors. Specifically, the partial-volume effect (PVE) in small-diameter lumina may result in overestimation of the lumen diameter that can lead to an erroneous hemodynamic significance assessment. In this work, we present a coronary artery segmentation algorithm tailored specifically for flow simulations by accounting for the PVE. Our algorithm detects lumen regions that may be subject to the PVE by analyzing the intensity values along the coronary centerline and integrates this information into a machine-learning based graph min-cut segmentation framework to obtain accurate coronary lumen segmentations. We demonstrate the improvement in hemodynamic significance assessment achieved by accounting for the PVE in the automatic segmentation of 91 coronary artery lesions from 85 patients. We compare hemodynamic significance assessments by means of fractional flow reserve (FFR) resulting from simulations on 3D models generated by our segmentation algorithm with and without accounting for the PVE. By accounting for the PVE we improved the area under the ROC curve for detecting hemodynamically significant CAD by 29% (N=91, 0.85 vs. 0.66, p<0.05, Delong's test) with invasive FFR threshold of 0.8 as the reference standard. Our algorithm has the potential to facilitate non-invasive hemodynamic significance assessment of coronary lesions.

  13. Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary

    2014-06-01

    At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472

  14. Determination of significance in Ecological Impact Assessment: Past change, current practice and future improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D.

    2013-01-15

    Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' impacts are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in practice is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current practice is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of impacts is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future practice are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring and

  15. The new E.U. Animal Transport Regulation: improved welfare and health or increased administration?

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    2006-03-01

    There is public discussion of the new E.U. Animal Transport Regulation No 1/2005 of Dec. 2004 and its advantages and draw-backs. This Regulation is no longer a Directive, so that it is directly applicable in the Members States. Although the Regulation is recognised to have great potential to improve welfare and health of transported animals, it will also increase administrative work. Most improvements will come through better education and the increased responsibilities of animal attendants, drivers, keepers and transport organisers, and through the stricter control mechanisms (log book, training, instructions etc.) and the introduction of the GPS control systems to further enhance the transparency of animal movements. The formats of the transport certificates used in all Member States will be harmonised. Technical records will be kept on air temperature and water consumption. Contact offices in all member states for transport affairs will improve the exchange of data between the responsible authorities and harmonise control and surveillance practice. Specific regulations are now in place for horses (broken, unbroken, registered) and for the transport age of young animals (piglets, lambs, calves, foals). In spite of some substantial improvements there are still significant gaps in our knowledge of both normal and long transports, for example optimal journey times, food and water supply on long transports, environmental factors such as vibration, motion, light and ventilation requirements in different European geographical regions. The same is true for the epidemiological aspects of the prevention of disease transmission; for example, very little is known about the bacterial and particulate emissions of the animal transport vehicles which travel across Europe. A serious drawback of the regulation is the fact that it does not abolish the unloading of animals on long transports to rest for 24 h at staging points, so that the concomitant risks to health and welfare

  16. Integrating Hospital Administrative Data to Improve Health Care Efficiency and Outcomes: “The Socrates Story”

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Justin; Delaney, Conor P.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of health care outcomes has become increasingly important as we strive to improve quality and efficiency while controlling cost. Many groups feel that analysis of large datasets will be useful in optimizing resource utilization; however, the ideal blend of clinical and administrative data points has not been developed. Hospitals and health care systems have several tools to measure cost and resource utilization, but the data are often housed in disparate systems that are not integrated and do not permit multisystem analysis. Systems Outcomes and Clinical Resources AdministraTive Efficiency Software (SOCRATES) is a novel data merging, warehousing, analysis, and reporting technology, which brings together disparate hospital administrative systems generating automated or customizable risk-adjusted reports. Used in combination with standardized enhanced care pathways, SOCRATES offers a mechanism to improve the quality and efficiency of care, with the ability to measure real-time changes in outcomes. PMID:24436649

  17. Integrating hospital administrative data to improve health care efficiency and outcomes: "the socrates story".

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Justin; Delaney, Conor P

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of health care outcomes has become increasingly important as we strive to improve quality and efficiency while controlling cost. Many groups feel that analysis of large datasets will be useful in optimizing resource utilization; however, the ideal blend of clinical and administrative data points has not been developed. Hospitals and health care systems have several tools to measure cost and resource utilization, but the data are often housed in disparate systems that are not integrated and do not permit multisystem analysis. Systems Outcomes and Clinical Resources AdministraTive Efficiency Software (SOCRATES) is a novel data merging, warehousing, analysis, and reporting technology, which brings together disparate hospital administrative systems generating automated or customizable risk-adjusted reports. Used in combination with standardized enhanced care pathways, SOCRATES offers a mechanism to improve the quality and efficiency of care, with the ability to measure real-time changes in outcomes. PMID:24436649

  18. Communication: Proper treatment of classically forbidden electronic transitions significantly improves detailed balance in surface hopping.

    PubMed

    Sifain, Andrew E; Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-06-01

    Surface hopping is the most popular method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Many have reported that it does not rigorously attain detailed balance at thermal equilibrium, but does so approximately. We show that convergence to the Boltzmann populations is significantly improved when the nuclear velocity is reversed after a classically forbidden hop. The proposed prescription significantly reduces the total number of classically forbidden hops encountered along a trajectory, suggesting that some randomization in nuclear velocity is needed when classically forbidden hops constitute a large fraction of attempted hops. Our results are verified computationally using two- and three-level quantum subsystems, coupled to a classical bath undergoing Langevin dynamics. PMID:27276938

  19. Significantly Improved Mechanical Properties of Bi- Sn Solder Alloys by Ag- Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, M.; Chen, H. S.; Kammlott, G. W.; Jin, S.

    1997-08-01

    The addition of small amounts of Ag (less than ~;0.5 wt. %) is found to significantly improve the ductility of the binary Bi-Sn eutectic solder. The ductility improvement, more than a threefold increase in tensile elongation, is observed even at a relatively high strain rate (0.01 s-1). As the Bi-Sn binary eutectic alloy tends to fail catastrophically by brittle fracture at high strain rates, the reduced strain-rate sensitivity in the Ag-containing alloy is beneficial for improving solder reliability on sudden impacting as might be encountered during device assembly, shipping, or thermal shock/cycling. The observed increase in alloy ductility by Ag additions is attributed to a substantial refinement of the solidification microstructure.

  20. Assessment of Instructional and Administrative Strategies Applied by Principals to Improve Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

    2014-01-01

    The study is based on the assessment of instructional and administrative strategies applied by principals to improve academic performance of students in schools. This simply means that the individual talents of everyone in school needs to be maximized for the effective benefit of the school, students, parents, and the society at large. It is…

  1. Selecting and Implementing Whole School Improvement Models: A District and School Administrator Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graczewski, Cheryl; Ruffin, Monya; Shambaugh, Larisa; Therriault, Susan Bowles

    2007-01-01

    As a growing number of schools and districts are found to be underperforming under the requirements of NCLB, school and district administrators are increasingly searching for research-based whole school improvement programs, including comprehensive school reform (CSR) models and education service providers (ESPs), in order to create dramatic…

  2. Emerging Technologies in Global Communication: Using Appreciative Inquiry to Improve the Preparation of School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Roberts, B. E.; McLeod, Scott; Niles, Rae; Christopherson, Kelly; Singh, Paviter; Berry, Miles

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how practitioners from Canada, the UK, Singapore, and the USA, university educational administration faculty from the USA, and the editor of a premier international journal of educational management engaged in a collaborative process to discover how to improve the preparation and practice of…

  3. Administrator Perceptions of School Improvement Policies in a High-Impact Policy Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Mario S.; Zellner, Luana; Erlandson, David

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated school administrators' perceptions of school improvement policies in a high-impact policy environment by measuring the impact of accountability, site-based management, professional development, and scheduling reform on the three dependent variables of a) academic outcomes, b) staff morale, and c) parent and community…

  4. 42 CFR 441.745 - State plan HCBS administration: State responsibilities and quality improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State plan HCBS administration: State responsibilities and quality improvement. 441.745 Section 441.745 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO...

  5. Comparison of improved operating parameters of five different wavelength LEDs for significantly brighter illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Eduard K.; Lee, Susanne M.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Although light-emitting diodes exhibit much higher efficiencies and greatly reduced power consumption compared to incandescent light sources, the use of LEDs in lighting applications is limited by their smaller size and subsequently lower light output. However, it has been found that these parameters can be increased significantly by cooling the diodes to cryogenic temperatures. This may make their use feasible for several applications requiring more efficient and brighter illumination for much less cost. In this paper, we compare the temperature-dependent behavior of five commercially available LEDs of different wavelengths down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. It was found that three AlInGaP diodes (red, yellow, and green) demonstrated significant operating improvements. The performance of InGaN-based blue LEDs declined at low temperatures, and because most white LEDs are simply blue LEDs coated with YAG, these exhibited similar behavior. However, the three AlInGaP LEDs demonstrated at least an order of magnitude improvement in illuminance, absolute intensity, and maximum operating current. The green LEDs showed the largest improvement factors, while the yellow LEDs produced the brightest illumination at low temperatures. The emissions of all five LEDs shifted to shorter wavelengths at low temperatures. This is significant in terms of lighting applications since the low-temperature AlInGaP diodes emitted more visible spectra.

  6. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming.

  7. Active Hemovigilance Significantly Improves Reporting of Acute Non-infectious Adverse Reactions to Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Agnihotri, Ajju

    2016-09-01

    One of the key purposes of a hemovigilance program is to improve reporting of transfusion related adverse events and subsequent data-driven improvement in blood transfusion (BT) practices. We conducted a study over 3 years to assess the impact of healthcare worker training and an active feedback programme on reporting of adverse reactions to BTs. All hospitalized patients who required a BT were included in the study. Healthcare workers involved in BT to patients were sensitized and trained in adverse reaction reporting by conducting training sessions and meetings. All the transfused patients were 'actively' monitored for any acute adverse reaction by using a uniquely coded blood issue form. A total of 18,914 blood components transfused to 5785 different patients resulted in 61 adverse reaction episodes. This incidence of 0.32 % in our study was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.005) than that reported from the same region in the past. Red blood cell units were the most frequently transfused component and thus most commonly involved in an adverse reaction (42.6 %), however apheresis platelets had the highest chance of reaction per unit transfused (0.66 %). There was no mortality associated with the BT during the study period. An active surveillance program significantly improves reporting and management of adverse reactions to BTs. PMID:27429527

  8. Storage of human pancreatic digest in University of Wisconsin solution significantly improves subsequent islet purification.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Contractor, H; Rose, S; Chamberlain, R; Clayton, H; Bell, P R; James, R F; London, N J

    1992-09-01

    Density-gradient purification of human pancreatic islets from the collagenase-digested pancreas relies on the exocrine tissue being denser than the islets. Cold storage of the pancreas before and after digestion causes cell swelling, which can decrease the density of pancreatic exocrine tissue and adversely affect subsequent purification. Using 14 human pancreata (seven perfused in situ with hyperosmolar citrate (HOC) and seven with University of Wisconsin solution (UW)), it is shown that storage of the pancreatic digest in UW significantly increases the density of pancreatic exocrine tissue compared with storage in minimal essential medium (MEM) (P = 0.009). This results in an improvement in islet purity (P = 0.036) for HOC- but not UW-perfused pancreata. Storage in UW for 1 h not only prevented the deterioration that occurred in MEM, but resulted in an improvement in islet purity for five of the seven HOC-perfused pancreata. Most pancreata in the UK are perfused with HOC, but storage of the digest in UW results in significantly better islet purity and, when islets cannot be purified immediately, a period of storage will often improve separation and allow islets to be purified. PMID:1422750

  9. Administration of α-Galactosylceramide Improves Adenine-Induced Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Cristhiane Favero; Naffah-de-Souza, Cristiane; Castoldi, Angela; Corrêa-Costa, Matheus; Braga, Tárcio T; Naka, Érika L; Amano, Mariane T; Abate, Débora T R S; Hiyane, Meire I; Cenedeze, Marcos A; Filho, Alvaro Pacheco e Silva; Câmara, Niels O S

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of lymphocytes that reacts to glycolipids presented by CD1d. Invariant NKT cells (iNKT) correspond to >90% of the total population of NKTs and reacts to α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer). αGalCer promotes a complex mixture of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, as interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4. NKT cells and IFN-γ are known to participate in some models of renal diseases, but further studies are still necessary to elucidate their mechanisms. The aim of our study was to analyze the participation of iNKT cells in an experimental model of tubule-interstitial nephritis. We used 8-wk-old C57BL/6j, Jα18KO and IFN-γKO mice. They were fed a 0.25% adenine diet for 10 d. Both adenine-fed wild-type (WT) and Jα18KO mice exhibited renal dysfunction, but adenine-fed Jα18KO mice presented higher expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and type I collagen. To analyze the role of activated iNKT cells in our model, we administered αGalCer in WT mice during adenine ingestion. After αGalCer injection, we observed a significant reduction in serum creatinine, proinflammatory cytokines and renal fibrosis. However, this improvement in renal function was not observed in IFN-γKO mice after αGalCer treatment and adenine feeding, illustrating that this cytokine plays a role in our model. Our findings may suggest that IFN-γ production is one of the factors contributing to improved renal function after αGalCer administration. PMID:26101952

  10. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Bekker, Evelijne M; de Roos, Marlise; Minova, Anita; Eijken, Erik J E; Kooij, J J Sandra; Buitelaar, Jan K; Kenemans, J Leon; Verbaten, Marinus N; Olivier, Berend; Volkerts, Edmund R

    2008-05-01

    Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial examining the effects of methylphenidate versus placebo on highway driving in 18 adults with ADHD was carried out. After three days of no treatment, patients received either their usual methylphenidate dose (mean: 14.7 mg; range: 10-30 mg) or placebo and then the opposite treatment after a six to seven days washout period. Patients performed a 100 km driving test during normal traffic, 1.5 h after treatment administration. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car, was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measurements included the standard deviation of speed and patient reports of driving performance. Driving performance was significantly better in the methylphenidate than in the placebo condition, as reflected by the SDLP difference (2.3 cm, 95% CI = 0.8-3.8, P = 0.004). Variation in speed was similar on treatment and on placebo (-0.05 km/h, 95% CI = -0.4 to 0.2, P = 0.70). Among adults with ADHD, with a history of a positive clinical response to methylphenidate, methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance. PMID:18308788

  11. Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) nanosuspensions based on a self-assembly stabilizer and the significantly improved anti-tumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingyi; Li, Yanhong; Xiao, Yao; Li, Yijing; Guo, Yifei; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2016-09-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) have exhibited antitumor activity against various cancers. However, these substances' poor solubility has limited clinical applications. In this study, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and soybean lecithin (SPC) were self-assembled into an amphiphilic complex. ACGs nanosuspensions (ACGs-NSps) were prepared with a mean particle size of 144.4nm, a zeta potential of -22.9mV and a high drug payload of 46.17% using this complex as stabilizer. The ACGs-NSps demonstrated sustained release in vitro and good stability in plasma as well as simulated gastrointestinal fluid, and met the demand of both intravenous injection and oral administration. The ACGs-NSps demonstrated significantly increased cytotoxicity against Hela and HepG2 cancer cell lines compared to ACGs in solution (in vitro cytotoxicity assay). An in vivo study with H22-tumor bearing mice demonstrated that nanosuspensions significantly improved ACGs' antitumor activity. When orally administered, ACGs-NSps achieved a similar tumor inhibition rate at 1/10th the dose of ACGs in an oil solution (47.94% vs. 49.74%, p>0.05). Improved therapeutic efficacy was further achieved when the ACGs-NSps were intravenously injected into mice (70.31%). With the help of nanosuspension technology, ACGs may be an effective antitumor drug for clinic use. PMID:27209384

  12. Surgically-Induced Weight Loss Significantly Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Samer G.; Velcu, Laura M.; Rabinovitz, Mordechai; Demetris, A J.; Krasinskas, A M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Eid, George M.; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Taylor, Debra S.; Schauer, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of surgical weight loss on fatty liver disease in severely obese patients. Summary Background Data: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum that extends to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, is rising at an alarming rate. This increase is occurring in conjunction with the rise of severe obesity and is probably mediated in part by metabolic syndrome (MS). Surgical weight loss operations, probably by reversing MS, have been shown to result in improvement in liver histology. Methods: Patients who underwent laparoscopic surgical weight loss operations from March 1999 through August 2004, and who agreed to have an intraoperative liver biopsy followed by at least one postoperative liver biopsy, were included. Results: There were 70 patients who were eligible. All patients underwent laparoscopic operations, the majority being laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The mean excess body weight loss at time of second biopsy was 59% ± 22% and the time interval between biopsies was 15 ± 9 months. There was a reduction in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, from 70% to 14% (P < 0.001), and a marked improvement in liver steatosis (from 88% to 8%), inflammation (from 23% to 2%), and fibrosis (from 31% to 13%; all P < 0.001). Inflammation and fibrosis resolved in 37% and 20% of patients, respectively, corresponding to improvement of 82% (P < 0.001) in grade and 39% (P < 0.001) in stage of liver disease. Conclusion: Surgical weight loss results in significant improvement of liver morphology in severely obese patients. These beneficial changes may be associated with a significant reduction in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:16192822

  13. Intestinal-borne dermatoses significantly improved by oral application of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917

    PubMed Central

    Manzhalii, Elina; Hornuss, Daniel; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of oral Escherichia coli (E. coli) Nissle application on the outcome of intestinal-borne dermatoses. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, non-blinded prospective clinical trial 82 patients with intestinal-borne facial dermatoses characterized by an erythematous papular-pustular rash were screened. At the initiation visit 37 patients entered the experimental arm and 20 patients constituted the control arm. All 57 patients were treated with a vegetarian diet and conventional topical therapy of the dermatoses with ointments containing tetracycline, steroids and retinoids. In the experimental arm patients received a one month therapy with oral E. coli Nissle at a maintenance dose of 2 capsules daily. The experimental group was compared to a non-treatment group only receiving the diet and topical therapy. The primary outcome parameter was improvement of the dermatoses, secondary parameters included life quality and adverse events. In addition the immunological reaction profile (IgA, interleucin-8 and interferon-α) was determined. Furthermore the changes of stool consistency and the microbiota composition over the time of intervention were recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the patients with acne, papular-pustular rosacea and seborrhoic dermatitis responded to E. coli Nissle therapy with significant amelioration or complete recovery in contrast to 56% in the control arm (P < 0.01). Accordingly, in the E. coli Nissle treated patients life quality improved significantly (P < 0.01), and adverse events were not recorded. The clinical improvement was associated with a significant increase of IgA levels to normal values in serum as well as suppression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 (P < 0.01 for both parameters). In the E. coli Nissle treated group a shift towards a protective microbiota with predominance of bifidobacteria and lactobacteria (> 107 CFU/g stool) was observed in 79% and 63% of the patients, respectively (P < 0

  14. Significant Improvements in the Practice Patterns of Adult Related Donor Care in US Transplantation Centers.

    PubMed

    Anthias, Chloe; Shaw, Bronwen E; Kiefer, Deidre M; Liesveld, Jane L; Yared, Jean; Kamble, Rammurti T; D'Souza, Anita; Hematti, Peiman; Seftel, Matthew D; Norkin, Maxim; DeFilipp, Zachariah; Kasow, Kimberly A; Abidi, Muneer H; Savani, Bipin N; Shah, Nirali N; Anderlini, Paolo; Diaz, Miguel A; Malone, Adriana K; Halter, Joerg P; Lazarus, Hillard M; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; O'Donnell, Paul V

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations have found a higher incidence of adverse events associated with hematopoietic cell donation in related donors (RDs) who have morbidities that if present in an unrelated donor (UD) would preclude donation. In the UD setting, regulatory standards ensure independent assessment of donors, one of several crucial measures to safeguard donor health and safety. A survey conducted by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) Donor Health and Safety Working Committee in 2007 reported a potential conflict of interest in >70% of US centers, where physicians had simultaneous responsibility for RDs and their recipients. Consequently, several international organizations have endeavored to improve practice through regulations and consensus recommendations. We hypothesized that the changes in the 2012 Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy and the Joint Accreditation Committee-International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation standards resulting from the CIBMTR study would have significantly impacted practice. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey of US transplantation centers to assess practice changes since 2007, and to investigate additional areas where RD care was predicted to differ from UD care. A total of 73 centers (53%), performing 79% of RD transplantations in the United States, responded. Significant improvements were observed since the earlier survey; 62% centers now ensure separation of RD and recipient care (P < .0001). This study identifies several areas where RD management does not meet international donor care standards, however. Particular concerns include counseling and assessment of donors before HLA typing, with 61% centers first disclosing donor HLA results to an individual other than the donor, the use of unlicensed mobilization agents, and the absence of long-term donor follow-up. Recommendations for improvement are made. PMID

  15. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A. Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. PMID:27439911

  16. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  17. The incidence and significance of acute kidney injury following emergent contrast administration in patients with STEMI and stroke.

    PubMed

    Marchick, Michael Robert; Allen, Brandon Russell; Weeks, Emily Cassin; Shuster, Jonathan Jacob; Elie, Marie-Carmelle

    2016-09-01

    The authors have investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and short-term mortality following an activated STEMI and stroke alert at a tertiary referral and academic center. A single center, retrospective chart review of STEMI and stroke activation patients from January 2010 to March 2012. Data was collected and reviewed from an institutional database following IRB-approval. Inclusion criteria were STEMI patients taken for cardiac catheterization, excluding patients receiving hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Primary outcome measures were the incidence of AKI using the RIFLE criteria and short-term mortality. 745 patients were included (488 stroke, 257 STEMI). The median age was 65, and 39 % were female. Overall inpatient mortality was 7.0 %. 5.4 % (40/745) of patients experienced some degree of AKI (8.6 % of STEMI, 3.7 % of stroke patients). Overall, 30 % of patients with AKI died during their hospitalization. AKI was associated with a 7.1-fold (95 % CI 3.4-15.1) increase in mortality in the entire cohort. Among STEMI patients, AKI was associated with a 66.6-fold (95 % CI 12.9-343.4) increase in mortality. These findings follow similar trends published among critically ill patients with AKI. The risk of death with concomitant AKI in this hospital population is significant and deserves future study. Early recognition and awareness in the emergency department is paramount to the patient's survival. Future studies should focus on modalities to improve early recognition and preventative therapies. PMID:26910240

  18. Significantly improving electromagnetic performance of nanopaper and its shape-memory nanocomposite by aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Gou, Jan

    2012-04-01

    A new nanopaper that exhibits exciting electrical and electromagnetic performances is fabricated by incorporating magnetically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) with carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Electromagnetic CNTs were blended with and aligned into the nanopaper using a magnetic field, to significantly improve the electrical and electromagnetic performances of nanopaper and its enabled shape-memory polymer (SMP) composite. The morphology and structure of the aligned CNT arrays in nanopaper were characterized with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A continuous and compact network of CNFs and aligned CNTs indicated that the nanopaper could have highly conductive properties. Furthermore, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency of the SMP composites with different weight content of aligned CNT arrays was characterized. Finally, the aligned CNT arrays in nanopapers were employed to achieve the electrical actuation and accelerate the recovery speed of SMP composites.

  19. Novel analogues of the therapeutic complement inhibitor compstatin with significantly improved affinity and potency1

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hongchang; Magotti, Paola; Ricklin, Daniel; Wu, Emilia L.; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Wu, You-Qiang; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.; Lambris, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Compstatin is a 13-residue disulfide-bridged peptide that inhibits a key step in the activation of the human complement system. Compstatin and its derivatives have shown great promise for the treatment of many clinical disorders associated with unbalanced complement activity. To obtain more potent compstatin analogues, we have now performed an N-methylation scan of the peptide backbone and amino acid substitutions at position 13. One analogue (Ac-I[CVW(Me)QDW-Sar-AHRC](NMe)I-NH2) displayed a 1,000-fold increase in both potency (IC50=62 nM) and binding affinity for C3b (KD=2.3 nM) over that of the original compstatin. Biophysical analysis using surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that the improved binding originates from more favorable free conformation and stronger hydrophobic interactions. This study provides a series of significantly improved drug leads for therapeutic applications in complement-related diseases, and offers new insights into the structure-activity relationships of compstatin analogues. PMID:21067811

  20. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  1. 34 CFR 200.100 - Reservation of funds for school improvement, State administration, and the State academic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administration, and the State academic achievement awards program. 200.100 Section 200.100 Education Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED General Provisions § 200.100 Reservation of funds for school improvement, State administration, and the State...

  2. 34 CFR 200.100 - Reservation of funds for school improvement, State administration, and the State academic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administration, and the State academic achievement awards program. 200.100 Section 200.100 Education Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED General Provisions § 200.100 Reservation of funds for school improvement, State administration, and the State...

  3. Aerodynamic Improvements of an Empty Timber Truck can Have the Potential of Significantly Reducing Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Marashi, Seyedeh Sepideh; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, aerodynamic drag (AD) has been estimated for an empty and a fully loaded conceptual timber truck (TT) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The increasing fuel prices have challenged heavy duty vehicle (HDV) manufactures to strive for better fuel economy, by e.g. utilizing drag reducing external devices. Despite this knowledge, the TT fleets seem to be left in the dark. Like HDV aerodynamics, similarities can be observed as a large low pressure wake is formed behind the tractor (unloaded) and downstream of the trailer (full load) thus generating AD. As TTs travel half the time without any cargo, focus on drag reduction is important. The full scaled TTs where simulated using the realizable k-epsilon model with grid adaption techniques for mesh independence. Our results indicate that a loaded TT reduces the AD significantly as both wake size and turbulence kinetic energy are lowered. In contrast to HDV the unloaded TTs have a much larger design space available for possible drag reducing devices, e.g. plastic wrapping and/or flaps. This conceptual CFD study has given an indication of the large AD difference between the unloaded and fully loaded TT, showing the potential for significant AD improvements.

  4. Significant improvement in one-dimensional cursor control using Laplacian electroencephalography over electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudria, Yacine; Feltane, Amal; Besio, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG) have been shown to accurately detect mental activities, but the acquisition of high levels of control require extensive user training. Furthermore, EEG has low signal-to-noise ratio and low spatial resolution. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy between two types of BCIs during the first recording session. EEG and tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) EEG (tEEG) brain signals were recorded and used to control one-dimensional cursor movements. Approach. Eight human subjects were asked to imagine either ‘left’ or ‘right’ hand movement during one recording session to control the computer cursor using TCRE and disc electrodes. Main results. The obtained results show a significant improvement in accuracies using TCREs (44%-100%) compared to disc electrodes (30%-86%). Significance. This study developed the first tEEG-based BCI system for real-time one-dimensional cursor movements and showed high accuracies with little training.

  5. SPOT HRVIR: A significant improvement of high resolution visible SPOT camera to i.r. wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouan, J.; Reulet, J. F.; Costes, G.

    Since March 1986, the SPOT-HRV cameras are imaging the Earth in a 10 m resolution panchromatic mode and three 20 m resolution spectral modes all in the visible and near infra-red wavelengths. The interest of medium i.r. imaging for observing vegetation has raised in the past and the implementation of a 1.6 μm band was decided by CNES for SPOT 4. New 3000 elements detector matrix had to be developed. This work is nearly completed now through a contract placed at Thomson by CNES. In parallel, the focal plane of the previous HRV cameras has been completely redesigned and the video electronics has also been significantly improved taking into account both some problems identified on SPOT 1 in orbit and the implementation of the MIR band. A significant change in integration and test is introduced by the operating temperature of the MIR detectors to be accurately controlled at 5°C and a calibration of the whole instrument in vacuum is foreseen. Following a presentation of HRV-SPOT 1 main flight results, technical and programmatical points of the SPOT 4 HRVIR situation is presented in the paper.

  6. Is Reducing Ovarian Volume in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients after Administration of Metformin Associated with Improving Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Gharakhani, Mohsen; Neghab, Nosrat; Farimani, Marzie

    2011-01-01

    Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disorders. There is a close relationship between elevated androgen plasma levels and the ultrasound findings of stromal hypertrophy. In randomized trials, the administration of metformin has been shown to be followed by an improvement in insulin sensitivity and decrease in androgen levels in most women. In the present study, we investigate the association between reduced ovarian volume in PCOS patients after administration of metformin with improvement in CV risk factors. Materials and Methods This was a randomized clinical trial study. A total of 28 women diagnosed with PCOS who referred to the infertility clinic were selected. Anthropometric characteristics of the patients, mean ovarian volume and plasma levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, testosterone, 17-α-OH progesterone (17OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) were evaluated before and after treatment with 500 mg metformin, three times daily for three months. Statistics were calculated with the aid of SPSS 16.0 with student’s paired t- and Pearson’s correlation coefficient tests. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results There were significant reductions in mean ovarian volume and body mass index (BMI), in addition to CRP, Hcy, testosterone, FBS, HDL and LDL levels. There was a positive correlation between mean ovarian volume and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).After treatment, there correlation noted with reduction in mean ovarian volume and decreased BMI, in addition to reductions in CRP, LDL, Hcy and testosterone levels. Conclusion A positive correlation may exist between reduced mean ovarian volume and improvement in CV risk factors after administration of metformin (Registeration Number: IRCT138903244176N1). PMID:24963365

  7. Informatics Resources to Support Health Care Quality Improvement in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Denise M.; Perrin, Ruth A.; Rappaport, Steven; Stevens, Joanne M.; Demakis, John G.

    2004-01-01

    Information systems are increasingly important for measuring and improving health care quality. A number of integrated health care delivery systems use advanced information systems and integrated decision support to carry out quality assurance activities, but none as large as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The VHA's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) is a large-scale, multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative designed to ensure excellence in all areas where VHA provides health care services, including inpatient, outpatient, and long-term care settings. In this paper, we describe the role of information systems in the VHA QUERI process, highlight the major information systems critical to this quality improvement process, and discuss issues associated with the use of these systems. PMID:15187063

  8. Significantly Improving Regional Seismic Amplitude Tomography at Higher Frequencies by Determining S -Wave Bandwidth

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fisk, Mark D.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2016-05-03

    Characterizing regional seismic signals continues to be a difficult problem due to their variability. Calibration of these signals is very important to many aspects of monitoring underground nuclear explosions, including detecting seismic signals, discriminating explosions from earthquakes, and reliably estimating magnitude and yield. Amplitude tomography, which simultaneously inverts for source, propagation, and site effects, is a leading method of calibrating these signals. A major issue in amplitude tomography is the data quality of the input amplitude measurements. Pre-event and prephase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tests are typically used but can frequently include bad signals and exclude good signals. The deficiencies ofmore » SNR criteria, which are demonstrated here, lead to large calibration errors. To ameliorate these issues, we introduce a semi-automated approach to assess the bandwidth of a spectrum where it behaves physically. We determine the maximum frequency (denoted as Fmax) where it deviates from this behavior due to inflections at which noise or spurious signals start to bias the spectra away from the expected decay. We compare two amplitude tomography runs using the SNR and new Fmax criteria and show significant improvements to the stability and accuracy of the tomography output for frequency bands higher than 2 Hz by using our assessments of valid S-wave bandwidth. We compare Q estimates, P/S residuals, and some detailed results to explain the improvements. Lastly, for frequency bands higher than 4 Hz, needed for effective P/S discrimination of explosions from earthquakes, the new bandwidth criteria sufficiently fix the instabilities and errors so that the residuals and calibration terms are useful for application.« less

  9. Improved bowel preparation increases polyp detection and unmasks significant polyp miss rate

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Magdalinos, Nektarios; Beintaris, Iosif; Lazaridis, Lazaros-Dimitrios; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Malli, Chrysoula; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively compare previous-day vs split-dose preparation in terms of bowel cleanliness and polyp detection in patients referred for polypectomy. METHODS: Fifty patients underwent two colonoscopies: one diagnostic in a private clinic and a second for polypectomy in a University Hospital. The latter procedures were performed within 12 wk of the index ones. Examinations were accomplished by two experienced endoscopists, different in each facility. Twenty-seven patients underwent screening/surveillance colonoscopy, while the rest were symptomatic. Previous day bowel preparation was utilized initially and split-dose for polypectomy. Colon cleansing was evaluated using the Aronchick scale. We measured the number of detected polyps, and the polyp miss rates per-polyp. RESULTS: Excellent/good preparation was reported in 38 cases with previous-day preparation (76%) vs 46 with split-dose (92%), respectively (P = 0.03). One hundred and twenty-six polyps were detected initially and 169 subsequently (P < 0.0001); 88 vs 126 polyps were diminutive (P < 0.0001), 25 vs 29 small (P = 0.048) and 13 vs 14 equal or larger than 10 mm. The miss rates for total, diminutive, small and large polyps were 25.4%, 30.1%, 13.7% and 6.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that split-dose preparation was significantly associated (OR, P) with increased number of polyps detected overall (0.869, P < 0.001), in the right (0.418, P = 0.008) and in the left colon (0.452, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Split-dose preparation improved colon cleansing, enhanced polyp detection and unmasked significant polyp miss rates. PMID:26488024

  10. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V.; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Weili, Lin; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9–24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

  11. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

  12. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Public Lands and Land-Use Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme Court made three major land-use decisions during 1983, two dealing with federalism and the third with federal jiduciary obligation. The US Forest Service Small Tracts Act added flexibility to the disposal of small tracts. Court cases relating to national forests dealt with title disputes, oil and gas leasing, Indian religious practices, dual permitting under the Wilderness Act, and licensing hydro projects on Indian lands. The committee reports uneven administrative progress by the Forests Service in managing the forests. Legislation relating to Department of Interior Management Lands focuses on Outer Continental Shelf and federal coal leases and wilderness areas. The Supreme Court made several decisions involving the classification of sand and gravel as minerals, trespass, nonimpairment standards, herbicides, and other issues. 132 references.

  13. The intra-nasal administration of insulin induces significant hypoglycaemia and classical counterregulatory hormonal responses in normal man.

    PubMed

    Paquot, N; Scheen, A J; Franchimont, P; Lefebvre, P J

    1988-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the metabolic and hormonal consequences of intra-nasal administration of insulin in normal man. Lyophylisated regular porcine insulin (Insuline Ordinaire Organon) diluted with a non ionic detergent (Laureth-9 0,25%) was administered intra-nasally in 8 overnight fasted healthy volunteers using a calibrated aerosol delivery device (90 microliters = 9 U of insulin/spray) up to a total insulin dose close to 1 U/kg body weight. After intra-nasal insulin administration, plasma insulin levels rose from 5 +/- 1 to 38 +/- 10 mU/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 15, blood glucose concentrations decreased from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 45, plasma C-peptide levels diminished from 327 +/- 31 to 174 +/- 28 mumol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 60 and plasma free fatty acids concentrations fell from 336 +/- 109 to 130 +/- 31 mumol/l (2p less than 0.05) at min 30. The fall in blood glucose resulted in a prompt increase in plasma glucagon levels (from 78 +/- 28 to 150 +/- 24 ng/l at min 45; 2p less than 0.05) and in later rises in plasma growth hormone and cortisol concentrations. There was a close relationship between the individual maximal decreases in blood glucose levels and the individual maximal increases in plasma insulin (r = 0.81), glucagon (r = 0.88), cortisol (r = 0.87) and growth hormone (r = 0.76) concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3292305

  14. Development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and upgrading of coal extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, V.T.; Kutzenco, P.D.; Preston, W.J.; Brinen, J.S.; Graham, S.W.; Butensky, M.; Muchnick, T.L.; Hyman, D.

    1982-01-01

    During 1979-80, a new generation of very active, long-lived catlaysts for hydrotrating was discovered at the Stamford Research Laboratories of the American Cyanamid Company. The catalysts are based on a unique substrate prepared in bead form from a rehydratable alumina. Their spherical shape, crush strength, and abrasion resistance seem ideally suited for the ebullated bed reactors used in the H-COAL process developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI). The beads have internal pore structures that are controllable over a wider range than conventional alumina supports, leading to active catalysts that are resistant to poisoning. In September, 1981, the Department of Energy granted a 3-year contract to the American Cyanamid Company for the development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction anf for upgrading coal extracts, particularly in reactors used in the H-COAL process. Catalysts will first be screened in a batch reactor to identify promising candidated. The latter will be tested in a continuous aging reactor to evaluate their resistance to deactivation under col-liquefaction and extract upgrading conditions. Cold flow ebullation tests of catalysts of different head size are presented, along with some screening and crying of experimental catalysts. Spherical methods for examining catalysts are described.

  15. Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Linchuan; Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Che, Ronghui; Xu, Fan; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chengzhen; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-01-01

    Grain size is one of the key factors determining grain yield. However, it remains largely unknown how grain size is regulated by developmental signals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a dominant mutant big grain1 (Bg1-D) that shows an extra-large grain phenotype from our rice T-DNA insertion population. Overexpression of BG1 leads to significantly increased grain size, and the severe lines exhibit obviously perturbed gravitropism. In addition, the mutant has increased sensitivities to both auxin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, whereas knockdown of BG1 results in decreased sensitivities and smaller grains. Moreover, BG1 is specifically induced by auxin treatment, preferentially expresses in the vascular tissue of culms and young panicles, and encodes a novel membrane-localized protein, strongly suggesting its role in regulating auxin transport. Consistent with this finding, the mutant has increased auxin basipetal transport and altered auxin distribution, whereas the knockdown plants have decreased auxin transport. Manipulation of BG1 in both rice and Arabidopsis can enhance plant biomass, seed weight, and yield. Taking these data together, we identify a novel positive regulator of auxin response and transport in a crop plant and demonstrate its role in regulating grain size, thus illuminating a new strategy to improve plant productivity. PMID:26283354

  16. Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. PMID:23617813

  17. Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linchuan; Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Che, Ronghui; Xu, Fan; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chengzhen; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-09-01

    Grain size is one of the key factors determining grain yield. However, it remains largely unknown how grain size is regulated by developmental signals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a dominant mutant big grain1 (Bg1-D) that shows an extra-large grain phenotype from our rice T-DNA insertion population. Overexpression of BG1 leads to significantly increased grain size, and the severe lines exhibit obviously perturbed gravitropism. In addition, the mutant has increased sensitivities to both auxin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, whereas knockdown of BG1 results in decreased sensitivities and smaller grains. Moreover, BG1 is specifically induced by auxin treatment, preferentially expresses in the vascular tissue of culms and young panicles, and encodes a novel membrane-localized protein, strongly suggesting its role in regulating auxin transport. Consistent with this finding, the mutant has increased auxin basipetal transport and altered auxin distribution, whereas the knockdown plants have decreased auxin transport. Manipulation of BG1 in both rice and Arabidopsis can enhance plant biomass, seed weight, and yield. Taking these data together, we identify a novel positive regulator of auxin response and transport in a crop plant and demonstrate its role in regulating grain size, thus illuminating a new strategy to improve plant productivity. PMID:26283354

  18. An extended bioreaction database that significantly improves reconstruction and analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Michael; Sun, Jibin; Kamphans, Tom; Fekete, Sándor P; Zeng, An-Ping

    2011-11-01

    The bioreaction database established by Ma and Zeng (Bioinformatics, 2003, 19, 270-277) for in silico reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks has been widely used. Based on more recent information in the reference databases KEGG LIGAND and Brenda, we upgrade the bioreaction database in this work by almost doubling the number of reactions from 3565 to 6851. Over 70% of the reactions have been manually updated/revised in terms of reversibility, reactant pairs, currency metabolites and error correction. For the first time, 41 spontaneous sugar mutarotation reactions are introduced into the biochemical database. The upgrade significantly improves the reconstruction of genome scale metabolic networks. Many gaps or missing biochemical links can be recovered, as exemplified with three model organisms Homo sapiens, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli. The topological parameters of the constructed networks were also largely affected, however, the overall network structure remains scale-free. Furthermore, we consider the problem of computing biologically feasible shortest paths in reconstructed metabolic networks. We show that these paths are hard to compute and present solutions to find such paths in networks of small and medium size. PMID:21952610

  19. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon: Finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam on the Umatilla River in Oregon to increase the numbers of anadromous fish. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to provide funding for the project. These agencies' actions would implement section 904(d) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program which addresses the provision of offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. This Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision document for both agencies. The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Evaluation in the Health Resources and Services Administration. Improving program performance.

    PubMed

    Crane, A B; Ginsburg, S

    1996-09-01

    The mission of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is to improve the health of the nation by assuring quality health care to underserved and vulnerable populations and by promoting a primary care and public health workforce. This article provides an overview of HRSA's prior work in performance measurement and highlights a current initiative designed to help the agency improve its performance measurement efforts in the context of the Government Performance and Results Act. This initiative began with an agencywide assessment of capacity to measure performance at program, bureau, and agency levels. Based on the findings, HRSA is moving forward both with technical assistance to individual bureaus in developing performance indicators and data sources and with activities to coordinate performance measurement for the agency as a whole. PMID:10186919

  1. Intravenous administration of Honokiol provides neuroprotection and improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury through cell cycle inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiquan; Liao, Zhengbu; Sun, Xiaochuan; Shi, Quanhong; Huo, Gang; Xie, Yanfeng; Tang, Xiaolan; Zhi, Xinggang; Tang, Zhaohua

    2014-11-01

    Recently, increasing evidence has shown that cell cycle activation is a key factor of neuronal death and neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to investigate the effects of Honokiol, a cell cycle inhibitor, on attenuating the neuronal damage and facilitating functional recovery after TBI in rats, in an attempt to unveil its underlying molecular mechanisms in TBI. This study suggested that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively ameliorate TBI-induced sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunctions. Meanwhile, Honokiol treatment could also reduce the lesion volume and increase the neuronal survival in the cortex and hippocampus. The neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the cortex and hippocampus were further significantly attenuated by Honokiol treatment. In addition, the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb and E2F1, was significantly increased and endogenous cell cycle inhibitor p27 was markedly decreased at different time points after TBI. And these changes were significantly reversed by post-injury Honokiol treatment. Furthermore, the expression of some of the key cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1 and E2F1 and the associated apoptosis in neurons were both remarkably attenuated by Honokiol treatment. These results show that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively improve the functional recovery and attenuate the neuronal cell death, which is probably, at least in part, attributed to its role as a cell cycle inhibitior. This might give clues to developing attractive therapies for future clinical trials. PMID:24973706

  2. Using gas modifiers to significantly improve sensitivity and selectivity in a cylindrical FAIMS device.

    PubMed

    Purves, Randy W; Ozog, Allison R; Ambrose, Stephen J; Prasad, Satendra; Belford, Michael; Dunyach, Jean-Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Recent reports describing enhanced performance when using gas additives in a DMS device (planar electrodes) have indicated that comparable benefits are not attainable using FAIMS (cylindrical electrodes), owing to the non-homogeneous electric fields within the analyzer region. In this study, a FAIMS system (having cylindrical electrodes) was modified to allow for controlled delivery of gas additives. An experiment was carried out that illustrates the important distinction between gas modifiers present as unregulated contaminants and modifiers added in a controlled manner. The effect of contamination was simulated by adjusting the ESI needle position to promote incomplete desolvation, thereby permitting ESI solvent vapor into the FAIMS analyzer region, causing signal instability and irreproducible CV values. However, by actively controlling the delivery of the gas modifier, reproducible CV spectra were obtained. The effects of adding different gas modifiers were examined using 15 positive ions having mass-to-charge (m/z) values between 90 and 734. Significant improvements in peak capacity and increases in ion transmission were readily attained by adding acetonitrile vapor, even at trace levels (≤0.1%). Increases in signal intensity were greatest for the low m/z ions; for the six lowest molecular weight species, signal intensities increased by ∼10- to over 100-fold compared with using nitrogen without gas additives, resulting in equivalent or better signal intensities compared with ESI without FAIMS. These results confirm that analytical benefits derived from the addition of gas modifiers reported with a uniform electric field (DMS) also are observed using a non-homogenous electric field (FAIMS) in the analyser region. PMID:24796261

  3. Significant contribution of realistic vegetation representation to improved simulation and prediction of climate anomalies over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; van den Hurk, Bart; Miller, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation through the coupling with the LPJ-Guess model. In its original formulation, the coupling between atmosphere and vegetation variability is simply operated by the vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate by only changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling with no implied change of the vegetation fractional coverage has been reported to have a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth (e.g.: also Weiss et al. 2012). The effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage can vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales as a function of leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence, and therefore affect biophysical parameters such as the surface roughness, albedo and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation densitiy to the LAI, based on a Lambert-Beer formulation. By comparing historical 20th century simulations and retrospective forecasts performed applying the new effective fractional-coverage parameterization with the respective reference simulations using the original constant vegetation-fraction, we showed an increased effect of vegetation on the EC-Earth surface climate. The analysis shows considerable sensitivity of EC-Earth surface climate at seasonal to interannual time-scales due to the variability of vegetation effective fractional coverage. Particularly large effects are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes, where the cooling effect of the new parameterization corrects the warm biases of the control simulations over land. For boreal winter, the realistic representation of vegetation variability leads to a significant improvement of the skill in predicting surface climate over land at seasonal time-scales. A potential predictability experiment extended to longer time-scales also indicates the

  4. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo-plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% 'Del-HS' and 'TS' SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of 'Del-HS' were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 'TS' plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

  5. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Shepherd, Keith D.; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  6. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    PubMed

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E

    2015-01-01

    80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

  7. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo–plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% ‘Del-HS’ and ‘TS’ SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of ‘Del-HS’ were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 ‘TS’ plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

  8. Administrators' Perceptions of Factors Related to Student Retention at Colleges with a Significant Black Student Enrollment Affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wesley B.

    2013-01-01

    This study described and explored the factors perceived as relevant to student retention by administrators at colleges and universities with significant Black student populations. The sample was 31 institutions affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) that had Black student enrollment of 20% or more. The study sought to…

  9. Oral administration of osteocalcin improves glucose utilization by stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Akiko; Yasutake, Yu; Higashi, Sen; Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Tomoyo; Chishaki, Sakura; Takahashi, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masato

    2014-12-01

    Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived hormone, regulates energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation. We previously showed that the effect of GluOC on insulin secretion is mediated largely by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from the intestine in response to GluOC exposure. We have now examined the effect of oral administration of GluOC on glucose utilization as well as the fate of such administered GluOC in mice. Long-term intermittent or daily oral administration of GluOC reduced the fasting blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance in mice without affecting insulin sensitivity. It also increased the fasting serum insulin concentration as well as the β-cell area in the pancreas. A small proportion of orally administered GluOC reached the small intestine and remained there for at least 24h. GluOC also entered the general circulation, and the serum GLP-1 concentration was increased in association with the presence of GluOC in the intestine and systemic circulation. The putative GluOC receptor, GPRC6A was detected in intestinal cells, and was colocalized with GLP-1 in some of these cells. Our results suggest that orally administered GluOC improved glucose handling likely by acting from both the intestinal lumen and the general circulation, with this effect being mediated in part by stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Oral administration of GluOC warrants further study as a safe and convenient option for the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25230237

  10. From 9/11 to Recession: Historically Significant Events in America and Their Impact on Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnema, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Federally sponsored research funding sources are not stagnant programs. Many things influence the nature of research, not all of them purely scientific. Historically significant events draw public attention to causes, and in the age of immediate information those events can have a powerful and lasting impact on research funding. September 11, 2001…

  11. Improved performance on clerical tasks associated with administration of peppermint odor.

    PubMed

    Barker, Shannon; Grayhem, Pamela; Koon, Jerrod; Perkins, Jessica; Whalen, Allison; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2003-12-01

    Previous research indicates the presence of certain odors is associated with enhanced task performance. The present study investigated use of peppermint odor during typing performance, memorization, and alphabetization. Participants completed the protocol twice--once with peppermint odor present and once without. Analysis indicated significant differences in the gross speed, net speed, and accuracy on the typing task, with odor associated with improved performance. Alphabetization also improved significantly under the odor condition but not typing duration or memorization. These results suggest peppermint odor may promote a general arousal of attention, so participants stay focused on their task and increase performance. PMID:14738372

  12. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  13. Reoxygenation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: Administration of 100% Oxygen Causes Significantly Higher Apoptosis in Cortical Neurons, as Compared to 21%

    PubMed Central

    Faa, G.; Fanos, V.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Faa, A.; Fraschini, M.; Pais, M. E.; Di Felice, E.; Papalois, A.; Varsami, M.; Xanthos, T.; Iacovidou, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2. PMID:24783208

  14. The hydrosoluble fiber Plantago ovata husk improves levodopa (with carbidopa) bioavailability after repeated administration.

    PubMed

    Diez, M Jose; Garcia, Juan J; Prieto, Carlos; Fernandez, Nelida; Sahagun, Ana; Sierra, Matilde

    2008-08-15

    The influence of treatment duration (7 or 14 days) with Plantago ovata husk/levodopa/carbidopa in the bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of levodopa were evaluated in rabbits. Fiber was administered at two different doses, 100 and 400 mg/kg, and the dosage of levodopa/carbidopa was 20:5 mg/kg. These doses were administered once a day. When 100 mg/kg of fiber was administered, the mean AUC value obtained for levodopa increased 20.2% from day 1 to day 7, and 27.2% from day 1 to day 14; C(max) was 8.6% higher on day 7 and 11.7% higher on day 14. When administering 400 mg/kg of fiber, the increase in AUC values was 17.6% on day 7 and 24.9% on day 14, and that of C(max) 11.1% on day 7 and 11.3% on day 14. The concentration determined immediately before drug administration (C(min)) increased progressively with the duration of treatment, and the highest increase (53.2%) was observed on day 14 with 100 mg/kg of fiber. There was also a delay in levodopa elimination (higher MRT and lower Cl) in a fiber-dose dependent manner. In summary, we found that there was an improvement in the extent of levodopa absorbed with higher final concentrations and that levodopa elimination was slower with the administration of P. ovata husk. PMID:18474374

  15. Intra-arterial administration improves temozolomide delivery and efficacy in a model of intracerebral metastasis, but has unexpected brain toxicity.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Leslie L; Pagel, Michael A; Netto, Joao Prola; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2016-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intra-arterial (IA) infusion of temozolomide into the internal carotid artery would safely improve drug delivery to brain and enhance chemotherapy efficacy in a chemosensitive rat brain tumor model. Quantitative autoradiography after 25 µCi (14)C-temozolomide was given by oral, intravenous, or IA route of administration, or IA with osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) (n = 5-7 per group) showed that both IA and IA/BBBD administration increased drug delivery in tumor by over threefold compared to normal brain (P < 0.02), and also significantly elevated delivery throughout the infused right hemisphere. Temozolomide (20 mg/kg; ~150 mg/m(2)) increased median survival when given by oral (25.5 days), intravenous (25.5 days), or IA (33 days) route of administration, compared to 17.5 days in untreated controls (n = 8 per group; overall P < 0.0001). Survival time after IA temozolomide was significantly longer than all other groups (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). BBBD temozolomide was toxic in the efficacy study, but there was no evidence of symptomatic neurotoxicity in rats given IA temozolomide. After these promising animal results, a 49 year old male with glioblastoma multiforme who failed all standard therapy received temozolomide 100 mg/m(2) IA. Upon initiation of the second course of IA infusion the patient had increased heart rate, blood pressure, and rash, and the procedure was terminated without sequelae. Follow up IA infusion of temozolomide diluent in normal rats showed damaged cerebrovasculature as determined by dye leakage. These results demonstrate that IA infusion of temozolomide was toxic, with or without BBBD. We conclude that under the current formulation temozolomide is not safe for IA infusion in patients. PMID:26694547

  16. A Review of New and Developing Technology to Significantly Improve Mars Sample-Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.; Brophy, J.; Gilmore, M.; Rodgers, D.; Wilcox, B.

    2000-01-01

    A JPL development activity was initiated in FY 1999 for the purpose of examining and evaluating technologies that could materially improve future (i.e., beyond the 2005 launch) Mars sample return missions. The scope of the technology review was comprehensive and end-to-end; the goal was to improve mass, cost, risk, and scientific return. A specific objective was to assess approaches to sample return with only one Earth launch. While the objective of the study was specifically for sample-return, in-situ missions can also benefit from using many of the technologies examined.

  17. [A CASE OF ADVANCED BLADDER NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA) SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED BY LOW DOSE OF ORAL TEGAFUR-URACIL].

    PubMed

    Nomi, Hayahito; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Minami, Koichiro; Maenosono, Ryoichi; Matsunaga, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Tsujino, Takuya; Hirano, Hajime; Inamoto, Teruo; Yamamoto, Ikuhisa; Tsuji, Motomu; Kiyama, Satoshi; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-10-01

    A 81-old-woman underwent a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) at a nearby hospital in April 2011. The diagnosis was invasive urothelial carcinoma, G3 with a component of bladder small cell carcinoma, T1 or more. She was recommended to visit our hospital for combined modality therapy of bladder cancer, but she refused the treatment for over one year. In May 2012, she came to our hospital with the chief complaint of pain at urination. Cystoscopy revealed non-papillary sessile tumor in the top of the bladder, and CT scan demonstrated the presence of the right obturator lymph nodes swollen up to 1.2 cm in size. The second TURBT was performed and the diagnosis was bladder small cell carcinoma (pT3N2M0) according to urothelial cancer guidelines of the Japanese Urological Association (JUA). Because she strongly refused hospitalization anymore, we started daily oral intake of low dose Tegafur-Uracil (100 mg) for the treatment. After one month, the serum Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE; tumor maker of small cell cancer) level was elevated to 27.6 ng/ml and the right obturator lymph node was enlarged up to 1.9 cm. Therefore, the Trgafur-Uracil dose was increased to 200 mg daily. After then, the serum NSE level was decreased to 15.5 ng/ml following reduction in size of the obturator lymph nodes with partial response in December 2013. After two years of follow-up period, her regular urine test showed normal findings, and no apparent recurrence was detected on urinary bladder with MRI and Cystoscopy. This is a case of advanced bladder small cell carcinoma significantly improved by oral administration of Tegafur-Uracil 200 mg/day for over 2 years. PMID:26717786

  18. A chemically reactive spinning dope for significant improvements in wet spun carbon nanotube fibres.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Jose M; Neri, Wilfrid; Maugey, Maryse; Poulin, Philippe; Ansón-Casaos, Alejandro; Martínez, M Teresa

    2013-05-11

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be spun in a polyvinyl alcohol stream to produce nanocomposite fibres. We use a facile ester linking between both elements to create improved fibres which exhibit outstanding enhancements in the absence of post-processing stages, providing a promising alternative based on a chemical method. PMID:23471091

  19. Salutary effect of adjunctive intracoronary nicorandil administration on restoration of myocardial blood flow and functional improvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Y; Kodama, K; Komamura, K; Lim, Y J; Ishikura, F; Hirayama, A; Kitakaze, M; Masuyama, T; Hori, M

    1997-06-01

    Salutary effect of nicorandil, a K+ adenosine triphosphate channel opener, on restoration of myocardial blood flow and functional improvement after coronary revascularization was investigated in 20 patients with first anterior acute myocardial infarction. Ten patients received intracoronary administration of nicorandil (2 mg) after coronary revascularization; the other 10 patients received coronary revascularization only and served as control subjects. Myocardial contrast echocardiography and two-dimensional echocardiography were performed to assess microvascular integrity and regional function in the infarcted area. Nicorandil improved peak contrast intensity ratio (p < 0.001), calculated as the ratio of peak contrast intensity in the infarcted and noninfarcted areas, indicating the restoration of myocardial blood flow to the infarcted myocardium. Regional wall motion improved more significantly in 1 month in patients who received nicorandil (p < 0.01). Thus our results suggested the usefulness of intracoronary nicorandil administration after coronary revascularization for restoring blood flow and functional improvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:9200388

  20. Significant improvement in electronic properties of transparent amorphous indium zinc oxide through yttrium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Yu, Zhigen; Huang, Yanhua; Xia, Yijie; Lai, Weng Soon; Gong, Hao

    2014-04-01

    One big challenge in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is to achieve high conductivity and mobility at a low processing temperature. Although optimized conductivity has been achieved in indium zinc oxide (IZO) without doping, it is still interesting to find whether doping can improve conductivity of IZO further. In this paper, we report a low processing temperature achievement of high conductivity and mobility of IZO through yttrium (Y) doping. We found that with different Y doping levels, room temperature fabricated amorphous IZO (a-IZO) samples can be controlled to exhibit either metallic or semiconductor characteristics. Y2O3 is demonstrated to be an effective doping source to achieve conductivity 300% higher than the non-doped IZO sample. Anomalously improved mobility of certain Y2O3-doped IZO samples compared with the non-doped IZO sample is found and analyzed. Besides, a low-temperature resistivity anomaly (semiconductor metal transition) phenomenon is observed and discussed.

  1. Brief Communication: Upper air relaxation in RACMO2 significantly improves modelled interannual SMB variability in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.

    2015-09-01

    The regional climate model RACMO2 has been a powerful tool for improving SMB estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice sheet integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for RCM simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  2. Oral administration of adrafinil improves discrimination learning in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Atkinson, P; Woehrlé, F; Callahan, H

    2000-06-01

    Aged beagle dogs were trained on either a size or intensity discrimination task 2 h following treatment with either 20 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. Training continued until the dogs reached a predetermined criterion level of performance, or failed to acquire the task after 40 sessions. The treatments and tasks were then reversed, with both the test order and treatment order counterbalanced. Thus, half of the animals were first tested on the intensity discrimination, and half of these were first tested under adrafinil. Treatment with adrafinil produced significant improvement in learning, as indicated by a decrease in both errors and trials to criterion. An effect of adrafinil on motivation may partially account for these findings; however, adrafinil did not significantly affect response latency. Adrafinil is believed to serve as an alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist. The improved learning may also result from enhancement of vigilance due to facilitation of noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system. PMID:10880682

  3. Improving Clinical Decisions on T2DM Patients Integrating Clinical, Administrative and Environmental Data.

    PubMed

    Segagni, Daniele; Sacchi, Lucia; Dagliati, Arianna; Tibollo, Valentina; Leporati, Paola; De Cata, Pasqale; Chiovato, Luca; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This work describes an integrated informatics system developed to collect and display clinically relevant data that can inform physicians and researchers about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patient clinical pathways and therapy adherence. The software we developed takes data coming from the electronic medical record (EMR) of the IRCCS Fondazione Maugeri (FSM) hospital of Pavia, Italy, and combines the data with administrative, pharmacy drugs (purchased from the local healthcare agency (ASL) of the Pavia area), and open environmental data of the same region. By using different use cases, we explain the importance of gathering and displaying the data types through a single informatics tool: the use of the tool as a calculator of risk factors and indicators to improve current detection of T2DM, a generator of clinical pathways and patients' behaviors from the point of view of the hospital care management, and a decision support tool for follow-up visits. The results of the performed data analysis report how the use of the dashboard displays meaningful clinical decisions in treating complex chronic diseases and might improve health outcomes. PMID:26262138

  4. Oral Administration of Fermented Probiotics Improves the Condition of Feces in Adult Horses

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZAKA, Saori; MATSUDA, Akira; AMAGAI, Yosuke; OIDA, Kumiko; JANG, Hyosun; UEDA, Yuko; TAKAI, Masaki; TANAKA, Akane; MATSUDA, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy adult geldings for 28 days. The clinical condition of the horses was monitored daily, and the blood and feces were biochemically analyzed every 14 days. In the probiotic-treated group, the concentration of carboxylic acids in the feces was increased at days 14 and 28. In contrast to the fecal pH in the control group, which increased at days 14 and 28, the fecal pH in the probiotic-treated group did not increase. Additionally, the relative amounts of enteropathogenic bacterial DNA were diminished in the probiotic-treated group. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria proliferated in the equine intestine. No instances of abnormal clinical conditions or abnormal values in blood tests were observed throughout the study. Oral administration of fermented probiotics may have the ability to improve the intestinal environment biochemically and microbiologically without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25558179

  5. Managing the three 'P's to improve patient safety: nursing administration's role in managing information technology.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Roy L

    2004-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine's landmark report asserted that medical error is seldom the fault of individuals, but the result of faulty healthcare policy/procedure systems. Numerous studies have shown that information technology (IT) can shore up weak systems. For nursing, IT plays a key role in eliminating nursing mistakes. However, managing IT is a function of managing the people who use it. For nursing administrators, successful IT implementations depend on adroit management of the three 'P's: People, processes and (computer) programs. This paper examines critical issues for managing each entity. It discusses the importance of developing trusting organizations, the requirements of process change, how to implement technology in harmony with the organization and the significance of vision. PMID:15246035

  6. Improved behavioral performance of rats after pre- and postnatal administration of vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Ermisch, A; Bigl, H; Koch, M; Barth, T; Sterba, G

    1987-08-01

    In two separate and independent experimental series it was studied, whether 8-arginine-vasopressin (AVP) or 8-lysine-vasopressin (LVP) administered daily in microgram amounts to pregnant rats, and/or to their offspring postnatally for 30 days, induce alterations that can be registered by a behavioral test. The realization of the test used, a foot-shock motivated brightness discrimination (BD) reaction, includes learning and memory processes. There is one general result of the two experimental series, which include 263 rats divided up in different combinations of pretreatment. Vasopressin (VP), AVP or LVP, pre- and postnatally administered, induces a significantly improved BD performance of approximately 40%, compared to the control groups. The improvement is detectable in different ages of the offspring, in females as well as in males. A smaller though also significant improvement was observed when AVP or LVP was injected only postnatally. The critical period in which the peptides are able to induce the alterations measured probably includes prenatal and postnatal periods in the lives of the rats. What molecular interactions actually underly the improved behavioral performance remain to be clarified. PMID:3666057

  7. Significant Advancements in Technology to Improve Instruction for All Students: Including Those with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Sharing thoughts on what represents significant advancements involving the education of persons for whom typical instruction is not effective seems simple enough. You think about the work you are engaged in and reflect on how you came to do what you are doing. If you have a record of being persistent in your work, then that becomes the context for…

  8. Targeted agri-environment schemes significantly improve the population size of common farmland bumblebee species.

    PubMed

    Wood, Thomas J; Holland, John M; Hughes, William O H; Goulson, Dave

    2015-04-01

    Changes in agricultural practice across Europe and North America have been associated with range contractions and local extinction of bumblebees (Bombus spp.). A number of agri-environment schemes have been implemented to halt and reverse these declines, predominantly revolving around the provision of additional forage plants. Although it has been demonstrated that these schemes can attract substantial numbers of foraging bumblebees, it remains unclear to what extent they actually increase bumblebee populations. We used standardized transect walks and molecular techniques to compare the size of bumblebee populations between Higher Level Stewardship (HLS) farms implementing pollinator-friendly schemes and Entry Level Stewardship (ELS) control farms. Bumblebee abundance on the transect walks was significantly higher on HLS farms than ELS farms. Molecular analysis suggested maximum foraging ranges of 566 m for Bombus hortorum, 714 m for B. lapidarius, 363 m for B. pascuorum and 799 m for B. terrestris. Substantial differences in maximum foraging range were found within bumblebee species between farm types. Accounting for foraging range differences, B. hortorum (47 vs 13 nests/km(2) ) and B. lapidarius (45 vs 22 nests/km(2) ) were found to nest at significantly greater densities on HLS farms than ELS farms. There were no significant differences between farm type for B. terrestris (88 vs 38 nests/km(2) ) and B. pascuorum (32 vs 39 nests/km(2) ). Across all bumblebee species, HLS management had a significantly positive effect on bumblebee nest density. These results show that targeted agri-environment schemes that increase the availability of suitable forage can significantly increase the size of wild bumblebee populations. PMID:25753513

  9. Significant Improvement of Metabolic Characteristics and Bioactivities of Clopidogrel and Analogs by Selective Deuteration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xueyu; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Zhichao; Wang, Hao; Meng, Xiangjun; Su, Chong; Liu, Mingyuan; Fawcett, John Paul; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

    2016-01-01

    In the search for prodrug analogs of clopidogrel with improved metabolic characteristics and antiplatelet bioactivity, a group of clopidogrel and vicagrel analogs selectively deuterated at the benzylic methyl ester group were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated. The compounds included clopidogrel-d₃ (8), 2-oxoclopidogrel-d₃ (9), vicagrel-d₃ (10a), and 12 vicagrel-d₃ analogs (10b-10m) with different alkyl groups in the thiophene ester moiety. The D₃C-O bond length in 10a was shown by X-ray single crystal diffraction to be shorter than the H₃C-O bond length in clopidogrel, consistent with the slower rate of hydrolysis of 8 than of clopidogrel in rat whole blood in vitro. A study of the ability of the compounds to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in fresh rat whole blood collected 2 h after oral dosing of rats with the compounds (7.8 μmol/kg) showed that deuteration increased the activity of clopidogrel and that increasing the size of the alkyl group in the thiophene ester moiety reduced activity. A preliminary pharmacokinetic study comparing 10a with vicagrel administered simultaneously as single oral doses (72 μmol/kg of each drug) to male Wistar rats showed 10a generated more of its active metabolite than vicagrel. These results suggest that 10a is a potentially superior antiplatelet agent with improved metabolic characteristics and bioactivity, and less dose-related toxicity. PMID:27248988

  10. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kishigami, Satoshi . E-mail: kishigami@cdb.riken.jp; Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Wakayama, Sayaka; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2006-02-03

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques.

  11. Significant improvements in the area of stroke timing of motor-operated valves for nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wohld, P.R. ); Newsome, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on valve stroke timing test equipment developed and tested for use in a nuclear power plant main control room that can provide significant advantages to the user for valve surveillance testing required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The equipment is particularly suitable for Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) because of its accuracy and repeatability that is necessary to detect the effects of small changes in actuator motor RPM.

  12. An improved method to set significance thresholds for β diversity testing in microbial community comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gülay, Arda; Smets, Barth F

    2015-09-01

    Exploring the variation in microbial community diversity between locations (β diversity) is a central topic in microbial ecology. Currently, there is no consensus on how to set the significance threshold for β diversity. Here, we describe and quantify the technical components of β diversity, including those associated with the process of subsampling. These components exist for any proposed β diversity measurement procedure. Further, we introduce a strategy to set significance thresholds for β diversity of any group of microbial samples using rarefaction, invoking the notion of a meta-community. The proposed technique was applied to several in silico generated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) libraries and experimental 16S rRNA pyrosequencing libraries. The latter represented microbial communities from different biological rapid sand filters at a full-scale waterworks. We observe that β diversity, after subsampling, is inflated by intra-sample differences; this inflation is avoided in the proposed method. In addition, microbial community evenness (Gini > 0.08) strongly affects all β diversity estimations due to bias associated with rarefaction. Where published methods to test β significance often fail, the proposed meta-community-based estimator is more successful at rejecting insignificant β diversity values. Applying our approach, we reveal the heterogeneous microbial structure of biological rapid sand filters both within and across filters. PMID:25534614

  13. The Role of Technology in School Improvement. A Presenter's Guide. Research Based Training for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnine, Doug; And Others

    This workshop presenter's guide is intended for use by administrators in training one another in the Project Leadership program developed by the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA). This manual is divided into four areas of technology and education: (1) Administrators and Computers, (2) Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), (3)…

  14. Administrative Restructuring of a Residency Training Program for Improved Efficiency and Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, Louis T.; Finch, Susan J.; Davidson, Paul R.; Arboleda-Florez, Julio

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Canadian residency training programs (RTP) have a program director (PD) and a residency program committee (RPC) overseeing program administration. Limited guidance is available about the ideal administrative structure of an RTP. This article describes administrative load in Canadian RTPs, presents a novel approach to delegating core…

  15. Partially Decentralizing Administrative Practices in Secondary Schools to Develop Collective Staff Efficacy and Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen D.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    Schools must have the capacity to change. School administrators must be able to find a balance in distributing administrative authority in schools. In an effort to evoke meaningful change within the organization of secondary school structures, administrators must be advocates of change and support their staff members by decentralizing key roles by…

  16. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Scotland 2000-2010: Improved outcomes but a significant weekend effect

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asma; Armstrong, Matthew; Robertson, Ishbel; Morris, Allan John; Blatchford, Oliver; Stanley, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess numbers and case fatality of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), effects of deprivation and whether weekend presentation affected outcomes. METHODS: Data was obtained from Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and National Records of Scotland (NRS) death records for a ten year period between 2000-2001 and 2009-2010. We obtained data from the ISD Scottish Morbidity Records (SMR01) database which holds data on inpatient and day-case hospital discharges from non-obstetric and non-psychiatric hospitals in Scotland. The mortality data was obtained from NRS and linked with the ISD SMR01 database to obtain 30-d case fatality. We used 23 ICD-10 (International Classification of diseases) codes which identify UGIB to interrogate database. We analysed these data for trends in number of hospital admissions with UGIB, 30-d mortality over time and assessed effects of social deprivation. We compared weekend and weekday admissions for differences in 30-d mortality and length of hospital stay. We determined comorbidities for each admission to establish if comorbidities contributed to patient outcome. RESULTS: A total of 60643 Scottish residents were admitted with UGIH during January, 2000 and October, 2009. There was no significant change in annual number of admissions over time, but there was a statistically significant reduction in 30-d case fatality from 10.3% to 8.8% (P < 0.001) over these 10 years. Number of admissions with UGIB was higher for the patients from most deprived category (P < 0.05), although case fatality was higher for the patients from the least deprived category (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant change in this trend between 2000/01-2009/10. Patients admitted with UGIB at weekends had higher 30-d case fatality compared with those admitted on weekdays (P < 0.001). Thirty day mortality remained significantly higher for patients admitted with UGIB at weekends after adjusting for comorbidities. Length of

  17. Lithium deficient mesoporous Li2-xMnSiO4 with significantly improved electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Hou, Tianli; Sun, Dan; Huang, Xiaobing; He, Hanna; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian

    2014-02-01

    Li2-xMnSiO4 compounds with mesoporous structure are first proposed in the present work. It is interesting to note that the lithium deficient compounds exhibit much higher electrochemical performance in comparison with the stoichiometric one. Among these compounds, Li1.8MnSiO4 shows the best electrochemical performance. It is found that mesoporous Li1.8MnSiO4 without carbon coating delivers a maximum discharge capacity of 110.9 mAh g-1 at 15 mA g-1, maintaining 90.8 mAh g-1 after 25 cycles, while that of the stoichiometric one is only 48.0 mAh g-1, with 12.5 mAh g-1 remaining. The superior properties are mainly due to the great improvement of electronic conductivity and structure stability, as well as suppressed charge-transfer resistance.

  18. Resolution-adapted recombination of structural features significantly improves sampling in restraint-guided structure calculation

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Oliver F; Baker, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that NMR structures can be determined by integrating sparse NMR data with structure prediction methods such as Rosetta. The experimental data serve to guide the search for the lowest energy state towards the deep minimum at the native state which is frequently missed in Rosetta de novo structure calculations. However, as the protein size increases, sampling again becomes limiting; for example, the standard Rosetta protocol involving Monte Carlo fragment insertion starting from an extended chain fails to converge for proteins over 150 amino acids even with guidance from chemical shifts (CS-Rosetta) and other NMR data. The primary limitation of this protocol—that every folding trajectory is completely independent of every other—was recently overcome with the development of a new approach involving resolution-adapted structural recombination (RASREC). Here we describe the RASREC approach in detail and compare it to standard CS-Rosetta. We show that the improved sampling of RASREC is essential in obtaining accurate structures over a benchmark set of 11 proteins in the 15-25 kDa size range using chemical shifts, backbone RDCs and HN-HN NOE data; in a number of cases the improved sampling methodology makes a larger contribution than incorporation of additional experimental data. Experimental data are invaluable for guiding sampling to the vicinity of the global energy minimum, but for larger proteins, the standard Rosetta fold-from-extended-chain protocol does not converge on the native minimum even with experimental data and the more powerful RASREC approach is necessary to converge to accurate solutions. PMID:22423358

  19. A patient/family-centered strategic plan can drive significant improvement.

    PubMed

    Brilli, Richard J; Crandall, Wallace V; Berry, Janet C; Stoverock, Linda; Rosen, Kerry; Budin, Lee; Kelleher, Kelly J; Gleeson, Sean P; Davis, J Terrance

    2014-08-01

    The use of a PFCSP, as a road map to operationalize the hospital's vision, has been a compelling paradigm to achieve significant QI results. The framework is simple yet directly aligns with the IOM domains of quality. It has inspired and helped actively engage hospital personnel in the work required to achieve the goals and vision of the hospital system. Five years after initiating this type of plan, activity is flourishing in each of the domains and midterm results are substantial. We think that the nature of this strategic plan has been an important aspect of our success to date. PMID:25037128

  20. Active loading into extracellular vesicles significantly improves the cellular uptake and photodynamic effect of porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Gregor; Serio, Andrea; Mazo, Manuel; Nair, Rekha; Stevens, Molly M

    2015-05-10

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are phospholipid-based particles endogenously produced by cells. Their natural composition and selective cell interactions make them promising drug carriers. However, in order to harness their properties, efficient exogenous drug encapsulation methods need to be investigated. Here, EVs from various cellular origins (endothelial, cancer and stem cells) were produced and characterised for size and composition. Porphyrins of different hydrophobicities were employed as model drugs and encapsulated into EVs using various passive and active methods (electroporation, saponin, extrusion and dialysis). Hydrophobic compounds loaded very efficiently into EVs and at significantly higher amounts than into standard liposomes composed of phosphocholine and cholesterol using passive incubation. Moreover, loading into EVs significantly increased the cellular uptake by >60% and the photodynamic effect of hydrophobic porphyrins in vitro compared to free or liposome encapsulated drug. The active encapsulation techniques, with the saponin-assisted method in particular, allowed an up to 11 fold higher drug loading of hydrophilic porphyrins compared to passive methods. EVs loaded with hydrophilic porphyrins induced a stronger phototoxic effect than free drug in a cancer cell model. Our findings create a firm basis for the development of EVs as smart drug carriers based on straightforward and transferable methods. PMID:25483424

  1. Possible breakthrough: Significant improvement of signal to noise ratio by stochastic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, L.B.

    1996-06-01

    The {ital simplest} {ital stochastic} {ital resonator} {ital is} {ital used}, {ital a} {ital level} {ital crossing} {ital detector} (LCD), to investigate key properties of stochastic resonance (SR). It is pointed out that successful signal processing and biological applications of SR require to work in the {ital large} {ital signal} {ital limit} (nonlinear transfer limit) which requires a completely new approach: {ital wide} {ital band} {ital input} {ital signal} and a {ital new}, {ital generalised} {ital definition} {ital of} {ital output} {ital noise}. The new way of approach is illustrated by a new arrangement. The arrangement employs a special LCD, white input noise and a special, large, subthreshold wide band signal. {ital First} {ital time} {ital in} {ital the} {ital history} {ital of} {ital SR} (for a wide band input noise), the {ital signal} {ital to} {ital noise} {ital ratio} {ital becomes} {ital much} {ital higher} {ital at} {ital the} {ital output} of a stochastic resonator than {ital at} {ital its} {ital input}. In that way, SR is proven to have a potential to improve signal transfer. Note, that the new arrangement seems to have resemblance to {ital neurone} {ital models}, therefore, it has a potential also for biological applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Three-phase textile nanocomposites: significant improvements in strength, toughness and ductility.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Iti; Proper, Andrew; Rafiee, Mohammad A; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2010-02-01

    It is well established that in-plane tensile properties of unidirectional microfiber-reinforced composites are not significantly influenced by addition of carbon nanotubes to the matrix. This is because the principal effect of the nanotubes is to enhance the matrix dominated (out-of-plane) properties. Here we report that the above situation changes when nanotubes are incorporated into woven-fabric (textile) composites. We report up to 200% increase in strain-to-break and 180% increase in toughness under in-plane tensile load with approximately 0.05% weight of nanotube additives. We attribute this effect to the geometrical arrangement of the micro-fibers and the critical role of the pure-matrix-block in textile composites. PMID:20352752

  3. Global regulator engineering significantly improved Escherichia coli tolerances toward inhibitors of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Yilu; Lin, Min; Lin, Zhanglin

    2012-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is regarded as the most viable source of feedstock for industrial biorefinery, but the harmful inhibitors generated from the indispensable pretreatments prior to fermentation remain a daunting technical hurdle. Using an exogenous regulator, irrE, from the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans, we previously showed that a novel global regulator engineering (GRE) approach significantly enhanced tolerances of Escherichia coli to alcohol and acetate stresses. In this work, an irrE library was subjected to selection under various stresses of furfural, a typical hydrolysate inhibitor. Three furfural tolerant irrE mutants including F1-37 and F2-1 were successfully obtained. The cells containing these mutants reached OD(600) levels of 4- to 16-fold of that for the pMD18T cells in growth assay under 0.2% (v/v) furfural stress. The cells containing irrE F1-37 and F2-1 also showed considerably reduced intracellular oxygen species (ROS) levels under furfural stress. Moreover, these two irrE mutants were subsequently found to confer significant cross tolerances to two other most common inhibitors, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), vanillin, as well as real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. When evaluated in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with corn stover cellulosic hydrolysate (prepared with a solid loading of 30%), the cells containing the mutants exhibited lag phases markedly shortened by 24-44 h in comparison with the control cells. This work thus presents a promising step forward to resolve the inhibitor problem for E. coli. From the view of synthetic biology, irrE can be considered as an evolvable "part" for various stresses. Furthermore, this GRE approach can be extended to exploit other exogenous global regulators from extremophiles, and the native counterparts in E. coli, for eliciting industrially useful phenotypes. PMID:22684885

  4. Comparison of Vaginal versus Oral Estradiol Administration in Improving the Visualization of Transformation Zone (TZ) during Colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, Binni; Batra, Swaraj; Gandhi, Gauri; Goswami, Deepti; Zutshi, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Colposcopy is an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with abnormal pap smears. However, in 10-20% transformation zone (TZ)/squamo-columnar junction is not completely visualized and these patients are deemed to have an incomplete colposcopy examination. Such patients usually require conization, a procedure associated with significant morbidity. Various agents like misoprostol, estrogens and laminaria tents have been used in the past to overcome the non-visualization of TZ. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to compare the efficacy of vaginal versus oral estradiol administration in overcoming incomplete colposcopy. Materials and Methods Forty patients with non/partially visualized TZ during colposcopy were recruited for the study. These patients were randomly distributed into two groups: In Group I, 25μg estradiol was administered intravaginally daily for seven consecutive days followed by a repeat colposcopy on day 8. In Group II, a seven day course of 25μg oral estradiol was followed by a repeat colposcopy on day 8. The efficacy of the two regimens in improving visualization of the TZ on colposcopy and their adverse effect profile was compared. Results Vaginal estradiol had an overall efficacy of 70% in improving visualization of the TZ as compared to oral estradiol which was effective in 50% of patients (p-value-0.19). Major adverse effects in both the group of patients were nausea and vaginal discharge with no significant differences among the two groups. Conclusion Both vaginal and oral estrogens had comparable efficacy and similar adverse effect profile in improving visualization of the TZ.

  5. Self-reported performance improvement strategies of highly successful Veterans Health Administration facilities.

    PubMed

    Craig, Thomas J; Perlin, Jonathan B; Fleming, Barbara B

    2007-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has achieved considerable success in improving health care through the use of clinical performance measures. This report examines the self-reported strategies used by the most successful facilities in the VHA system. For fiscal year 2002, facilities that scored the highest on any of 24 clinical performance measures were queried as to which strategies they used to achieve their level of performance. The most commonly cited strategies across all performance categories were organizational change (55.6%), clinical reminders (41.4%), audit and feedback to providers (39.6%), and staff education (32.5%). Certain strategies were more likely to be cited for 1 or more specific performance categories (eg, clinical reminders for immunization [61.1%], screening [60.6%]). These findings suggest that successful facilities are generally using evidence-based strategies to achieve high clinical performance. However, some evidence-based implementation strategies were rarely cited (eg, use of clinical champions). PMID:18006424

  6. Wound administration of M2-polarized macrophages does not improve murine cutaneous healing responses.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Nadine; Roumans, Nadia; Gijbels, Marion J; Romano, Andrea; Post, Mark J; de Winther, Menno P J; van der Hulst, Rene R W J; Xanthoulea, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds. PMID:25068282

  7. Wound Administration of M2-Polarized Macrophages Does Not Improve Murine Cutaneous Healing Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jetten, Nadine; Roumans, Nadia; Gijbels, Marion J.; Romano, Andrea; Post, Mark J.; de Winther, Menno P. J.; van der Hulst, Rene R. W. J.; Xanthoulea, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds. PMID:25068282

  8. Oxamflatin Significantly Improves Nuclear Reprogramming, Blastocyst Quality, and In Vitro Development of Bovine SCNT Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Quan, Fusheng; Liu, Jun; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic nuclear reprogramming results in low somatic cloning efficiency. Altering epigenetic status by applying histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) enhances developmental potential of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of Oxamflatin, a novel HDACi, on the nuclear reprogramming and development of bovine SCNT embryos in vitro. We found that Oxamflatin modified the acetylation status on H3K9 and H3K18, increased total and inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers and the ratio of ICM∶trophectoderm (TE) cells, reduced the rate of apoptosis in SCNT blastocysts, and significantly enhanced the development of bovine SCNT embryos in vitro. Furthermore, Oxamflatin treatment suppressed expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax and stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-XL and the pluripotency-related genes OCT4 and SOX2 in SCNT blastocysts. Additionally, the treatment also reduced the DNA methylation level of satellite I in SCNT blastocysts. In conclusion, Oxamflatin modifies epigenetic status and gene expression, increases blastocyst quality, and subsequently enhances the nuclear reprogramming and developmental potential of SCNT embryos. PMID:21912607

  9. A Cell Type Independent Binary Grading System Does Not Significantly Improve Endometrial Biopsy Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nastic, Denis; Kahlin, Frida; Dahlstrand, Hanna; Carlson, Joseph W

    2016-05-01

    The revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading system is widely accepted as the standard in evaluating endometrial carcinoma on biopsy. Determination of tumor cell type [using the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria] and grade (using FIGO) guides surgical approach. Several studies have highlighted discrepancies between biopsy and hysterectomy diagnosis. Recently, a binary grading system was proposed, yielding a low-risk and high-risk assessment but in a cell type independent (CTI) way. No study has assessed its utility in biopsy grading, a situation where this system may be particularly useful. Archived endometrial biopsies from 70 cases of endometrial carcinoma were graded by 3 independent observers using the WHO/FIGO and the CTI grading systems. The overall accuracy, interobserver agreement, and ease of use were assessed. This study found comparable substantial accuracy between the WHO/FIGO and CTI grading systems (κ=0.71 vs. κ=0.69), with the same setbacks in overgrading of 20.9% versus 25.6% of low-risk tumors. The CTI grading system was not superior to the WHO/FIGO grading system in accuracy of subtyping and grading and interobserver reproducibility. Although determination of cell type is difficult, it does not appear that the proposed CTI system confers any significant advantages over existing grading. PMID:26863477

  10. Under-reporting of notifiable infectious disease hospitalizations: significant improvements in the Irish context.

    PubMed

    Brabazon, E D; Sheridan, A; Finnegan, P; Carton, M W; Bedford, D

    2015-04-01

    Notification of infectious disease is essential for prompt public health action and epidemiological analysis. The aim of this study was to compare national hospitalization data to national notification data in order to assess if there was significant under-reporting of hospitalized notifiable infectious diseases in recent years in Ireland. All in-patient discharges from public hospitals in the Republic of Ireland from 2006 to 2011 with a principal diagnosis of a notifiable disease were compared with national notification data. It was found that only a potential 1·8% of extra notifications could have arisen due to these hospitalization events and would represent a tenfold reduction on a previous estimate of under-reporting in the Irish context. Viral meningitis, viral encephalitis, bacterial meningitis not otherwise specified and malaria were the most common diseases for which there were more hospitalizations than notifications reported. The results of this study support the conclusion that the reduction in under-reporting can mainly be accounted for by the introduction of laboratories as notifiers in conjunction with the roll out of the Computerized Infectious Disease Reporting system (CIDR). However, for the diseases highlighted, the notification data underestimates the true burden of disease and this has implications for understanding the epidemiology of these diseases. PMID:25035904

  11. Routine Testing for Anaerobic Bacteria in Cerebrospinal Fluid Cultures Improves Recovery of Clinically Significant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Meredith E.; Thomas, Benjamin S.; Wallace, Meghan A.; Weber, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    In North America, the widespread use of vaccines targeting Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae have dramatically altered the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, while the methodology for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens has remained largely unchanged. The aims of this study were 2-fold: to document the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis at a tertiary care medical center and to assess the clinical utility of routinely querying for anaerobes in CSF cultures. To that end, we assessed CSF cultures submitted over a 2-year period. A brucella blood agar (BBA) plate, incubated anaerobically for 5 days, was included in the culture procedure for all CSF specimens during the second year of evaluation. In the pre- and postimplementation years, 2,353 and 2,302 CSF specimens were cultured, with 49 and 99 patients having positive culture results, respectively. The clinical and laboratory data for patients with positive cultures were reviewed. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the CSF samples from 33 patients post-BBA compared to two patients pre-BBA (P = 0.01). The anaerobic isolates included Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (n = 1), Propionibacterium species (n = 15), and Propionibacterium acnes (n = 19) isolates; all of these isolates were recovered on the BBA. Eight of the 35 patients from whom anaerobic organisms were isolated received antimicrobial therapy. Although six of these patients had central nervous system hardware, two patients did not have a history of a neurosurgical procedure and had community-acquired anaerobic bacterial meningitis. This study demonstrates that the simple addition of an anaerobically incubated BBA to the culture of CSF specimens enhances the recovery of clinically significant anaerobic pathogens. PMID:24622102

  12. Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response: an IRT-based analysis from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function, fatigue, and depression) were completed by 923 adults (age 18–89) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized crossover design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. Results Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported equivalence of factor structure across MOA. Analyses by item response theory found no differences in item location parameters and strongly supported the equivalence of scores across MOA. Conclusions We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis. PMID:23877585

  13. Prolonged oral administration of Gastrodia elata extract improves spatial learning and memory of scopolamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Mi; Lee, Bong-Gun; Park, Sang-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Geun; Kang, Yang-Gyu; Kim, Ok-Jin; Kwon, Lee-Seong; Kim, Yong-Phill; Choi, Min-Hyu; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-01-01

    Gastrodia elata (GE) is traditionally used for treatment of various disorders including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the neuroprotective effect of GE, amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-treated PC12 cells were cultured with GE aqueous extract. In vitro assay demonstrated that 50 µM of pre-aggregated Aβ was lethal to about a half portion of PC12 cells and that Aβ aggregate-induced cell death was significantly decreased with GE treatment at ≤10 mg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. To further examine in vivo cognitive-improving effects, an artificial amnesic animal model, scopolamine-injected Sprague-Dawley rats, were orally administered the extract for 6 weeks followed by behavioral tests (the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test). The results showed that an acute treatment with scopolamine (1 mg/kg of body weight) effectively induced memory impairment in normal rats and that the learning and memory capability of scopolamine-treated rats improved after prolonged administration of GE extract (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight for 6 weeks). These findings suggest that a GE regimen may potentially ameliorate learning and memory deficits and/or cognitive impairments caused by neuronal cell death. PMID:26155201

  14. Improving Significant Wave Height detection for Coastal Satellite Altimetry: validation in the German Bight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Marcello; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana

    For more than two decades, it has been possible to map the Significant Wave Height (SWH) globally through Satellite Altimetry. SWH estimation is possible because the shape of an altimetric waveform, which usually presents a sharp leading edge and a slowly decaying trailing edge, depends on the sea state: in particular, the higher the sea state, the longer the rising time of the leading edge. The algorithm for SWH also depends on the width of the point target response (PTR) function, which is usually approximated by a constant value that contributes to the rising time. Particularly challenging for SWH detection are coastal data and low sea states. The first are usually flagged as unreliable due to land and calm water interference in the altimeter footprint; the second are characterized by an extremely sharp leading edge that is consequently poorly sampled in the digitalized waveform. ALES, a new algorithm for reprocessing altimetric waveforms, has recently been validated for sea surface height estimation (Passaro et al. 2014). The aim of this work is to check its validity also for SWH estimation in a particularly challenging area. The German Bight region presents both low sea state and coastal issues and is particularly suitable for validation, thanks to the extended network of buoys of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH). In-situ data include open sea, off-shore and coastal sea conditions, respectively at the Helgoland, lighthouse Alte Weser and Westerland locations. Reprocessed data from Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2 tracks are validated against those three buoys. The in-situ validation is applied both at the nearest point and at points along-track. The skill metrics is based on bias, standard deviation, slope of regression line, scatter index, number of cycles with correlation larger than 90%. The same metrics is applied to the altimeter data obtained by standard processing and the validation results are compared. Data are evaluated at high

  15. A team approach to improving colorectal cancer services using administrative health data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in Canada and accounts for 11.9% of all cancer-related mortality. Fortunately, previous studies have provided evidence of improved outcomes from access to timely and appropriate health services along the disease trajectory in CRC. As a result, the CIHR/CCNS Team in Access to Colorectal Cancer Services in Nova Scotia (Team ACCESS) was created to build colorectal cancer (CRC) research capacity in Nova Scotia (NS) and to study access to and quality of CRC services along the entire continuum of cancer care. Objectives The objectives of this paper are to: 1) provide a detailed description of the methodologies employed across the various studies being conducted by Team ACCESS; 2) demonstrate how administrative health data can be used to evaluate access and quality in CRC services; and 3) provide an example of an interdisciplinary team approach to addressing health service delivery issues. Methods All patients diagnosed with CRC in NS between 2001 and 2005 were identified through the Nova Scotia Cancer Registry (NSCR) and staged using the Collaborative Stage Data Collection System. Using administrative databases that were linked at the patient level, Team ACCESS created a retrospective longitudinal cohort with comprehensive demographic, clinical, and healthcare utilization data. These data were used to examine access to and quality of CRC services in NS, as well as factors affecting access to and quality of care, at various transition points along the continuum of care. Team ACCESS has also implemented integrated knowledge translation strategies targeting policy- and decision- makers. Discussion The development of Team ACCESS represents a unique approach to CRC research. We anticipate that the skills, tools, and knowledge generated from our work will also advance the study of other cancer disease sites in NS. Given the increasing prevalence of cancer, and with national and provincial funding

  16. Topical Administration of Acylated Homoserine Lactone Improves Epithelialization of Cutaneous Wounds in Hyperglycaemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Aya; Quinetti, Paes C.; Nakagami, Gojiro; Mugita, Yuko; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians often experience delayed epithelialization in diabetic patients, for which a high glucose condition is one of the causes. However, the mechanisms underlying delayed wound closure have not been fully elucidated, and effective treatments to enhance epithelialization in patients with hyperglycaemia have not been established. Here we propose a new reagent, acylated homoserine lactone (AHL), to improve the delayed epithelialization due to the disordered formation of a basement membrane of epidermis in hyperglycaemic rats. Acute hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin injection in this experiment. Full thickness wounds were created on the flanks of hyperglycaemic or control rats. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to identify hyperglycaemia-specific abnormalities in epidermal regeneration by comparison between groups. We then examined the effects of AHL on delayed epithelialization in hyperglycaemic rats. Histological analysis showed the significantly shorter epithelializing tissue (P < 0.05), abnormal structure of basement membrane (fragmentation and immaturity), and hypo- and hyperproliferation of basal keratinocytes in hyperglycaemic rats. Treating the wound with AHL resulted in the decreased abnormalities of basement membrane, normal distribution of proliferating epidermal keratinocytes, and significantly promoted epithelialization (P < 0.05) in hyperglycemic rats, suggesting the improving effects of AHL on abnormal epithelialization due to hyperglycemia. PMID:27404587

  17. Topical Administration of Acylated Homoserine Lactone Improves Epithelialization of Cutaneous Wounds in Hyperglycaemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lijuan; Minematsu, Takeo; Kitamura, Aya; Quinetti, Paes C; Nakagami, Gojiro; Mugita, Yuko; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians often experience delayed epithelialization in diabetic patients, for which a high glucose condition is one of the causes. However, the mechanisms underlying delayed wound closure have not been fully elucidated, and effective treatments to enhance epithelialization in patients with hyperglycaemia have not been established. Here we propose a new reagent, acylated homoserine lactone (AHL), to improve the delayed epithelialization due to the disordered formation of a basement membrane of epidermis in hyperglycaemic rats. Acute hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin injection in this experiment. Full thickness wounds were created on the flanks of hyperglycaemic or control rats. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to identify hyperglycaemia-specific abnormalities in epidermal regeneration by comparison between groups. We then examined the effects of AHL on delayed epithelialization in hyperglycaemic rats. Histological analysis showed the significantly shorter epithelializing tissue (P < 0.05), abnormal structure of basement membrane (fragmentation and immaturity), and hypo- and hyperproliferation of basal keratinocytes in hyperglycaemic rats. Treating the wound with AHL resulted in the decreased abnormalities of basement membrane, normal distribution of proliferating epidermal keratinocytes, and significantly promoted epithelialization (P < 0.05) in hyperglycemic rats, suggesting the improving effects of AHL on abnormal epithelialization due to hyperglycemia. PMID:27404587

  18. Concurrent administration of coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol improves learning in aged mice.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelley R; Sohal, Rajindar S; Forster, Michael J

    2005-03-15

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether supplemental intake of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) (ubiquinone-10) or alpha-tocopherol, either alone or together, could improve brain function of aged mice, as reflected in their cognitive or psychomotor performance. Separate groups of aged mice (24 months) were administered either CoQ (123 mg/kg/day), or alpha-tocopherol acetate (200 mg/kg/day), or both, or the vehicle (soybean oil) via gavage for a period of 14 weeks. Three weeks following the initiation of these treatments, mice were given a battery of age-sensitive behavioral tests for the assessment of learning, recent memory, and psychomotor function. In a test that required the mice to rapidly identify and remember the correct arm of a T-maze, and to respond preemptively in order to avoid an electric shock, the intake of alpha-tocopherol plus CoQ resulted in more rapid learning compared to the control group. Learning was not significantly improved in the mice receiving CoQ or alpha-tocopherol alone. None of the treatments resulted in a significant improvement of psychomotor performance in the old mice. In a separate study, treatment with higher doses of CoQ alone (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 14 weeks failed to produce effects comparable to those of the combination of alpha-tocopherol and CoQ. The apparent interaction of CoQ and alpha-tocopherol treatments is consistent with the previous suggestion, based on biochemical studies, that coenzyme Q and alpha-tocopherol act in concert. Overall, the findings suggest that concurrent supplementation of alpha-tocopherol with CoQ is more likely to be effective as a potential treatment for age-related learning deficits than supplementation with CoQ or alpha-tocopherol alone. PMID:15721983

  19. Epidural Co-Administration of Dexmedetomidine and Levobupivacaine Improves the Gastrointestinal Motility Function after Colonic Resection in Comparison to Co-Administration of Morphine and Levobupivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Zhang; Lu, Zhi-Fang; Lv, Xiang-Qi; Guo, Yue-Ping; Cui, Xiao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal motility may be impaired after intestinal surgery. Epidural morphine is effective in controlling postoperative pain, but can further reduce gastrointestinal motility. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of epidural dexmedetomidine on gastrointestinal motility in patients undergoing colonic resection. Seventy-four patients undergoing colonic resection were enrolled in this clinical trial and allocated randomly to treatment with dexmedetomidine (D group) or morphine (M group). The D group received a loading dose epidural administration of 3 ml dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg kg-1) and then a continuous epidural administration of 80 μg dexmedetomidine in 150 ml levobupivacaine (0.125%) at 3 ml h-1 for two days. The M group received a loading dose epidural administration of 3 ml morphine (0.03 mg kg-1) and then a continuous epidural administration of 4.5 mg morphine in 150 ml levobupivacaine at 3 ml h-1 for two days. Verbal rating score (VRS), postoperative analgesic requirements, side effects related to analgesia, the time to postoperative first flatus (FFL) and first feces (FFE) were recorded. VRS and postoperative analgesic requirements were not significantly different between treatment groups. In contrast, the time to FFL and time to FFE were significant longer in M group in comparison to D group (P < 0.05). Moreover, patients in M group had a significantly higher incidence of nausea, vomiting, and pruritus (P < 0.05). No patients showed neurologic deficits in either group. In comparison to morphine, epidural dexmedetomidine is safe and beneficial for the recovery of gastrointestinal motility after colonic resection when used as an adjunct with levobupivacaine for postoperative pain control. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-14004644 PMID:26751791

  20. Co-administration of interleukins 7 and 15 with DNA vaccine improves protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Li, Zhong-Yuan; Petersen, Eskild; Liu, Wen-Ge; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite, which can infect all warm-blooded animals including humans. Cytokines, including IL-15 and IL-7, play a critical role in the regulation of the homeostasis of naive and memory T cells. Co-administration the DNA vaccine with cytokines may improve its efficacy. IL-7 and IL-15 from splenic tissues of Kunming mice were cloned, and eukaryotic plasmid pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 was constructed. Kunming mice were administrated with DNA vaccine expressing T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1), pVAX-CDPK1, in the presence or absence of IL-7 and IL-15 plasmids (pVAX-IL-7-IL-15), immune responses were analyzed including lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and serum antibody measurements, flow cytometric surface markers on lymphocytes, and thus protective immunity against acute and chronic T. gondii infection was estimated. Mice injected with pVAX-CDPK1 supplemented with pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 showed higher Toxoplasma-specific IgG2a titers, Th1 responses associated with the production of IFN-γ, IL-2 as well as cell-mediated cytotoxic activity where stronger frequencies of IFN-γ secreting CD8+ and CD4+ T cells (CD8+/CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells) compared to controls. Co-administration of pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 and pVAX-CDPK1 significantly (P < 0.05) increased survival time (18.07 ± 5.43 days) compared with pVAX-CDPK1 (14.13 ± 3.85 days) or pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 (11.73 ± 1.83 days) alone, and pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 + pVAX-CDPK1 significantly reduced the number of brain cysts (73.5%) in contrast to pVAX-CDPK1 (46.0%) or pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 alone (45.0%). Our results indicate that supplementation of DNA vaccine with IL-7 and IL-15 would facilitate specific humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against acute and chronic T. gondii infection in mice. PMID:26706605

  1. "Learning at Nellie's Elbow": Will It Truly Improve the Preparation of Educational Administrators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daresh, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some widely held assumptions about administrator field experience aims and accomplishments. Shows that adding more ways to engage in field-based practice is insufficient. Envisions a professional formation period, wherein administrator candidates synthesize all learning experiences, values, and priorities to form a more wholistic, personal…

  2. Chronic administration of AM251 improves albuminuria and renal tubular structure in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, Kayte A; O'Keefe, Lannie; Simcocks, Anna C; Grinfeld, Esther; Mathai, Michael L; McAinch, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2015-05-01

    Modulation of the endocannabinoid system as an anti-obesity therapeutic is well established; however, the direct effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonism on renal function and structure in a model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterise the renal effects of the CB1 antagonist AM251 in a model of DIO. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low- or high-fat diet (HFD: 40% digestible energy from lipids) for 10 weeks to elicit DIO (n=9). In a different cohort, rats were fed a HFD for 15 weeks. After 9 weeks consuming a HFD, rats were injected daily for 6 weeks with 3 mg/kg AM251 (n=9) or saline via i.p. injection (n=9). After 10 weeks consuming a HFD, CB1 and megalin protein expression were significantly increased in the kidneys of obese rats. Antagonism of CB1 with AM251 significantly reduced weight gain, systolic blood pressure, plasma leptin, and reduced albuminuria and plasma creatinine levels in obese rats. Importantly, there was a significant reduction in tubular cross-section diameter in the obese rats treated with AM251. An improvement in albuminuria was likely due to the reduction in tubular size, reduced leptinaemia and maintenance of megalin expression levels. In obese rats, AM251 did not alter diastolic blood pressure, sodium excretion, creatinine clearance or expression of the fibrotic proteins VEGFA, TGFB1 and collagen IV in the kidney. This study demonstrates that treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 improves renal outcomes in obese rats. PMID:25804605

  3. Significant Improvements to LOGIST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingersky, Marilyn S.

    The computer program LOGIST (Wingersky, Patrick, and Lord, 1988) estimates the item parameters and the examinee's abilities for Birnbaum's three-parameter logistic item response theory model using Newton's method for solving the joint maximum likelihood equations. In 1989, Martha Stocking discovered a problem with this procedure in that when the…

  4. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  5. Improved Safety, Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Zidovudine through Lactoferrin Nanoparticles during Oral Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    C., Bhaskar; Golla, Kishore; Kondapi, Anand K.

    2015-01-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) is one of the most referred antiretroviral drug. In spite of its higher bioavailability (50–75%) the most important reason of its cessation are bone marrow suppression, anemia, neutropenia and various organs related toxicities. This study aims at the improvement of oral delivery of AZT through its encapsulation in lactoferrin nanoparticles (AZT-lactonano). The nanoparticles (NPs) are of 50–60 nm in size and exhibit 67% encapsulation of the AZT. They are stable in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Anti-HIV-1 activity of AZT remains unaltered in nanoformulation in acute infection. The bioavailability and tissue distribution of AZT is higher in blood followed by liver and kidney. AZT-lactonano causes the improvement of pharmacokinetic profile as compared to soluble AZT; a more than 4 fold increase in AUC and AUMC in male and female rats. The serum Cmax for AZT-lactonano was increased by 30%. Similarly there was nearly 2-fold increase in Tmax and t1/2. Our in vitro study confirms that, the endosomal pH is ideal for drug release from NPs and shows constant release from up to 96h. Bone marrow micronucleus assay show that nanoformulation exhibits approximately 2fold lower toxicity than soluble form. Histopathological and biochemical analysis further confirms that less or no significant organ toxicities when nanoparticles were used. AZT-lactonano has shown its higher efficacy, low organs related toxicities, improved pharmacokinetics parameter while keeping the antiviral activity intact. Thus, the nanoformulation are safe for the target specific drug delivery. PMID:26461917

  6. Texas Adult Education: Soaring Into the 21st Century. An Adult Education Administrator's Guide for Continuous Improvement and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Dan; Payne, Emily Miller; Burger, Phil; Curtis, Evelyn; Douglas, James; Kean, Nona; Parker, Ursula; Perez, Juan; Rosenberg, Sheila; Saucedo-Schwarz, Myrna; Franklin, Effie; Reed, Joseph

    This guide is designed as an aid for the adult education administrator in the pursuit of continuous excellence and quality improvement in adult education programs in Texas. The Acknowledgments section provides an introduction, background, history, and overview of the adult education National Reporting System (NRS); overview of the NRS measures and…

  7. A Survey of Vocational Administrators and Teachers in Career and Technical Education Centers regarding Their Perception of Vocational Program Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Richard Lynn, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this statewide study is to assess the perceived improvements made to programs that are offered at Career and Technical Education Centers from the perspective of vocational administrators and teachers following the Bureau of Career and Technical Education conduction of an Approved Program Evaluation. The Pennsylvania Bureau of Career…

  8. The School Improvement Model: Tailoring a Teacher and Administrator Performance Evaluation System to Meet the Needs of the School Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Retia Scott

    Described here are the planning and development stages of the Teacher Performance Evaluation (TPE) system and the Administrator Performance Evaluation (APE) system that are components of the School Improvement Model project undertaken by schools in Iowa and Minnesota. One goal is an evaluation system tailored to fit the needs of the school…

  9. School Administrators' Beliefs that School Improvements Were Due to Formal School Registration: A Rasch Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Harm; Waugh, Russell; Gray, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the attitudes of School Administrators to the relationship between formal school registration and school improvement. It concerns a mandatory inspection-type registration process for all Non-Government Schools in Western Australia. Part of the aim of this registration process was to help…

  10. Bezafibrate administration improves behavioral deficits and tau pathology in P301S mice.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Magali; Stack, Cliona; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Jainuddin, Shari; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia; Calingasan, Noel Y; Yang, Lichuan; Tampellini, Davide; Starkov, Anatoly A; Chan, Robin B; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Pujol, Aurora; Beal, M Flint

    2012-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-mediated transcription factors, which control both lipid and energy metabolism and inflammation pathways. PPARγ agonists are effective in the treatment of metabolic diseases and, more recently, neurodegenerative diseases, in which they show promising neuroprotective effects. We studied the effects of the pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate on tau pathology, inflammation, lipid metabolism and behavior in transgenic mice with the P301S human tau mutation, which causes familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Bezafibrate treatment significantly decreased tau hyperphosphorylation using AT8 staining and the number of MC1-positive neurons. Bezafibrate treatment also diminished microglial activation and expression of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Additionally, the drug differentially affected the brain and brown fat lipidome of control and P301S mice, preventing lipid vacuoles in brown fat. These effects were associated with behavioral improvement, as evidenced by reduced hyperactivity and disinhibition in the P301S mice. Bezafibrate therefore exerts neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of tauopathy, as shown by decreased tau pathology and behavioral improvement. Since bezafibrate was given to the mice before tau pathology had developed, our data suggest that bezafibrate exerts a preventive effect on both tau pathology and its behavioral consequences. Bezafibrate is therefore a promising agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with tau pathology. PMID:22922230

  11. Scanning for safety: an integrated approach to improved bar-code medication administration.

    PubMed

    Early, Cynde; Riha, Chris; Martin, Jennifer; Lowdon, Karen W; Harvey, Ellen M

    2011-03-01

    This is a review of lessons learned in the postimplementation evaluation of a bar-code medication administration technology implemented at a major tertiary-care hospital in 2001. In 2006, with a bar-code medication administration scan compliance rate of 82%, a near-miss sentinel event prompted review of this technology as part of an institutional recommitment to a "culture of safety." Multifaceted problems with bar-code medication administration created an environment of circumventing safeguards as demonstrated by an increase in manual overrides to ensure timely medication administration. A multiprofessional team composed of nursing, pharmacy, human resources, quality, and technical services formalized. Each step in the bar-code medication administration process was reviewed. Technology, process, and educational solutions were identified and implemented systematically. Overall compliance with bar-code medication administration rose from 82% to 97%, which resulted in a calculated cost avoidance of more than $2.8 million during this time frame of the project. PMID:21099677

  12. Bacteriophage administration significantly reduces Shigella colonization and shedding by Shigella-challenged mice without deleterious side effects and distortions in the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Volker; Ukhanova, Maria; Reinhard, Mary K; Li, Manrong; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We used a mouse model to establish safety and efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail, ShigActive™, in reducing fecal Shigella counts after oral challenge with a susceptible strain. Groups of inbred C57BL/6J mice challenged with Shigella sonnei strain S43-NalAcR were treated with a phage cocktail (ShigActive™) composed of 5 lytic Shigella bacteriophages and ampicillin. The treatments were administered (i) 1 h after, (ii) 3 h after, (iii) 1 h before and after, and (iv) 1 h before bacterial challenge. The treatment regimens elicited a 10- to 100-fold reduction in the CFU's of the challenge strain in fecal and cecum specimens compared to untreated control mice, (P < 0.05). ShigActiveTM treatment was at least as effective as treatment with ampicillin but had a significantly less impact on the gut microbiota. Long-term safety studies did not identify any side effects or distortions in overall gut microbiota associated with bacteriophage administration. Shigella phages may be therapeutically effective in a “classical phage therapy” approach, at least during the early stages after Shigella ingestion. Oral prophylactic “phagebiotic” administration of lytic bacteriophages may help to maintain a healthy gut microbiota by killing specifically targeted bacterial pathogens in the GI tract, without deleterious side effects and without altering the normal gut microbiota. PMID:26909243

  13. Dietary administration of laminarin improves the growth performance and immune responses in Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Li, Wenwu; Lin, Qian; Lin, Xi; Lin, Jianbin; Zhu, Qingguo; Jiang, Heji; Huang, Zhijian

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of laminarin on the growth performance, immunological and biochemical parameters, as well as immune related genes expression in the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. One hundred and eight fish were randomly divided into four groups (45 groupers/group). Blank control group was fed with the basal diet, while low, medium and high doses of laminarin groups were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% laminarin, respectively, for 48 days. The immunological and biochemical parameters in blood were investigated. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-8, and TLR2 in midgut were also evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Dietary laminarin supplementation significantly improved the specific growth rate and the feed efficiency ratio of the fish. The level of TP and the activity of LZM, CAT and SOD were higher than that of the control. The levels of UREA and CREA as well as the activity of ALP were lower than of the control. There was no significant difference in the levels of ALT and AST between control groups and treated groups. In addition, dietary laminarin supplementation decreased the levels of C3 and C4. The expression of immune response genes IL-1β, IL-8, and TLR2 showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in groupers fed low dose (0.5%) and medium dose (1.0%) of laminarin compared with the blank control. These results suggest that laminarin modulates the immune response and stimulates growth of the fish. PMID:25266890

  14. Clinical and Administrative Approaches to Improving the Efficiency of Joint Arthroplasty and Reducing Hospital Length of Stay.

    PubMed

    Booth, Robert E

    2015-10-01

    In the current health care environment, it is more important than ever for orthopedic surgeons to strive for optimal efficiency and effectiveness. For maximum efficiency, patients can be preselected to limit patient types that commonly require a greater investment of the practice's time and resources. Structuring surgical practices for efficiency may involve rethinking the staffing model, anticipating problems that may occur with individual patients, and enhancing internal and external communications. Turnover time between patients must be measured and minimized, and activity in the operating room--including the surgeon's own technique--must be evaluated and refined where necessary. Clinical advances that can enhance efficiency should be considered. Among such advances are tranexamic acid, intravenous acetaminophen, and bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (EXPAREL®, Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc). Intravenous acetaminophen and liposomal bupivacaine, in particular, can significantly improve efficiency by reducing the administration of opioid medication during the postoperative period, and thereby reducing opioid-related side effects. Liposomal bupivacaine has also been shown to shorten the hospital length of stay and, in many cases, eliminate the need for costly and inefficient nerve blocks. PMID:26447430

  15. Improved stability and antidiabetic potential of insulin containing folic acid functionalized polymer stabilized multilayered liposomes following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Harde, Harshad; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-13

    The present study reports the folic acid (FA) functionalized insulin loaded stable liposomes with improved bioavailability following oral administration. Liposomes were stabilized by alternating coating of negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and positively charged poly(allyl amine) hydrochloride (PAH) over liposomes. Furthermore, folic acid was appended as targeting ligand by synthesizing folic acid-poly(allyl amine) hydrochloride conjugate. The insulin entrapped within the freeze-dried formulation was found stable both chemically as well as conformationally and developed formulation exhibited excellent stability in simulated biological fluids. Caco-2 cell and ex vivo intestinal uptake studies revealed higher uptake of folic acid functionalized layersomes in comparison with their plain counterparts. In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies further revealed almost double hypoglycemia and approximately 20% relative bioavailability in comparison with subcutaneously administered standard insulin solution. Overall the proposed strategy is expected to contribute significantly in the field of designing ligand-anchored, polyelectrolyte-based stable systems in drug delivery. PMID:24283460

  16. Extracellular Administration of BCL2 Protein Reduces Apoptosis and Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Akiko; de Claro, R. Angelo; Morgan-Stevenson, Vicki L.; Tupper, Joan C.; Schwartz, Barbara R.; Liu, Li; Zhu, Xiaodong; Jordan, Katherine C.; Winn, Robert K.; Harlan, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe sepsis and septic shock are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In experimental sepsis there is prominent apoptosis of various cell types, and genetic manipulation of death and survival pathways has been shown to modulate organ injury and survival. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the effect of extracellular administration of two anti-apoptotic members of the BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) family of intracellular regulators of cell death in a murine model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We show that intraperitoneal injection of picomole range doses of recombinant human (rh) BCL2 or rhBCL2A1 protein markedly improved survival as assessed by surrogate markers of death. Treatment with rhBCL2 or rhBCL2A1 protein significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the intestine and heart following CLP, and this was accompanied by increased expression of endogenous mouse BCL2 protein. Further, mice treated with rhBCL2A1 protein showed an increase in the total number of neutrophils in the peritoneum following CLP with reduced neutrophil apoptosis. Finally, although neither BCL2 nor BCL2A1 are a direct TLR2 ligand, TLR2-null mice were not protected by rhBCL2A1 protein, indicating that TLR2 signaling was required for the protective activity of extracellularly adminsitered BCL2A1 protein in vivo. Conclusions/Significance Treatment with rhBCL2A1 or rhBCL2 protein protects mice from sepsis by reducing apoptosis in multiple target tissues, demonstrating an unexpected, potent activity of extracellularly administered BCL2 BH4-domain proteins. PMID:21390214

  17. Early propranolol administration to severely injured patients can improve bone marrow dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bible, Letitia E.; Pasupuleti, Latha V.; Alzate, Walter D.; Gore, Amy V.; Song, Kim J.; Sifri, Ziad C.; Livingston, David H.; Mohr, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bone marrow (BM) dysfunction is common in severely injured trauma patients, resulting from elevated catecholamines and plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as well as prolonged mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). We have previously shown that propranolol (β-blocker [BB]) reduces HPC mobilization in a rodent model of injury and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesize that BB would prevent BM dysfunction in humans following severe injury. METHODS Forty-five severely injured trauma patients were studied in a prospective, randomized pilot trial. Twenty-five patients received BB, and 20 served as untreated controls. The dose of propranolol was adjusted to decrease the heart rate by 10% to 20% from baseline. Blood was analyzed for the presence of HPC (blast-forming unit erythroid cells [BFU-E] and colony-forming unit erythroid cells) and G-CSF. Demographic data, Injury Severity Score (ISS), hemoglobin, reticulocyte number, and outcome data were obtained. RESULTS The mean age of the study population was 33 years; 87% were male, with a mean ISS of 29. There is a significant increase in BFU-E in peripheral blood immediately following traumatic injury, and this mobilization persists for 30 days. The use of BB significantly decreases BFU-E and colony-forming unit erythroid cells at all time points. G-CSF is significantly elevated in both groups on admission; the use of BB decreases G-CSF levels by 51% as compared with 37% for controls. The average hemoglobin is nearly 1 g higher on the day of discharge with propranolol treatment (BB, 9.9 ± 0.4 g/dL vs. no BB, 9.1 ± 0.6 g/dL). CONCLUSION Following severe trauma, early treatment with propranolol following resuscitation is safe. The use of propranolol blunts early tachycardia, reduces HPC mobilization, and results in a faster return to baseline of the G-CSF peak seen after injury. There is also a trend toward faster recovery and resolution of anemia. Propranolol may be the first

  18. Oral administration of the 5-HT6 receptor antagonists SB-357134 and SB-399885 improves memory formation in an autoshaping learning task.

    PubMed

    Perez-García, Georgina; Meneses, Alfredo

    2005-07-01

    In this work we aimed to re-examine the 5-HT6 receptor role, by testing the selective antagonists SB-357134 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) and SB-399885 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) during memory consolidation of conditioned responses (CR%), in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Bioavailability, half-life and minimum effective dose to induce inappetence for SB-357134 were 65%, 3.4 h, and 30 mg/kg p.o., and for SB-399885 were 52%, 2.2 h, and 50 mg/kg p.o., respectively. Oral acute and chronic administration of either SB-357134 or SB-399885 improved memory consolidation compared to control groups. Acute administration of SB-357134, at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, produced a CR% inverted-U curve, eliciting the latter dose a 7-fold increase relative to saline group. Acute injection of SB-399885 produced significant CR% increments, being 1 mg/kg the most effective dose. Repeated administration (7 days) of either SB-357134 (10 mg/kg) or SB-399885 (1 mg/kg) elicited the most significant CR% increments. Moreover, modeling the potential therapeutic benefits of 5-HT6 receptor blockade, acute or repeated administration of SB-399885, at 10 mg/kg reversed memory deficits produced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, and SB-357134 (3 and 10 mg/kg) prevented amnesia and even improved performance. These data support the notion that endogenously 5-HT acting, via 5-HT6 receptor, improves memory consolidation. PMID:15964617

  19. Training for Better Management: Avante Zambézia, PEPFAR and Improving the Quality of Administrative Services

    PubMed Central

    Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Rutherford, George W.; Horvath, Hacsi

    2015-01-01

    The United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) emphasizes health systems strengthening as a cornerstone of programmatic success. Health systems strengthening, among other things, includes effective capacity building for clinical care, administrative management and public health practice. Avante Zambézia is a district-level in-service training program for administrative staff. It is associated with improved accounting practices and human resources and transportation management but not monitoring and evaluation. We discuss other examples of successful administrative training programs that vary in the proportion of time that is spent learning on the job and the proportion of time spent in classrooms. We suggest that these programs be more rigorously evaluated so that lessons learned can be generalized to other countries and regions. PMID:26673340

  20. Improving Educational Administration Preparation Programs: What We Have Learned Over the Past Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Mike M.; Krueger, Jo Ann

    1997-01-01

    Identifies key elements necessary for effective administrator preparation; highlights clinical aspects of preparation, exploring the importance, purposes, and design of effective internship experiences; reports findings from a study of the long-term impact of one preparation program that was designed around the key elements; and discusses…

  1. Improving Ethics and Morality in the Public Service: Looking to Mexican-American Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franc, Max B.

    Administrative differences between the broad ethical and moral aspects of the mainstream majoritarian culture and one specific subculture--the Mexican American--are discussed. The main thesis is majoritarian inconsistency ("hyprocrisy") and the demand by the minority culture for consistency ("nonhyprocrisy"). The entire society profits from the…

  2. Enhancing Administrators' Capacity for Leadership by Improving Evaluation Practices and Processes Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Staci M.

    2009-01-01

    This problem-based learning project focused on the need to enhance the capacity for leadership of building administrators in order to effectively evaluate teachers. Federal and state guidelines mandate highly qualified teachers in every classroom, and teacher evaluation is an important component to ensure qualified teachers are in the classroom.…

  3. How Administrators Can Improve Teaching: Moving from Talk to Action in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldin, Peter; And Others

    This collection of 11 papers focuses on the strategies and programs college administrators can use to effect changes needed to achieve teaching excellence. Most papers combine a review of the research and professional literature with the author's personal experience. The first part of the book examines the college and university climate and the…

  4. The Improvement of Staff Development for General and Special Administration Through a New Partnership: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Council for Educational Administration, Columbus, OH.

    The Special and General Education Leadership (SAGE) Project was a 3 year effort focusing on inservice activities for administrators and other personnel geared toward implementation of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The project involved three objectives: to design, implement, and evaluate a series of staff development…

  5. Improving Library Relations with the Faculty and University Administrators: The Role of the Faculty Outreach Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebelman, Scott; Siggins, Jack; Nutty, David; Long, Caroline

    1999-01-01

    At George Washington University, the position of faculty outreach librarian was created to educate faculty and university administrators on the role of information technology in research and teaching, and to enhance their support for new electronic resources. Discussion includes how that position evolved, the projects initiated, and outcomes that…

  6. MATERNAL GHRH PLASMID ADMINISTRATION CHANGES PITUITARY CELL LINEAGE AND IMPROVES PROGENY GROWTH OF PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that administration of a myogenic plasmid that encodes a protease-resistant growth hormone-releasing hormone (HV-GHRH) to pregnant rat dams augmented long-term growth in first-generation progeny. In the present study, gilts were injected intra-m...

  7. Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Laura A; Bassis, Christine M; Walacavage, Kim; Hashway, Sara; Leroueil, Pascale R; Morishita, Masako; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobials in a number of applications, including topical wound dressings and coatings for consumer products and biomedical devices. Ingestion is a relevant route of exposure for AgNPs, whether occurring unintentionally via Ag dissolution from consumer products, or intentionally from dietary supplements. AgNP have also been proposed as substitutes for antibiotics in animal feeds. While oral antibiotics are known to have significant effects on gut bacteria, the antimicrobial effects of ingested AgNPs on the indigenous microbiome or on gut pathogens are unknown. In addition, AgNP size and coating have been postulated as significantly influential towards their biochemical properties and the influence of these properties on antimicrobial efficacy is unknown. We evaluated murine gut microbial communities using culture-independent sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments following 28 days of repeated oral dosing of well-characterized AgNPs of two different sizes (20 and 110 nm) and coatings (PVP and Citrate). Irrespective of size or coating, oral administration of AgNPs at 10 mg/kg body weight/day did not alter the membership, structure or diversity of the murine gut microbiome. Thus, in contrast to effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeat dosing of AgNP, at doses equivalent to 2000 times the oral reference dose and 100-400 times the effective in vitro anti-microbial concentration, does not affect the indigenous murine gut microbiome. PMID:26525505

  8. Timed, sequential administration of paclitaxel improves its cytotoxic effectiveness in a cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Fisi, Viktória; Kátai, Emese; Bogner, Péter; Miseta, Attila; Nagy, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paclitaxel (taxol) is a chemotherapeutic agent frequently used in combination with other anti-neoplastic drugs. It is most effective during the M phase of the cell-cycle and tends to cause synchronization in malignant cells lines. In this study, we investigated whether timed, sequential treatment based on the cell-cycle characteristics could be exploited to enhance the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. We characterized the cell-cycle properties of a rapidly multiplying cell line (Sp2, mouse myeloma cells) by propidium-iodide DNA staining such as the lengths of various cell cycle phases and population duplication time. Based on this we designed a paclitaxel treatment protocol that comprised a primary and a secondary, timed treatment. We found that the first paclitaxel treatment synchronized the cells at the G2/M phase but releasing the block by stopping the treatment allowed a large number of cells to enter the next cell-cycle by a synchronized manner. The second treatment was most effective during the time when these cells approached the next G2/M phase and was least effective when it occurred after the peak time of this next G2/M phase. Moreover, we found that after mixing Sp2 cells with another, significantly slower multiplying cell type (Jurkat human T-cell leukemia) at an initial ratio of 1:1, the ratio of the two different cell types could be influenced by timed sequential paclitaxel treatment at will. Our results demonstrate that knowledge of the cell-cycle parameters of a specific malignant cell type could improve the effectivity of the chemotherapy. Implementing timed chemotherapeutic treatments could increase the cytotoxicity on the malignant cells but also decrease the side-effects since other, non-malignant cell types will have different cell-cycle characteristic and be out of synch during the treatment. PMID:27104236

  9. Timed, sequential administration of paclitaxel improves its cytotoxic effectiveness in a cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Fisi, Viktória; Kátai, Emese; Bogner, Péter; Miseta, Attila; Nagy, Tamás

    2016-05-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a chemotherapeutic agent frequently used in combination with other anti-neoplastic drugs. It is most effective during the M phase of the cell-cycle and tends to cause synchronization in malignant cells lines. In this study, we investigated whether timed, sequential treatment based on the cell-cycle characteristics could be exploited to enhance the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. We characterized the cell-cycle properties of a rapidly multiplying cell line (Sp2, mouse myeloma cells) by propidium-iodide DNA staining such as the lengths of various cell cycle phases and population duplication time. Based on this we designed a paclitaxel treatment protocol that comprised a primary and a secondary, timed treatment. We found that the first paclitaxel treatment synchronized the cells at the G2/M phase but releasing the block by stopping the treatment allowed a large number of cells to enter the next cell-cycle by a synchronized manner. The second treatment was most effective during the time when these cells approached the next G2/M phase and was least effective when it occurred after the peak time of this next G2/M phase. Moreover, we found that after mixing Sp2 cells with another, significantly slower multiplying cell type (Jurkat human T-cell leukemia) at an initial ratio of 1:1, the ratio of the two different cell types could be influenced by timed sequential paclitaxel treatment at will. Our results demonstrate that knowledge of the cell-cycle parameters of a specific malignant cell type could improve the effectivity of the chemotherapy. Implementing timed chemotherapeutic treatments could increase the cytotoxicity on the malignant cells but also decrease the side-effects since other, non-malignant cell types will have different cell-cycle characteristic and be out of synch during the treatment. PMID:27104236

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Proposed Improvements at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Newport News, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-07-13

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), in this Environmental Assessment (EA), reports the results of an analysis of the potential environmental impacts from the proposed construction of various site improvements and the proposed installation and operation of the Helios light source at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia. Jefferson Lab is operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. (SURA) under contract to DOE. With this proposal, DOE intends to construct no more than four major two or three story additions totaling about 151,000 sq. ft. (square feet) to CEBAF Center, the main facility administration building, and the addition of three new single story and one two story operations support structures on the accelerator site. The structures are a 28,000 sq. ft. storage building, a 15,100 sq. ft. technical support building, a 3,500 sq. ft. refrigeration service building, and a two-story 22,600 sq. ft addition to the Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility. The proposed action also involves the installation and operation of the Helios (High-Energy Lithography Source) accelerator in the FEL Addition. DOE proposes to take this action to provide Jefferson Lab with improved staff and operations support facilities that, along with the operation of Helios, will provide an increased capability to facilitate accelerator and physics program operations. Support activities necessary to effect the installation and operation of Helios would begin in Fiscal Year (FY) 03. It is expected that the Helios machine should be available to serve developmental and operational activities in support of the physics program later in FY 04. In this EA, DOE presents the no action alternative, alternatives considered and dismissed, and the proposed action alternative. It also evaluates the impacts of each.

  11. Significant improvement of GaN crystal quality with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuo-Wei; Yang, Young; Wen, Wei-Chih; Li, Heng; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2016-03-01

    Ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer has been demonstrated effective to significantly improve crystal quality and electrical properties of GaN epitaxy layers for GaN based Light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this report, we have successfully reduced X-ray (102) FWHM from 240 to 110 arcsec, and (002) FWHM from 230 to 101 arcsec. In addition, reverse-bias voltage (Vr) increased around 20% with the sputtered AlN nucleation layer. Furthermore, output power of LEDs grown on sputtered AlN nucleation layer can be improved around 4.0% compared with LEDs which is with conventional GaN nucleation layer on pattern sapphire substrate (PSS).

  12. How a better understanding of transformational leadership can help improve your practice as a nurse administrator.

    PubMed

    Skelton-Green, J M

    1995-01-01

    Nursing administrators of today find themselves practising in an environment of permanent whitewater--an environment of chaotic change. Not only is the environment changing, so too are our employees: their needs, motives and priorities are vastly different than those we knew 20 years ago. The challenges of permanent whitewater cannot be overcome without effective leadership. Theorists agree that most North American organizations are currently overmanaged and underled. Certainly the leadership record of Canadian health care institutions has not been impressive. This paper will examine a selected set of concepts which the author believes are essential for nursing administrators who wish to provide real leadership to their departments and organizations: transformational (as compared to transactional) leadership; feminine (as compared to masculine) leadership; and empowerment. The literature review draws out both theory and practical applications. PMID:8603066

  13. Clinician outreach to improve the quality of rabies postexposure prophylaxis administration: Maryland's experience, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kis; Feldman, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    Errors in the administration of rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) are known to occur despite guidelines promulgated by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). In addition to elevating a patient's PEP failure risk, errors in administration increase medical expenses. A record review conducted at a local health department in Maryland revealed that ∼8% of reported PEPs deviated from ACIP guidelines. Physicians surveyed at a local hospital also demonstrated knowledge gaps concerning use of rabies immune globulin and special indications for the five-dose PEP series. In response, we implemented an intervention to raise clinician awareness and adherence to recommended protocols. Activities included development of a patient fact sheet, hospital-based poster, and online training course targeted to a diverse group of healthcare providers. We also explored the use of hospital informatics in delivering PEP guidance. Clinician outreach by using a multipronged approach might increase adherence to recommended protocols. PMID:24754462

  14. Long-term treatment with naproxcinod significantly improves skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in the mdx mouse model of dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Quinn, James L; Tatem, Kathleen S; Van Der Meulen, Jack H; Yu, Qing; Phadke, Aditi; Miller, Brittany K; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Ongini, Ennio; Miglietta, Daniela; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-06-15

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and the mouse model of DMD, mdx, dystrophin deficiency causes a decrease and mislocalization of muscle-specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), leading to functional impairments. Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) donation associated with anti-inflammatory action has beneficial effects in dystrophic mouse models. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of naproxcinod, an NO-donating naproxen derivative, on the skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in mdx mice. Four-week-old mdx and C57BL/10 mice were treated with four different concentrations (0, 10, 21 and 41 mg/kg) of naproxcinod and 0.9 mg/kg of prednisolone in their food for 9 months. All mice were subjected to twice-weekly treadmill sessions, and functional and behavioral parameters were measured at 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment. In addition, we evaluated in vitro force contraction, optical imaging of inflammation, echocardiography and blood pressure (BP) at the 9-month endpoint prior to sacrifice. We found that naproxcinod treatment at 21 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement in hindlimb grip strength and a 30% decrease in inflammation in the fore- and hindlimbs of mdx mice. Furthermore, we found significant improvement in heart function, as evidenced by improved fraction shortening, ejection fraction and systolic BP. In addition, the long-term detrimental effects of prednisolone typically seen in mdx skeletal and heart function were not observed at the effective dose of naproxcinod. In conclusion, our results indicate that naproxcinod has significant potential as a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. PMID:24463621

  15. Long-term treatment with naproxcinod significantly improves skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in the mdx mouse model of dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Quinn, James L; Tatem, Kathleen S; Van Der Meulen, Jack H; Yu, Qing; Phadke, Aditi; Miller, Brittany K; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Ongini, Ennio; Miglietta, Daniela; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and the mouse model of DMD, mdx, dystrophin deficiency causes a decrease and mislocalization of muscle-specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), leading to functional impairments. Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) donation associated with anti-inflammatory action has beneficial effects in dystrophic mouse models. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of naproxcinod, an NO-donating naproxen derivative, on the skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in mdx mice. Four-week-old mdx and C57BL/10 mice were treated with four different concentrations (0, 10, 21 and 41 mg/kg) of naproxcinod and 0.9 mg/kg of prednisolone in their food for 9 months. All mice were subjected to twice-weekly treadmill sessions, and functional and behavioral parameters were measured at 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment. In addition, we evaluated in vitro force contraction, optical imaging of inflammation, echocardiography and blood pressure (BP) at the 9-month endpoint prior to sacrifice. We found that naproxcinod treatment at 21 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement in hindlimb grip strength and a 30% decrease in inflammation in the fore- and hindlimbs of mdx mice. Furthermore, we found significant improvement in heart function, as evidenced by improved fraction shortening, ejection fraction and systolic BP. In addition, the long-term detrimental effects of prednisolone typically seen in mdx skeletal and heart function were not observed at the effective dose of naproxcinod. In conclusion, our results indicate that naproxcinod has significant potential as a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. PMID:24463621

  16. Atelocollagen-mediated systemic administration of myostatin-targeting siRNA improves muscular atrophy in caveolin-3-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Emi; Kinouchi, Nao; Adachi, Taro; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Sunada, Yoshihide; Hayashi, Yoshio; Tanaka, Eiji; Noji, Sumihare

    2011-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of gene expression is rapidly becoming a powerful tool for molecular therapy. However, the rapid degradation of siRNAs and their limited duration of activity require efficient delivery methods. Atelocollagen (ATCOL)-mediated administration of siRNAs is a promising approach to disease treatment, including muscular atrophy. Herein, we report that ATCOL-mediated systemic administration of a myostatin-targeting siRNA into a caveolin-3-deficient mouse model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1C (LGMD1C) induced a marked increase in muscle mass and a significant recovery of contractile force. These results provide evidence that ATCOL-mediated systemic administration of siRNAs may be a powerful therapeutic tool for disease treatment, including muscular atrophy. PMID:21261610

  17. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  18. Concurrent Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Administration with Chemotherapy Improves Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Responses in Young Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jeong; Yoon, Tae-In; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Jeong Eun; Chae, Eun Young; Yu, Jong Han; Sohn, Guiyun; Ko, Beom Seok; Lee, Jong Won; Son, Byung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the oncologic efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment concurrent with chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant setting. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 332 cases of invasive breast cancer in patients who were <40 years old at diagnosis and received GnRH agonists concurrent with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (GnRH agonist group) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone (neochemotherapy-alone group) from December 2010 to September 2014. Pathologic complete response rates (pCR) and Ki-67 changes were evaluated between the two groups. Results Median age was 32±3.9 and 36±3.0 years in the GnRH agonist group and neochemotherapy-alone group, respectively (p<0.001). After adjustment for tumor size, grade, lymph node metastasis, hormone receptor (HR) status, and chemotherapy regimen, the GnRH agonist group exhibited a higher pCR rate with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-6.34) and a greater decrease in Ki-67 expression after treatment (p=0.05) than the neochemotherapy-alone group. For HR-negative tumors, the GnRH agonist group showed a higher pCR rate (multivariate OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.37-8.95) and a greater decrease in Ki-67 expression (p=0.047). For HR-positive breast cancer, the pCR rate, change in Ki-67 index, and clinical response were higher, and preoperative endocrine prognostic index scores were lower, in the GnRH agonist group, but these did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Concurrent administration of GnRH agonists during neoadjuvant chemotherapy improved pCR rates and suppressed Ki-67 expression, especially in HR-negative tumors. PMID:26770243

  19. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281). PMID:26839476

  20. APD125, a Selective Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Inverse Agonist, Significantly Improves Sleep Maintenance in Primary Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Russell; Seiden, David J.; Hull, Steven G.; Erman, Milton; Schwartz, Howard; Anderson, Christen; Prosser, Warren; Shanahan, William; Sanchez, Matilde; Chuang, Emil; Roth, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Insomnia is a condition affecting 10% to 15% of the adult population and is characterized by difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by daytime impairment or distress. This study evaluates APD125, a selective inverse agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor, for treatment of chronic insomnia, with particular emphasis on sleep maintenance. In phase 1 studies, APD125 improved sleep maintenance and was well tolerated. Methodology: Adult subjects (n = 173) with DSM-IV defined primary insomnia were randomized into a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study to compare 2 doses of APD125 (10 mg and 40 mg) with placebo. Each treatment period was 7 days with a 7- to 9-day washout period between treatments. Polysomnographic recordings were performed at the initial 2 screening nights and at nights (N) 1/2 and N 6/7 of each treatment period. Results: APD125 was associated with significant improvements in key sleep maintenance parameters measured by PSG. Wake time after sleep onset decreased (SEM) by 52.5 (3.2) min (10 mg) and 53.5 (3.5) min (40 mg) from baseline to N 1/2 vs. 37.8 (3.4) min for placebo, (P < 0.0001 for both doses vs placebo), and by 51.7 (3.4) min (P = 0.01) and 48.0 (3.6) min (P = 0.2) at N 6/7 vs. 44.0 (3.8) min for placebo. Significant APD125 effects on wake time during sleep were also seen (P < 0.0001 N 1/2, P < 0.001 N 6/7). The number of arousals and number of awakenings decreased significantly with APD125 treatment compared to placebo. Slow wave sleep showed a statistically significant dose-dependent increase. There was no significant decrease in latency to persistent sleep. No serious adverse events were reported, and no meaningful differences in adverse event profiles were observed between either dose of APD125 and placebo. APD125 was not associated with next-day psychomotor impairment as measured by Digit Span, Digit Symbol Copy, and Digit Symbol Coding Tests

  1. Significant improvements in InGaN/GaN nano-photoelectrodes for hydrogen generation by structure and polarization optimization.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Liu, Bin; Li, Mingxue; Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, Jiangping; Li, Yi; Jiang, Fulong; Luo, Wenjun; Xie, Zili; Chen, Dunjun; Chen, Peng; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-01-01

    The photoelectrodes based on III-nitride semiconductors with high energy conversion efficiency especially for those self-driven ones are greatly desirable for hydrogen generation. In this study, highly ordered InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorod-based photoelectrodes have been fabricated by a soft UV-curing nano-imprint lithography and a top-down etching technique, which improve the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) from 16% (planar structure) to 42% (@ wavelength = 400 nm). More significantly, the turn-on voltage is reduced low to -0.6 V, which indicates the possibility of achieving self-driven. Furthermore, SiO2/Si3N4 dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors are employed to further improve the IPCE up to 60%. And the photocurrent (@ 1.1 V) is enhanced from 0.37 mA/cm(2) (original planar structure) to 1.5 mA/cm(2). These improvements may accelerate the possible applications for hydrogen generation with high energy-efficiency. PMID:26853933

  2. Significant improvements in InGaN/GaN nano-photoelectrodes for hydrogen generation by structure and polarization optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Liu, Bin; Li, Mingxue; Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, Jiangping; Li, Yi; Jiang, Fulong; Luo, Wenjun; Xie, Zili; Chen, Dunjun; Chen, Peng; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-02-01

    The photoelectrodes based on III-nitride semiconductors with high energy conversion efficiency especially for those self-driven ones are greatly desirable for hydrogen generation. In this study, highly ordered InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorod-based photoelectrodes have been fabricated by a soft UV-curing nano-imprint lithography and a top-down etching technique, which improve the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) from 16% (planar structure) to 42% (@ wavelength = 400 nm). More significantly, the turn-on voltage is reduced low to -0.6 V, which indicates the possibility of achieving self-driven. Furthermore, SiO2/Si3N4 dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors are employed to further improve the IPCE up to 60%. And the photocurrent (@ 1.1 V) is enhanced from 0.37 mA/cm2 (original planar structure) to 1.5 mA/cm2. These improvements may accelerate the possible applications for hydrogen generation with high energy-efficiency.

  3. Significant improvements in InGaN/GaN nano-photoelectrodes for hydrogen generation by structure and polarization optimization

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Liu, Bin; Li, Mingxue; Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, Jiangping; Li, Yi; Jiang, Fulong; Luo, Wenjun; Xie, Zili; Chen, Dunjun; Chen, Peng; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-01-01

    The photoelectrodes based on III-nitride semiconductors with high energy conversion efficiency especially for those self-driven ones are greatly desirable for hydrogen generation. In this study, highly ordered InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorod-based photoelectrodes have been fabricated by a soft UV-curing nano-imprint lithography and a top-down etching technique, which improve the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) from 16% (planar structure) to 42% (@ wavelength = 400 nm). More significantly, the turn-on voltage is reduced low to −0.6 V, which indicates the possibility of achieving self-driven. Furthermore, SiO2/Si3N4 dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors are employed to further improve the IPCE up to 60%. And the photocurrent (@ 1.1 V) is enhanced from 0.37 mA/cm2 (original planar structure) to 1.5 mA/cm2. These improvements may accelerate the possible applications for hydrogen generation with high energy-efficiency. PMID:26853933

  4. Improving Growth and Productivity of Oleiferous Brassicas under Changing Environment: Significance of Nitrogen and Sulphur Nutrition, and Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Naser A.; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Umar, Shahid; Ahmad, Iqbal; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mineral nutrients are the integral part of the agricultural systems. Among important plant nutrients, nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are known essential elements for growth, development, and various physiological functions in plants. Oleiferous brassicas (rapeseed and mustard) require higher amounts of S in addition to N for optimum growth and yield. Therefore, balancing S-N fertilization, optimization of nutrient replenishment, minimization of nutrient losses to the environment, and the concept of coordination in action between S and N could be a significant strategy for improvement of growth and productivity of oleiferous brassicas. Additionally, positive interaction between S and N has been reported to be beneficial for various aspects of oilseed brassicas. The current paper updates readers on the significance of N and S for the improvement of plant growth, development, and productivity in detail. In addition, S-N nutrition-mediated control of major plant antioxidant defense system components involved in the removal and/or metabolism of stress-induced/generated reactive oxygen species in plants (hence, the control of plant growth, development, and productivity) has been overviewed. PMID:22629181

  5. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-19

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:27160795

  6. Using geographic information system tools to improve access to MS specialty care in Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, William J; Cowper-Ripley, Diane; Litt, Eric R; McDowell, Tzu-Yun; Hoffman, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Access to appropriate and timely healthcare is critical to the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic diseases. In this study, we used geographic information system (GIS) tools to map Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their access to MS specialty care. We created six travel-time bands around VHA facilities with MS specialty care and calculated the number of VHA patients with MS who resided in each time band and the number of patients who lived more than 2 hours from the nearest specialty clinic in fiscal year 2007. We demonstrate the utility of using GIS tools in decision-making by providing three examples of how patients' access to care is affected when additional specialty clinics are added. The mapping technique used in this study provides a powerful and valuable tool for policy and planning personnel who are evaluating how to address underserved populations and areas within the VHA healthcare system. PMID:20848371

  7. Expectation-Based Efficiency and Quality Improvements in Research Administration: Multi-Institutional Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Dhanonjoy C.; Ahmed, Abrar; Hanumandla, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom may support the presumed notion that higher expectations increase efficiency and improve quality. However, this claim may only be validated when workers are equipped with appropriate tools, training, and a conducive work environment. This study implements various interventions, observes outcomes, and analyzes data collected in…

  8. Harnessing Assessment: Pulling Together, Administrators, Faculty, and Staff Can Improve Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlberg, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    Assessment is a powerful tool that can support tribal colleges in serving their communities and accomplishing their missions by improving student learning through applied research. Assessment is not about evaluating individual student performance, but evaluates the overall achievement of a group of students in order to provide feedback to…

  9. Quality improvement prototype: Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Johnson Space Flight Center was recognized by the Office of Management and Budget as a model for its high standards of quality. Included are an executive summary of the center's activities, an organizational overview, techniques for improving quality, the status of the quality effort and a listing of key personnel.

  10. Better Federal Program Administration Can Contribute to Improving State Foster Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 provides for annual federal incentive payments to states if they improve foster care programs by (1) avoiding unnecessary removal of children from their homes; (2) preventing extended stays in foster care; and (3) reunifying children with their families or placing them for adoption. To be…

  11. Improvement of Educational Policy and Administration: The Role of International Organizations, Learned Societies, and Professional Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    Learned societies, professional associations, and international organizations have important roles to play in improving educational policy. This paper discusses the formation of the Inter-American Society for Educational Leadership Development, an organization for educational leaders in North, Central, and South America. The society serves its…

  12. Significant Improvement of Thermal Stability for CeZrPrNd Oxides Simply by Supercritical CO2 Drying

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yunzhao; Wang, Zizi; Xin, Ying; Li, Qian; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yingxia

    2014-01-01

    Pr and Nd co-doped Ce-Zr oxide solid solutions (CZPN) were prepared using co-precipitation and microemulsion methods. It is found that only using supercritical CO2 drying can result in a significant improvement of specific surface area and oxygen storage capacity at lower temperatures for CZPN after aging at 1000°C for 12 h in comparison with those using conventional air drying and even supercritical ethanol drying. Furthermore, the cubic structure was obtained in spite of the fact that the atomic ratio of Ce/(Ce+Zr+Pr+Nd) is as low as 29%. The high thermal stability can be attributed to the loosely aggregated morphology and the resultant Ce enrichment on the nanoparticle surface, which are caused by supercritical CO2 drying due to the elimination of surface tension effects on the gas-liquid interface. PMID:24516618

  13. Significant improvement of thermal stability for CeZrPrNd oxides simply by supercritical CO(2) drying.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunzhao; Wang, Zizi; Xin, Ying; Li, Qian; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yingxia

    2014-01-01

    Pr and Nd co-doped Ce-Zr oxide solid solutions (CZPN) were prepared using co-precipitation and microemulsion methods. It is found that only using supercritical CO(2) drying can result in a significant improvement of specific surface area and oxygen storage capacity at lower temperatures for CZPN after aging at 1000°C for 12 h in comparison with those using conventional air drying and even supercritical ethanol drying. Furthermore, the cubic structure was obtained in spite of the fact that the atomic ratio of Ce/(Ce+Zr+Pr+Nd) is as low as 29%. The high thermal stability can be attributed to the loosely aggregated morphology and the resultant Ce enrichment on the nanoparticle surface, which are caused by supercritical CO(2) drying due to the elimination of surface tension effects on the gas-liquid interface. PMID:24516618

  14. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α -Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De

    2015-01-01

    α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use. PMID:26171389

  15. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system. PMID:25652244

  16. The crystallization of apo-form UMP kinase from Xanthomonas campestris is significantly improved in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Jhe-Le; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2007-05-01

    A bacterial UMP kinase from the plant pathogen X. campestris pathovar campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in a strong magnetic field. The crystals diffracted to 2.35 Å. Bacterial UMP kinases (UMPKs) are crucial enzymes that are responsible for microbial UTP biosynthesis. Interestingly, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells use different enzymes for UMP-phosphorylation reactions. Prokaryotic UMPKs are thus believed to be potential targets for antimicrobial drug development. Here, the cloning, expression and crystallization of SeMet-substituted XC1936, a bacterial UMPK from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris, are reported. The crystallization of the apo-form UMPK was found to be significantly improved in a strong magnetic field; the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.35 Å, a dramatic improvement over the original value of 3.6 Å. Preliminary structural analyses of apo-form XC1936 using crystals grown in a strong magnetic field clearly reveal well defined loop regions involved in substrate-analogue binding that were previously not visible. Crystallization in a strong magnetic field thus was found to be indispensable in determining the flexible region of the XC1936 UMPK structure.

  17. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system.

  18. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De

    2015-01-01

    α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use. PMID:26171389

  19. Significant Improvement of Antithrombotic Responses to Clopidogrel by Use of a Novel Conjugate as Revealed in an Arterial Model of Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoming; Lauver, D Adam; Wang, Hui; Sun, Duxin; Hollenberg, Paul F; Chen, Y Eugene; Osawa, Yoichi; Eitzman, Daniel T

    2016-10-01

    Clopidogrel is a prodrug that requires bioactivation by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to a pharmacologically active metabolite for antiplatelet action. The clinical limitations of clopidogrel are in large part due to its poor pharmacokinetics resulting from inefficient bioactivation by P450s. In this study, we determined the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a novel conjugate of clopidogrel, referred to as ClopNPT, in animal models and we evaluated its potential to overcome the limitations of clopidogrel. Results from pharmacokinetic (PK) studies showed that ClopNPT released the active metabolite with a time to maximal plasma concentration of <5 minutes in C57BL/6 mice after either oral or intravenous administration, and plasma concentrations of the active metabolite reached Cmax values of 1242 and 1100 ng/ml after a 10-mg/kg oral dose and a 5-mg/kg intravenous dose, respectively. Furthermore, ClopNPT was highly effective in preventing arterial thrombosis in rabbits and mice after vascular injuries. Formation of occlusive thrombi was prevented by ClopNPT at the 1-mg/kg dose with no significant increase in tongue bleeding time, whereas clopidogrel was ineffective at the same dose. These results suggest that ClopNPT has favorable PK/pharmacodynamic properties that can potentially overcome the attenuated PK properties of clopidogrel and thus significantly improve the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy. PMID:27511819

  20. The Development of a Training Program to Improve the Supervisory Competence of Newington Public School Administrators, and Appendix A: Manual of Activities Used for the Improvement of Supervisory Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, William P.

    The purpose of the practicum was to improve specific supervisory skills of the administrators in the Newington (Connecticut) public schools. The practicum was also intended to increase the amount of time spent by administrators in various categories of supervisory activities. Treatment included administrative focusing efforts, a planned and…

  1. Chronic Oral Administration of the Arginase Inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic Acid (ABH) Improves Erectile Function in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Robert; Hannan, Johanna L.; Liu, Xiaopu; Kutlu, Omer; Burnett, Arthur L.; Champion, Hunter C.; Kim, Jae Hyung; Steppan, Jochen; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2014-01-01

    Arginase expression and activity have been noted to be heightened in conditions associated with erectile dysfunction, including aging. Previously, arginase inhibition by chronic administration of the arginase inhibitor 2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. The objective of this study was to assess whether chronic oral ABH administration affects cavernosal erectile function. Rats were divided into 4 groups: young control, young treated with arginase inhibitor, aged control, and aged treated with arginase inhibitor. Arginase activity was measured and presented as a proportion of young untreated rats. In vivo erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation were measured in all cohorts. The cavernous nerve was stimulated with a graded electrical stimulus, and the intracavernosal/ mean arterial pressure ratios and total intracavernosal pressure were recorded. Arginase activity was elevated in the aged rats compared with young controls; however, arginase activity was significantly decreased in aged rats treated with ABH. With the addition of ABH, erectile responses improved in the aged rats (P < .05). Oral inhibition of arginase with ABH results in improved erectile function in aged rats, resulting in erectile hemodynamics similar to young rats. This represents the first documentation of systemic arginase inhibition positively affecting corporal cavernosal function. PMID:22492840

  2. Chronic oral administration of the arginase inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) improves erectile function in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert; Hannan, Johanna L; Liu, Xiaopu; Kutlu, Omer; Burnett, Arthur L; Champion, Hunter C; Kim, Jae Hyung; Steppan, Jochen; Berkowitz, Dan E; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2012-01-01

    Arginase expression and activity have been noted to be heightened in conditions associated with erectile dysfunction, including aging. Previously, arginase inhibition by chronic administration of the arginase inhibitor 2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. The objective of this study was to assess whether chronic oral ABH administration affects cavernosal erectile function. Rats were divided into 4 groups: young control, young treated with arginase inhibitor, aged control, and aged treated with arginase inhibitor. Arginase activity was measured and presented as a proportion of young untreated rats. In vivo erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation were measured in all cohorts. The cavernous nerve was stimulated with a graded electrical stimulus, and the intracavernosal/mean arterial pressure ratios and total intracavernosal pressure were recorded. Arginase activity was elevated in the aged rats compared with young controls; however, arginase activity was significantly decreased in aged rats treated with ABH. With the addition of ABH, erectile responses improved in the aged rats (P < .05). Oral inhibition of arginase with ABH results in improved erectile function in aged rats, resulting in erectile hemodynamics similar to young rats. This represents the first documentation of systemic arginase inhibition positively affecting corporal cavernosal function. PMID:22492840

  3. Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Emily S.; Cook, Richard I.; Render, Marta L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. In addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs). Design. Cross-sectional observational study of medication passes before (21 hours of observation of 7 nurses at 1 hospital) and after (60 hours of observation of 26 nurses at 3 hospitals) BCMA implementation. Measurements. Detailed, handwritten field notes of targeted ethnographic observations of in situ nurse–BCMA interactions were iteratively analyzed using process tracing and five conceptual frameworks. Results. Ethnographic observations distilled into 67 nurse–BCMA interactions were classified into 12 categories. We identified five negative side effects after BCMA implementation: (1) nurses confused by automated removal of medications by BCMA, (2) degraded coordination between nurses and physicians, (3) nurses dropping activities to reduce workload during busy periods, (4) increased prioritization of monitored activities during goal conflicts, and (5) decreased ability to deviate from routine sequences. Conclusion. These side effects might create new paths to ADEs. We recommend design revisions, modification of organizational policies, and “best practices” training that could potentially minimize or eliminate these side effects before they contribute to adverse outcomes. PMID:12223506

  4. Repeated Administration of Hyaluronic Acid Coated Liposomes with Improved Pharmacokinetics and Reduced Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Deng, Caifeng; Fu, Yao; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2016-06-01

    PEGylated liposomes (PEG-Lip) have been widely used as a drug carrier for their good stealth property in blood circulation. However, the second injection of PEG-Lip was reported to result in the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon and trigger hypersensitivity reactions in sensitive individuals for its complement activation effect. To avoid adverse immune responses, HA was selected to modify liposomes to afford HA modified liposomes (HA-Lip). Repeated administrations of PEG-Lip and HA-Lip were performed in rats. Our results showed that PEG-Lip induced the ABC phenomenon accompanied by a greatly increased accumulation of PEG-Lip in the liver. In contrast, HA-Lip showed good stealth property without inducing either the ABC phenomenon or an increase in liver uptake. Moreover, HA-Lip did not trigger complement activation in human serum in vitro and in rat blood in vivo. Consequently, HA modification represents a viable strategy to prolong the blood circulation time of liposomes without inducing the ABC phenomenon and adverse immune responses. PMID:27112287

  5. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  6. Combat-Related Intradural Gunshot Wound to the Thoracic Spine: Significant Improvement and Neurologic Recovery Following Bullet Removal

    PubMed Central

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury. PMID:25705346

  7. Early administration of recombinant erythropoietin improves hemoglobin recovery after reduced intensity conditioned allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V; Faucher, C; Mohty, M; Bilger, K; Ladaique, P; Sainty, D; Arnoulet, C; Chabannon, C; Vey, N; Camerlo, J; Bouabdallah, R; Viens, P; Maraninchi, D; Bardou, V J; Esterni, B; Blaise, D

    2005-11-01

    The use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has been controversial after myeloablative allogeneic Stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Reduced intensity conditioning regimens (RIC) offer a novel approach that might translate into a different profile of erythropoietic recovery. We treated 20 consecutive patients with rHuEPO early after matched sibling RIC allo-SCT. Conditioning included fludarabine, busulfan and antithymocyte globulin. EPO treatment was analyzed in terms of toxicity, impact on the frequency of Red blood cell transfusions (RBCT) and kinetics of Hemoglobin recovery within the 60 days post-allo-SCT. Results were compared with 27 matched patients who did not receive rHuEPO. In the first 2 months after allo-SCT all patients receiving rHuEPO (100%) achieved an Hb level > 11 g/dl at a median of 30 (15-35) days post-allo-SCT, as compared to only 63% of the patients not receiving rHuEPO (P = 0.007) at a median of 35 (20-55) days (P = 0.03). A total of 70% (95% CI, 50-90) of rHuEPO patients maintained an Hb over 11 g/dl in the second month as compared to only 19% (95% CI, 4-34) in the other group (P = 0.0004). For patients receiving RBCT, the use of rHuEPO was associated with a trend towards reduced RBCT requirements. This pilot study suggests a potential benefit of early administration of rHuEPO after RIC allo-SCT on early erythropoietic recovery. PMID:16151421

  8. Nighttime Administration of Nicotine Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism via the Hypothalamic Orexin System in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Nagata, Takashi; Fujita, Mikio; Kon, Kanta; Wu, Naizhen; Takatsuki, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Wada, Tsutomu; Nishijo, Hisao; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is known to affect the metabolism of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we here investigated whether nicotine promoted the central regulation of glucose metabolism, which is closely linked to the circadian system. The oral intake of nicotine in drinking water, which mainly occurred during the nighttime active period, enhanced daily hypothalamic prepro-orexin gene expression and reduced hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice without affecting body weight, body fat content, and serum levels of insulin. Nicotine administered at the active period appears to be responsible for the effect on blood glucose, because nighttime but not daytime injections of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels in db/db mice. The chronic oral treatment with nicotine suppressed the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase, the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver of db/db and wild-type control mice. In the pyruvate tolerance test to evaluate hepatic gluconeogenic activity, the oral nicotine treatment moderately suppressed glucose elevations in normal mice and mice lacking dopamine receptors, whereas this effect was abolished in orexin-deficient mice and hepatic parasympathectomized mice. Under high-fat diet conditions, the oral intake of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels at the daytime resting period in wild-type, but not orexin-deficient, mice. These results indicated that the chronic daily administration of nicotine suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis via the hypothalamic orexin-parasympathetic nervous system. Thus, the results of the present study may provide an insight into novel chronotherapy for type 2 diabetes that targets the central cholinergic and orexinergic systems. PMID:26492471

  9. A Matter of Timing: Identifying Significant Multi-Dose Radiotherapy Improvements by Numerical Simulation and Genetic Algorithm Search

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Simon D.; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

    2014-01-01

    -effecitive means of significantly improving clinical efficacy. PMID:25460164

  10. Oral Administration of a Hot Water Extract of the Softshell Turtle (Trionyx sinensis) Improves Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harwanto, Dicky; Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater softshell turtle (Trionyx sinensis) extract has been used traditionally as a tonic soup, and to recover from physical fatigue. To support these claims, the forelimb grip strength of mice was measured after feeding a soft-shell turtle extract for 7 days. The T. sinensis extract significantly increased the grip strength to 1.25±0.07 N (P<0.01), which is 16.8% higher than the force on day 0. After exercising, the blood glucose levels in extract-fed mice were 202% higher and urea levels were 73% lower, which were both significantly different than the levels observed after control treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher by 314%, and glutathione peroxidase increased by 165%. In addition, the obesity markers, serum triglyceride and cholesterol, decreased to 62% and 49%, respectively, after mice were fed the extract. These data show that the T. sinensis extract provided more energy for forelimb exercise, prevented protein catabolism and muscle fatigue, and decreased the oxidative stress caused by an exhaustive workout. PMID:26176001

  11. Oral Administration of a Hot Water Extract of the Softshell Turtle (Trionyx sinensis) Improves Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Harwanto, Dicky; Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-06-01

    Freshwater softshell turtle (Trionyx sinensis) extract has been used traditionally as a tonic soup, and to recover from physical fatigue. To support these claims, the forelimb grip strength of mice was measured after feeding a soft-shell turtle extract for 7 days. The T. sinensis extract significantly increased the grip strength to 1.25±0.07 N (P<0.01), which is 16.8% higher than the force on day 0. After exercising, the blood glucose levels in extract-fed mice were 202% higher and urea levels were 73% lower, which were both significantly different than the levels observed after control treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher by 314%, and glutathione peroxidase increased by 165%. In addition, the obesity markers, serum triglyceride and cholesterol, decreased to 62% and 49%, respectively, after mice were fed the extract. These data show that the T. sinensis extract provided more energy for forelimb exercise, prevented protein catabolism and muscle fatigue, and decreased the oxidative stress caused by an exhaustive workout. PMID:26176001

  12. [Blood flow changes in the optic nerve head of albino rabbits following intravenous administration of brovincamine fumarate, an improver of cerebral circulation and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Nirei, M

    1996-02-01

    The blood flow changes in the optic nerve head in adult albino rabbits following intravenous administration of brovincamine fumarate, an improver of cerebral circulation and metabolism, were investigated employing the hydrogen clearance method. In the brovincamine fumarate (0.1 mg/kg)-administered group, the blood flow in the optic nerve head increased soon after injection and reached the maximal value of 124.2 +/- 7.3% against the value before injection, at 20 minutes after injection, followed by a gradual decrease in the blood flow. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the blood flow at 10 to 40 minutes after injection, compared with the value before injection in the brovincamine fumarate (0.1 mg/kg)-administered group, but no significant increases in the blood flow were observed in either the brovincamine fumarate (0.5 mg/kg)-administered group or the control group given no brovincamine fumarate throughout the course. No significant changes in the mean values of the blood pressure in the femoral artery, pulse rate, respiratory rate or rectal temperature were observed in any group through the experiment. To learn the mechanism of the different efficacy of the two doses, further studies are needed in light of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) changes induced by brovincamine fumarate administration or in light of the receptor responsiveness to the drug concentration. PMID:8851150

  13. Improved red blood cell survival after cardiac operations with administration of urea during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.; Bake, B.; William-Olsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma hemoglobin and red blood cell survival (half-life of /sup 51/Cr) was studied in 48 patients undergoing single valve replacement or coronary artery bypass graft. Urea or placebo was administered during cardiopulmonary bypass in a prospective, randomized, double-blind manner to test the potential effect on mechanical hemolysis. The mean plasma hemoglobin level at the end of extracorporeal circulation was significantly lower in the urea-treated groups (coronary artery bypass 342 mg/L; valve replacement 364 mg/L) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 635 mg/L, valve replacement 518 mg/L. The half-life of /sup 51/Cr was significantly longer in the urea-treated patients (coronary artery bypass 18 days; valve replacement 16 days) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 12.4 days; valve replacement 12.7 days) but still below the normal reference value (29 +/- 4 days). The plasma hemoglobin returned to near normal values (50 mg/L) the day after operation (day 1) and remained low with no differences between control and urea-treated groups. The total blood hemoglobin was followed for 2 weeks after operation and showed significantly less anemia in the urea-treated group. The lowest mean blood hemoglobin level was noted between days 5 and 9-114 (coronary artery bypass) and 107 (valve replacement) gm/L in the urea-treated patients compared to 92.3 gm/L in the control subjects. The reduction in the severity of the anemia led to less transfusion in the urea-treated patients (approximately 0.5 unit/patient) than in the control subjects (approximately 1 unit/patient) between days 3 and 14.

  14. An ensemble strategy that significantly improves de novo assembly of microbial genomes from metagenomic next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xutao; Naccache, Samia N.; Ng, Terry; Federman, Scot; Li, Linlin; Chiu, Charles Y.; Delwart, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches rapidly produce millions to billions of short reads, which allow pathogen detection and discovery in human clinical, animal and environmental samples. A major limitation of sequence homology-based identification for highly divergent microorganisms is the short length of reads generated by most highly parallel sequencing technologies. Short reads require a high level of sequence similarities to annotated genes to confidently predict gene function or homology. Such recognition of highly divergent homologues can be improved by reference-free (de novo) assembly of short overlapping sequence reads into larger contigs. We describe an ensemble strategy that integrates the sequential use of various de Bruijn graph and overlap-layout-consensus assemblers with a novel partitioned sub-assembly approach. We also proposed new quality metrics that are suitable for evaluating metagenome de novo assembly. We demonstrate that this new ensemble strategy tested using in silico spike-in, clinical and environmental NGS datasets achieved significantly better contigs than current approaches. PMID:25586223

  15. Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Au, Joe Sau-chuen; Fan, Jintu; Zheng, Rong

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (i(m)) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30 min treadmill running followed by 10 min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower im than control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise. PMID:25683541

  16. First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, C.E.; Friedman, H.W.; An, J.; Avicola, K.; Beeman, B.V.; Bissinger, H.D.; Brase, J.M.; Erbert, G.V.; Gavel, D.T.; Kanz, K.; Macintosh, B.; Neeb, K.P.; Waltjen, K.E.

    1997-07-14

    Atmospheric turbulence severely limits the resolution of ground-based telescopes. Adaptive optics can correct for the aberrations caused by the atmosphere, but requires a bright wavefront reference source in close angular proximity to the object being imaged. Since natural reference stars of the necessary brightness are relatively rare, methods of generating artificial reference beacons have been under active investigation for more than a decade. In this paper, we report the first significant image improvement achieved using a sodium-layer laser guide star as a wavefront reference for a high- order adaptive optics system. An artificial beacon was created by resonant scattering from atomic sodium in the mesosphere, at an altitude of 95 km. Using this laser guide star, an adaptive optics system on the 3 m Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory produced a factor of 2.4 increase in peak intensity and a factor of 2 decrease in full width at half maximum of a stellar image, compared with image motion compensation alone. The Strehl ratio when using the laser guide star as the reference was 65% of that obtained with a natural guide star, and the image full widths at half maximum were identical, 0.3 arc sec, using either the laser or the natural guide star. This sodium-layer laser guide star technique holds great promise for the world`s largest telescopes. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Weekly administration of rapamycin improves survival and biomarkers in obese male mice on high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Leontieva, Olga V; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed the key role of mTOR (target of rapamycin) in aging. Furthermore, rapamycin extends lifespan in mice, especially in female mice. Here, we treated obese male mice on high-fat diet with rapamycin given intermittently: either weekly (once a week) or alternating bi-weekly (three injections every other week). While only marginally reducing obesity, intermittent administration of rapamycin significantly extended lifespan. Significance was achieved for weekly treated group and for the three rapamycin-received groups combined. In weekly treatment group, 100% mice were alive by the age of 2 years, whereas 60% of mice died in untreated group by this age. The effect of weekly treatment on survival was highly significant and cannot be fully explained by partial reduction in obesity. Alternating bi-weekly treatments seem to be less effective than weekly treatment, although effects of additional factors (see ) may not be excluded. After one year of treatment, all survived mice were sacrificed 8 days after the last administration of rapamycin to avoid its direct interference with parameters examined. Fasting levels of cardiac and hepatic p-S6, a marker of mTORC1 activity, were lower in weekly treatment group compared with control mice. In contrast, levels of p-Akt (S473), glucose, triglycerides and insulin were unchanged, whereas leptin and IGF-1 tended to be lower. Thus, weekly treatment with rapamycin may slow down aging in obese male mice on high-fat diet. PMID:24655348

  18. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prospective nonrandomized control study. The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED). Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic time, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time. A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture time(s) were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P

  19. Development of Polarizable Models for Molecular Mechanical Calculations II: Induced Dipole Models Significantly Improve Accuracy of Intermolecular Interaction Energies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, MengJuei; Lei, Hongxing; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

    2011-01-01

    In the companion paper, we presented a set of induced dipole interaction models using four types of screening functions, which include the Applequist (no screening), the Thole linear, the Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like (another form of exponential screening function) functions. In this work, we evaluate the performance of polarizability models using large set of amino acid analog pairs that are frequently observed in protein structures as a benchmark. For each amino acid pair we calculated quantum mechanical interaction energies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level with the basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction and compared them with molecular mechanics results. Encouragingly, all the polarizable models significantly outperform the additive F94 and F03 models (mimicking AMBER ff94/ff99 and ff03 force fields, respectively) in reproducing the BSSE-corrected quantum mechanical interaction energies. Particularly, the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for three Thole models in Set A (where the 1–2 and 1–3 interactions are turned off and all 1–4 interactions are included) are 1.456, 1.417 and 1.406 kcal/mol for Model AL (Thole Linear), Model AE (Thole exponential) and Model AT (Thole Tinker-like), respectively. In contrast, the RMSE are 3.729 and 3.433 kcal/mol for F94 and F03 models, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the average unsigned errors (AUE), which are 1.057, 1.025, 1.011, 2.219 and 2.070 kcal/mol for AL, AE, AT, F94/ff99 and F03, respectively. Analyses based on the trend line slopes indicate that the two fixed charge models substantially underestimate the relative strengths of non-charge-charge interactions by 24% (F03) and 35% (F94), respectively, whereas the four polarizable models over-estimate the relative strengths by 5% (AT), 3% (AL, AE) and 13% (AA), respectively. Agreement was further improved by adjusting the van der Waals parameters. Judging from the notably improved accuracy in comparison to

  20. Development of polarizable models for molecular mechanical calculations II: induced dipole models significantly improve accuracy of intermolecular interaction energies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, MengJuei; Lei, Hongxing; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

    2011-03-31

    In the companion paper, we presented a set of induced dipole interaction models using four types of screening functions, which include the Applequist (no screening), the Thole linear, the Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like (another form of exponential screening function) functions. In this work, we evaluate the performance of polarizability models using a large set of amino acid analog pairs in conformations that are frequently observed in protein structures as a benchmark. For each amino acid pair, we calculated quantum mechanical interaction energies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level with the basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction and compared them with molecular mechanics results. Encouragingly, all polarizable models significantly outperform the additive F94 and F03 models (mimicking AMBER ff94/ff99 and ff03 force fields, respectively) in reproducing the BSSE-corrected quantum mechanical interaction energies. In particular, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for three Thole models in Set A (where the 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are turned off and all 1-4 interactions are included) are 1.456, 1.417, and 1.406 kcal/mol for model AL (Thole Linear), model AE (Thole exponential), and model AT (Thole Tinker-like), respectively. In contrast, the RMSEs are 3.729 and 3.433 kcal/mol for F94 and F03 models, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the average unsigned errors (AUEs), which are 1.057, 1.025, 1.011, 2.219, and 2.070 kcal/mol for AL, AE, AT, F94/ff99, and F03, respectively. Analyses based on the trend line slopes indicate that the two fixed charge models substantially underestimate the relative strengths of noncharge-charge interactions by 24 (F03) and 35% (F94), respectively, whereas the four polarizable models overestimate the relative strengths by 5 (AT), 3 (AL, AE), and 13% (AA), respectively. Agreement was further improved by adjusting the van der Waals parameters. Judging from the notably improved accuracy in

  1. Defining Relationships between School Administrators' Work in School Improvement and the Teacher Evaluation Process within an Illinois School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Pamela Reimer

    2011-01-01

    Guided by a synthesis of human resource theory as well as teacher effectiveness and school improvement research and policy, this study aimed to better understand school administrators' responses to an externally imposed teacher quality measure (teacher-evaluation) and the extent that this measure influenced the school administrators'…

  2. Decrease of global methylation improves significantly hepatic differentiation of Ad-MSCs: possible future application for urea detoxification.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, C; Culmes, M; Schyschka, L; Yan, X; Damm, G; Wang, Z; Kleeff, J; Thasler, W E; Hengstler, J; Stöckle, U; Ehnert, S; Nüssler, A K

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is considered to be an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation. Cells can be used to bridge patients waiting for a donor organ, decrease mortality in acute liver failure, and support metabolic liver diseases. The limited availability of primary human hepatocytes for such applications has led to the generation of alternative hepatocyte-like cells from various adult stem or precursor cells. The aim of this study was to generate hepatocyte-like cells from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for clinical applications, which are available "off the shelf." Epigenetic changes in hepatocyte-like cells were induced by 5-azacytidine, which, in combination with other supplements, leads to significantly improved metabolic and enzymatic activities compared to nontreated cells. Cells with sufficient hepatic features were generated with a four-step protocol: 5-azacytidine (step 1); epidermal growth factor (step 2); fibroblast growth factor-4, dexamethasone, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite, and nicotinamide (step 3); and hepatocyte growth factor, dexamethasone, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite, and nicotinamide (step 4). Generated differentiated cells had higher phase I (CYP1A1/2, CYP2E1, CYP2B6, CYP3A4) and phase II activities compared to the undifferentiated cells. A strong expression of CYP3A7 and a weak expression of 3A4, as well as the important detoxification markers α-fetoprotein and albumin, could also be detected at the mRNA level. Importantly, urea metabolism (basal, NH4-stimulated, NH4- and ornithine-stimulated) was comparable to freshly isolated human hepatocytes, and unlike cryopreserved human hepatocytes, this activity was maintained after 6 months of cryopreservation. These findings suggest that these cells may be suitable for clinical application, especially for treatment of urea cycle disorders. PMID:22507189

  3. Maternal hydroxytyrosol administration improves neurogenesis and cognitive function in prenatally stressed offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Adi; Li, Hao; Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Zou, Xuan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Cong; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal stress is known to induce emotional and cognitive dysfunction in the offspring of both humans and experimental animals. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major polyphenol in olive oil with reported ability modulating oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, was performed to investigate its preventive effect on prenatal stress-induced behavioral and molecular alterations in offspring. Rats were exposed to restraint stress on days 14-20 of pregnancy. HT was given at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg/day. The spontaneous alternation performance and Morris water maze confirmed the impaired learning capacity and memory performance induced by prenatal stress in both male and female offspring, and these effects were markedly restored in the HT supplement groups. Through tissue analysis of the hippocampi of male offspring, we found that the stress-induced downregulation of neural proteins, including BDNF, GAP43, synaptophysin, NMDAR1, NMDANR2A and NMDANR2B, was prevented by HT. Prenatal stress-induced low expression of glucocorticoid receptor was also increased by HT, although basal fetal serum corticosterone levels were not different among the four groups. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in prenatally stressed rats were confirmed with changes in protein oxidation, SOD activity, the expression of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Meanwhile, HT significantly increased transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3, as well as phase II enzyme-related proteins, including Nrf2 and HO-1, which may contribute to the decreased oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial function shown with HT supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that HT is an efficient maternal nutrient protecting neurogenesis and cognitive function in prenatally stressed offspring. PMID:25442671

  4. Taurine supplementation improves the utilization of sulfur-containing amino acids in rats continually administrated alcohol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Chien, Yi-Wen; Tsen, Jen-Horng; Chang, Ching-Chien; Chang, Jer-Hwa; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2009-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in brain sulfur-containing amino acid (SCAA) metabolism to determine whether taurine intervened under continuous alcohol intake. We fed 80 male Sprague-Dawley rats 30% alcohol-containing water for 4 weeks. Eighty animals were divided into two groups (with or without 2 g/kg body weight taurine supplementation), and five were killed every week in each group for monitoring SCAA changes in the brain, liver, kidneys and heart. Results indicated that the plasma alcohol concentration increased from Weeks 1-4; however, animals with taurine supplementation showed a lower plasma concentration of ethanol in Week 2. As to SCAA concentrations, cysteine and taurine were both lower after a week of alcohol ingestion in the brain and plasma; the same declining trend was shown in the liver in Week 2. In contrast, plasma and hepatic concentrations of homocysteine were elevated in Week 2, and the plasma S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)/S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratio also decreased in Week 1. Furthermore, the key cofactor of transsulfuration, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, significantly declined in the plasma after a week of the ethanol intervention, whereas an increase was observed in brain tissue. Under taurine supplementation, some recoveries were shown by delaying taurine depletion to Week 2, increasing the SAM/SAH ratio and elevating plasma and brain levels of vitamin B6 in Week 2. In conclusion, daily consumption of 30% alcohol interfered with SCAA metabolism, thus decreasing taurine's role in neurotransmission. The possible mechanism involved might be that ethanol interrupts the production of cysteine, which is the upstream SCAA of taurine, thus decreasing the homocysteine level. Additionally, taurine supplementation delayed this process. PMID:18547794

  5. Antiangiogenic agents significantly improve survival in tumor-bearing mice by increasing tolerance to chemotherapy-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danfang; Hedlund, Eva-Maria E.; Lim, Sharon; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yin; Sun, Baocun; Cao, Yihai

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced broad toxicities are the leading cause of the drug-induced mortality in cancer patients. Antiangiogenic drugs (ADs) in combination with chemotherapy are widely used as front-line therapy for the treatment of various human cancers. However, the beneficial mechanisms underlying combination therapy are poorly understood. Here we show that, in several murine tumor models, administration of sunitinib markedly reduced chemotherapy-induced bone marrow toxicity. Intriguingly, in a sequential treatment regimen, delivery of ADs followed by chemotherapy demonstrated superior survival benefits compared with simultaneous administration of two drugs. In murine tumor models, we show that VEGF increased chemotoxicity by synergistically suppressing bone marrow hematopoiesis with cytostatic drugs. These findings shed light on molecular mechanisms by which ADs in combination with chemotherapy produce survival benefits in cancer patients and provide conceptual information guiding future designs of clinical trials, current practice, and optimization of ADs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:21367692

  6. Understanding Teacher Effectiveness: Significant State Data Capacity Is Required to Measure and Improve Teacher Effectiveness. Data for Action 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    States are increasingly focused on understanding and improving teacher effectiveness. There are several funding opportunities that incentivize states to use data to inform measurements of teacher effectiveness. Local, state, and federal efforts support using data to improve teacher preparation programs. Preparation programs seek "access to data…

  7. Post-Injury Administration of Mitochondrial Uncouplers Increases Tissue Sparing and Improves Behavioral Outcome following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Pauly, James R; Nukala, Vidya N; Sebastian, Andrea H; Day, Kristen M; Korde, Amit S; Maragos, William F; Hall, Edward D; Sullivan, Patrick G

    2007-05-01

    Following experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), a rapid and significant necrosis occurs at the site of injury which coincides with significant mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study is driven by the hypothesis that TBI-induced glutamate release increases mitochondrial Ca(2+)cycling/overload, ultimately leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on this premise, mitochondrial uncoupling during the acute phases of TBI-induced excitotoxicity should reduce mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake (cycling) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production since both are mitochondrial membrane potential dependent. In the present study, we utilized a cortical impact model of TBI to assess the potential use of mitochondrial uncouplers (2,4-DNP, FCCP) as a neuroprotective therapy. Young adult male rats were intraperitoneally administered vehicle (DMSO), 2,4-DNP (5 mg/kg), or FCCP (2.5 mg/kg) at 5 min post-injury. All animals treated with the uncouplers demonstrated a significant reduction in the amount of cortical damage and behavioral improvement following TBI. In addition, mitochondria isolated from the injured cortex at 3 or 6 h post-injury demonstrated that treatment with the uncouplers significantly improved several parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics. These results demonstrate that post-injury treatment with mitochondrial uncouplers significantly (p < 0.01) increases cortical tissue sparing ( approximately 12%) and significantly (p< 0.01) improves behavioral outcome following TBI. The mechanism of neuroprotection most likely involves the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis by reducing mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. These results further implicate mitochondrial dysfunction as an early event in the pathophysiology of TBI and that targeting acute mitochondrial events can result in long-term neuroprotection and improve behavioral outcome following brain injury. PMID:17518535

  8. Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) supply significantly improves xanthan gum production mediated by Xanthomonas campestris in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rong; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Yongkui

    2012-05-01

    To improve xanthan gum productivity, a strategy of adding hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was studied. The method could intensify oxygen supply through degradation of H₂O₂ to oxygen (O₂). In shake flask testing, the xanthan gum yield reached 2.8% (improved by 39.4%) when adding 12.5 mM H₂O₂ after 24 h of fermentation. In fermentor testing, it was obvious that the oxygen conditions varied with the H₂O₂ addition time. Eventually, gum yield of 4.2% (w/w) was achieved (increased by 27.3%). Compared with the method of intense mixing and increasing the air flow rate, adding H₂O₂ to improve the dissolved oxygen concentration was more effective and much better. Moreover, addition of H₂O₂ improved the quality of xanthan gum; the pyruvate content of xanthan was 4.4% (w/w), higher than that of the control (3.2%). PMID:22183692

  9. Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study

    PubMed Central

    Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H.; Martin, Paula I.; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Meehan, William P.; Baker, Errol H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26–62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm2) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm2). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1–5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest

  10. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

    2014-06-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo

  11. IPLEX Administration Improves Motor Neuron Survival and Ameliorates Motor Functions in a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Murdocca, Michela; Malgieri, Arianna; Luchetti, Andrea; Saieva, Luciano; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; de Leonibus, Elvira; Filareto, Antonio; Quitadamo, Maria Chiara; Novelli, Giuseppe; Musarò, Antonio; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2012-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder and the first genetic cause of death in childhood. SMA is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein that induce selective loss of α-motor neurons (MNs) in the spinal cord, resulting in progressive muscle atrophy and consequent respiratory failure. To date, no effective treatment is available to counteract the course of the disease. Among the different therapeutic strategies with potential clinical applications, the evaluation of trophic and/or protective agents able to antagonize MNs degeneration represents an attractive opportunity to develop valid therapies. Here we investigated the effects of IPLEX (recombinant human insulinlike growth factor 1 [rhIGF-1] complexed with recombinant human IGF-1 binding protein 3 [rhIGFBP-3]) on a severe mouse model of SMA. Interestingly, molecular and biochemical analyses of IGF-1 carried out in SMA mice before drug administration revealed marked reductions of IGF-1 circulating levels and hepatic mRNA expression. In this study, we found that perinatal administration of IPLEX, even if does not influence survival and body weight of mice, results in reduced degeneration of MNs, increased muscle fiber size and in amelioration of motor functions in SMA mice. Additionally, we show that phenotypic changes observed are not SMN-dependent, since no significant SMN modification was addressed in treated mice. Collectively, our data indicate IPLEX as a good therapeutic candidate to hinder the progression of the neurodegenerative process in SMA. PMID:22669476

  12. Perioperative dexamethasone administration in tonsillectomy patients: A three-cycle audit showing improvement using printed theatre lists.

    PubMed

    Bola, Summy; Bartlett, Annie; Williams, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone administration prior to tonsillectomy has been shown to reduce morbidity and is part of SIGN guideline 117. We conducted a three-cycle audit of 149 patients to ascertain how well guidelines were being met and introduce a sustainable method to improve compliance. A 3-month audit was conducted to ascertain how many tonsillectomy patients didn't receive pre-operative dexamethasone. ENT secretaries were requested to add 'Dex Please' to tonsillectomy theatre lists. A 3-month re-audit was conducted; the intervention was only implemented in half of cases and so a reminding tool for the secretarial staff was administered before a third cycle. Initially, there was 73% compliance to SIGN guidelines, this improved to 87% in the second cycle. After the second intervention, all tonsillectomy theatre lists had the 'Dex Please' note and compliance to SIGN guidelines was 100%. There were five readmissions in the first cycle, three in the second and two in the third cycle. All readmissions were underdosed according to guidelines. Understanding there are regular staff rotations throughout many U.K. hospitals, we implemented a reliable method to increase compliance to guidelines which helped reduce post-operative readmission after tonsillectomy. This can be easily introduced to other institutions and for other perioperative requirements. PMID:26734456

  13. Significant Improvement in Sleep in People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings by Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylkema, T.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although about 15 to 50 percent of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings suffer from sleep problems, scant attention is paid to these problems. Most available studies focus on pharmaceutical solutions. In this study we focus on improving sleep in people with intellectual disabilities living in…

  14. Deficits in Discrimination after Experimental Frontal Brain Injury Are Mediated by Motivation and Can Be Improved by Nicotinamide Administration

    PubMed Central

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R.; Jacobs, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI. PMID:24934504

  15. Low Level Engraftment and Improvement following a Single Colonoscopic Administration of Fecal Microbiota to Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Damman, Christopher J.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Westerhoff, Maria; Hayden, Hillary S.; Radey, Matthew; Hager, Kyle R.; Marquis, Sara R.; Miller, Samuel I.; Zisman, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an investigational treatment for diseases thought to involve alterations in the intestinal microbiota including ulcerative colitis (UC). Case reports have described therapeutic benefit of FMT in patients with UC, possibly due to changes in the microbiota. We measured the degree to which the transplanted microbiota engraft following FMT in patients with UC using a donor similarity index (DSI). Methods Seven patients with mild to moderate UC (UC disease activity index scores 3–10) received a single colonoscopic administration of FMT. Metagenomic sequence data from stool were analyzed using an alignment-free comparison tool, to measure the DSI, and a phylogenetic analysis tool, to characterize taxonomic changes. Clinical, endoscopic, histologic, and fecal calprotectin outcome measures were also collected. Results One of 5 patients from whom sequencing data were available achieved the primary endpoint of 50% donor similarity at week 4; an additional 2 patients achieved 40% donor similarity. One patient with 40% donor similarity achieved clinical and histologic remission 1 month after FMT. However, these were lost by 2−3 months, and loss correlated with a decrease in DSI. The remaining patients did not demonstrate clinical response or remission. Histology scores improved in all but 1 patient. No patients remained in remission at 3 months after FMT. Conclusions Following a single colonoscopic fecal transplant, a DSI of 40-50% is achieved in about two-thirds of recipients. This level of engraftment correlated with a temporary clinical improvement in only 1/5 patients. Larger sample sizes could further validate this method for measuring engraftment, and changes in transplant frequency or method might improve microbiota engraftment and efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742754 PMID:26288277

  16. Deficits in discrimination after experimental frontal brain injury are mediated by motivation and can be improved by nicotinamide administration.

    PubMed

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R; Jacobs, Eric A; Hoane, Michael R

    2014-10-15

    One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI. PMID:24934504

  17. Angiogenesis and Improved Cerebral Blood Flow in the Ischemic Boundary Area Detected by MRI after Administration of Sildenafil to Rats with Embolic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Guangliang; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Li, Qingjiang; Ewing, James R.; Lu, Mei; Panda, Swayamprava; Ledbetter, Karyn A.; Whitton, Polly A.; Chopp, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To dynamically investigate the long-term response of an ischemic lesion in rat brain to the administration of sildenafil, male Wistar rats subjected to embolic stroke were treated with sildenafil (n=11) or saline (n=10) at a dose of 10mg/Kg administered subcutaneously 24-hours after stroke and daily for an additional 6-days. Magnetic resonance images were acquired and functional performance was measured in all animals at 1-day, 2-days and weekly for 6-weeks post-stroke. All rats were sacrificed 6-weeks after stroke and endothelial barrier antigen immunostaining was employed for morphological analysis and quantification of cerebral vessels. Map-ISODATA was computed from T1, T2 and T1sat maps. ISODATA derived tissue signatures characterize the degree of ischemic injury. Based on the map-ISODATA calculated at 6-weeks, the ischemic lesion for each animal was divided into two specific regions, the ischemic boundary and ischemic core. The temporal profiles of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue signature were retrospectively tracked in these two regions and were compared with histological evaluation and functional outcome. After 1-week of sildenafil treatment, the ischemic lesion exhibited two significantly different regions, with higher CBF level and correspondingly, lower tissue signature value in the boundary region than in the core region. Sildenafil treatment did not significantly reduce the lesion size, but did enhance angiogenesis. Functional performance was significantly increased after sildenafil treatment compared with the control group. Administration of sildenafil to rats with embolic stroke enhances angiogenesis and selectively increases the CBF level in the ischemic boundary, and improves neurological functional recovery compared to saline-treated rats. PMID:17188664

  18. Brief Communication: Upper-air relaxation in RACMO2 significantly improves modelled interannual surface mass balance variability in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Berg, Willem Jan; Medley, Brooke

    2016-03-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  19. Significant School Law Cases Pending Before the U.S. Supreme Court. What Do They Portend for the Governance and Administration of the Public Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    Civil rights is the central theme of the cases affecting public school governance that the U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear this term. This paper discusses those cases in detail. It also notes that the cases the court refuses to hear have as significant an impact on school district governance as those cases it actually hears. School law cases…

  20. Repeated systemic administration of the nutraceutical alpha-linolenic acid exerts neuroprotective efficacy, an antidepressant effect and improves cognitive performance when given after soman exposure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongna; Piermartiri, Tetsade C B; Chen, Jun; McDonough, John; Oppel, Craig; Driwech, Wafae; Winter, Kristin; McFarland, Emylee; Black, Katelyn; Figueiredo, Taiza; Grunberg, Neil; Marini, Ann M

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to nerve agents results in severe seizures or status epilepticus caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, a critical enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine to terminate neurotransmission. Prolonged seizures cause brain damage and can lead to long-term consequences. Current countermeasures are only modestly effective against the brain damage supporting interest in the evaluation of new and efficacious therapies. The nutraceutical alpha-linolenic acid (LIN) is an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that has a wide safety margin. Previous work showed that a single intravenous injection of alpha-linolenic acid (500 nmol/kg) administered before or after soman significantly protected against soman-induced brain damage when analyzed 24h after exposure. Here, we show that administration of three intravenous injections of alpha-linolenic acid over a 7 day period after soman significantly improved motor performance on the rotarod, enhanced memory retention, exerted an anti-depressant-like activity and increased animal survival. This dosing schedule significantly reduced soman-induced neuronal degeneration in four major vulnerable brain regions up to 21 days. Taken together, alpha-linolenic acid reduces the profound behavioral deficits induced by soman possibly by decreasing neuronal cell death, and increases animal survival. PMID:26386148

  1. Improving survival rates in two models of spontaneous postoperative metastasis in mice by combined administration of a beta-adrenergic antagonist and a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Glasner, Ariella; Avraham, Roi; Rosenne, Ella; Benish, Marganit; Zmora, Oded; Shemer, Shaily; Meiboom, Hadas; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2010-03-01

    Clinical practice does not consider perioperative paracrine and neuroendocrine stress responses as risk factors for cancer recurrence, although recent animal studies provided supportive evidence. Suggested mechanisms include the effects of stress-hormones on tumor cells and on host physiology. In this study, in mice undergoing primary tumor excision, we tested the survival-enhancing potential of perioperative blockade of catecholamines and prostaglandins, and studied potential mediating mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice were inoculated intrafootpad with syngeneic B16F10.9-melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma, and the paw was amputated when a developing tumor exceeded 100 microl. The clinically used beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, and/or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etodolac, were administered once before amputation, and recurrence-free survival was monitored. In different studies, NK cytotoxicity, leukocytes' molecular functional markers, and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by tumor cells were studied in the context of surgery and drug treatments. The findings indicated that the combination of propranolol and etodolac, but neither drug alone, significantly and markedly improved survival rates in both tumor models, and was as effective as established immunostimulatory agents (IL-12 and polyinosinic-polycytiylic acid). Surgery markedly reduced NK cytotoxicity and NK cell expression of Fas ligand and CD11a, reduced all circulating lymphocyte-subtype concentrations, and increased corticosterone levels. Propranolol and etodolac administration counteracted these perturbations. B16 and 3LL secreted vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro, but secretion was not affected by catecholamine agonists, prostaglandins, corticosterone, propranolol, or etodolac. Overall, propranolol and etodolac administration, which could be applied perioperatively in most cancer patients with minimal risk and low cost, has counteracted several immunologic and endocrinologic

  2. Highly Asymmetric n(+) -p Heterojunction Quantum-Dot Solar Cells with Significantly Improved Charge-Collection Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Jae; Kim, Sunchuel; Lim, Hunhee; Choi, Jaesuk; Sim, Dong Min; Yim, Soonmin; Ahn, Byung Tae; Kim, Jin Young; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2016-03-01

    The depletion region width of metal-oxide/quantum-dot (QD) heterojunction solar cells is increased by a new method in which heavily boron-doped n(+) -ZnO is employed. It is effectively increased in the QD layer by 30% compared to the counterpart with conventional n-ZnO, and provides 41% and 37% improvement of Jsc (16.7 mA cm(-2) to 23.5 mA cm(-2) ) and power conversion efficiency (5.52% to 7.55%), respectively. PMID:26689133

  3. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  4. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

  5. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol®) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. Methods One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. Results A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Conclusion Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE. PMID:22956863

  6. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  7. [Significance of intermittent CDDP therapy for improving long-term prognosis in patients with advanced ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Umesaki, N; Yamamoto, A; Nakano, M; Matsumoto, Y; Tsuda, K; Kawabata, M; Sugawa, T

    1991-12-01

    In cases of advanced ovarian cancer, intermittent CDDP therapy (ICDDPT) was applied after the first operation and induction chemotherapy, and its efficacy and limit were studied. One cycle of this therapy involved consecutive 5 day CDDP treatment (25-30mg/body/day). The therapy was repeated at intervals of 3 months. In many cases, ovarian cancer was histologically rated as epithelial adenocarcinoma. The study included 18 cases in total. ICDDPT was applied to 13 cases in which no tumor mass was detected by second look operation (SLO) or which showed clinical remission after operation. Only 3 of these 13 cases showed recurrence, and all these 13 are still living. Of the 5 cases in which SLO disclosed a tumor mass or which did not show remission after the first operation, 2 died. When the survival rate after ICDDPT was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method with that of controls without CDDP therapy, the effectiveness of ICDDPT was demonstrated. The survival rate could therefore be improved by ICDDPT. The therapy particularly improved the long term prognosis of SLO negative cases and cases in clinical remission. It seems necessary to repeat this therapy for a long period to achieve satisfactory results. In SLO positive cases and cases without clinical remission, the therapy had only a limited effect. PMID:1744459

  8. Systemic Administration of a Recombinant AAV1 Vector Encoding IGF-1 Improves Disease Manifestations in SMA Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Li-Kai; Chen, Chien-Lin; Ting, Chen-Hung; Lin-Chao, Sue; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Dodge, James C; Passini, Marco A; Cheng, Seng H

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by a deficiency of survival motor neuron. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV1) vector encoding human insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in a severe mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy. Measurable quantities of human IGF-1 transcripts and protein were detected in the liver (up to 3 months postinjection) and in the serum indicating that IGF-1 was secreted from the liver into systemic circulation. Spinal muscular atrophy mice administered AAV1-IGF-1 on postnatal day 1 exhibited a lower extent of motor neuron degeneration, cardiac and muscle atrophy as well as a greater extent of innervation at the neuromuscular junctions compared to untreated controls at day 8 posttreatment. Importantly, treatment with AAV1-IGF-1 prolonged the animals' lifespan, increased their body weights and improved their motor coordination. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that AAV1-mediated expression of IGF-1 led to an increase in survival motor neuron transcript and protein levels in the spinal cord, brain, muscles, and heart. These data indicate that systemically delivered AAV1-IGF-1 can correct several of the biochemical and behavioral deficits in spinal muscular atrophy mice through increasing tissue levels of survival motor neuron. PMID:24814151

  9. Co-Administration of Metformin and N-Acetyl Cysteine Fails to Improve Clinical Manifestations in PCOS Individual Undergoing ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Ebrahim; Soleimani Mehranjani, Malek; Shariatzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of metformin (MTF ) in reducing insulin resistance and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in inhibiting oxidative stress which are involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to compare the effects of MTF and NAC combination on serum metabolite and hormonal levels during the course of ovulation induction in PCOS individual candidates of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized clinical trial, placebo con- trolled pilot study, 80 patients of polycystic ovarian syndrome at the age of 25-35 years were divided into 4 groups (n=20): i. NAC=treated with N-acetyl cysteine (600 mg three times daily), ii. MTF=treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily), iii. MTF+NAC=treated with N-acetyl cysteine plus metformin (the offered doses) and iv. placebo (PLA). A total number of 20 patients (6 from MTF group, 4 from NAC group, 6 from MTF+NAC group and 4 from PLA group) were dropped of the study. The drugs were administrated from day 3 of menses of previous cycle until ovum pick-up. Results Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone, cholester- ol and triglyceride, insulin and leptin significantly reduced in the MTF and NAC groups compared to the placebo (p<0.01). But levels of LH, total testosterone, cholesterol and triglyceride had no significant reduction in the MTF+NAC groups compared to the placebo. The serum levels of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), insulin and leptin reduced significantly after treatment in the MTF+NAC group compared to the placebo (p<0.05). Conclusion Considering the adverse effect of combination therapy, we proposed the conadministration might have no beneficial effect for PCOS patient during course of ovulation induction of ICSI (Registration Number: IRCT201204159476N1). PMID:25083175

  10. Improving Clinical Workflow in Ambulatory Care: Implemented Recommendations in an Innovation Prototype for the Veteran’s Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Emily S.; Lowry, Svetlana Z.; Ramaiah, Mala; Gibbons, Michael C.; Brick, David; Calco, Robert; Matton, Greg; Miller, Anne; Makar, Ellen; Ferrer, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human factors workflow analyses in healthcare settings prior to technology implemented are recommended to improve workflow in ambulatory care settings. In this paper we describe how insights from a workflow analysis conducted by NIST were implemented in a software prototype developed for a Veteran’s Health Administration (VHA) VAi2 innovation project and associated lessons learned. Methods: We organize the original recommendations and associated stages and steps visualized in process maps from NIST and the VA’s lessons learned from implementing the recommendations in the VAi2 prototype according to four stages: 1) before the patient visit, 2) during the visit, 3) discharge, and 4) visit documentation. NIST recommendations to improve workflow in ambulatory care (outpatient) settings and process map representations were based on reflective statements collected during one-hour discussions with three physicians. The development of the VAi2 prototype was conducted initially independently from the NIST recommendations, but at a midpoint in the process development, all of the implementation elements were compared with the NIST recommendations and lessons learned were documented. Findings: Story-based displays and templates with default preliminary order sets were used to support scheduling, time-critical notifications, drafting medication orders, and supporting a diagnosis-based workflow. These templates enabled customization to the level of diagnostic uncertainty. Functionality was designed to support cooperative work across interdisciplinary team members, including shared documentation sessions with tracking of text modifications, medication lists, and patient education features. Displays were customized to the role and included access for consultants and site-defined educator teams. Discussion: Workflow, usability, and patient safety can be enhanced through clinician-centered design of electronic health records. The lessons learned from implementing

  11. MicroRNA-145 Inhibitor Significantly Improves the Development of Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhe; Xiong, Yongjie; Wang, Fengyu; Liu, Xin; Gao, Yang; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Yaping

    2016-08-01

    Directly regulating the translation of POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4, and miRNA-145 plays an important role in maintaining the pluripotency of stem cells and the development of early embryos. In the present study, the expression model of miRNA-145 on bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were investigated and compared. Results indicated that (1) the expression level of miRNA-145 was significantly higher in SCNT embryos than that in IVF embryos after the eight-cell stage; (2) miRNA-145 negatively regulated the POU5F1, SOX2, and KLF4 in bovine embryos; (3) decreasing the expression of miRNA-145 by the miRNA-145 inhibitor significantly enhanced the expression of these three genes and the blastocyst formation rate; it also increased the total cell number and inner cell mass ratio of the bovine day 7 SCNT embryos. In conclusion, decreasing miRNA-145 expression might be a feasible means to enhance SCNT efficiency in bovines. PMID:27459582

  12. Significantly improving stellar mass and radius estimates: a new reference function for the Δν scaling relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Bellinger, Earl

    2016-08-01

    The scaling relations between global asteroseismic observables and stellar properties are widely used to estimate masses and radii of stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations. Since the mass and radius of the Sun are known independently, the Sun is commonly used as a reference to scale to. However, the validity of the scaling relations depends on the homology between the star under study and the reference star. Solar-like oscillators span a wide range of masses and metallicities, as well as evolutionary phases. Most of these stars are therefore not homologous to the Sun. This leads to errors of up to 10% (5%) in mass (radius) when using the asteroseismic scaling relations with the Sun as the reference. In this paper we derive a reference function to replace the solar-reference value used in the large-frequency-separation scaling relation. Our function is the first that depends on both effective temperature and metallicity, and is applicable from the end of the main sequence to just above the bump on the red giant branch. This reference function improves the estimates of masses and radii determined through scaling relations by a factor of 2, i.e. allows masses and radii to be recovered with an accuracy of 5% and 2%, respectively.

  13. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in coniferous forests and its significance in estimating the land surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Chen, Jing M.; Pavlic, Goran; Arain, Altaf

    2016-09-01

    Winter leaf area index (LAI) of evergreen coniferous forests exerts strong control on the interception of snow, snowmelt and energy balance. Simulation of winter LAI and associated winter processes in land surface models is challenging. Retrieving winter LAI from remote sensing data is difficult due to cloud contamination, poor illumination, lower solar elevation and higher radiation reflection by snow background. Underestimated winter LAI in evergreen coniferous forests is one of the major issues limiting the application of current remote sensing LAI products. It has not been fully addressed in past studies in the literature. In this study, we used needle lifespan to correct winter LAI in a remote sensing product developed by the University of Toronto. For the validation purpose, the corrected winter LAI was then used to calculate land surface albedo at five FLUXNET coniferous forests in Canada. The RMSE and bias values for estimated albedo were 0.05 and 0.011, respectively, for all sites. The albedo map over coniferous forests across Canada produced with corrected winter LAI showed much better agreement with the GLASS (Global LAnd Surface Satellites) albedo product than the one produced with uncorrected winter LAI. The results revealed that the corrected winter LAI yielded much greater accuracy in simulating land surface albedo, making the new LAI product an improvement over the original one. Our study will help to increase the usability of remote sensing LAI products in land surface energy budget modeling.

  14. Significantly improving stellar mass and radius estimates: a new reference function for the Δν scaling relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Bellinger, Earl

    2016-08-01

    The scaling relations between global asteroseismic observables and stellar properties are widely used to estimate masses and radii of stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations. Since the mass and radius of the Sun are known independently, the Sun is commonly used as a reference to scale to. However, the validity of the scaling relations depends on the homology between the star under study and the reference star. Solar-like oscillators span a wide range of masses and metallicities, as well as evolutionary phases. Most of these stars are therefore not homologous to the Sun. This leads to errors of up to 10 per cent (5 per cent) in mass (radius) when using the asteroseismic scaling relations with the Sun as the reference. In this paper, we derive a reference function to replace the solar-reference value used in the large-frequency separation scaling relation. Our function is the first that depends on both effective temperature and metallicity, and is applicable from the end of the main sequence to just above the bump on the red giant branch. This reference function improves the estimates of masses and radii determined through scaling relations by a factor of 2, i.e. allows masses and radii to be recovered with an accuracy of 5 per cent and 2 per cent, respectively.

  15. Significantly improving stellar mass and radius estimates: A new reference function for the Δν scaling relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Bellinger, Earl

    2016-06-01

    The scaling relations between global asteroseismic observables and stellar properties are widely used to estimate masses and radii of stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations. Since the mass and radius of the Sun are known independently, the Sun is commonly used as a reference to scale to. However, the validity of the scaling relations depends on the homology between the star under study and the reference star. Solar-like oscillators span a wide range of masses and metallicities, as well as evolutionary phases. Most of these stars are therefore not homologous to the Sun. This leads to errors of up to 10% (5%) in mass (radius) when using the asteroseismic scaling relations with the Sun as the reference. In this paper we derive a reference function to replace the solar-reference value used in the large-frequency-separation scaling relation. Our function is the first that depends on both effective temperature and metallicity, and is applicable from the end of the main sequence to just above the bump on the red giant branch. This reference function improves the estimates of masses and radii determined through scaling relations by a factor of 2, i.e. allows masses and radii to be recovered with an accuracy of 5% and 2%, respectively.

  16. Continuous nicotinamide administration improves behavioral recovery and reduces lesion size following bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact injury.

    PubMed

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Anderson, Gail D; Hoane, Michael R

    2011-10-31

    Previous research has demonstrated considerable preclinical efficacy of nicotinamide (NAM; vitamin B(3)) in animal models of TBI with systemic dosing at 50 and 500 mg/kg yielding improvements on sensory, motor, cognitive and histological measures. The current study aimed to utilize a more specific dosing paradigm in a clinically relevant delivery mechanism: continuously secreting subcutaneous pumps. A bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham surgery was performed and rats were treated with NAM (150 mg/kg day) or saline (1 ml/kg) pumps 30 min after CCI, continuing until seven days post-CCI. Rats were given a loading dose of NAM (50mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg) following pump implant. Rats received behavioral testing (bilateral tactile adhesive removal, locomotor placing task and Morris water maze) starting on day two post-CCI and were sacrificed at 31 days post-CCI and brains were stained to examine lesion size. NAM-treated rats had reductions in sensory, motor and cognitive behavioral deficits compared to vehicle-treated rats. Specifically, NAM-treated rats significantly improved on the bilateral tactile adhesive removal task, locomotor placing task and the reference memory paradigm of the Morris water maze. Lesion size was also significantly reduced in the NAM-treated group. The results from this study indicate that at the current dose, NAM produces beneficial effects on recovery from a bilateral frontal brain injury and that it may be a relevant compound to be explored in human studies. PMID:21704653

  17. Systematic chemical modifications of single stranded siRNAs significantly improved CTNNB1 mRNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonsuk; Pei, Yi; Guidry, Erin N; Zewge, Daniel; Parish, Craig A; Sherer, Edward C; DiMuzio, Jillian; Zhang, Hangchun; South, Victoria J; Strapps, Walter R; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura; Colletti, Steven L; Stanton, Matthew G

    2016-09-15

    Single-stranded silencing RNAs (ss siRNA), while not as potent as duplex RNAs, have the potential to become a novel platform technology in RNA interference based gene silencing by virtue of their simplicity and plausibly favorable characteristics in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Like other therapeutic pharmaceutical agents, ss siRNA can be optimized to achieve higher potency through a structure-activity based approach. Systematic chemical modification at each position of a 21-mer oligonucleotide identified 2',5'-linked 3'-deoxythymidine (3dT) at position 1 and locked nucleic acids (LNAs) at the seed region as key components to afford significant enhancement in knockdown activity both in vitro and in vivo. Further optimization by additional chemical modifications should enable ss siRNA as an alternative gene silencing modality. PMID:27503684

  18. Dimension Reduction via Unsupervised Learning Yields Significant Computational Improvements for Support Vector Machine Based Protein Family Classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2009-02-26

    Reducing the dimension of vectors used in training support vector machines (SVMs) results in a proportional speedup in training time. For large-scale problems this can make the difference between tractable and intractable training tasks. However, it is critical that classifiers trained on reduced datasets perform as reliably as their counterparts trained on high-dimensional data. We assessed principal component analysis (PCA) and sequential project pursuit (SPP) as dimension reduction strategies in the biology application of classifying proteins into well-defined functional ‘families’ (SVM-based protein family classification) by their impact on run-time, sensitivity and selectivity. Homology vectors of 4352 elements were reduced to approximately 2% of the original data size without significantly affecting accuracy using PCA and SPP, while leading to approximately a 28-fold speedup in run-time.

  19. Significantly improved dehydrogenation of ball-milled MgH2 doped with CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Jiawei; Li, Ping; Wan, Qi; Zhai, Fuqiang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ziliang; Liu, Zhaojiang; Volinsky, Alex A.; Qu, Xuanhui

    2014-12-01

    CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are added to magnesium hydride (MgH2) by high-energy ball milling in order to improve its hydriding properties. The hydrogen storage properties and catalytic mechanism are investigated by pressure-composition-temperature (PCT), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nonisothermal desorption results show that the onset desorption temperature of the MgH2 + 7 mol% CoFe2O4 is 160 °C, which is 200 °C lower than of the as-received MgH2. The dehydrogenation process of the MgH2 doped with the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles includes two steps. DTA curves and XRD patterns reveal that a chemical reaction happens between MgH2 and CoFe2O4, forming the final products of the ternary combination, corresponding to Co3Fe7, MgO and Co. The onset desorption temperature of the ball-milled MgH2 doped with Co3Fe7, MgO and Co is about 260 °C, approximately 100 °C lower than the un-doped MgH2, demonstrating that the ternary combination (Co3Fe7, MgO, and Co) also has a great catalytic effect on the MgH2 hydrogen storage properties. It is also confirmed that the various methods of adding the ternary combination have different effects on the MgH2 hydriding-dehydriding process.

  20. Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone improves the repairing process of rat calvaria defects: A histomorphometric and radiodensitometric study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Eduardo-de-Paula; Marques, Marcelo-Rocha; Dias da Silva, Marco-Antônio; Manzi, Flávio-Ricardo; Barros, Silvana-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intermittent treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH (1-34)) on the bone regeneration of critically-sized rat calvarial bone defects. Material and Methods Thirty-two male rats were trephined (4mm fullthickness diameter), in the central part of the parietal bones and divided into 2 groups of 16. The PTH group received subcutaneous injections of PTH (1-34) at 40µg/kg, 3 times a week and the control (CTL) group received the vehicle in the same regimen. The rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-treatment regimen, the parietal bones were extracted and samples were evaluated through histomorphometry and radiodensitometry. Results The histological observations showed that the PTH group presented more “island-like” new bone between the defect margins with fibrous tissues than did the CTL group. The PTH group significantly exhibited greater histologic bone formation than did the CTL group (1.5mm ±0.7; 1.9 mm ± 0.6, p<0.05/ for residual bone defect). The radiodensitometry analysis revealed significant differences among the PTH and CTL groups (2.1 Al eq. ±0.04; 1.8Al eq. ±0.06, p<0.05), demonstrating an increase in bone mineral density. The PTH treatment contributed to the bone formation with a higher amount of mineral and/or fibrous tissue when compared with the CTL group. Conclusions The results suggest that it was possible to increase the process of bone regeneration by accelerating the healing process in rat calvarial defects through intermittent administration of the PTH treatment. Key words: Bone, skull, rats, bone regeneration, bone density. PMID:26034928

  1. Relationship between chronic tadalafil administration and improvement of endothelial function in men with erectile dysfunction: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aversa, A; Greco, E; Bruzziches, R; Pili, M; Rosano, G; Spera, G

    2007-01-01

    Men with erectile dysfunction (ED) frequently have a disproportionate burden of comorbid vascular disorders including atherosclerotic disease. We investigated whether scheduled tadalafil is better than on-demand (OD) in improving endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of cavernous arteries in men with ED and whether this effect is also exerted on markers of endothelial function. We did an open-label, randomized, crossover study including 20 male outclinic patients aged 18 years or older (mean age 54 years) who had at least a 3-month history of ED of any severity or etiology. Tadalafil (20 mg) on alternate days (ADs) or OD was administered for 4 weeks. Primary end points were variations of basal inflow (peak systolic velocity (PSV)) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of cavernous arteries compared with baseline at penile Duplex ultrasound. Secondary end points were variations of Q13-SIEDY scores regarding morning erections and of markers of endothelial function, that is, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), intercellular cell adhesion molecule, endothelin-1 (ET-1), insulin and C-reactive protein (CRP). PSVs and FMD were higher after AD treatment when compared with OD and baseline, respectively (P=0.0001), and improvements were maintained from 2 weeks after discontinuation (P<0.005). Patients receiving tadalafil AD experienced a significant improvement of morning erections as compared to AD treatment (P<0.0001); ET1, VCAM and CRP showed a robust decrease after chronic vs OD regimes (P<0.05), with concomitant increase in insulin levels (P<0.05), without any variation in blood pressure and other laboratory parameters. Chronic but not OD tadalafil improves endothelial function with sustained effects from its discontinuation. Chronic treatment also produces a dramatic increase in morning erections, which determines better oxygenation to the penis, thus providing a rationale for vascular rehabilitation. PMID:16943794

  2. Melatonin administrated immediately before an intense exercise reverses oxidative stress, improves immunological defenses and lipid metabolism in football players.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, M D; Manfredi, M; Ribas-Serna, J; Garcia-Moreno, H; Calvo, J R

    2012-03-20

    Acute sport exercise leads to a strong stimulation of muscle tissue and a change in the organism energy demands. This study was designed to investigate the effect of oral melatonin supplementation on human physiological functions associated with acute exercise. Immune, endocrine and metabolic parameters were measured in 16 young male football players, who were divided into two groups, an experimental group (supplementation with 6 mg of melatonin administered 30 min prior to exercise) and a control group (placebo without melatonin). They performed a continuous exercise of high intensity (135 beats/min). Samples were collected 30 min before the exercise and 3, 15 and 60 min during the exercise. The results indicated that the acute sport training presented: a) increased lipid peroxidation products (MDA) in both groups, control and experimental, with levels significantly decreased in the group treated with melatonin after 15 and 60 min of high-intensity exercise, b) the total antioxidant activity (TAS) was lower in the control group than in the experimental, the latter showing significant differences at 60 min of high-intensity exercise c) the lipid profile of subjects in the experimental group showed lower triglyceride levels than the control group after 15 and 60 min of high-intensity exercise, d) immunological studies only showed, in the experimental group, an increase in IgA levels at 60 min after the exercise, and finally there were no significant differences between the groups for any of the other variables. In conclusion these results indicated that treatment with melatonin in acute sports exercise reversed oxidative stress, improved defenses and lipid metabolism, which would result in an improvement in fitness. PMID:22212240

  3. The use of predictive lithostratigraphy to significantly improve the ability to forecast reservoir and source rocks? Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Moore, T. L.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-29

    The purpose of this CRADA, which ended in 2003, was to make reservoir and source rock distribution significantly more predictable by quantifying the fundamental controls on stratigraphic heterogeneity. To do this, the relationships among insolation, climate, sediment supply, glacioeustasy, and reservoir and source rock occurrence were investigated in detail. Work current at the inception of the CRADA had uncovered previously unrecognized associations among these processes and properties that produce a phenomenon that, when properly analyzed, will make lithostratigraphic variability (including texture, porosity, and permeability) substantially more understandable. Computer climate simulations of selected time periods, compared with the global distribution of paleoclimatic indicators, documented spatial and temporal climate changes as a function of insolation and provided quantitative changes in runoff, lake level, and glacioeustasy. The effect of elevation and climate on sediment yield was assessed numerically by analyzing digital terrain and climate data. The phase relationships of climate, yield, and glacioeustatic cycles from the Gulf of Mexico and/or other sedimentary basins were assessed by using lacunarity, a statistical technique.

  4. Combined Statistical Analyses of Peptide Intensities and Peptide Occurrences Improves Identification of Significant Peptides from MS-based Proteomics Data

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; McCue, Lee Ann; Waters, Katrina M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Varnum, Susan M.; Pounds, Joel G.

    2010-11-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS) proteomics uses peak intensities of proteolytic peptides to infer the differential abundance of peptides/proteins. However, substantial run-to-run variability in peptide intensities and observations (presence/absence) of peptides makes data analysis quite challenging. The missing abundance values in LC-MS proteomics data are difficult to address with traditional imputation-based approaches because the mechanisms by which data are missing are unknown a priori. Data can be missing due to random mechanisms such as experimental error, or non-random mechanisms such as a true biological effect. We present a statistical approach that uses a test of independence known as a G-test to test the null hypothesis of independence between the number of missing values and the experimental groups. We pair the G-test results evaluating independence of missing data (IMD) with a standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) that uses only means and variances computed from the observed data. Each peptide is therefore represented by two statistical confidence metrics, one for qualitative differential observation and one for quantitative differential intensity. We use two simulated and two real LC-MS datasets to demonstrate the robustness and sensitivity of the ANOVA-IMD approach for assigning confidence to peptides with significant differential abundance among experimental groups.

  5. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  6. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d-1 compared to 0.118 d-1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment.

  7. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase administration improves outcome of recurrent high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cang; Gu, Zheng; Chen, Shizhang; Guo, Ying; Fan, Zhong; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Jianfei; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Jisheng; Ma, Ding; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background This randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the anti-tumor efficacy and safety of replication-deficient adenovirus mutant thymidine kinase (ADV-TK) in combination with ganciclovir administration in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG). Patients and Methods 53 patients with recurrent HGG were randomly allocated to receive intra-arterial cerebral infusion of ADV-TK or conventional treatments. The primary end point was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS-6). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), safety, and clinical benefit. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00870181. Results In ADV-TK group, PFS-6 was 54.5%, the median PFS was 29.6 weeks, the median OS was 45.4 weeks, and better survivals were achieved when compared with control group. The one-year PFS and OS were 22.7% and 44.6% in ADV-TK group respectively, and clinical benefit was 68.2%. There are 2 patients alive for more than 4 years without progression in ADV-TK group. In the subgroup of glioblastoma received ADV-TK, PFS-6 was 71.4%, median PFS was 34.9 weeks, median OS was 45.7 weeks respectively, much better than those in control group. The one-year PFS and OS were 35.7% and 50.0% in ADV-TK group respectively. ADV-TK/ganciclovir gene therapy was well tolerated, and no treatment-related severe adverse events were noted. Conclusion Our study demonstrated a notable improvement of PFS-6, PFS and OS in ADV-TK treated group, and the efficacy and safety appear to be comparable to other reported treatments used for recurrent HGG. ADV-TK gene therapy is therefore a valuable therapeutic option for recurrent HGG. PMID:26716896

  8. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  9. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  10. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1–T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20–30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  11. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-08-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  12. Dietary administration of a commercial mixed-species probiotic improves growth performance and modulates the intestinal immunity of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Standen, B T; Peggs, D L; Rawling, M D; Foey, A; Davies, S J; Santos, G A; Merrifield, D L

    2016-02-01

    The growth performance, immunological status, intestinal morphology and microbiology of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were investigated after dietary administration of the commercial probiotic AquaStar(®) Growout. Tilapia (29.02 ± 0.33 g) were split into five treatments; control (CON), 1.5 g kg(-1) probiotic (PRO-1.5), 3 g kg(-1) probiotic (PRO-3), pulsed probiotic feeding (PRO-PULSE) or an initial probiotic feed followed by control feeding (PRO-INI). After six weeks of experimental feeding, fish fed PRO-3 displayed significantly higher final weight, weight gain and SGR compared to the CON or PRO-INI treatments. Supplementation of the probiotic at this dose induced an up-regulation of intestinal caspase-3, PCNA and HSP70 mRNA levels compared to the CON fed fish. Immuno-modulatory pathways were also affected; significantly higher expression of TLR2, pro-inflammatory genes TNFα and IL-1β, and anti-inflammatory genes IL-10 and TGFβ suggest that the probiotic may potentiate a higher state of mucosal tolerance and immuno-readiness. Histological appraisal revealed significantly higher numbers of intraepithelial leucocytes in the intestine of PRO-3 fed fish compared with treatments CON, PRO-PULSE and PRO-INI but not PRO-1.5. Additionally, fish receiving PRO-3 had a significantly higher abundance of goblet cells in their mid-intestine when compared with fish from all other treatments. Together, these data suggest that continuous provision of AquaStar(®) Growout at 3 g kg(-1) can improve tilapia growth and elevate the intestinal immunological status of the host. PMID:26672904

  13. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Administrators Perceptions on the Adaptation of Quality and Continuous Improvement Tools to Community Colleges in the State of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether community college administrators in the state of Michigan believe that commonly known quality and continuous improvement tools, prevalent in a manufacturing environment, can be adapted to a community college model. The tools, specifically Six Sigma, benchmarking and process mapping have played a…

  14. School Administrators' Beliefs that School Improvements Were Due to Formal School Registration Guttman Scales and their Inter-Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Harm; Waugh, Russell; Gray, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the attitudes of School Administrators to the relationship between formal school registration and school improvement. It concerns a mandatory inspection-type registration process for all Non-Government Schools in Western Australia. Part of the aim of this registration process was to help schools improve…

  15. Strontium administration in young chickens improves bone volume and architecture but does not enhance bone structural and material strength.

    PubMed

    Shahnazari, M; Lang, D H; Fosmire, G J; Sharkey, N A; Mitchell, A D; Leach, R M

    2007-03-01

    Genetic selection for rapid body growth in broiler chickens has resulted in adverse effects on the skeletal system exemplified by a higher rate of cortical fractures in leg bones. Strontium (Sr) has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation and strength. We supplemented the diet of 300-day-old chicks with increasing dosages of Sr (0%, 0.12%, or 0.24%) to study the capacity of the element to improve bone quality and mechanical integrity. Treatment with Sr increased cortical bone volume and reduced bone porosity as measured by micro-computed tomography. The higher level of Sr significantly reduced bone Ca content (34.7%) relative to controls (37.2%), suggesting that Sr replaced some of the Ca in bone. Material properties determined by the three-point bending test showed that bone in the Sr-treated groups withstood greater deformation prior to fracture. Load to failure and ultimate stress were similar across groups. Our results indicate that Sr treatment in rapidly growing chickens induced positive effects on bone volume but did not improve the breaking strength of long bones. PMID:17340224

  16. Early co-administration of vitamin E acetate and methylcobalamin improves thermal hyperalgesia and motor nerve conduction velocity following sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Morani, Aashish S; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that early administration of vitamin E acetate (50 mg/kg, ip (VEA)) and methylcobalamin (500 microg/kg, ip (MCA)) for 30 days improved conduction velocity and neuropathic pain behavior. Here, we evaluated the effect of early co-administration of VEA and MCA (MVE) on thermal hyperlagesia (TH) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in rats with sciatic nerve crush injury (SNCI). Fifteen days post-surgery, a reduction in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was observed in untreated (UNTR) rats. However, latency improved in MVE-treated animals, comparable to the placebo. On day 15, a decrease in MNCV was observed in the UNTR group of animals, and this effect was not observed for the MVE and placebo groups of animals. The results of this study indicate that early exposure to MVE attenuates the progression of TH and improves MNCV in rats with SNCI. PMID:20508297

  17. In vitro fertility rate of 129 strain is improved by buserelin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) administration prior to superovulation.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, K; Sztein, J M

    2012-10-01

    The 129 mice are well recognized for their low fertility and it is speculated that this lack of fertility may be due to the oocyte condition. In this study we investigated superovulation regimens for the 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain to improve the oocyte quality and fertility rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Female mice were divided into four groups based on hormone and timing of injection. Group 1 received pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 48 h later human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); using the same dose, group 2 received hCG 52 h post-PMSG and group 3, 55 h post-PMSG. Group 4 received buserelin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist [GnRH]) followed 24 h later by PMSG and then hCG 55 h post-PMSG. IVF was performed using 129S1/SvImJ oocytes and sperm; C57BL/6J sperm with 129S1/SvImJ oocytes was used as fertility control. The IVF fertility rate was 1% (Groups 1 and 2), 17% (Group 3) and 55% (Group 4) for 129 oocytes fertilized with 129 sperm. For 129 oocytes fertilized with C57BL/6J sperm, the fertility rate was 5% (Group 1), 10% (Group 2), 40% (Group 3) and 59% (Group 4). These results suggest that extending the interval time between PMSG and hCG and giving GnRH in addition to the standard PMSG and hCG treatments can improve IVF fertility rate of 129S1/SvImJ mouse strains significantly. PMID:23097563

  18. Maternal melatonin administration mitigates coronary stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, and improves heart resilience to insult in growth restricted lambs

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Marianne; Parkington, Helena C; Wallace, Euan M; Sutherland, Amy E; Lim, Rebecca; Yawno, Tamara; Coleman, Harold A; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with impaired cardiac function in childhood and is linked to short- and long-term morbidities. Placental dysfunction underlies most IUGR, and causes fetal oxidative stress which may impact on cardiac development. Accordingly, we investigated whether antenatal melatonin treatment, which possesses antioxidant properties, may afford cardiovascular protection in these vulnerable fetuses. IUGR was induced in sheep fetuses using single umbilical artery ligation on day 105–110 of pregnancy (term 147). Study 1: melatonin (2 mg h−1) was administered i.v. to ewes on days 5 and 6 after surgery. On day 7 fetal heart function was assessed using a Langendorff apparatus. Study 2: a lower dose of melatonin (0.25 mg h−1) was administered continuously following IUGR induction and the ewes gave birth normally at term. Lambs were killed when 24 h old and coronary vessels studied. Melatonin significantly improved fetal oxygenation in vivo. Contractile function in the right ventricle and coronary flow were enhanced by melatonin. Ischaemia–reperfusion-induced infarct area was 3-fold greater in IUGR hearts than in controls and this increase was prevented by melatonin. In isolated neonatal coronary arteries, endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was reduced in IUGR, and was rescued by modest melatonin treatment. Melatonin exposure also induced the emergence of an indomethacin-sensitive vasodilation. IUGR caused marked stiffening of the coronary artery and this was prevented by melatonin. Maternal melatonin treatment reduces fetal hypoxaemia, improves heart function and coronary blood flow and rescues cardio-coronary deficit induced by IUGR. PMID:24710061

  19. Can cost sharing measures improve the function of outpatient departments of public hospitals: the opinions of administrative directors.

    PubMed

    Tsirona, Christina; Siskou, Olga; Galanis, Peter; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Tsavalias, Konstantinos; Ragkousi, Argyro; Semertziadi, Maria; Anagnostopoulou, Ioanna; Vafiadis, John; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study aiming to investigate the opinions of administrative personnel concerning the effectiveness of a cost sharing mechanism (of euro 5/visit) at public hospitals' outpatient departments. Data was derived through a structured questionnaire (developed by the researchers) which appealed to 112 administrative directors of public hospitals. Results highlighted a positive attitude concerning the function of the cost - sharing mechanism at public hospitals, a rather fair measure for the users (vulnerable groups are excluded) which probably is enhancing the monetary flow in public hospitals. PMID:23823426

  20. Statewide Administration of the ACT: A Key Component in Improving Student Access to College and Work. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus among states on the importance of preparing all students for college and work. Statewide administration of the ACT provides all students, including those who have never considered college as an option, with the opportunity to identify academic strengths and weaknesses, explore educational and…

  1. How School Administrators and Board Members Are Improving Learning and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This guide shows ways that school administrators and board members can contribute to energy choice decisions for educational facilities, and it discusses how reducing operating costs also can create better learning environments. The guide reveals how design guidelines help create high-performance school buildings. It explains the use of energy…

  2. Setting and Improving Policies for Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems on Campus. A Guide for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Langenbahn, Stacia

    This guide for administrators provides a step-by-step process for establishing new or revised policies to deal with student misuse of alcohol and other drugs on college campuses. Emphasis is on a new doctrine of environmental management which stresses the school's responsibility to take measures against foreseeable hazards and risks in the school…

  3. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  4. Significant improvement following combination treatment with mefloquine and mirtazapine in a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Kenji; Toda, Jun; Kusakabe, Shinsuke; Masaie, Hiroaki; Yagi, Toshinari; Ishikawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old female who developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which is associated with JC virus reactivation, after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. As she had been suffering from graft-versus-host disease and lung damage after pneumocystis pneumonia, the administration of calcineurin inhibitor and steroid could not be discontinued. However, she showed a favorable improvement in clinical symptoms and imaging findings after treatment with the anti-malarial drug, mefloquine and a serotonin receptor blocker, mirtazapine. Continuation of the treatment for eight months finally led to the clearance of the JC virus from her cerebrospinal fluid. She currently shows no neurological disturbance and has resumed her daily activities. PML due to the severe immunosuppressive condition has been reported as a fatal complication after allo-SCT. Our case suggests that combination treatment with mefloquine and mirtazapine may be of great value for the treatment for PML patients in the post allo-SCT setting, although it is difficult to say whether the combination treatment alone led to improvement. Further clinical study is needed to clarify the efficacy of these drugs for the treatment of PML. PMID:24264833

  5. Health-related quality of life is impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism and significantly improves after surgery: a prospective study using the 15D instrument

    PubMed Central

    Ryhänen, Eeva M; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sintonen, Harri; Välimäki, Matti J; Roine, Risto P; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is frequently impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) but it is unclear if surgery is beneficial. The objective was to prospectively assess HRQoL in PHPT (n=124) with the 15D instrument before and after surgery, to compare it with that of a comparable sample of the general population (n=4295), and search for predictors of HRQoL and its change. HRQoL, and clinical and laboratory parameters were measured before and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Regression techniques were used to search for predictors of HRQoL and gains from treatment. Before surgery, PHPT patients had significantly lower mean 15D score compared to controls (0.813 vs 0.904, P<0.001). Excretion, mental function, discomfort and symptoms, distress, depression, vitality, and sexual activity were most impaired (all P<0.001). Number of medications (P=0.001) and subjective symptoms (P<0.05) but not calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH) predicted impaired HRQoL. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was of borderline significance (P=0.051). Compared to baseline, mean 15D score improved significantly 6 months after surgery (0.813 vs 0.865, P<0.001) and the effect sustained at 1 year (0.878, P<0.001). The improvement was clinically important in 77.4% of patients (P<0.001). Educational level independently predicted improvement (P<0.005). HRQoL is severely impaired in PHPT but improves significantly after surgery. The 15D is a sensitive tool for assessing HRQoL and recognizing patients likely to benefit from surgery. PMID:26155796

  6. Health-related quality of life is impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism and significantly improves after surgery: a prospective study using the 15D instrument.

    PubMed

    Ryhänen, Eeva M; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sintonen, Harri; Välimäki, Matti J; Roine, Risto P; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2015-09-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is frequently impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) but it is unclear if surgery is beneficial. The objective was to prospectively assess HRQoL in PHPT (n=124) with the 15D instrument before and after surgery, to compare it with that of a comparable sample of the general population (n=4295), and search for predictors of HRQoL and its change. HRQoL, and clinical and laboratory parameters were measured before and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Regression techniques were used to search for predictors of HRQoL and gains from treatment. Before surgery, PHPT patients had significantly lower mean 15D score compared to controls (0.813 vs 0.904, P<0.001). Excretion, mental function, discomfort and symptoms, distress, depression, vitality, and sexual activity were most impaired (all P<0.001). Number of medications (P=0.001) and subjective symptoms (P<0.05) but not calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH) predicted impaired HRQoL. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was of borderline significance (P=0.051). Compared to baseline, mean 15D score improved significantly 6 months after surgery (0.813 vs 0.865, P<0.001) and the effect sustained at 1 year (0.878, P<0.001). The improvement was clinically important in 77.4% of patients (P<0.001). Educational level independently predicted improvement (P<0.005). HRQoL is severely impaired in PHPT but improves significantly after surgery. The 15D is a sensitive tool for assessing HRQoL and recognizing patients likely to benefit from surgery. PMID:26155796

  7. Combined Administration of Human Ghrelin and Human Growth Hormone Attenuates Organ Injury and Improves Survival in Aged Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Ma, Gaifeng; Zhou, Mian; Aziz, Monowar; Yen, Hao-Ting; Marvropoulos, Spyros A; Ojamaa, Kaie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a major healthcare concern, especially in the elderly population. The use of an animal model closely resembling clinical conditions in this population may provide a better prediction in translating bench studies to the bedside. Ghrelin inhibits sympathetic nerve activity and inflammation in young septic animals; however, aged animals become hyporesponsive to ghrelin. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined human ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) for sepsis treatment in the elderly utilizing a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis. Male Fischer 344 rats 22 to 24 months old were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Human ghrelin plus GH or vehicle (normal saline) was administered subcutaneously at 5 h after CLP. At 20 h after CLP, blood and tissue samples were collected for various analyses. Combined treatment attenuated serum levels of lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in aged septic rats. The integrity of the microscopic structure in the lungs, liver and kidneys was well preserved after treatment. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine as well as myeloperoxidase activity and caspase-3 activation were significantly reduced in the lungs and liver of treated rats. Moreover, treated rats showed an improvement in cardiovascular function and increased expression of ghrelin receptor and c-fos in the brainstem. Finally, the 10-d survival of aged septic rats was increased from 29% to 64% after combined treatment and was associated with less body weight loss. Our findings warrant the development of combined human ghrelin and GH for sepsis treatment in the geriatric population. PMID:26835699

  8. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporter that transports Na+ into the vacuole and exports H+ into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na+/H+ antiporter that exports Na+ to the extracellular space and imports H+ into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na+ out of the cell or to sequester Na+ into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na+ in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

  9. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na(+)/H(+)) antiporter that transports Na(+) into the vacuole and exports H(+) into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that exports Na(+) to the extracellular space and imports H(+) into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na(+) out of the cell or to sequester Na(+) into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na(+) in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

  10. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Administrators and Board Members Are Improving Learning and Saving Money (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-02-01

    Most school administrators and board members today must perform a tough juggling act. You're challenged to fulfill increasingly complex educational missions, meet rising community expectations, and serve growing student populations all with constrained operating budgets. As districts consider renovating their facilities or building new schools, many have found that smart energy choices can have lasting benefits for their schools, their communities, and the environment.

  11. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: An Administrative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the possible use of structured classroom walk-through observations as a strategy to improve teaching and learning. A wide variety of programs and initiatives have recently been implemented across the country to improve student achievement. One such initiative is classroom walk-through observations.…

  12. Development of nitrosyl ruthenium complex-loaded lipid carriers for topical administration: improvement in skin stability and in nitric oxide release by visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Santana, Danielle Cristine de Almeida; Taveira, Stephânia Fleury; Vermeulen, Deise Mirella; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes; da Silva, Roberto Santana; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2010-12-01

    The prominent nitric oxide (NO) donor [Ru(terpy)(bdqi)NO](PF(6))(3) has been synthesized and evaluated with respect to noteworthy biological effects due to its NO photorelease, including vascular relaxation and melanoma cell culture toxicity. The potential for delivering NO in therapeutic quantities is tenable since the nitrosyl ruthenium complex (NRC) must first reach the "target tissue" and then release the NO upon stimulus. In this context, NRC-loaded lipid carriers were developed and characterized to further explore its topical administration for applications such as skin cancer treatment. NRC-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared via the microemulsification method, with average diameters of 275+/-15 nm and 211+/-31 nm and zeta potentials of -40.7+/-10.4 mV and -50.0+/-7.5 mV, respectively. In vitro kinetic studies of NRC release from nanoparticles showed sustained release of NRC from the lipid carriers and illustrated the influence of the release medium and the lyophilization process. Stability studies showed that NO is released from NRC as a function of temperature and time and due to skin contact. The encapsulation of NRC in SLN followed by its lyophilization, significantly improved the complex stability. Furthermore, of particular interest was the fact that in the NO photorelease study, the NO release from the NRC-loaded SLN was approximately twice that of just NRC in solution. NRC-loaded SLN performs well enough at releasing and protecting NO degradation in vitro that it is a promising carrier for topical delivery of NO. PMID:20634015

  13. Bacterial clearance is improved in septic mice by platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) administration.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-da-Cunha, Mariana G A; Gomes, Rachel N; Roehrs, Nathassia; Bozza, Fernando A; Prescott, Stephen M; Stafforini, Diana; Zimmerman, Guy A; Bozza, Patricia T; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that dysregulation of the host inflammatory response to infectious agents is central to the mortality of patients with sepsis. Strategies to block inflammatory mediators such as PAF have been investigated as adjuvant therapies for sepsis. PAF-AH, the enzyme responsible for PAF degradation, showed positive results in pre-clinical studies and phase II clinical trials, but the results of a phase III study were disappointing. In this study, we investigated the potential protective mechanism of PAF-AH in sepsis using the murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Treatment with rPAF-AH increased peritoneal fluid levels of the anti-inflammatory mediators MCP-1/CCL2 after CLP. The numbers of bacteria (CFU) in the peritoneal cavity were decreased in the rPAF-AH-treated group, indicating more efficient bacterial clearance after rPAF-AH treatment. Interestingly, we observed increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) after PAF-AH administration, and rPAF-AH treatment did not decrease CFU numbers either in iNOS-deficient mice or in CCR2-deficient mice. We concluded that administration of exogenous rPAF-AH reduced inflammatory injury, altered cytokine levels and favored bacterial clearance with a clear impact on mortality through modulation of MCP-1/CCL2 and NO levels in a clinically relevant sepsis model. PMID:24069320

  14. Combined therapy with thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) and chemotherapy induces regression and significantly improves survival in a preclinical model of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Samantha; Duquette, Mark; Liu, Joyce; Drapkin, Ronny; Lawler, Jack; Petrik, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Most women are diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) at advanced stage, where therapies have limited effectiveness and the long-term survival rate is low. We evaluated the effects of combined antiangiogenic and chemotherapy treatments on advanced stage EOC. Treatment of EOC cells with a recombinant version of the thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) induced more apoptotic cell death (36.5 ± 9.6%) in vitro compared to untreated controls (4.1 ± 1.4). In vivo, tumors were induced in an orthotopic, syngeneic mouse model of advanced stage EOC. Mice were treated with 3TSR (4 mg/kg per day) alone or in combination with chemotherapy drugs delivered with maximum tolerated dose or metronomic scheduling. Pretreatment with 3TSR induced tumor regression, normalized tumor vasculature, and improved uptake of chemotherapy drugs. Combination 3TSR and metronomic chemotherapy induced the greatest tumor regression (6.2-fold reduction in size compared to PBS-treated controls) and highest survival when treatment was initiated at advanced stage. 3TSR binding to its receptor, CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), increased binding of CD36 and SHP-1, which significantly inhibited phosphorylation of the VEGF receptor. In this study, we describe a novel treatment approach and mechanism of action with 3TSR and chemotherapy that induces regression of advanced stage EOC and significantly improves survival.—Russell, S., Duquette, M., Liu, J., Drapkin, R., Lawler, J., Petrik, J. Combined therapy with thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) and chemotherapy induces regression and significantly improves survival in a preclinical model of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:25395453

  15. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  16. Working with Organized Groups. Section 2, Improving Your School-Community Relations Program. Successful School Administration Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusco, Gene C.

    Working with organized groups can be an effective way of improving school-community relations. Under proper conditions two types of organized efforts have proved to be successful -- parent-teacher groups and citizens' committees for better schools. Basic to the wise use of organized citizens groups is the need for the school staff to have…

  17. Successful Application of a Canadian Mental Health Curriculum Resource by Usual Classroom Teachers in Significantly and Sustainably Improving Student Mental Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Morgan, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the significant and substantive findings from a previous study of youth mental health literacy (MHL) could be replicated using the same methods in another population. Method: We examined the impact of a curriculum resource, the Mental Health and High School Curriculum Guide (The Guide), taught by usual classroom teachers on students’ knowledge and attitudes related to mental health and mental illness in Canadian secondary schools. Survey data were collected before, immediately after, and 2 months after implementation of The Guide by teachers in usual classroom teaching. We conducted paired-sample t tests and calculated the Cohen d value to determine outcomes and impact of the curriculum resource application. Results: One hundred fourteen students were matched for analysis of knowledge data and 112 students were matched for analysis of attitude data at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up time periods. Following classroom exposure to the curriculum resource, students’ knowledge scores increased significantly and substantively, compared with baseline (P < 0.001, d = 1.11), and this was maintained at 2-month follow-up (P < 0.001, d = 0.91). Similar findings for attitude improvement were found (P < 0.001, d = 0.66), and this improvement was maintained at 2-month follow-up (P < 0.001, d = 0.52). Conclusions: These findings corroborate those from a previous study conducted in a different location. Taken together these results suggest a simple but effective approach to improving MHL in young people by embedding a classroom resource, delivered by usual classroom teachers in usual school settings. PMID:26720827

  18. Disinfection practices in intravenous drug administration.

    PubMed

    Helder, Onno K; Kornelisse, René F; Reiss, Irwin K M; Ista, Erwin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a feedback intervention on adherence to disinfection procedures during intravenous medication preparation and administration. We found that full adherence to the protocols significantly improved from 7.3% to 21.5% (P < .001) regarding medication preparation and from 7.9% to 15.5% (P = .012) regarding medication administration. However, disinfection practices still need improvement. PMID:26899528

  19. Application of vasoactive and matrix-modifying drugs can improve polyplex delivery to tumors upon intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Durymanov, Mikhail O; Yarutkin, Alexey V; Bagrov, Dmitry V; Klinov, Dmitry V; Kedrov, Alexander V; Chemeris, Nikolay K; Rosenkranz, Andrey A; Sobolev, Alexander S

    2016-06-28

    Low efficacy of cationic polymer-based formulations (polyplexes) for systemic gene delivery to tumors remains the crucial concern for their clinical translation. Here we show that modulating the physiological state of a tumor using clinically approved pharmaceuticals can improve delivery of intravenously injected polyplexes to murine melanoma tumors with different characteristics. Direct comparison of drugs with different mechanisms of action has shown that application of nitroglycerin or losartan improved extravasation and tumor uptake of polyplex nanoparticles, whereas angiotensin II had almost no effect on polyplex accumulation and microdistribution in the tumor tissue. Application of nitroglycerin and losartan caused from 2- to 6-fold enhanced efficacy of polyplex-mediated gene delivery depending on the tumor model. The results obtained on polyplex behavior in tumor tissues depending on physiological state of the tumor can be relevant to optimize delivery of polyplexes and other nanomedicines with similar physicochemical properties. PMID:27072027

  20. Learning and the Brain: How Administrators Can Improve Teacher Effectiveness through Instruction on How the Brain Learns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Brain-based teaching and learning focuses on how the brain learns best, and emerging brain research is a significant resource, but only if one knows how to use it as such. Teachers have the professional training and classroom experience to know first hand where there are problems in educational practices, but most teachers haven't been taught…

  1. Systemic interleukin-2 administration improves lung function and modulates chorioamnionitis-induced pulmonary inflammation in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Willems, Monique G M; Ophelders, Daan R M G; Nikiforou, Maria; Jellema, Reint K; Butz, Anke; Delhaas, Tammo; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis, an inflammatory reaction of the fetal membranes to microbes, is an important cause of preterm birth and associated with inflammation-driven lung injury. However, inflammation in utero overcomes immaturity of the premature lung by inducing surfactant lipids and lung gas volume. Previously, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis resulted in pulmonary inflammation with increased effector T cells and decreased regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers. Because Tregs are crucial for immune regulation, we assessed the effects of interleukin (IL)-2-driven selective Treg expansion on the fetal lung in an ovine chorioamnionitis model. Instrumented fetuses received systemic prophylactic IL-2 treatment [118 days gestational age (dGA)] with or without subsequent exposure to intra-amniotic LPS (122 dGA). Following delivery at 129 dGA (term 147 dGA), pulmonary and systemic inflammation, morphological changes, lung gas volume, and phospholipid concentration were assessed. IL-2 pretreatment increased the FoxP3(+)/CD3(+) ratio, which was associated with reduced CD3-positive cells in the fetal lungs of LPS-exposed animals. Prophylactic IL-2 treatment did not prevent pulmonary accumulation of myeloperoxidase- and PU.1-positive cells or elevation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid IL-8 and systemic IL-6 concentrations in LPS-exposed animals. Unexpectedly, IL-2 treatment improved fetal lung function of control lambs as indicated by increased disaturated phospholipids and improved lung gas volume. In conclusion, systemic IL-2 treatment in utero preferentially expanded Tregs and improved lung gas volume and disaturated phospholipids. These beneficial effects on lung function were maintained despite the moderate immunomodulatory effects of prophylactic IL-2 in the course of chorioamnionitis. PMID:26519206

  2. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27256152

  3. Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality of Life Measured by EPIC Score

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Nicole L.; Menard, Cynthia; Soule, Benjamin P.; Albert, Paul S.; Guion, Peter; Smith, Sharon; Godette, Denise; Crouse, Nancy S.; Sciuto, Linda C.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Singh, Anurag K. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether intrarectal amifostine limits symptoms of radiation proctitis, measured by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer received amifostine as a rectal suspension 30-45 minutes before daily three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. Toxicity was assessed at baseline, during treatment, and at follow-up visits by using RTOG grading and the EPIC Quality of Life (QoL) 50-item questionnaire. The Bowel Function subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BF), which targets symptom severity, and the Bowel Bother subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BB), which assesses QoL, were evaluated and compared with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Results: Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 18-36 months). Overall, EPIC-BF and EPIC-BB scores both tracked closely with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of RTOG Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18 patients) compared with 0% (0/12 patients) in the 2-g group and trended toward statistical significance (p = 0.06). A significant difference between amifostine groups was observed using the EPIC-BF score at 7 weeks (p = 0.04). A difference in EPIC-BB scores between dose groups was evident at 7 weeks (p = 0.07) and was significant at 12 months (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher doses of amifostine produced significant improvements in acute and late bowel QoL (up to 1 year after therapy), measured using the EPIC score.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  5. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  6. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  7. Self-administration of epinephrine in children: a survey of current prescription practice and recommendations for improvement.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J. L.; Stewart, M.

    2003-01-01

    administration of epinephrine. It suggests a lack of consensus amongst health care professionals as to the best practice in the management of potentially life threatening food allergy and indicates, at least, a need for better multidisciplinary communication. PMID:14696817

  8. Self-administration of epinephrine in children: a survey of current prescription practice and recommendations for improvement.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J L; Stewart, M

    2003-11-01

    administration of epinephrine. It suggests a lack of consensus amongst health care professionals as to the best practice in the management of potentially life threatening food allergy and indicates, at least, a need for better multidisciplinary communication. PMID:14696817

  9. Co-administration of epithelial junction opener JO-1 improves the efficacy and safety of chemotherapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Ines; Cao, Hua; Persson, Jonas; Song, Hui; Richter, Maximilian; Feng, Qinghua; Yumul, Roma; van Rensburg, Ruan; Li, Zongyi; Berenson, Ronald; Carter, Darrick; Roffler, Steve; Drescher, Charles; Lieber, André

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epithelial junctions between tumor cells inhibit the penetration of anti-cancer drugs into tumors. We previously reported on recombinant adenovirus serotype 3 derived protein (JO-1), which triggers transient opening of intercellular junctions in epithelial tumors through binding to desmoglein 2 (DSG2), and enhances the anti-tumor effects of several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether JO-1 co-therapy can also improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Experimental Design The effect of intravenous application of JO-1 in combination with several chemotherapy drugs including paclitaxel/Taxol™, nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel/Abraxane™, liposomal doxorubicin/Doxil™ and irinotecan/Camptosar™, was tested in xenograft models for breast, colon, ovarian, gastric and lung cancer. Because JO-1 does not bind to mouse cells, for safety studies with JO-1, we also used human DSG2 (hDSG2) transgenic mice with tumors that overexpressed human DSG2. Results JO-1 increased the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, and in several models overcame drug resistance. JO-1 treatment also allowed for the reduction of drug doses required to achieve anti-tumor effects. Importantly, JO-1 co-admininstration protected normal tissues, including bone marrow and intestinal epithelium, against toxic effects that are normally associated with chemotherapeutic agents. Using the hDSG2 transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that JO-1 predominantly accumulates in tumors. Except for a mild, transient diarrhea, intravenous injection of JO-1 (2mg/kg) had no critical side effects on other tissues or hematological parameters in hDSG2-transgenic mice. Conclusions Our preliminary data suggest that JO-1 co-therapy has the potential to improve the therapeutic outcome of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22535153

  10. Genipin-structured peptide-polysaccharide nanoparticles with significantly improved resistance to harsh gastrointestinal environments and their potential for oral delivery of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Chen; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2014-12-24

    Genipin-cross-linked caseinophosphopeptide (CPP)-chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (smaller than 300 nm) showed significantly improved stability and adjustable release profile in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Optimal purification of the nanoparticles was established by centrifugation to terminate the cross-linking reaction, which was further confirmed and characterized by FT-IR. Results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) measurements revealed that genipin cross-linking significantly prevented the bursting of the CPP-CS nanoparticles in simulated stomach acid and their precipitation under neutral intestinal environment. Pepsin showed little impact on the nanoparticle colloid stability; however, trypsin induced their aggregations. Genipin cross-linking slowed the burst release of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from the nanoparticles. The EGCG-loaded nanoparticles showed strong cytotoxicity against cancer cells; meanwhile, the net nanoparticles demonstrated high biocompatibility. The findings in the present work provide fundamental information for the rational design of biopolymer nanoparticles as an effective delivery systems for polyphenols. PMID:25479066

  11. Preparation of highly dispersible and tumor-accumulative, iron oxide nanoparticles Multi-point anchoring of PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) improves performance significantly.

    PubMed

    Ujiie, Kodai; Kanayama, Naoki; Asai, Kei; Kishimoto, Mikio; Ohara, Yusuke; Akashi, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Shinji; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Fujii, Hirofumi; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the preparation of iron oxide nanoparticles, surface of which was coated with extremely high immobilization stability and relatively higher density of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which are referred to as PEG protected iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-PIONs). The PEG-PIONs were obtained through alkali coprecipitation of iron salts in the presence of the PEG-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) block copolymer (PEG-b-PVBP). In this system, PEG-b-PVBP served as a surface coating that was bound to the iron oxide surface via multipoint anchoring of the phosphonate groups in the PVBP segment of PEG-b-PVBP. The binding of PEG-b-PVBP onto the iron oxide nanoparticle surface and the subsequent formation of a PEG brush layer were proved by FT-IR, zeta potential, and thermogravimetric measurements. The surface PEG-chain density of the PEG-PIONs varied depending on the [PEG-b-PVBP]/[iron salts] feed-weight ratio in the coprecipitation reaction. PEG-PIONs prepared at an optimal feed-weight ratio in this study showed a high surface PEG-chain surface density (≈0.8 chainsnm(-2)) and small hydrodynamic diameter (<50 nm). Furthermore, these PEG-PIONs could be dispersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) that contains 10% serum without any change in their hydrodynamic diameters over a period of one week, indicating that PEG-PIONs would provide high dispersion stability under in vivo physiological conditions as well as excellent anti-biofouling properties. In fact we have confirmed the prolong blood circulation time and facilitate tumor accumulation (more than 15% IDg(-1) tumor) of PEG-PIONs without the aid of any target ligand in mouse tumor models. The majority of the PEG-PIONs accumulated in the tumor by 96 h after administration, whereas those in normal tissues were smoothly eliminated by 96 h, proving the enhancement of tumor selectivity in the PEG-PION localization. The results obtained here strongly suggest that originally synthesized PEG-b-PVBP, having

  12. Improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  13. Prophylactic Administration of Bacterially Derived Immunomodulators Improves the Outcome of Influenza Virus Infection in a Murine Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Clements, John D.; Voss, Thomas G.; Cárdenas-Freytag, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic or therapeutic immunomodulation is an antigen-independent strategy that induces nonspecific immune system activation, thereby enhancing host defense to disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of prophylactic immunomodulation on the outcome of influenza virus infection using three bacterially derived immune-enhancing agents known for promoting distinct immunological profiles. BALB/c mice were treated nasally with either cholera toxin (CT), a mutant form of the CT-related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin designated LT(R192G), or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Mice were subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 24 h after the last immunomodulation treatment and either monitored for survival or sacrificed postchallenge for viral and immunological analysis. Treatment with the three immunomodulators prevented or delayed mortality and weight loss, but only CT and LT(R192G) significantly reduced initial lung viral loads as measured by plaque assay. Analysis performed 4 days postinfection indicated that prophylactic treatments with CT, LT(R192G), or CpG resulted in significantly increased numbers of CD4 T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells and altered costimulatory marker expression in the airways of infected mice, coinciding with reduced expression of pulmonary chemokines and the appearance of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue-like structures in the lungs. Collectively, these results suggest that, despite different immunomodulatory mechanisms, CT, LT(R192G), and CpG induce an initial inflammatory process and enhance the immune response to primary influenza virus challenge while preventing potentially damaging chemokine expression. These studies provide insight into the immunological parameters and immune modulation strategies that have the potential to enhance the nonspecific host response to influenza virus infection. PMID:20053748

  14. High-dose electron beam sterilization of soft-tissue grafts maintains significantly improved biomechanical properties compared to standard gamma treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoburg, A; Keshlaf, S; Schmidt, T; Smith, M; Gohs, U; Perka, C; Pruss, A; Scheffler, S

    2015-06-01

    Gy: 0.50 ± 0.34 mm; 34 kGy: 0.26 ± 0.24 mm) and control (0.20 ± 0.18 mm) group that did not differ significantly. Strain difference was not different between either control or study groups (controls: 1.0 ± 0.03; Ebeam 34 kGy 1.04 ± 0.018; Gamma 34 kGy 1.0 ± 0.028; 25 kGy: 1.4 ± 2,0; 34 kGy: 1.1 ± 1.1). The most important result of this study was that ebeam irradiation showed significantly less impairment of the biomechanical properties than gamma irradiation. Considering the results of this study and the improved control of irradiation application with electronic beam, this technique might be a promising alternative in soft-tissue sterilization. PMID:25037592

  15. Improving the Administration of Vocational Education at the State Level. Projects Supported in Fiscal Year 1975 Under Authority of Section 131(A) of Part C of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jack A.

    Research and development projects for improvement of the administration of vocational education at the State level are described in the report. These projects, supported by the Office of Education for fiscal year 1975, are efforts to develop management information systems that will make available to State administrators information to aid in the…

  16. Omega-conotoxin MVIIC attenuates neuronal apoptosis in vitro and improves significant recovery after spinal cord injury in vivo in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Karen M; Lavor, Mário Sérgio L; Silva, Carla Maria O; Fukushima, Fabíola B; Rosado, Isabel R; Silva, Juneo F; Martins, Bernardo C; Guimarães, Laís B; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Melo, Marília M; Melo, Eliane G

    2014-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of intracellular calcium is the most critical step after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reducing the calcium influx should result in a better recovery from SCI. Calcium channel blockers have been shown a great potential in reducing brain and spinal cord injury. In this study, we first tested the neuroprotective effect of MVIIC on slices of spinal cord subjected to ischemia evaluating cell death and caspase-3 activation. Thereafter, we evaluated the efficacy of MVIIC in ameliorating damage following SCI in rats, for the first time in vivo. The spinal cord slices subjected a pretreatment with MVIIC showed a cell protection with a reduction of dead cells in 24.34% and of caspase-3-specific protease activation. In the in vivo experiment, Wistar rats were subjected to extradural compression of the spinal cord at the T12 vertebral level using a weigh of 70 g/cm, following intralesional treatment with either placebo or MVIIC in different doses (15, 30 and 60 pmol) five minutes after injury. Behavioral testing of hindlimb function was done using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor rating scale, and revealed significant recovery with 15 pmol (G15) compared to other trauma groups. Also, histological bladder structural revealed significant outcome in G15, with no morphological alterations, and anti-NeuN and TUNEL staining showed that G15 provided neuron preservation and indicated that this group had fewer neuron cell death, similar to sham. These results showed the neuroprotective effects of MVIIC in in vitro and in vivo model of SCI with neuronal integrity, bladder and behavioral improvements. PMID:25120731

  17. Optimization of health-care organization and perceived improvement of patient comfort by switching from intra-venous BU four-times-daily infusions to a once-daily administration scheme in adult hematopoietic stem cell recipients.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, A; Rzepecki, P; Valcarcel, D; Santarone, S; Fürst, S; Serrano, D; De Angelis, G; Krüger, W; Scheid, C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile between four-times-daily (4QD) and once-daily (QD) administration of intra-venous (IV) BU, without increased toxicity. We assess the impact of a switch in IV BU from a 4QD to a QD schedule, in terms of health-care organization, staff working conditions, quality of care dispensed and perceived patient comfort. Clinicians, nurses and pharmacists from nine allogeneic transplantation units in five European countries were interviewed face to face. Overall perception of QD versus 4QD BU was very positive. Both administration schemes were evaluated to be equally efficaciousZ. QD BU was perceived to be safer and more convenient. Clinicians and nurses perceived that patient comfort was improved, due to fewer complications associated with repeated infusions, and avoiding night infusions associated with stress, anxiety and decreased quality of sleep. Switching from 4QD to QD BU had a significant impact on health-care organization, with a better integration in the overall management and usual timelines in the pharmacies and transplantation units. Time spent to prepare and administer BU was significantly reduced, leading to potential financial savings that merit further assessment and would be of particular interest in the current economic climate. PMID:24419513

  18. The use of Health Care Financing Administration data for the development of a quality improvement project on the treatment of anemia.

    PubMed

    Eggers, P W; Greer, J; Jencks, S

    1994-08-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration maintains a wide array of data systems that are essential to the functioning of the Medicare program. These data, collected and maintained for the purposes of ensuring entitlements and payment for services, also can be used to monitor programmatic changes and to define potential problem areas. The end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Program Management and Medical Information System (PMMIS) is a subset of the larger Medicare statistical system. It is a historic record of all Medicare ESRD beneficiaries dating back to 1978. Basic Medicare enrollment information on ESRD beneficiaries is enhanced with the addition of information on the cause of renal failure, type of dialysis therapy, transplantation history, and cause of death. The ESRD PMMIS has been put to a number of uses in the past decade or so, ranging from basic descriptive epidemiology to analyses of mortality rates to assessments of programmatic issues such as the composite rate and dialyzer reuse. Because of the limited clinical detail in the PMMIS, there are many specific questions that cannot be adequately addressed. With approval of the Food and Drug Administration and Medicare coverage of erythropoietin, a erythropoietin monitoring system was developed to assess utilization trends of this anemia control drug. Within a few months it became evident that dosing levels for erythropoietin were much lower than expected from the clinical trials. Following a change in the payment method from a fixed amount to one based on dose level, dosing has increased markedly. However, hematocrit levels still remain below optimal levels. This lack of hematocrit response has led the Health Care Financing Administration, in concert with the renal community, to target anemia control as a potential health care quality improvement project. This paper presents an example of the type of data presentation that can be derived from the current PMMIS. The Health Standards and Quality Bureau has made

  19. Very low amount of TiO2 on N-doped carbon nanotubes significantly improves oxygen reduction activity and stability of supported Pt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Anqi; Masa, Justus; Xia, Wei

    2015-04-28

    Electrochemical corrosion is a major problem for carbon materials used in electrocatalysis. Highly dispersed TiO2 was deposited on O-functionalized and N-doped carbon nanotubes by chemical vapour deposition to tackle the carbon corrosion problem. Very low Ti loadings of about 1 wt% were applied to minimize the negative influence of TiO2 as a semiconductor on the high conductivity of carbon materials. Both N doping and TiO2 coating facilitate strong metal-support interactions and favour the formation of small Pt particles. N doping improved the intrinsic catalytic activity of the carbon support and enhanced the conductivity due to the removal of surface oxygen groups, while the negative effect of TiO2 on conductivity is counterbalanced by its promoting effect on metal-support interactions leading to enhanced overall catalytic performance. Pt/TiO2/NCNTs showed the highest ORR activity, and significantly outperformed Pt/NCNTs in electrochemical stability tests. PMID:25811122

  20. Initiation of insulin aspart to Indian subjects on OADs show significant improvement in glycaemic outcomes: the A1chieve observational study.

    PubMed

    Rao, P V; Bhattacharyya, A; Sahay, R K

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide and India stands second next only to china. The management of diabetes in real life settings needs to be evaluated for deriving better management practices. A1chieve observational study evaluated the use of modern insulin in real life settings. This was a 24-week, international, prospective, multicenter, non-interventional, observational study of people with type 2 diabetes. India recruited with 20,554 subjects and a total of 1815 patients were enrolled to receive insulin aspart as bolus insulin therapy of whom 1450 (79.9%) were insulin naïve and 365 (20.1%) were insulin users. At the end of 24 weeks, only one SAE was reported in this study and overall hypoglycemia events per patient year decreased from 2.49 (348 episodes) to 0.17 (20 episodes). There were no major hypoglycemic episodes reported in either insulin naive or insulin treated subjects. There was a significant improvement in the HbA(1c) values from the baseline in both insulin naive and insulin users. The mean HbA(1c) value was reduced from 9.5 to 7.4 (p < 0.001) for insulin naïve subjects and from 9.2 to 7.7 (p < 0.001) in insulin experienced subjects. Fasting plasma glucose values decreased by 70 mg/dL and 50 mg/dL in insulin naive and insulin experienced, respectively and the difference from baseline was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The post prandial glucose value was also significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by 105 mg/dL for insulin naïve subjects and 55 mg/dL for insulin experienced subjects. The composite end point was achieved by 46.6% of insulin naive and 38.1% of insulin-experienced subjects. The study concluded with good HbA(1c) reduction along with lower incidence of hypoglycemia and better health related quality of life outcomes in both in insulin naive and insulin experienced subjects who used insulin aspart as bolus insulin treatment. PMID:24482983

  1. Early antibiotic administration but not antibody therapy directed against IL-6 improves survival in septic mice predicted to die based upon high IL-6 levels

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Javadi, Pardis; DiPasco, Peter J; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2005-01-01

    Elevated interleukin (IL)-6 levels correlate with increased mortality following sepsis. IL-6 levels >14,000 pg/ml drawn 6 hours following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) are associated with 100% mortality in ND4 mice, even if antibiotic therapy is initiated 12 hours after the septic insult. The first aim of this study was to see if earlier institution of antibiotic therapy could improve overall survival in septic mice and rescue the subset of animals predicted to die based upon high IL-6 levels. Mice (n=184) were subjected to CLP, had IL-6 levels drawn six hours later and then were randomized to receive imipenem, a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent, beginning six or twelve hours post-operatively. Overall one-week survival improved from 25.5% to 35.9% with earlier administration of antibiotics (p<0.05). In mice with IL-6 levels >14,000 pg/ml, 25% survived if imipenem was started at 6 hours, while none survived if antibiotics were started later (p<0.05). Based upon these results, we examined whether targeted antibody therapy could improve survival in mice with elevated IL-6 levels. A different cohort of mice (n=54) had their blood drawn six hours after CLP and then were randomized to receive either monoclonal anti-IL-6 IgG or irrelevant rat IgG. Anti-IL-6 antibody failed to improve either overall survival or outcome in mice with IL-6 levels >14,000 pg/ml. These results demonstrate that earlier systemic therapy can improve outcome in a subset of mice predicted to die in sepsis, but we are unable to demonstrate any benefit in similar animals using targeted therapy directed at IL-6. PMID:15947070

  2. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  3. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P = 0.002). The

  4. Intrathecal administration of IGF-I by AAVrh10 improves sensory and motor deficits in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Homs, Judit; Pagès, Gemma; Ariza, Lorena; Casas, Caty; Chillón, Miguel; Navarro, Xavier; Bosch, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    Different adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes efficiently transduce neurons from central and peripheral nervous systems through various administration routes. Direct administration of the vectors to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be an efficient and safe strategy. Here, we show that lumbar puncture of a nonhuman AAV leads to wide and stable distribution of the vector along the spinal cord in adult mice. AAVrh10 efficiently and specifically infects neurons, both in dorsal root ganglia (60% total sensory neurons) and in the spinal cord (up to one-third of α-motor neurons). As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the efficacy of AAVrh10 in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy, in which intrathecal delivery of the vector coding for insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) favored the release of the therapeutic protein into the CSF through its expression by sensory and motor neurons. IGF-I–treated diabetic animals showed increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression, activation of Akt/PI3K pathway, and stimulated nerve regeneration and myelination in injured limbs. Moreover, we achieved restoration of nerve conduction velocities in both sensory and motor nerves by AAVrh10, whereas we reached only sensory nerve improvement with AAV1. Our results indicate that intrathecal injection of AAVrh10 is a promising tool to design gene therapy approaches for sensorimotor diseases. PMID:26015946

  5. Derivation of Primordial germ cells from Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells is significantly improved by co-culture with human fetal gonadal cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Sub; Galic, Zoran; Conway, Anne E.; Lindgren, Anne; Van Handel, Benjamin J.; Magnusson, Mattias; Richter, Laura; Teitell, Michael A.; Mikkola, Hanna K.A; Lowry, William E.; Plath, Kathrin; Clark, Amander T

    2012-01-01

    The derivation of germ cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem (hIPS) cells represents a desirable experimental model and potential strategy for treating infertility. In the current study we developed a triple biomarker assay for identifying and isolating human primordial germ cells (PGCs) by first evaluating human PGC formation during the first trimester in vivo. Next, we applied this technology to characterizing in vitro derived PGCs (iPGCs) from pluripotent cells. Our results show that co-differentiation of hESCs on human fetal gonadal stromal cells significantly improves the efficiency of generating iPGCs. Furthermore, the efficiency was comparable between various pluripotent cell lines regardless of origin from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts (hESCs), or reprogramming of human skin fibroblasts (hIPS). In order to better characterize the iPGCs we performed Real time PCR, microarray and bisulfite sequencing. Our results show that iPGCs at day 7 of differentiation are transcriptionally distinct from the somatic cells, expressing genes associated with pluripotency and germ cell development while repressing genes associated with somatic differentiation (specifically multiple HOX genes). Using bisulfite sequencing, we show that iPGCs initiate imprint erasure from differentially methylated imprinted regions by day 7 of differentiation. However, iPGCs derived from hIPS cells do not initiate imprint erasure as efficiently. In conclusion, our results indicate that triple positive iPGCs derived from pluripotent cells differentiated on hFGS cells correspond to committed first trimester germ cells (before 9 weeks) that have initiated the process of imprint erasure. PMID:19350678

  6. Adding blood to agitated saline significantly improves detection of right-to-left shunt by contrast-transcranial color-coded duplex sonography.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Mauro; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Tamborino, Carmine; Casetta, Ilaria

    2014-11-01

    Contrast-transcranial Doppler and contrast-transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (c-TCCD) have been reported to have high sensitivity in detecting patent foramen ovale as compared with transesophageal echocardiography. An international consensus meeting (Jauss and Zanette 2000) recommended that the contrast agent for right-to left-shunt (RLS) detection using contrast-transcranial Doppler be prepared by mixing 9 mL of isotonic saline solution and 1 mL of air. The aim of our study was to determine whether adding blood to the contrast agent results in improved detection of RLS. We enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to our neurosonology laboratory for RLS diagnosis. For each patient, we performed c-TCCD both at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver using two different contrast agents: ANSs (1 mL of air mixed with 9 mL of normal saline) and ANSHBs (1 mL of air mixed with 8 mL of normal saline and 1 mL of the patient's blood). To classify RLS, we used a four-level visual categorization: (i) no occurrence of micro-embolic signals; (ii) grade I, 1-10 signals; (iii) grade II, >10 signals but no curtain; grade III, curtain pattern. We included 80 patients, 33 men and 47 women. RLS was detected in 18.8% at rest and in 35% during the Valsalva maneuver using ANSs, and in 31.3% and in 46.3% using ANSHBs, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant increase in the number of micro-embolic signals with the use of ANSHBs. The use of blood mixed with saline solution and air as a c-TCCD contrast agent produced an increase in positive tests and a higher grade of RLS compared with normal saline and air alone, either with or without the Valsalva maneuver. PMID:25220269

  7. The Knowledge Base Informing the Teaching of Administrative and Organizational Theory in UCEA Universities: Empirical and Interpretive Perspectives. Improving the Preparation of School Administrators. Notes on Reform No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaides, Nitsa; Gaynor, Alan

    Course syllabi for administrative and organizational theory courses offered in universities affiliated with the University Council for Educational Administration are analyzed. The relative extent to which four schools of though (traditional, phenomenology, ethnomethodology, and critical theory) contribute topics, themes, and concepts to the…

  8. Once daily administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, attenuates markers of renal fibrosis without improving albuminuria in diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Linda A; Ward, Micheal S; Fotheringham, Amelia K; Zhuang, Aowen; Borg, Danielle J; Flemming, Nicole B; Harvie, Ben M; Kinneally, Toni L; Yeh, Shang-Ming; McCarthy, Domenica A; Koepsell, Hermann; Vallon, Volker; Pollock, Carol; Panchapakesan, Usha; Forbes, Josephine M

    2016-01-01

    Blood glucose control is the primary strategy to prevent complications in diabetes. At the onset of kidney disease, therapies that inhibit components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are also indicated, but these approaches are not wholly effective. Here, we show that once daily administration of the novel glucose lowering agent, empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor which targets the kidney to block glucose reabsorption, has the potential to improve kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. In male db/db mice, a 10-week treatment with empagliflozin attenuated the diabetes-induced upregulation of profibrotic gene markers, fibronectin and transforming-growth-factor-beta. Other molecular (collagen IV and connective tissue growth factor) and histological (tubulointerstitial total collagen and glomerular collagen IV accumulation) benefits were seen upon dual therapy with metformin. Albuminuria, urinary markers of tubule damage (kidney injury molecule-1, KIM-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL), kidney growth, and glomerulosclerosis, however, were not improved with empagliflozin or metformin, and plasma and intra-renal renin activity was enhanced with empagliflozin. In this model, blood glucose lowering with empagliflozin attenuated some molecular and histological markers of fibrosis but, as per treatment with metformin, did not provide complete renoprotection. Further research to refine the treatment regimen in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy is warranted. PMID:27226136

  9. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  10. Once daily administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, attenuates markers of renal fibrosis without improving albuminuria in diabetic db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda A.; Ward, Micheal S.; Fotheringham, Amelia K.; Zhuang, Aowen; Borg, Danielle J.; Flemming, Nicole B.; Harvie, Ben M.; Kinneally, Toni L.; Yeh, Shang-Ming; McCarthy, Domenica A.; Koepsell, Hermann; Vallon, Volker; Pollock, Carol; Panchapakesan, Usha; Forbes, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Blood glucose control is the primary strategy to prevent complications in diabetes. At the onset of kidney disease, therapies that inhibit components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are also indicated, but these approaches are not wholly effective. Here, we show that once daily administration of the novel glucose lowering agent, empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor which targets the kidney to block glucose reabsorption, has the potential to improve kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. In male db/db mice, a 10-week treatment with empagliflozin attenuated the diabetes-induced upregulation of profibrotic gene markers, fibronectin and transforming-growth-factor-beta. Other molecular (collagen IV and connective tissue growth factor) and histological (tubulointerstitial total collagen and glomerular collagen IV accumulation) benefits were seen upon dual therapy with metformin. Albuminuria, urinary markers of tubule damage (kidney injury molecule-1, KIM-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL), kidney growth, and glomerulosclerosis, however, were not improved with empagliflozin or metformin, and plasma and intra-renal renin activity was enhanced with empagliflozin. In this model, blood glucose lowering with empagliflozin attenuated some molecular and histological markers of fibrosis but, as per treatment with metformin, did not provide complete renoprotection. Further research to refine the treatment regimen in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy is warranted. PMID:27226136

  11. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  12. MRI-Guided 3D Optimization Significantly Improves DVH Parameters of Pulsed-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lindegaard, Jacob C. Tanderup, Kari; Nielsen, Soren Kynde; Haack, Soren; Gelineck, John

    2008-07-01

    {sub 90} was 91 {+-} 8 Gy{sub {alpha}}{sub /{beta}}{sub 10} and D{sub 100} was 76 {+-} 5 Gy{sub {alpha}}{sub /{beta}}{sub 10}. The minimal dose to 2 cm{sup 3} for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid was 73 {+-} 6, 67 {+-} 6, and 69 {+-} 6 Gy{sub {alpha}}{sub /{beta}}{sub 3}, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that magnetic resonance imaging-guided optimization of PDR-BT for locally advanced cervical cancer significantly improved the dose-volume histogram parameters.

  13. Improvement of the skeletal and dental hypophosphatasia phenotype in Alpl-/- mice by administration of soluble (non-targeted) chimeric alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Gasque, Kellen C S; Foster, Brian L; Kuss, Pia; Yadav, Manisha C; Liu, Jin; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; van Elsas, Andrea; Hatch, Nan; Somerman, Martha J; Millán, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) results from ALPL gene mutations, which lead to a deficiency of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), and accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate, a potent inhibitor of mineralization that is also a natural substrate of TNAP, in the extracellular space. HPP causes mineralization disorders including soft bones (rickets or osteomalacia) and defects in teeth and periodontal tissues. Enzyme replacement therapy using mineral-targeting recombinant TNAP has proven effective in preventing skeletal and dental defects in TNAP knockout (Alpl(-/-)) mice, a model for life-threatening HPP. Here, we show that the administration of a soluble, intestinal-like chimeric alkaline phosphatase (ChimAP) improves the manifestations of HPP in Alpl(-/-) mice. Mice received daily subcutaneous injections of ChimAP at doses of 1, 8 or 16 mg/kg, from birth for up to 53 days. Lifespan and body weight of Alpl(-/-) mice were normalized, and vitamin B6-associated seizures were absent with 16 mg/kg/day of ChimAP. Radiographs, μCT and histological analyses documented improved mineralization in cortical and trabecular bone and secondary ossification centers in long bones of ChimAP16-treated mice. There was no evidence of craniosynostosis in the ChimAP16-treated mice and we did not detect ectopic calcification by radiography and histology in the aortas, stomachs, kidneys or lungs in any of the treatment groups. Molar tooth development and function improved with the highest ChimAP dose, including enamel, dentin, and tooth morphology. Cementum remained deficient and alveolar bone mineralization was reduced compared to controls, though ChimAP-treated Alpl(-/-) mice featured periodontal attachment and retained teeth. This study provides the first evidence for the pharmacological efficacy of ChimAP for use in the treatment of skeletal and dental manifestations of HPP. PMID:25433339

  14. Improvement of the skeletal and dental hypophosphatasia phenotype in Alpl−/− mice by administration of soluble (non-targeted) chimeric alkaline phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Gasque, Kellen; Foster, Brian L.; Kuss, Pia; Yadav, Manisha C.; Liu, Jin; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; van Elsas, Andrea; Hatch, Nan; Somerman, Martha J.; Millán, JoséLuis

    2014-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) results from ALPL gene mutations, which lead to a deficiency of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), and accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate, a potent inhibitor of mineralization that is also a natural substrate of TNAP, in the extracellular space. HPP causes mineralization disorders including soft bones (rickets or osteomalacia) and defects in teeth and periodontal tissues. Enzyme replacement therapy using mineral-targeting recombinant TNAP has proven effective in preventing skeletal and dental defects in TNAP knockout (Alpl−/−) mice, a model for life-threatening HPP. Here, we show that the administration of a soluble, intestinal-like chimeric alkaline phosphatase (ChimAP) improves the manifestations of HPP in Alpl−/− mice. Mice received daily subcutaneous injections of ChimAP at doses of 1, 8 or 16 mg/kg, from birth for up to 53 days. Lifespan and body weight of Alpl−/− mice were normalized, and vitamin B6-associated seizures were absent with 16 mg/kg/day of ChimAP. Radiographs, μCT and histological analyses documented improved mineralization in cortical and trabecular bone and secondary ossification centers in long bones of ChimAP16-treated mice. There was no evidence of craniosynostosis in the ChimAP16-treated mice and we did not detect ectopic calcification by radiography and histology in the aortas, stomachs, kidneys or lungs in any of the treatment groups. Molar tooth development and function improved with the highest ChimAP dose, including enamel, dentin, and tooth morphology. Cementum remained deficient and alveolar bone mineralization was reduced compared to controls, though ChimAP-treated Alpl−/− mice featured periodontal attachment and retained teeth. This study provides the first evidence for the pharmacological efficacy of ChimAP for use in the treatment of skeletal and dental manifestations of HPP. PMID:25433339

  15. The Significance of National Association for the Education of Young Children Accreditation in Elevating Quality of Early Childhood Education: Administrators', Teachers', and Parents' Beliefs about Accreditation and Its Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardanyan, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    The following is a doctoral dissertation that studied administrators', teachers', and parents' perceptions and attitudes related to an early childhood center/preschool accreditation experience. A qualitative case study of one preschool center focused on the influence that the decision to pursue accreditation and implement the National Association…

  16. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care

    PubMed Central

    Ekeland, Anne G.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1) reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2) mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements. PMID:27417745

  17. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  18. Justifying Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin; Lakomski, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    The traditional conceptions of science dominating educational administration are mistaken. Unacceptable epistemologies, like those implicit in logical positivism, justify knowledge solely in terms of empirical adequacy. An improved science of educational administration embraces a coherent global theory accounting for all the phenomena of human…

  19. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  20. Intravenous injection of AAVrh10-GALC after the neonatal period in twitcher mice results in significant expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems and improvement of clinical features.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohammad A; Rao, Han Zhi; Luzi, Paola; Luddi, Alice; Curtis, Mark T; Wenger, David A

    2015-03-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) or Krabbe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the defective lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC). The lack of GALC enzyme leads to severe neurological symptoms. While most human patients are infants who do not survive beyond 2 years of age, older patients are also diagnosed. In addition to human patients, several naturally occurring animal models, including dog, mouse, and monkey, have also been identified. The mouse model of Krabbe disease, twitcher (twi) mouse has been used for many treatment trials including gene therapy. Using the combination of intracerebroventricular, intracerebellar, and intravenous (iv) injection of the adeno-associated virus serotype rh10 (AAVrh10) expressing mouse GALC in neonate twi mice we previously have demonstrated a significantly extended normal life and exhibition of normal behavior in treated mice. In spite of the prolonged healthy life of these treated mice and improved myelination, it is unlikely that using multiple injection sites for viral administration will be approved for treatment of human patients. In this study, we have explored the outcome of the single iv injection of viral vector at post-natal day 10 (PND10). This has resulted in increased GALC activity in the central nervous system (CNS) and high GALC activity in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). As we have shown previously, an iv injection of AAVrh10 at PND2 results in a small extension of life beyond the typical lifespan of the untreated twi mice (~40 days). In this study, we report that mice receiving a single iv injection at PND10 had no tremor and continued to gain weight until a few weeks before they died. On average, they lived 20-25 days longer than untreated mice. We anticipate that this strategy in combination with other therapeutic options may be beneficial and applicable to treatment of human patients. PMID:25533112

  1. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  2. Serving the Space Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jack E.; Thompson, Arthur W.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to establish an upward mobility program that afforded employees an opportunity to improve their credibility in job opportunity selection under the directives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Author/RK)

  3. Dispersion-correcting potentials can significantly improve the bond dissociation enthalpies and noncovalent binding energies predicted by density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    DiLabio, Gino A.; Koleini, Mohammad

    2014-05-14

    Dispersion-correcting potentials (DCPs) are atom-centered Gaussian functions that are applied in a manner that is similar to effective core potentials. Previous work on DCPs has focussed on their use as a simple means of improving the ability of conventional density-functional theory methods to predict the binding energies of noncovalently bonded molecular dimers. We show in this work that DCPs developed for use with the LC-ωPBE functional along with 6-31+G(2d,2p) basis sets are capable of simultaneously improving predicted noncovalent binding energies of van der Waals dimer complexes and covalent bond dissociation enthalpies in molecules. Specifically, the DCPs developed herein for the C, H, N, and O atoms provide binding energies for a set of 66 noncovalently bonded molecular dimers (the “S66” set) with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.21 kcal/mol, which represents an improvement of more than a factor of 10 over unadorned LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) and almost a factor of two improvement over LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) used in conjunction with the “D3” pairwise dispersion energy corrections. In addition, the DCPs reduce the MAE of calculated X-H and X-Y (X,Y = C, H, N, O) bond dissociation enthalpies for a set of 40 species from 3.2 kcal/mol obtained with unadorned LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) to 1.6 kcal/mol. Our findings demonstrate that broad improvements to the performance of DFT methods may be achievable through the use of DCPs.

  4. Chronic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate decreases age-related histological atrophic testicular changes and improves sexual behavior in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montiel, H L; Vásquez López, C M; González-Loyola, J G; Vega-Anaya, G C; Villagrán-Herrera, M E; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Saldaña, C; Ramos Gómez, M; García Horshman, P; García Solís, P; Solís-S, J C; Robles-Osorio, M L; Ávila Morales, J; Varela-Echavarría, A; Paredes Guerrero, R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a multifactorial universal process and constitutes the most important risk factor for chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it is a natural process, pathological aging arises when these changes occur quickly and the body is not able to adapt. This is often associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and a decrease in the endogenous antioxidant systems, constituting a physiopathological state commonly found in chronic-degenerative diseases. At the testicular level, aging is associated with tissue atrophy, decreased steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior disorders. This situation, in addition to the elevated generation of ROS in the testicular steroidogenesis, provides a critical cellular environment causing oxidative damage at diverse cellular levels. To assess the effects of a reduction in the levels of ROS, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was chronically administered in senile Wistar rats. TPP causes an activation of intermediate metabolism routes, enhancing cellular respiration and decreasing the generation of ROS. Our results show an overall decrease of atrophic histological changes linked to aging, with higher levels of serum testosterone, sexual activity, and an increase in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in TPP-treated animals. These results suggest that TPP chronic administration decreases the progression of age-related atrophic changes by improving the intermediate metabolism, and by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24371036

  5. Administration of hydrogen-saturated saline decreases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and improves high-density lipoprotein function in high-fat diet-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zong, Chuanlong; Song, Guohua; Yao, Shutong; Li, Luqin; Yu, Yang; Feng, Lei; Guo, Shoudong; Luo, Tian; Qin, Shucun

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen (dihydrogen; H(2)) has an antiatherosclerotic effect in apolipoprotein (apo) E knockout mice. The goals of this study were to further characterize the effects of H(2) on the content, composition, and biological activities of plasma lipoproteins in golden hamsters. Plasma analysis by enzymatic method and fast protein liquid chromatography showed that 4-week intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-saturated saline remarkably decreased plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of apolipoproteins from ultracentrifugally isolated plasma lipoproteins revealed a marked decrease of apo B100 and apo B48 in LDL. A profound decrease of apo E level in very low-density lipoprotein was also observed. Besides, we determined the functional quality of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles isolated from H(2)-treated and control mice. H(2) significantly improved HDL functionality assessed in 2 independent ways, namely, (1) stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells by measuring HDL-induced [(3)H]cholesterol efflux and (2) protection against LDL oxidation as a measure of Cu(2+)-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation. Administration of hydrogen-saturated saline decreases plasma LDL cholesterol and apo B levels and improves hyperlipidemia-injured HDL functions, including the capacity of enhancing cellular cholesterol efflux and playing antioxidative properties, in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. PMID:22153840

  6. Chronic oral or intraarticular administration of docosahexaenoic acid reduces nociception and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant–induced knee arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) reduce joint destruction and inflammation present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of individual ω-3 PUFAs on chronic arthritic pain have not been evaluated to date. Thus, our aim in this study was to examine whether purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an ω-3 PUFA) reduces spontaneous pain-related behavior and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of knee arthritis. Methods Unilateral arthritis was induced by multiple injections of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right knee joints of male ICR adult mice. Mice that received CFA injections were then chronically treated from day 15 until day 25 post–initial CFA injection with oral DHA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg daily) or intraarticular DHA (25 and 50 μg/joint twice weekly). Spontaneous flinching of the injected extremity (considered as spontaneous pain-related behavior), vertical rearing and horizontal exploratory activity (considered as functional outcomes) and knee edema were assessed. To determine whether an endogenous opioid mechanism was involved in the therapeutic effect of DHA, naloxone (NLX, an opioid receptor antagonist, 3 mg/kg subcutaneously) was administered in arthritic mice chronically treated with DHA (30 mg/kg by mouth) at day 25 post–CFA injection. Results The intraarticular CFA injections resulted in increasing spontaneous flinching and knee edema of the ipsilateral extremity as well as worsening functional outcomes as time progressed. Chronic administration of DHA, given either orally or intraarticularly, significantly improved horizontal exploratory activity and reduced flinching behavior and knee edema in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of NLX did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of DHA. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate DHA’s antinociceptive and

  7. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  8. Soft-Etching Copper and Silver Electrodes for Significant Device Performance Improvement toward Facile, Cost-Effective, Bottom-Contacted, Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongrui; Dong, Huanli; Zou, Ye; Zhao, Qiang; Tan, Jiahui; Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiuqiang; Xiao, Jinchong; Zhang, Qichun; Hu, Wenping

    2016-03-01

    Poor charge injection and transport at the electrode/semiconductor contacts has been so far a severe performance hurdle for bottom-contact bottom-gate (BCBG) organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we have developed a simple, economic, and effective method to improve the carrier injection efficiency and obtained high-performance devices with low cost and widely used source/drain (S/D) electrodes (Ag/Cu). Through the simple electrode etching process, the work function of the electrodes is more aligned with the semiconductors, which reduces the energy barrier and facilitates the charge injection. Besides, the formation of the thinned electrode edge with desirable micro/nanostructures not only leads to the enlarged contact side area beneficial for the carrier injection but also is in favor of the molecular self-organization for continuous crystal growth at the contact/active channel interface, which is better for the charge injection and transport. These effects give rise to the great reduction of contact resistance and the amazing improvement of the low-cost bottom-contact configuration OFETs performance. PMID:26967358

  9. Handbook of Faculty Bargaining. Asserting Administrative Leadership for Institutional Progress by Preparing for Bargaining, Negotiating and Administering Contracts, and Improving the Bargaining Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, George W.; And Others

    A handbook on higher education's actual experience with unionization to date provides detailed information and recommendations on all aspects of bargaining, from getting into the right mental framework for bargaining, through union elections and contract language, to administration of the agreement. It is explained how administrators can maintain…

  10. Direct Loans. An Assessment of the Clinton Administration's Proposals and Some Suggestions for Improvement. AGB Public Policy Series, No. 93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992 the Clinton Administration proposed phasing out the federally guaranteed student loan program and replacing it with a direct lending program run entirely by the federal government, claiming that this approach would save taxpayer money and simplify a complex program. Opponents of the Administration plan argued instead for changes in federal…

  11. Oral L-Arginine Administration Improves Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices Associated With Cardiovascular Diseases in Obese Patients: A Randomized, Single Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dashtabi, Arash; Mazloom, Zohreh; Fararouei, Mohammad; Hejazi, Najmeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the potential of L-arginine supplementation as a novel and effective strategy for weight loss and improving biochemical parameters in obese patients has been under consideration. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of 8-week oral L-arginine supplementation on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triceps skinfold (TS), subscapular skinfold (SS), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), plasma fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with BMI values > 29.9 or visceral obesity (WC > 102 cm in men or > 88 cm in women). Patients and Methods: Ninety obese patients were included in a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive either L-arginine (3 or 6 g thrice daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical indices, dietary intake, and blood pressure values were measured at the baseline and after the 8-week intervention. Results: Significant decreases in anthropometric parameters, blood pressure (SBP, DBP), FBS, HbA1c, LDL, MDA (P < 0.001), TG (P = 0.02), and TC (P = 0.002) and a significant increase in HDL (P < 0.001) were observed in the intervention group, compared to the control group. In the control group, no significant differences were found between the baseline and end-of-intervention measurements. Conclusions: In conclusion, oral L-Arginine supplementation appears to improve anthropometric parameters, blood pressure values, and some blood biochemical indices associated with cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:26889456

  12. Intravenous Administration of Manuka Honey Inhibits Tumor Growth and Improves Host Survival When Used in Combination with Chemotherapy in a Melanoma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Cabezudo, Maria J.; El-Kharrag, Rkia; Torab, Fawaz; Bashir, Ghada; George, Junu A.; El-Taji, Hakam; al-Ramadi, Basel K.

    2013-01-01

    Manuka honey has been recognized for its anti-bacterial and wound-healing activity but its potential antitumor effect is poorly studied despite the fact that it contains many antioxidant compounds. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of manuka honey on three different cancer cell lines, murine melanoma (B16.F1) and colorectal carcinoma (CT26) as well as human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells in vitro. The data demonstrate that manuka honey has potent anti-proliferative effect on all three cancer cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner, being effective at concentrations as low as 0.6% (w/v). This effect is mediated via the activation of a caspase 9-dependent apoptotic pathway, leading to the induction of caspase 3, reduced Bcl-2 expression, DNA fragmentation and cell death. Combination treatment of cancer cells with manuka and paclitaxel in vitro, however, revealed no evidence of a synergistic action on cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, we utilized an in vivo syngeneic mouse melanoma model to assess the potential effect of intravenously-administered manuka honey, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, on the growth of established tumors. Our findings indicate that systemic administration of manuka honey was not associated with any alterations in haematological or clinical chemistry values in serum of treated mice, demonstrating its safety profile. Treatment with manuka honey alone resulted in about 33% inhibition of tumor growth, which correlated with histologically observable increase in tumor apoptosis. Although better control of tumor growth was observed in animals treated with paclitaxel alone or in combination with manuka honey (61% inhibition), a dramatic improvement in host survival was seen in the co-treatment group. This highlights a potentially novel role for manuka honey in alleviating chemotherapy-induced toxicity. PMID:23409104

  13. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT. PMID:27109264

  14. Long term study of deoxyribozyme administration to XT-1 mRNA promotes corticospinal tract regeneration and improves behavioral outcome after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Brigitte; Pape, Daniel; Chao, Owen; Bauer, Jordana; Grimpe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects approximately 3 million people around the world, who are desperately awaiting treatment. The pressing need for the development of therapeutics has spurred medical research for decades. To respond to this pressing need, our group developed a potential therapeutic to reduce the presence of proteoglycans at the injury site after acutely traumatizing the spinal cord of rats. With the aid of a DNA enzyme against the mRNA of xylosyltransferase-1 (DNAXT-1as) we adjourn the glycosylation and prevent the assembly of the proteoglycan core protein into the extracellular matrix. Hence, endogenous repair is strengthened due to the allocation of a more growth permissive environment around the lesion site. Here, we present data on a long term study of animals with a dorsal hemisection treated with DNAXT-1as, DNAXT-1mb (control DNA enzyme) or PBS via osmotic minipumps. After successful digestion of the XT-1 mRNA shown by qPCR we observed an overall behavioral improvement of DNAXT-1as treated rats at 8, 10 and 14 weeks after insult to the spine compared to the control animals. This is accompanied by the growth of the cortical spinal tract (CST) in DNAXT-1as treated animals after a 19 week survival period. Furthermore, after evaluating the lesion size tissue-protective effects in the DNAXT-1as treated animals compared to DNAXT-1mb and PBS treated rats are revealed. The results yield new insights into the regeneration processes and provide confirmation to involve DNA enzyme administration in future therapeutic strategies to medicate SCI. PMID:26428904

  15. Oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) increases in vitro lymphocyte function and improves in vivo response of pigs to immunization against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Burdick, N C; Dominguez, J A; Welsh, T H; Laurenz, J C

    2009-10-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the oral administration of DHEAS enhances the in vitro and the in vivo immune response of young pigs. Crossbred, female pigs (80 days of age; 49+/-2 kg) were separated into two treatment groups (n=4/treatment) receiving either 0mg/kg (control) or 1mg/kg DHEAS twice daily (DHEAS) for 5 weeks. On day 7 pigs were immunized against KLH and ovalbumin. Body weight increased weekly throughout the study but did not differ between treatment groups. While white blood cell counts increased in response to immunization but did not differ between treatments, the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio was enhanced (P<0.05) in DHEAS-supplemented pigs. Concanavalin A (ConA) induced an in vitro dose-dependent increase (P<0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation, but treatment did not affect proliferation prior to immunization. However, lymphocytes isolated from DHEAS-supplemented pigs displayed a greater increase in proliferation following immunization relative to control pigs (P<0.05). Dexamethasone (DEX) attenuated ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation, with DHEAS-supplemented pigs retaining a greater proliferative response relative to control pigs (P<0.05). Serum IgG concentrations and relative concentrations of antigen-specific IgG increased after immunization with maximum values attained at 21 and 28 days for control and DHEAS-supplemented pigs, respectively. The DHEAS-supplemented pigs had greater (P<0.05) concentrations of IgG and relative concentrations of antigen-specific IgG compared to control pigs. Collectively these data suggest DHEAS supplementation increases the responsiveness of young pigs to antigenic challenge, and may be beneficial for improving their immune function. PMID:19646552

  16. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  17. Administration of low dose estrogen attenuates persistent inflammation, promotes angiogenesis, and improves locomotor function following chronic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, Supriti; Das, Arabinda; Matzelle, Denise C; Yu, Shan P; Wei, Ling; Varma, Abhay; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2016-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of neurological function and, depending upon the severity of injury, may lead to paralysis. Currently, no FDA-approved pharmacotherapy is available for SCI. High-dose methylprednisolone is widely used, but this treatment is controversial. We have previously shown that low doses of estrogen reduces inflammation, attenuates cell death, and protects axon and myelin in SCI rats, but its effectiveness in recovery of function is not known. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate whether low doses of estrogen in post-SCI would reduce inflammation, protect cells and axons, and improve locomotor function during the chronic phase of injury. Injury (40 g.cm force) was induced at thoracic 10 in young adult male rats. Rats were treated with 10 or 100 μg 17β-estradiol (estrogen) for 7 days following SCI and compared with vehicle-treated injury and laminectomy (sham) controls. Histology (H&E staining), immunohistofluorescence, Doppler laser technique, and Western blotting were used to monitor tissue integrity, gliosis, blood flow, angiogenesis, the expression of angiogenic factors, axonal degeneration, and locomotor function (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating) following injury. To assess the progression of recovery, rats were sacrificed at 7, 14, or 42 days post injury. A reduction in glial reactivity, attenuation of axonal and myelin damage, protection of cells, increased expression of angiogenic factors and microvessel growth, and improved locomotor function were found following estrogen treatment compared with vehicle-treated SCI rats. These results suggest that treatment with a very low dose of estrogen has significant therapeutic implications for the improvement of locomotor function in chronic SCI. Experimental studies with low dose estrogen therapy in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrated the potential for multi-active beneficial outcomes that could ameliorate the degenerative pathways in chronic SCI as

  18. Using edge-preserving algorithm with non-local mean for significantly improved image-domain material decomposition in dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Tianye; Xing, Lei; Xie, Yaoqin; Xiong, Guanglei; Elmore, Kimberly; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Min, James K.

    2016-02-01

    Increased noise is a general concern for dual-energy material decomposition. Here, we develop an image-domain material decomposition algorithm for dual-energy CT (DECT) by incorporating an edge-preserving filter into the Local HighlY constrained backPRojection reconstruction (HYPR-LR) framework. With effective use of the non-local mean, the proposed algorithm, which is referred to as HYPR-NLM, reduces the noise in dual-energy decomposition while preserving the accuracy of quantitative measurement and spatial resolution of the material-specific dual-energy images. We demonstrate the noise reduction and resolution preservation of the algorithm with an iodine concentrate numerical phantom by comparing the HYPR-NLM algorithm to the direct matrix inversion, HYPR-LR and iterative image-domain material decomposition (Iter-DECT). We also show the superior performance of the HYPR-NLM over the existing methods by using two sets of cardiac perfusing imaging data. The DECT material decomposition comparison study shows that all four algorithms yield acceptable quantitative measurements of iodine concentrate. Direct matrix inversion yields the highest noise level, followed by HYPR-LR and Iter-DECT. HYPR-NLM in an iterative formulation significantly reduces image noise and the image noise is comparable to or even lower than that generated using Iter-DECT. For the HYPR-NLM method, there are marginal edge effects in the difference image, suggesting the high-frequency details are well preserved. In addition, when the search window size increases from 11× 11 to 19× 19 , there are no significant changes or marginal edge effects in the HYPR-NLM difference images. The reference drawn from the comparison study includes: (1) HYPR-NLM significantly reduces the DECT material decomposition noise while preserving quantitative measurements and high-frequency edge information, and (2) HYPR-NLM is robust with respect to parameter selection.

  19. Facilitating endoscopic submucosal dissection: the suture-pulley method significantly improves procedure time and minimizes technical difficulty compared with conventional technique: an ex vivo study (with video)

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Hiroyuki; Kumar, Nitin; Ryou, Marvin; Abidi, Wasif; Ryan, Michele B.; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of countertraction in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) results in increased technical demand and procedure time. Although the suture-pulley method for countertraction has been reported, its effectiveness compared with the traditional ESD technique remains unclear. Objective To objectively analyze efficacy of countertraction using the suture-pulley method for ESD. Design Prospective ex vivo animal study. Setting Animal laboratory. Interventions Twenty simulated gastric lesions were created in porcine stomachs by using a standard circular template 30 mm in diameter. In the control arm (n = 10), ESD was performed by using the standard technique. In the suture-pulley arm (N = 10), a circumferential incision was made, and an endoscopic suturing device was used to place the suture pulley. Main Outcome Measurements The primary outcome of this study was total procedure time. Results The median total procedure time with the suture-pulley method was significantly shorter than the traditional ESD technique (median, 25% to 75%, interquartile range [IQR]: 531 seconds [474.3–549.3 seconds] vs 845 seconds [656.3–1547.5 seconds], P < .001). The median time (IQR) for suture-pulley placement was 160.5 seconds (150.0–168.8 seconds). Although there was a significantly longer procedure time for proximal versus middle/lower stomach lesions with traditional ESD (median, 1601 seconds; IQR, 1547.5–1708.8 seconds vs median, 663 seconds; IQR, 627.5–681.8 seconds; P =.01), there was no significant difference in procedure time for lesions of various locations when using the suture-pulley method. Compared with traditional ESD, the suture-pulley method was less demanding in all categories evaluated by the NASA Task Load Index. Limitations Ex vivo study. Conclusions The suture-pulley method facilitates direct visualization of the submucosal layer during ESD and significantly reduces procedure time and technical difficulty. In addition, the benefit of the suture

  20. Combined Use of Hyperbaric and Hypobaric Ropivacaine Significantly Improves Hemodynamic Characteristics in Spinal Anesthesia for Caesarean Section: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Quan, ZheFeng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Li, Xin; He, HaiLi; Luo, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To observe the hemodynamic changes of parturients in the combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section in this randomized double-blind study. Methods Parturients (n = 136) undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly and equally allocated to receive either combined hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine (Group A) or hyperbaric ropivacaine (Group B). Outcome measures were: hemodynamic characteristics, maximum height of sensory block, time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level, incidence of complications, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, and neonatal blood gas analysis. Results Group A had a lower level of sensory blockade (T6 [T6-T7]) and longer time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level (8 ± 1.3 min) than did patients in Group B (T3 [T2-T4] and 5 ± 1.0 min, respectively; P < 0.001, both). The incidence rates for hypotension, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in Group A (13%, 10%, and 3%, respectively) than Group B (66%, 31%, and 13%; P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.028). Conclusions Combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine significantly decreased the incidences of hypotension and complications in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section by extending induction time and decreasing the level of sensory blockade. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13004622 PMID:25970485

  1. Site-specific replacement of the thymine methyl group by fluorine in thrombin binding aptamer significantly improves structural stability and anticoagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Antonella; Petraccone, Luigi; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Varra, Michela; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Pepe, Antonietta; Mayol, Luciano; Esposito, Veronica; Galeone, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Here we report investigations, based on circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular modelling, differential scanning calorimetry and prothrombin time assay, on analogues of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) in which individual thymidines were replaced by 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine residues. The whole of the data clearly indicate that all derivatives are able to fold in a G-quadruplex structure very similar to the ‘chair-like’ conformation typical of the TBA. However, only ODNs TBA-F4 and TBA-F13 have shown a remarkable improvement both in the melting temperature (ΔTm ≈ +10) and in the anticoagulant activity in comparison with the original TBA. These findings are unusual, particularly considering previously reported studies in which modifications of T4 and T13 residues in TBA sequence have clearly proven to be always detrimental for the structural stability and biological activity of the aptamer. Our results strongly suggest the possibility to enhance TBA properties through tiny straightforward modifications. PMID:26582916

  2. Disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction significantly improves the erythroid defect in a mouse model for Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Jaako, P; Debnath, S; Olsson, K; Zhang, Y; Flygare, J; Lindström, M S; Bryder, D; Karlsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia caused by haploinsufficiency of genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs). Perturbed ribosome biogenesis in DBA has been shown to induce a p53-mediated ribosomal stress response. However, the mechanisms of p53 activation and its relevance for the erythroid defect remain elusive. Previous studies have indicated that activation of p53 is caused by the inhibition of mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2), the main negative regulator of p53, by the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). Meanwhile, it is not clear whether this mechanism solely mediates the p53-dependent component found in DBA. To approach this question, we crossed our mouse model for RPS19-deficient DBA with Mdm2(C305F) knock-in mice that have a disrupted 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Upon induction of the Rps19 deficiency, Mdm2(C305F) reversed the p53 response and improved expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in vitro, and ameliorated the anemia in vivo. Unexpectedly, disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction also led to selective defect in erythropoiesis. Our findings highlight the sensitivity of erythroid progenitor cells to aberrations in p53 homeostasis mediated by the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that physiological activation of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway may contribute to functional decline of the hematopoietic system in a cell-autonomous manner over time. PMID:25987256

  3. PolySearch2: a significantly improved text-mining system for discovering associations between human diseases, genes, drugs, metabolites, toxins and more

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David

    2015-01-01

    PolySearch2 (http://polysearch.ca) is an online text-mining system for identifying relationships between biomedical entities such as human diseases, genes, SNPs, proteins, drugs, metabolites, toxins, metabolic pathways, organs, tissues, subcellular organelles, positive health effects, negative health effects, drug actions, Gene Ontology terms, MeSH terms, ICD-10 medical codes, biological taxonomies and chemical taxonomies. PolySearch2 supports a generalized ‘Given X, find all associated Ys’ query, where X and Y can be selected from the aforementioned biomedical entities. An example query might be: ‘Find all diseases associated with Bisphenol A’. To find its answers, PolySearch2 searches for associations against comprehensive collections of free-text collections, including local versions of MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, Wikipedia full-text articles and US Patent application abstracts. PolySearch2 also searches 14 widely used, text-rich biological databases such as UniProt, DrugBank and Human Metabolome Database to improve its accuracy and coverage. PolySearch2 maintains an extensive thesaurus of biological terms and exploits the latest search engine technology to rapidly retrieve relevant articles and databases records. PolySearch2 also generates, ranks and annotates associative candidates and present results with relevancy statistics and highlighted key sentences to facilitate user interpretation. PMID:25925572

  4. Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index's corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Ding, Yun; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Rui, Huan; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pretreatment by combining acidified aqueous ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL [Bmim]Cl) solution with dilute NaOH extraction was employed to pretreat high crystallinity index (CrI) of corn stover before its enzymatic saccharification. After NaOH extraction, [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water (78.8:1.2:20, w/w/w) media was used for further pretreatment at 130 °C for 30 min. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, corn stover pretreated could be biotransformed into reducing sugars in the yield of 95.1%. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and FTIR analyses of untreated and pretreated corn stovers were examined. It was found that the intact structure was disrupted by combination pretreatment and resulted in a porous and amorphous regenerated cellulosic material that greatly improved enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. In conclusion, the combination pretreatment shows high potential application in future. PMID:25921785

  5. PolySearch2: a significantly improved text-mining system for discovering associations between human diseases, genes, drugs, metabolites, toxins and more.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David

    2015-07-01

    PolySearch2 (http://polysearch.ca) is an online text-mining system for identifying relationships between biomedical entities such as human diseases, genes, SNPs, proteins, drugs, metabolites, toxins, metabolic pathways, organs, tissues, subcellular organelles, positive health effects, negative health effects, drug actions, Gene Ontology terms, MeSH terms, ICD-10 medical codes, biological taxonomies and chemical taxonomies. PolySearch2 supports a generalized 'Given X, find all associated Ys' query, where X and Y can be selected from the aforementioned biomedical entities. An example query might be: 'Find all diseases associated with Bisphenol A'. To find its answers, PolySearch2 searches for associations against comprehensive collections of free-text collections, including local versions of MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, Wikipedia full-text articles and US Patent application abstracts. PolySearch2 also searches 14 widely used, text-rich biological databases such as UniProt, DrugBank and Human Metabolome Database to improve its accuracy and coverage. PolySearch2 maintains an extensive thesaurus of biological terms and exploits the latest search engine technology to rapidly retrieve relevant articles and databases records. PolySearch2 also generates, ranks and annotates associative candidates and present results with relevancy statistics and highlighted key sentences to facilitate user interpretation. PMID:25925572

  6. Visually Estimated MRI Targeted Prostate Biopsy Could Improve the Detection of Significant Prostate Cancer in Patients with a PSA Level <10 ng/mL

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Nam, Jong Kil; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Seung Soo; Han, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Joon Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare prostate cancer detection rates between 12 cores transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and visually estimated multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy (MRI-visual-Bx) for patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) level less than 10 ng/mL. Materials and Methods In total, 76 patients with PSA levels below 10 ng/mL underwent 3.0 Tesla mp-MRI and TRUS-Bx prospectively in 2014. In patients with abnormal lesions on mp-MRI, we performed additional MRI-visual-Bx. We compared pathologic results, including the rate of clinically significant prostate cancer cores (cancer length greater than 5 mm and/or any Gleason grade greater than 3 in the biopsy core). Results The mean PSA was 6.43 ng/mL. In total, 48 of 76 (63.2%) patients had abnormal lesions on mp-MRI, and 116 targeted biopsy cores, an average of 2.42 per patient, were taken. The overall detection rates of prostate cancer using TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx were 26/76 (34.2%) and 23/48 (47.9%), respectively. In comparing the pathologic results of TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx cores, the positive rates were 8.4% (77 of 912 cores) and 46.6% (54 of 116 cores), respectively (p<0.001). Mean cancer core lengths and mean cancer core percentages were 3.2 mm and 24.5%, respectively, in TRUS-Bx and 6.3 mm and 45.4% in MRI-visual-Bx (p<0.001). In addition, Gleason score ≥7 was noted more frequently using MRI-visual-Bx (p=0.028). The detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer was 27/77 (35.1%) and 40/54 (74.1%) for TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion MRI-visual-Bx showed better performance in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer, compared to TRUS-Bx among patients with a PSA level less than 10 ng/mL. PMID:26996553

  7. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  8. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  9. Higher Education Administrators' Perceptions of the Academic Quality Improvement Project as Compared to the Program to Evaluate and Advance Quality within the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Jennifer Nobles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine higher education administrators' perceptions of the effectiveness of the Academic Quality Improvement Project (AQIP) as compared to the Program to Evaluate and Advance Quality (PEAQ) within the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA). The Higher Learning Commission (HLC), a commission…

  10. Improving Management through New Technologies. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges (73rd, Boston, Massachusetts, July 13-16, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Ways to improve campus management using new technology are discussed in the proceedings of the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges. Paper titles and authors are as follows: "Things Are Going to Get Different" (Lou Volpe); "You Look Mah-velous! Perception Is Fact" (Robert H. Clawson);…

  11. Significantly enhanced tumor cellular and lysosomal hydroxychloroquine delivery by smart liposomes for optimal autophagy inhibition and improved antitumor efficiency with liposomal doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Shi, Kairong; Zhang, Li; Hu, Guanlian; Wan, Jingyu; Tang, Jiajing; Yin, Sheng; Duan, Jiandong; Qin, Ming; Wang, Neng; Xie, Dandan; Gao, Xinle; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) inhibits autophagy and therefore can sensitize some cancer cells to chemotherapy, but the high doses required limit its clinical use. Here we show that loading HCQ into liposomes (HCQ/Lip) decorated with a pH-sensitive TH-RGD targeting peptide (HCQ/Lip-TR) can concentrate HCQ in B16F10 tumor cells and lysosomes. HCQ/Lip-TR was efficiently internalized as a result of its ability to bind ITGAV-ITGB3/integrin αvβ3 receptors highly expressed on the tumor cell surface and to undergo charge reversal from anionic at pH 7.4 to cationic at pH 6.5. Studies in vitro at pH 6.5 showed that the intracellular HCQ concentration was 35.68-fold higher, and lysosomal HCQ concentration 32.22-fold higher, after treating cultures with HCQ/Lip-TR than after treating them with free HCQ. The corresponding enhancements observed in mice bearing B16F10 tumors were 15.16-fold within tumor cells and 14.10-fold within lysosomes. HCQ/Lip-TR was associated with milder anemia and milder myosuppressive reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts than free HCQ, as well as less accumulation in the small intestine, which may reduce risk of intestinal side effects. In addition, co-delivering HCQ/Lip-TR with either free doxorubicin (DOX) or liposomal DOX improved the ability of DOX to inhibit tumor growth. Biochemical, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence experiments confirmed that HCQ/Lip-TR blocked autophagic flux in tumor cells. Our results suggest that loading HCQ into Lip-TR liposomes may increase the effective concentration of the inhibitor in tumor cells, allowing less toxic doses to be used. PMID:27123811

  12. A novel liposomal irinotecan formulation with significant anti-tumour activity: use of the divalent cation ionophore A23187 and copper-containing liposomes to improve drug retention.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Euan; Alnajim, Jehan; Anantha, Malathi; Zastre, Jason; Yan, Hong; Webb, Murray; Waterhouse, Dawn; Bally, Marcel

    2008-03-01

    We determined whether the method used to encapsulate irinotecan into 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine/cholesterol (DSPC/Chol; 55:45 mol%) liposomes influenced: (i) irinotecan release rate and (ii) therapeutic efficacy. DSPC/Chol (55:45 mol%) liposomes were prepared with: (i) unbuffered CuSO4; (ii) buffered (pH 7.5) CuSO4; (iii) unbuffered MnSO4 and the ionophore A23187 (exchanges internal metal2+ with external 2H+ to establish and maintain a transmembrane pH gradient); and (iv) unbuffered CuSO4 and ionophore A23187. All formulations exhibited >98% irinotecan encapsulation (0.2 drug-to-lipid molar ratio; 10 min incubation at 50 degrees C). Following a single intravenous injection (100mg/kg irinotecan) into Balb/c mice, the unbuffered CuSO4 plus A23187 formulation mediated a half-life of irinotecan release of 44.4h; a >or=4-fold increase compared to the other liposome formulations. This surprising observation demonstrated that the CuSO4 plus A23187 formulation enhanced irinotecan retention compared to the MnSO4 plus A23187 formulation, indicating the importance of the divalent metal. A single dose of the CuSO4 plus A23187 formulation (50mg/kg irinotecan) mediated an 18-fold increase in median T-C (the difference in days for treated and control subcutaneous human LS 180 adenocarcinoma xenografts to increase their initial volume by 400%) when compared to a comparable dose of Camptosar. Improved irinotecan retention was associated with increased therapeutic activity. PMID:17904831

  13. Conjugating influenza a (H1N1) antigen to n-trimethylaminoethylmethacrylate chitosan nanoparticles improves the immunogenicity of the antigen after nasal administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingfeng; Zheng, Xiaoyao; Zhang, Chi; Shao, Xiayan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2015-11-01

    As one of the most serious infectious respiratory diseases, influenza A (H1N1) is a great threat to human health, and it has created an urgent demand for effective vaccines. Nasal immunization can induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses against viruses, and it can serve as an ideal route for vaccination. However, the low immunogenicity of antigens on nasal mucosa is a high barrier for the development of nasal vaccines. In this study, we covalently conjugated an influenza A (H1N1) antigen to the surface of N-trimethylaminoethylmethacrylate chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles (H1N1-TMC/NP) through thioester bonds to increase the immunogenicity of the antigen after nasal administration. SDS-PAGE revealed that most of the antigen was conjugated on TMC nanoparticles, and an in vitro biological activity assay confirmed the stability of the antigen after conjugation. After three nasal immunizations, the H1N1-TMC/NP induced significantly higher levels of serum IgG and mucosal sIgA compared with free antigen. A hemagglutination inhibition assay showed that H1N1-TMC/NP induced much more protective antibodies than antigen-encapsulated nanoparticles or alum-precipitated antigen (I.M.). In the mechanistic study, H1N1-TMC/NP was shown to stimulate macrophages to produce IL-1β and IL-6 and to stimulate spleen lymphocytes to produce IL-2 and IFN-γ. These results indicated that H1N1-TMC/NP may be an effective vaccine against influenza A (H1N1) viruses for use in nasal immunization. PMID:25959372

  14. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  15. Physicochemical state of the nanotopographic surface of commercially pure titanium following anodization-hydrothermal treatment reveals significantly improved hydrophilicity and surface energy profiles.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. PMID:23177772

  16. Significant reduction in bacterial shedding and improvement in milk production in dairy farms after the use of a new inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine in a field trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Paratuberculosis vaccination has been in use in some regions for many decades, but results have not been widely spread. A new Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) killed vaccine was studied in relationship with its effects on fecal shedding and milk production in four farms while other two were kept as controls submitted to a test and cull scheme. Findings Fecal detection (n = 1829) and milking records (n = 2413) have been analyzed after two (5 herds) and four (1 herd) years of the beginning of the intervention. Shedder prevalence was reduced by 100% in three of the four vaccinated farms, 68% in the total of vaccinated animals and 46% in the two control farms. Total amount of MAP shed was reduced 77% in the vaccinated farms and 94% in the control farms. Overall milk production increased up to 3.9% after vaccination, while there was no significant difference in production after intervention in the non-vaccinated farms. Conclusion MAP shedding reduction can be quickly accomplished both by vaccination and by testing and culling. However, vaccination appears to be a less expensive and more sustainable strategy since it required one single intervention and was also associated with an increase in milk production. PMID:19930604

  17. Integrated study of fermentation and downstream processing in a miniplant significantly improved the microbial 1,3-propanediol production from raw glycerol.

    PubMed

    Kaeding, Thomas; DaLuz, Julian; Kube, Jürgen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-03-01

    In this work, an integrated and optimized production process for 99 % pure 1,3-propanediol (PDO) from raw glycerol is presented. Glycerol fermentation is carried out applying a newly isolated strain Clostridium pasteurianum K1 under non-sterile conditions without any complex ingredients in the fermentation media. In this environment over 55 g/L PDO, yields of 0.52 g/g and space time yields over 2.3 g/(Lh) were achieved in up to 1 m(3) pilot scale. The downstream process for PDO purification consists of an ultrafiltration for biomass and protein separation, an evaporation step for concentration of PDO and a two-step rectification for final purification. For a proof of concept, process optimization and especially investigation of interactions of individual steps, the downstream process was performed in miniplant scale. A minimum salt input into the downstream process was shown to be important to overcome precipitation in evaporation as well as rectification. Thus, raw glycerol is desalinated before fermentation and the fermentation medium was minimized and complex nutrients, such as yeast extract, were avoided totally to prevent furthermore dark color formation. Furthermore, by titration of fermentation with ammonia instead of sodium hydroxide, the later separation of the major by-products, organic acids, in the evaporation step was significantly enhanced. PMID:25362888

  18. TqPCR: A Touchdown qPCR Assay with Significantly Improved Detection Sensitivity and Amplification Efficiency of SYBR Green qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fang; Yan, Zhengjian; Xia, Yinglin; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan; Jiang, Li

    2015-01-01

    The advent of fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has revolutionized the quantification of gene expression analysis in many fields, including life sciences, agriculture, forensic science, molecular diagnostics, and medicine. While SYBR Green-based qPCR is the most commonly-used platform due to its inexpensive nature and robust chemistry, quantifying the expression of genes with low abundance or RNA samples extracted from highly restricted or limited sources can be challenging because the detection sensitivity of SYBR Green-based qPCR is limited. Here, we develop a novel and effective touchdown qPCR (TqPCR) protocol by incorporating a 4-cycle touchdown stage prior to the quantification amplification stage. Using the same cDNA templates, we find that TqPCR can reduce the average Cq values for Gapdh, Rps13, and Hprt1 reference genes by 4.45, 5.47, and 4.94 cycles, respectively, when compared with conventional qPCR; the overall average Cq value reduction for the three reference genes together is 4.95. We further find that TqPCR can improve PCR amplification efficiency and thus increase detection sensitivity. When the quantification of Wnt3A-induced target gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed, we find that, while both conventional qPCR and TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the relatively abundant target Axin2, only TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the lowly-expressed targets Oct4 and Gbx2. Finally, we demonstrate that the MRQ2 and MRQ3 primer pairs derived from mouse reference gene Tbp can be used to validate the RNA/cDNA integrity of qPCR samples. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that TqPCR may increase detection sensitivity and PCR amplification efficiency. Overall, TqPCR should be advantageous over conventional qPCR in expression quantification, especially when the transcripts of interest are lowly expressed, and/or the availability of total RNA is highly restricted or limited. PMID:26172450

  19. Significant Improvement of Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Properties by Incorporating Thiophene in a Solution-Processable D-A-D Modular Chromophore.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Aaron M; Gupta, Akhil; Plummer, Christopher M; Jackson, Sam L; Bilic, Ante; Patil, Hemlata; Sonar, Prashant; Bhosale, Sheshanath V

    2015-01-01

    Through the incorporation of a thiophene functionality, a novel solution-processable small organic chromophore was designed, synthesized and characterized for application in bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The new chromophore, (2Z,2'Z)-2,2'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(5-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (coded as AS2), was based on a donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) module where a simple triphenylamine unit served as an electron donor, 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile as an electron acceptor, and a thiophene ring as the π-bridge embedded between the donor and acceptor functionalities. AS2 was isolated as brick-red, needle-shaped crystals, and was fully characterized by ¹H- and (13)C-NMR, IR, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties of AS2 were compared with those of a structural analogue, (2Z,2'Z)-2,2'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-acrylonitrile) (AS1). Benefiting from the covalent thiophene bridges, compared to AS1 thin solid film, the AS2 film showed: (1) an enhancement of light-harvesting ability by 20%; (2) an increase in wavelength of the longest wavelength absorption maximum (497 nm vs. 470 nm) and (3) a narrower optical band-gap (1.93 eV vs. 2.17 eV). Studies on the photovoltaic properties revealed that the best AS2-[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)-based device showed an impressive enhanced power conversion efficiency of 4.10%, an approx. 3-fold increase with respect to the efficiency of the best AS1-based device (1.23%). These results clearly indicated that embodiment of thiophene functionality extended the molecular conjugation, thus enhancing the light-harvesting ability and short-circuit current density, while further improving the bulk-heterojunction device performance. To our knowledge, AS2 is the first example in the literature where a thiophene unit has been used in conjunction with a 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile accepting functionality to extend

  20. Significant Improvement in Thermal and UV Resistances of UHMWPE Fabric through in Situ Formation of Polysiloxane-TiO2 Hybrid Layers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiangtao; Gao, Qianhong; Xu, Lu; Zhang, Mingxing; Xing, Zhe; Guo, Xiaojing; Zhang, Kuo; Wu, Guozhong

    2016-09-01

    Anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide coatings were produced on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric by radiation-induced graft polymerization of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MAPS) and subsequent cohydrolysis of the graft chains (PMAPS) with tetrabutyl titanate, followed by boiling water treatment for 180 min. The resulting material was coded as UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 and characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetry, and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, among others. The predominant form of TiO2 in the thin film was anatase. The coating layer was composed of two sublayers: an inner part consisting of an organic-inorganic hybrid layer to prevent photocatalytic degradation of the matrix by TiO2 film, and an outer part consisting of anatase nanocrystalline TiO2 capable of UV absorption. This UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 composite exhibited much better thermal resistance than conventional UHMWPE fabric, as reflected by the higher melting point, decreased maximum degradation rate, and higher char yield at 700 °C. Compared with UHMWPE fabric, UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 exhibited significantly enhanced UV absorption and excellent duration of UV illumination. Specifically, the UV absorption intensity was 2.4-fold higher than that of UHMWPE fabric; the retention of the break strength of UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 reached 92.3% after UV irradiation. This work provides an approach for addressing the issue of self-degradation of TiO2-coated polymeric materials due to the inherent photoactivity of TiO2. PMID:27513017

  1. Administration of insulin to newly hatched chicks improves growth performance via impairment of MyoD gene expression and enhancement of cell proliferation in chicken myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kan; Aoki, Michiru; Kondo, Ryota; Matsushita, Kohichi; Akiba, Yukio; Kamada, Tosihiko

    2012-02-01

    The insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is strongly involved in the differentiation of C2C12 cells, as has been demonstrated by the addition of IGFs and insulin to culture media. In this study, we have characterized the role of insulin in chick myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and have revealed novel details of how this exogenous hormone influences myogenic genes during differentiation. Chick myoblast cells cultured in differentiation medium (DMEM containing 2% FBS) supplemented with insulin exhibited a significant decrease in MyoD and myogenin mRNA expression after 12h of culture compared to cells cultured in differentiation media alone. MyoD and myogenin immunoreactive proteins in cells cultured in differentiation medium supplemented with insulin were quite low compared to those in control culture. Supplementation of the differentiation media containing insulin with LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) induced myoblast differentiation. A significant increase in MyoD and myogenin mRNA expression was observed in these cells after incubation for 12h, and the level of expression was similar to that of control cells incubated with differentiation media alone. The DNA content and the phosphor-Erk1/2 protein level were increased by the addition of insulin to the differentiation medium. These results suggest that insulin and its signaling pathway play an inhibitory role in chick myoblast differentiation. A high level of Pax7 mRNA was observed in the skeletal muscle of 3-day-old chicks administered insulin or tolbutamide at 1-day-of-age. In addition, body weight at 21 and 50 days-of-age was significantly greater for chickens administered insulin or tolbutamide at 1-day-of-age than for control chickens. These results detail not only species-specific differences in insulin action for myoblasts but also provide novel information that may be used for the improvement of chicken meat production. PMID:22172340

  2. Ionic liquid integrated multiwalled carbon nanotube in a poly(vinylidene fluoride) matrix: formation of a piezoelectric β-polymorph with significant reinforcement and conductivity improvement.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Amit; Nandi, Arun K

    2013-02-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are functionalized covalently with ionic liquid (IL, 3-aminoethyl imidazolium bromide) which helps good dispersion of IL-functionalized MWNTs (MWNT-IL) in the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs suggests ∼10 nm coating thickness of MWNTs by ILs, and the covalent linkage of ILs with MWNTs is confirmed from FT-IR and Raman spectra. PVDF nanocomposites with full β-polymorphic (piezoelectric) form are prepared using MWNT-IL by both the solvent cast and melt-blending methods. The FE-SEM and TEM micrographs indicate that IL-bound MWNTs are homogeneously dispersed within the PVDF matrix. Increasing MWNT-IL concentration in the composites results in increased β polymorph formation with a concomitant decrease of the α polymorph, and a 100% β polymorph formation occurs for 1 wt % MWNT-IL in both the fabrication conditions. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study shows that the MWNT-ILs are an efficient nucleating agent for PVDF crystallization preferentially nucleating the β form due to its dipolar interactions with PVDF. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) gradually increases with an increase in MWNT-IL concentration, and the storage modulus (G') of the composites increases significantly, showing a maximum increase of 101.3% for 0.5 wt % MWNT-IL. The Young's modulus increases with MWNT-IL concentration, and analysis of the data using the Halpin-Tsai equation suggests that at low concentration they adopt an orientation parallel to the film surface; however, at higher MWNT-IL concentration it is randomly oriented. The tensile strength also increases with an increase in MWNT-IL concentration, and both the Young's modulus and the tensile strength of solvent cast films are lower than melt-blended samples. The elongation at break in the solvent cast samples shows a maximum, but in melt-blended samples it decreases continuously with increasing MWNT

  3. Kinetics of improved 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase biosynthesis from a newly isolated Aspergillus oryzae IIB-6 and parameter significance analysis by 2-factorial design.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Bilqees; Ali, Sikander

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen different mould cultures viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Arthroderma, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Chochliobolus were isolated from the soil samples of Qatar by serial dilution method. The preliminary screening of isolates was done by selecting initial colonies showing relatively bigger zones of starch hydrolysis on nutrient agar plates. The isolates were then subjected to secondary screening by submerged fermentation (SmF). The 1,4-α-D-glucan glucohydrolase (GGH) activity ranged from 1.906-12.675 U/ml/min. The product yield was analysed in dependence of mycelial morphology, biomass level and protein content. The isolate Aspergillus oryzae llB-6 which gave maximum enzyme production was incubated in M3 medium containing 20 g/l starch, 10 g/l lactose, 8.5 g/l yeast extract, 6 g/l corn steep liquor (CSL), 1.2 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, 1.3 g/l NH4Cl, 0.6 g/l CaCl2.2H2O, pH 5 at 30±2°C and 200 rpm. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Qp (0.058±0.01(a) U/g/h), Yp/s (0.308±0.03(ab) U/g) and qp (0.210±0.032(abc) U/g fungal biomass/h), A. oryzae IIB-6 was found to be a hyper producer of GGH (LSD 0.0345) compared to A. kawachii IIB-2. A noticeable enhancement in enzyme activity of over 30% was observed (13.917±1.01 U/ml/min) when the process parameters viz. cultural conditions (pH 5, incubation period 72 h) and nutritional requirements (6 g/l CSL, 9.5 g/l yeast extract, 10 g/l starch, 20 g/l lactose) were further optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. The model terms were found to be highly significant (HS, p≤0.05), indicating the potential utility of the culture (dof~3). PMID:23961361

  4. Suppression of acute proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine upregulation by post-injury administration of a novel small molecule improves long-term neurologic outcome in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Eric; Somera-Molina, Kathleen; Van Eldik, Linda J; Watterson, D Martin; Wainwright, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) with its associated morbidity is a major area of unmet medical need that lacks effective therapies. TBI initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade characterized by activation of astrocytes and microglia, and increased production of immune mediators including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This inflammatory response contributes both to the acute pathologic processes following TBI including cerebral edema, in addition to longer-term neuronal damage and cognitive impairment. However, activated glia also play a neuroprotective and reparative role in recovery from injury. Thus, potential therapeutic strategies targeting the neuroinflammatory cascade must use careful dosing considerations, such as amount of drug and timing of administration post injury, in order not to interfere with the reparative contribution of activated glia. Methods We tested the hypothesis that attenuation of the acute increase in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines following TBI would decrease neurologic injury and improve functional neurologic outcome. We used the small molecule experimental therapeutic, Minozac (Mzc), to suppress TBI-induced up-regulation of glial activation and proinflammatory cytokines back towards basal levels. Mzc was administered in a clinically relevant time window post-injury in a murine closed-skull, cortical impact model of TBI. Mzc effects on the acute increase in brain cytokine and chemokine levels were measured as well as the effect on neuronal injury and neurobehavioral function. Results Administration of Mzc (5 mg/kg) at 3 h and 9 h post-TBI attenuates the acute increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels, reduces astrocyte activation, and the longer term neurologic injury, and neurobehavioral deficits measured by Y maze performance over a 28-day recovery period. Mzc-treated animals also have no significant increase in brain water content (edema), a major cause of the neurologic morbidity associated

  5. Preparation of an oral acetaminophen film that is expected to improve medication administration: Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on physical properties of the film.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ikumi; Ito, Akihiko; Unezaki, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on a film containing carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC) as a matrix to improve surface roughness caused by drug recrystallization. Acetaminophen (AA) was used as the model drug. Recrystallization is a problem encountered during the preparation of films that contain high drug doses, making them difficult to take. A film that does not disintegrate for clinical applications requires a smooth surface, moderate strength and elasticity, and a low level of adhesiveness to facilitate taking of the medication. Addition of PVP to the film formulation made the surface significantly smoother, and it was independent of the compounding method. Smooth films were obtained when the CMC concentration was kept constant and the amount of PVP was increased, but it also increased the adhesiveness and strength, and decreased the elasticity of the films. When high polymer concentration was kept constant and the ratio of CMC and PVP was varied, the films with smaller amounts of PVP tended to have a smoother surface and less adhesiveness. However, when the amount of PVP was reduced, the film strength increased and elasticity decreased. The amount of PVP had a negligible effect on drug dissolution behavior, making it useful for preparation of the AA film. However, it is necessary to determine the compounding method and the PVP load considering the adhesiveness, strength, and elasticity of the films. PMID:27301710

  6. Blazing New Trails: Preparing Leaders to Improve Access and Equity in Today's Schools. The 2011 Yearbook of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Betty J., Ed.; Perreault, George, Ed.; Zellner, Luana, Ed.; Ballenger, Julia W., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This is the 2011 Yearbook of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA). This Yearbook contains five parts. Part I, Invited Chapters, includes: (1) NCPEA President's Message, 2011 (Gary W. Kinsey); (2) Shadows and Images II (Lloyd Duvall); and (3) Micropolitics in the School: Teacher Leaders' Use of Political Skill…

  7. Central and Peripheral Administration of Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Amyloid Precursor Protein Improves Learning and Memory and Reduces Neuroinflammatory Cytokines in Tg2576 (APPswe) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Susan A.; Erickson, Michelle A.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Morley, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. The World Health Organization estimates that there are currently 18 million people worldwide living with AD and that number is expected to double by early 2025. Currently, there are no therapies to stop or reverse the symptoms of AD. We have developed an antisense oligonucleotide (OL-1) against the amyloid betaprotein precursor (AβPP) that can decrease AβPP expression and amyloid beta protein (Aβ) production. This antisense rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier, reverses learning and memory impairments, reduces oxidative stress and restores brain-to-blood efflux of Aβ in SAMP8 mice. In the current study, we examined the effects of this AβPP antisense in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. The Tg2576 overproduces human Aβ, develops age-related learning and memory deficits, and exhibits oxidative damage in the brain. First, we administered the AβPP antisense centrally into the lateral ventricle 3 times at 2 week intervals. Seventy-two hours after the third injection, we tested learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance. In the second study, we injected the mice with AβPP antisense 3 times at two week intervals via the tail vein. Seventy-two hours later, we tested learning and memory T-maze foot shock avoidance, novel object recognition and elevated plus maze. At the end of behavioral testing, mice were sacrificed and brain tissue was collected for evaluation of AβPP, Aβ, and expression of cytokines and chemokines. AβPP antisense administered centrally improved acquisition and retention of T-maze foot shock avoidance. AβPP antisense administered via tail vein improved learning and memory in both T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object-place recognition. In the elevated plus maze the mice which received OL-1 AβPP antisense spent less time in the open arms and had fewer entries into the open arms indicating reduced disinhibitation. Biochemical analyses reveal significant

  8. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  9. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  10. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  11. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  12. Repeated Administrations of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Improve Disease Outcomes in a Mouse Model of Sanfilippo Syndrome Type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2013-12-30

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNC) into Nagluknockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglumice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media only group, or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups - single low dose (3x10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8x10(7) cells) or multiple doses (3x10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously (i.v.); cyclosporine was injected i.p. to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition inactive avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation and decreased microglial activation, particularly in hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations. PMID:24380668

  13. Repeated administrations of human umbilical cord blood cells improve disease outcomes in a mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNCs) into Naglu knockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglu mice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media-only group or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups--single low dose (3 × 10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8 × 10(7) cells), or multiple doses (3 × 10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously; cyclosporine was injected intraperitoneally to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild-type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition in an active avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation, and decreased microglial activation, particularly in the hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations. PMID:25565636

  14. Chronic administration of cardanol (ginkgol) extracted from ginkgo biloba leaves and cashew nutshell liquid improves working memory-related learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Tobinaga, Seisho; Hashimoto, Michio; Utsunomiya, Iku; Taguchi, Kyoji; Nakamura, Morihiko; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    2012-01-01

    Cardanol (ginkgol) extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves and cashew nutshell liquid enhances the growth of NSC-34 immortalized motor neuron-like cells and, when chronically administered to young rats, improves working memory-related learning ability as assessed by eight-arm radial maze tasks. These findings suggest that cardanol is one of the components in Ginkgo biloba leaves that improves cognitive learning ability. PMID:22223349

  15. A Change of Administration: A Significant Organizational Life Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Deborah E.

    The case study presented in this paper illustrates how the succession process for principals is similar to that described by Gabarro in his study of corporate succession. Leader succession involves five major stages: (1) taking hold; (2) immersion; (3) reshaping; (4) consolidation; and (5) refinement. Success most frequently occurs in conjunction…

  16. The intratumoral administration of ferucarbotran conjugated with doxorubicin improved therapeutic effect by magnetic hyperthermia combined with pharmacotherapy in a hepatocellular carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local hyperthermia of tumor in conjunction with chemotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intratumoral delivery of clinically approved magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with doxorubicin to simultaneously induce magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model. Materials and methods HCC cells expressing luciferase were implanted into the flank of BALB/c-nu mice (n = 19). When the tumor diameter reached 7–8 mm, the animals were divided into four groups according to the injected agents: group A (normal saline, n = 4), group B (doxorubicin, n = 5), group C (MNP, n = 5), and group D (MNP/doxorubicin complex, n = 5). Animals were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to receive magnetic hyperthermia, and intratumoral temperature changes were measured. Bioluminescence imagings (BLIs) were performed before treatment and at 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment to measure the tumoral activities. The relative signal intensity (RSI) of each tumor was calculated by dividing the BLI signal at each time point by the value measured before treatment. At day 14 post-treatment, all tumor tissues were harvested to assess the apoptosis rates by pathological examination. Results The rise in temperature of the tumors was 1.88 ± 0.21°C in group A, 0.96 ± 1.05°C in B, 7.93 ± 1.99°C in C, and 8.95 ± 1.31°C in D. The RSI of the tumors at day 14 post-treatment was significantly lower in group D (0.31 ± 0.20) than in group A (2.23 ± 1.14), B (0.94 ± 0.47), and C (1.02 ± 0.21). The apoptosis rates of the tumors were 11.52 ± 3.10% in group A, 23.0 ± 7.68% in B, 25.4 ± 3.36% in C, and 39.0 ± 13.2% in D, respectively. Conclusions The intratumoral injection of ferucarbotran conjugated with doxorubicin shows an improved therapeutic effect compared with doxorubicin or ferucarbotran alone

  17. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  18. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  19. A Small College Information System. Report of an Administrative Improvement Project in Data Processing at Freed-Hardeman College, Henderson, Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellott, Fred K.; Bliss, Sam W.

    This document presents basic conceptual components associated with the development and implementation of a college information system at Freed-Hardeman College. Section one presents the rationale for college information systems and establishes the need for improving information systems. The major characteristics essential to the design and…

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings in adolescents and young adults with gastroesophageal reflux and antral gastritis: eradication results to no significant clinical improvement

    PubMed Central

    Xinias, Ioannis; Maris, Theophanis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Panteliadis, Christos; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial. The aim was to investigate the association between Hp infection and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the impact of Hp eradication on esophageal acid exposure and motility in adolescents and young adults with Hp gastritis and GERD. Sixty-four patients with symptoms suggestive for GERD, of which 40 Hp-positive (group A) and 24 Hp-negative (group B), underwent endoscopy-biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH-metry. All group A patients received eradication treatment and were re-evaluated six months later again with 24-hour pH-metry, esophageal manometry, endoscopy-biopsy and clinical assessment. At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, grade of endoscopic esophagitis, manometric and pH-metry findings. All Hp-positive patients had an antral predominant gastritis. Eradication of Hp was successful in all patients, and gastritis and esophagitis were healed in all patients. The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) increased significantly from 11.25 mmHg before to 11.71 mmHg after eradication (P<0.05). A significant decrease in reflux index was observed (mean RI 6.02% before versus 4.96% after eradication (P<0.05). However clinical symptoms of GER improved not significantly after 6 months follow up. Conclusively, in children and young adults with GER symptoms and GERD, the presence or absence of Hp has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings. Eradication of Hp infection results in increase in LESP with a consequent decrease in esophageal acid exposure but not significant clinical improvement. PMID:23667732

  1. Significant improvement of the recombinant Borrelia-specific immunoglobulin G immunoblot test by addition of VlsE and a DbpA homologue derived from Borrelia garinii for diagnosis of early neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Spechtel, Ulrike; Lehnert, Gisela; Liegl, Gaby; Fingerle, Volker; Heimerl, Christiane; Johnson, Barbara J B; Wilske, Bettina

    2003-03-01

    We investigated whether the recombinant Borrelia Western blot test previously described (B. Wilske, C. Habermann, V. Fingerle, B. Hillenbrand, S. Jauris-Heipke, G. Lehnert, I. Pradel, D. Rössler, and U. Schulte-Spechtel, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 188:139-144, 1999) can be improved by the addition of VlsE and additional DbpA and OspC homologues. By using a panel of sera from 36 neuroborreliosis patients and 67 control patients, the diagnostic sensitivity of the recombinant immunoblot test was significantly increased (86.1% versus 52.7%) without loss of specificity and was higher (86.1% versus 63.8%) than that of the conventional whole-cell lysate immunoblot test (U. Hauser, G. Lehnert, R. Lobentanzer, and B. Wilske, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1433-1444, 1997). Improvement was mainly due to the presence of VlsE and DbpA. PMID:12624072

  2. 77 FR 32173 - Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact: Union and Henderson Counties, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... Administration procedures, the FHWA announces the availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) to... Henderson Counties, Kentucky. The Division Administrator, FHWA-Kentucky Division signed the FONSI on April 9, 2012. ADDRESSES: The FHWA FONSI for the US 60 Capacity and Safety Improvement project can be viewed...

  3. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

  4. Conference on Current Problems in College Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nossell, Jerome, Ed.; Pesci, Frank B., Ed.

    The purpose of the 10-day Conference on Current Problems in College Administration were: (1) to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the administrative services of Saint Joseph College; (2) to identify the principal areas toward which the College should direct future efforts for improvement; (3) to place the administrative staff in contact…

  5. Reforming Administrator Training: Here We Go Again!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, William R.

    1989-01-01

    The National Policy Board for Educational Administration report ("Improving the Preparation of School Administrators: An Agenda for Reform") reiterates the need for program improvements for educational administrators. Obstacles to any real change occurring in the near future are pointed out. (six references) (SI)

  6. An evaluation of an initiative to improve Veterans Health Administration mental health services: broad impacts of the VHA's Mental Health Strategic Plan.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Greg A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2009-12-01

    In federal fiscal year (FY) 2005 the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the comprehensive Mental Health Strategic Plan (MHSP). This study used performance measures from six broad domains to examine changes in the overall delivery of mental health services in the VA since the implementation of the MHSP. Performance measures from fiscal year 2004, the year before implementation of the MHSP, were compared with measures from fiscal years 2005, 2006, and 2007, the first 3 years of MHSP implementation. We combined heterogeneous performance measures within domains through the use of standardized scores or "z-scores." An overall improvement of 0.32 standardized units was observed from FY 2004 to FY 2007, representing moderate to large changes by conventional standards. The domains with the greatest improvement (>1.0 standard deviation units) from FY 2004 to FY 2007 were population coverage/access, outpatient care quality, economic performance (primarily efficiency), and global functioning. There was a 0.3 standard deviation decline in inpatient satisfaction and a slight increase in reliance on inpatient care. Overall improvement in VA mental health care was thus substantial and continuing. PMID:20055066

  7. Glycopyrronium once-daily significantly improves lung function and health status when combined with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD: the GLISTEN study—a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Frith, Peter A; Thompson, Philip J; Ratnavadivel, Rajeev; Chang, Catherina L; Bremner, Peter; Day, Peter; Frenzel, Christina; Kurstjens, Nicol

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal use of various therapeutic combinations for moderate/severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. The GLISTEN trial compared the efficacy of two long-acting anti-muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), when combined with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA). Methods This randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial in moderate/severe COPD patients compared once-daily glycopyrronium (GLY) 50 µg, once-daily tiotropium (TIO) 18 µg or placebo (PLA), when combined with salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SAL/FP) 50/500 µg twice daily. The primary objective was to determine the non-inferiority of GLY+SAL/FP versus TIO+SAL/FP on trough FEV1 after 12 weeks. An important secondary objective was whether addition of GLY to SAL/FP was better than SAL/FP alone. Results 773 patients (mean FEV1 57.2% predicted) were randomised; 84.9% completed the trial. At week 12, GLY+SAL/FP demonstrated non-inferiority to TIO+SAL/FP for trough FEV1: least square mean treatment difference (LSMdiff) −7 mL (SE 17.4) with a lower limit for non-inferiority of −60 mL. There was significant increase in week 12 trough FEV1 with GLY+SAL/FP versus PLA+SAL/FP (LSMdiff 101 mL, p<0.001). At 12 weeks, GLY+SAL/FP produced significant improvement in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score versus PLA+SAL/FP (LSMdiff −2.154, p=0.02). GLY+SAL/FP demonstrated significant rescue medication reduction versus PLA+SAL/FP (LSMdiff −0.72 puffs/day, p<0.001). Serious adverse events were similar for GLY+SAL/FP, TIO+SAL/FP and PLA+SAL/FP with an incidence of 5.8%, 8.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Conclusions GLY+SAL/FP showed comparable improvements in lung function, health status and rescue medication to TIO+SAL/FP. Importantly, addition of GLY to SAL/FP demonstrated significant improvements in lung function, health status and rescue medication compared to SAL/FP. Trial registration number NCT01513460. PMID:25841237

  8. Quality improvements in decreasing medication administration errors made by nursing staff in an academic medical center hospital: a trend analysis during the journey to Joint Commission International accreditation and in the post-accreditation era

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-fen; Jin, Jing-fen; Feng, Xiu-qin; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Ling-ling; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Zhou, Quan

    2015-01-01

    (1.81% versus 0.24%, P<0.001). Conclusion A 3-and-a-half-year intervention program on MAEs was confirmed to be effective. MAEs made by nursing staff can be reduced, but cannot be eliminated. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of multidiscipline collaboration among physicians, pharmacists, nurses, information engineers, and hospital administrators are pivotal to safety in medication administration. JCI accreditation may help health systems enhance the awareness and ability to prevent MAEs and achieve successful quality improvements. PMID:25767393

  9. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K; Sioshansi, Pedrom C; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4months of age, approximately 10months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased alpha

  10. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M.; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K.; Sioshansi, Pedrom; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4 months of age, approximately 10 months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased

  11. Retrograde Ductal Administration of the Adenovirus-mediated NDRG2 Gene Leads to Improved Sialaden Hypofunction in Estrogen-deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Liu, Changhao; Hou, Wugang; Li, Yang; Ma, Ji; Lin, Kaifeng; Situ, Zhenqiang; Xiong, Lize; Li, Shaoqing; Yao, Libo

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common oral manifestations of menopause is xerostomia. Oral dryness can profoundly affect quality of life and interfere with basic daily functions, such as chewing, deglutition, and speaking. Although the feeling of oral dryness can be ameliorated after estrogen supplementation, the side effects of estrogen greatly restrict its application. We previously found that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is involved in estrogen-mediated ion and fluid transport in a cell-based model. In the present study, we used an ovariectomized rat model to mimic xerostomia in menopausal women and constructed two adenovirus vectors bearing NDRG2 to validate their therapeutic potential. Ovariectomized rats exhibited severe sialaden hypofunction, including decreased saliva secretion and ion reabsorption as well as increased water intake. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of NDRG2 and Na+ reabsorption-related Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channels (EnaC) decreased in ovariectomized rat salivary glands. We further showed that the localized delivery of NDRG2 improved the dysfunction of Na+ and Cl− reabsorption. In addition, the saliva flow rate and water drinking recovered to normal. This study elucidates the mechanism of estrogen deficiency-mediated xerostomia or sialaden hypofunction and provides a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24343104

  12. Acute mood but not cognitive improvements following administration of a single multivitamin and mineral supplement in healthy women aged 50 and above: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, H; Rowsell, R; Cox, K H M; Scholey, A; Pipingas, A

    2015-06-01

    A number of randomised controlled trials have indicated that multivitamin/mineral supplementation for a period of 4 weeks or greater can enhance mood and cognition. To date, no studies have investigated whether a single multivitamin dose can benefit mental function in older adults. This study investigated the acute effects of a single multivitamin and mineral and herbal (MVMH) supplement versus placebo on self ratings of mood and the performance of an effortful computerised cognitive battery in a sample of 76 healthy women aged 50-75 years. Mood was assessed using the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS), state trait anxiety inventory-state anxiety scale and visual analogue scales (VAS). Mood was rated at 1 h post supplementation and again after the competition of the cognitive assessments at 2 h post supplementation. It was demonstrated that the MVMH supplement improved overall DASS mood ratings; however, the most prominent effects appeared to be a reduction in ratings of perceived mental stress. These findings were confirmed using visual analogue scales, with these measures also demonstrating MVMH-related increased ratings of calmness. There were no benefits of the MVMH to mood ratings of depression and performance was not enhanced on the cognitive battery. Supplementation with a single multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement reduces stress several hours after intake in healthy older people. PMID:25903286

  13. Improvement of liver function by the administration of oyster extract as a dietary supplement to habitual alcohol drinkers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    OSAKI, KENJI; SHIMIZU, YOSHIO; YAMAMOTO, TETSURO; MIYAKE, FUMIHARU; KONDO, SUMIO; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by elevated serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity with hepatic steatosis, hepatitis or occasionally fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. The potential therapeutic role of oyster extract (OE) or OE-containing dietary supplements (OE supplement) in ALD has seldom been evaluated. In the present study, 84 adults who had an alcohol-drinking habit and marginally high serum GGT levels were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feeding trial to study the effect on alcohol-impaired liver function as reflected by an increased serum level of GGT, as well as the safety, of an OE supplement. The subjects were randomized to receive either an OE supplement (OE group) or placebo (placebo group). There were 42 subjects (31 males and 11 females) in each group, and all the enrolled subjects entered the study. Four individuals (5%) dropped out for reasons unassociated with the study and 6 other subjects were excluded from the efficacy analysis because they did not maintain the required frequency of alcohol intake. As a result, 38 subjects in the placebo group and 36 in the OE group underwent efficacy assessment. Assays of GGT and other liver enzymes were performed at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 4, 8 and 12 of the intervention period. The mean serum levels of GGT in the placebo group gradually increased, while those in the OE group tended to decrease, although no significant within-group differences were observed for either group. A significant between-group difference in the change of mean GGT from baseline was, however, found at week 12 (P=0.049). No OE supplement-associated untoward side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests and anthropometric parameters were observed throughout the 12-week intervention. An OE supplement shows promise in reducing risk factors associated with ALD in adults with an alcohol intake habit. PMID:26622379

  14. The Library Administrator's Automation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    One of the most significant decisions in a library administrator's career is the decision to automate one or more of a library's operations. This book describes the present state of local library automation; the planning, selection, and implementation process; and the library administrator's role in the process. The bulk of the text provides a…

  15. Trends in utilization and survival after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in North America from 1995 to 2005: Significant improvement in survival for lymphoma and myeloma during a period of increasing recipient age

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Philip L.; Hahn, Theresa; Hassebroek, Anna; Bredeson, Christopher; Gajewski, James; Hale, Gregory; Isola, Luis; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Lee, Stephanie J.; LeMaistre, Charles F.; Loberiza, Fausto; Maziarz, Richard T.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Joffe, Steven; Parsons, Susan; Majhail, Navneet S.

    2013-01-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (autoHCT) is used for relapsed and recurrent malignant disorders and as part of initial therapy for selected malignancies. This study describes changes in utilization, techniques and survival in a population–based cohort including 68,404 patients who underwent first autoHCT in a US or Canadian center, 1994–2005, and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The highest annual mean autoHCTs performed (average 6,948 annually) occurred during 1996–1999, with a subsequent decrease (average 4,783 annually), mainly due to less autoHCTs for breast cancer. However, the annual mean of autoHCTs increased from 5,278 annually in 1994–1995 to 5,459 annually in 2004–2005, reflecting increased utilization for multiple myeloma (MM), non-Hodgkin (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Despite an increase in the median age from 44 to 53 years, there has been a significant improvement in OS from 1994 to 2005 for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed NHL (Day +100 OS: 85 to 96%; 1 year OS: 68 to 80% P<0.001) and chemotherapy-sensitive MM (Day +100 OS: 96 to 98%; 1 year OS: 83 to 92% P<0.001). The OS improvement was most pronounced in middle aged (>40 years) and older (>60 years) individuals. PMID:23660172

  16. Chronic administration of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide effectively improves fatty liver and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Wang, Hanxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Wang, Na; Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), an active component derived from a water extract of Angelica sinensis, in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BALB/c mice. The potential mechanisms underlying the activity of this compound were also considered. Specifically, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated, and key proteins involved in the lipid/glucose metabolism were analyzed. Long-term feeding with a HFD induced severe fatty liver and hyperglycemia. Histological examination clearly showed that ASP reduced lipid accumulation in the liver and attenuated hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. In addition, ASP markedly alleviated serum and liver lipid disorders and fatty liver via the upregulation of PPARγ expression and the activation of adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK signaling. Furthermore, ASP also significantly relieved severe oxidative stress, demonstrating that ASP might attenuate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via a "two-hit" mechanism. In addition, ASP reduced blood glucose levels and ameliorated insulin resistance via the regulation of related metabolic enzymes and by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in HFD-fed mice. Our findings revealed that ASP might be used as an alternative dietary supplement or health care product to ameliorate metabolic syndrome in populations that consistently consume HFDs. PMID:27189109

  17. Chronic administration of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide effectively improves fatty liver and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Wang, Hanxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Wang, Na; Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), an active component derived from a water extract of Angelica sinensis, in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BALB/c mice. The potential mechanisms underlying the activity of this compound were also considered. Specifically, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated, and key proteins involved in the lipid/glucose metabolism were analyzed. Long-term feeding with a HFD induced severe fatty liver and hyperglycemia. Histological examination clearly showed that ASP reduced lipid accumulation in the liver and attenuated hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. In addition, ASP markedly alleviated serum and liver lipid disorders and fatty liver via the upregulation of PPARγ expression and the activation of adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK signaling. Furthermore, ASP also significantly relieved severe oxidative stress, demonstrating that ASP might attenuate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via a “two-hit” mechanism. In addition, ASP reduced blood glucose levels and ameliorated insulin resistance via the regulation of related metabolic enzymes and by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in HFD-fed mice. Our findings revealed that ASP might be used as an alternative dietary supplement or health care product to ameliorate metabolic syndrome in populations that consistently consume HFDs. PMID:27189109

  18. Atorvastatin improves cognitive, emotional and motor impairments induced by intranasal 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration in rats, an experimental model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Castro, Adalberto A; Wiemes, Bárbara P; Matheus, Filipe C; Lapa, Fernanda R; Viola, Giordano G; Santos, Adair R; Tasca, Carla I; Prediger, Rui D

    2013-06-01

    Affective disorders and memory impairments precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the currently approved antiparkinsonian agents do not alleviate the non-motor symptoms as well as the underlying dopaminergic neuron degeneration. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of PD and that the anti-inflammatory actions of statins are related to their neuroprotective properties against different insults in the CNS. The present data indicates that the oral treatment with atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day), once a day during 7 consecutive days, was able to prevent short-term memory impairments and depressive-like behavior of rats assessed in the social recognition and forced swimming tests at 7 and 14 days, respectively, after a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (1mg/nostril). Importantly, at this time no significant alterations on the locomotor activity of the animals were observed in the open field test. Moreover, atorvastatin was found to protect against the long-lasting motor deficits evaluated in activity chambers and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta observed at 21 days after i.n. MPTP administration. At this time, despite the absence of spatial memory deficits in the water maze and in concentrations of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 in striatum and hippocampus following i.n. MPTP administration, atorvastatin treatment resulted in a significant increase in the striatal and hippocampal levels of nerve growth factor (NGF). These findings reinforce and extend the notion of the neuroprotective potential of atorvastatin and suggest that it may represent a new therapeutic tool for the management of motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. PMID:23548600

  19. Assessing administrative costs of mental health and substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Robert W; Narine, Lutchmie; Robertson, Madeline J

    2004-05-01

    Increasing competition in the market for mental health and substance abuse MHSA services and the potential to realize significant administrative savings have created an imperative to monitor, evaluate, and control spending on administrative functions. This paper develops a generic model that evaluates spending on administrative personnel by a group of providers. The precision of the model is demonstrated by examining a set of data assembled from five MHSA service providers. The model examines a differential cost construction derived from inter-facility comparisons of administrative expenses. After controlling for the scale of operations, the results enable MHSA programs to control the efficiency of administrative personnel and related rates of compensation. The results indicate that the efficiency of using the administrative complement and the scale of operations represent the lion's share of the total differential cost. The analysis also indicates that a modest improvement in the use of administrative personnel results in substantial cost savings, an increase in the net cash flow derived from operations, an improvement in the fiscal performance of the provider, and a decline in opportunity costs that assume the form of foregone direct patient care. PMID:15379386

  20. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  1. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what…

  2. Organization/Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  3. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  4. Administrative Actions for Noncompliance; Lesser Administrative Actions. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation describing lesser administrative actions that may be imposed on an Institutional Review Board (IRB) that has failed to comply with FDA's IRB regulations. We are clarifying that FDA may require the IRB to withhold approval of new FDA-regulated studies, stop the enrollment of new subjects in ongoing studies, and terminate ongoing studies, or any combination of these actions until the noncompliance with FDA's IRB regulations is corrected. We are taking this action to ensure clarity and improve the accuracy of the regulations. PMID:27044118

  5. The effect of D-serine administration on cognition and mood in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Caroline; Vargas-Lopes, Charles; Marques, Priscila; Dantas, Camila; Manhães, Alex C.; Leite, Homero; Panizzutti, Rogerio

    2016-01-01

    Background D-serine is an endogenous co-agonist of the N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) that plays a crucial role in cognition including learning processes and memory. Decreased D-serine levels have been associated with age-related decline in mechanisms of learning and memory in animal studies. Here, we asked whether D-serine administration in older adults improves cognition. Results D-serine administration improved performance in the Groton Maze learning test of spatial memory and learning and problem solving (F(3, 38)= 4.74, p = 0.03). Subjects that achieved higher increases in plasma D-serine levels after administration improved more in test performance (r2=−0.19 p = 0.009). D-serine administration was not associated with any significant changes in the other cognitive tests or in the mood of older adults (p > 0.05). Methods Fifty healthy older adults received D-serine and placebo in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. We studied the effect of D-serine administration on the performance of cognitive tests and an analogue mood scale. We also collected blood samples to measure D-serine, L-serine, glutamate and glutamine levels. Conclusions D-serine administration may be a strategy to improve spatial memory, learning and problem solving in healthy older adults. Future studies should evaluate the impact of long-term D-serine administration on cognition in older adults. PMID:26933803

  6. Clinical significance of neuropsychological improvement after supplementation with omega-3 in 8-12 years old malnourished Mexican children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo and treatment clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Portillo-Reyes, Verónica; Pérez-García, Miguel; Loya-Méndez, Yolanda; Puente, Antonio E

    2014-04-01

    It has been shown that supplementation with omega-3 improves cognitive performance, especially in infants and toddlers, but it is unknown whether these results are effective in older malnourished children. The aims of this study, therefore, were to investigate the omega-3 supplementation effects in 8- to 12-year-old children and to know which neuropsychological functions improve after three months of intervention in a sample of Mexican children with mild to moderate malnutrition. This study was a randomized, double-blind, treatment and placebo study of 59 children aged 8-12 years who were individually allocated to 2 groups. The duration of the intervention lasted 3 months. Neuropsychological performance was measured at baseline and at 3 months. Results show that more than 50% of children in the treatment group had greater improvement in 11 of the 18 neuropsychological variables studied. Processing speed, visual-motor coordination, perceptual integration, attention and executive function showed improvement in more than 70% of the omega-3 supplemented children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01199120. PMID:24508294

  7. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  8. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  9. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  10. [Alternative routes for insulin administration].

    PubMed

    Lassmann-Vague, V

    1994-01-01

    Ideally, insulin administration should be done through portal route, with a precise kinetic. It should also lead to a reproducible biologic effect, with minimal side-effects and be acceptable for the majority of diabetic patients. Many alternative routes of insulin administration try to fulfill one or more of these criteria. Intraperitoneal route is already used with implantable pumps. It has proven safety and metabolic efficacy, particularly upon the reduction of severe hypoglycaemia. Nasal route could provide a rapid kinetic, but its long-term utilisation depends on improvement of bioavailability and studies of local toxicity. Results concerning intrabronchic insulin seem promising, but are still preliminary. In the future, the choice among these alternative routes of insulin administration will be guided by the development of a closed-loop system. PMID:8001707

  11. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging and ACL Administrator Edwin Walker at the HCBS Conference (08/29/ ... Remarks by Assistant Secretary on Aging and ACL Administrator Kathy Greenlee at the n4a Answers on Aging ...

  12. The New Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen dramatic changes in administrative computing, including more systems, more applications, a new group of computer users, and new opportunities for computer use in campus administration. (Author/MSE)

  13. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  14. S. 2427: a bill to amend the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 to improve the administration of the Federal Coal Leasing Program, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, May 8, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Federal Coal Leasing and Utilization Act of 1986 amends the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 to improve administrative procedures. The provisions relate to rental payments, permits, value disclosures, production requirements under the diligent development rules, environmental disturbances, and other matters. Title II amends sections dealing with leases held by railroads or other common carriers. The provisions describe procedures for competitive bidding.

  15. Local Administrators Planning Handbook. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Dunlap, William S.

    As part of a project to develop a planning guide to assist local vocational education administrators in improving their planning efforts, a needs assessment questionnaire was developed to identify the degree of need for assistance in planning activities. Two hundred sixty-four Missouri local vocational administrators completed the pilot-tested…

  16. Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

    2008-01-01

    It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

  17. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  18. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  19. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption. PMID:21186925

  20. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  1. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  2. Good PR: A Foundation for Good Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Major elements of a public relations program for enlisting community support for the school are discussed. Administrators are advised to develop a nose for news, improve their journalistic writing, and get to know the local press. (MJL)

  3. Clinical and administrative review in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Stott, N. C. H.; Davis, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Clinical and administrative review in primary medical care can be an enjoyable and creative part of group-practice life. A series of such reviews are described which improve internal or external communication for the primary care team. PMID:1223278

  4. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Effective rainfall: a significant parameter to improve understanding of deep-seated rainfall triggering landslide - a simple computation temperature based method applied to Séchilienne unstable slope (French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, A.; Bertrand, C.; Mudry, J.

    2013-07-01

    Pore water pressure, build up by recharge of hydrosystems, is one of the main triggering factors of deep seated landslides. Effective rainfall, which is the part of the rainfall which recharges the aquifer, is a significant parameter. Soil-water balance is an accurate way to estimate effective rainfall. Nevertheless this approach requires evapotranspiration, soil water storage and runoff characterization. Available soil storage and runoff were deduced from field observations whereas evapotranspiration computation is a highly demanding method requiring significant input of meteorological data. Most of the landslide sites used weather stations with limited datasets. A workflow method was developed to compute effective rainfall requiring only temperature and rainfall as inputs. Two solar radiation and five commonly used evapotranspiration equations were tested at Séchilienne. The method was developed to be as general as possible in order to be able to be applied to other landslides. This study demonstrated that, for the Séchilienne unstable slope, the displacement data correlation performance (coefficient of determination) is significantly enhanced with effective rainfall (0.633) compared to results obtained with raw rainfall (0.436) data. The proposed method for estimation of effective rainfall was developed to be sufficiently simple to be used by any non-hydro specialist who intends to characterize the relationship of rainfall to landslide displacements.

  6. 78 FR 7476 - Airport Improvement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program AGENCY: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. ACTION: Invitation to comment on draft FAA Order 5100-38, Airport Improvement...-38D, Airport Improvement Program Handbook. When finalized, this Order will replace Order...

  7. Significant improvement in temporary dental rehabilitation by notable miniplate application in the hard palate for a patient with a large anterior maxillary defect: a case report/technique article

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the application of a miniplate in the hard palate of a 36-year-old patient with a large anterior maxillary defect. The combination of orthodontic elastics with a titanium miniplate improved the stability of the prefabricated prosthesis. This structure retained the ointment gauze covering the wounds and maintained the facial contour. In addition, contracture deformity was prevented by insertion of the prefabricated prosthesis intraoperatively or immediately postoperatively. Furthermore, a soft diet could be ingested immediately postoperatively. The miniplate also supported the anterior part and the definitive prosthesis. This prosthesis restored adequate masticatory, deglutitive, and speech functions and maintained the facial contour with minimum overloading of the remaining teeth. PMID:24382165

  8. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the... homeless youth and their families, following the youth's return home or placement in alternative...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Significant terms. 1351.1 Section 1351.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS...

  12. 77 FR 14225 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule Step 3, GHG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...This proposal concerns the third step (Step 3) in the EPA's Tailoring Rule. We are proposing to maintain the applicability thresholds for greenhouse gas (GHG)-emitting sources at the current levels. We are also proposing two streamlining approaches, which will improve the administration of GHG Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and title V permitting programs. The first proposal......

  13. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  14. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  15. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  16. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  17. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  18. Significant reduction of left atrial volume concomitant with clinical improvement after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation for drug-refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and its precise detection with multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Yuichiro; Akita, Keitaro; Tsuruta, Hikaru; Yamada, Yoshitake; Hayashida, Kentaro; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Murata, Mitsushige; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), left atrial (LA) volume measurement is very important to provide prognostic information. Recent studies demonstrated that multidetector CT (MDCT) is useful to assess the changes in LA volume. Our aim was to examine the utility of a follow-up cardiac MDCT for long-term evaluation of the effect of percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) on LA volume. Methods We studied a consecutive cohort of 20 patients with drug-refractory symptomatic HOCM after PTSMA. We evaluated LA volume analyses with cardiac MDCT on patients who underwent PTSMA as compared to echocardiography. Results Before PTSMA, 75% of all patients had heart failure-associated symptoms in the New York Heart Association functional class III/IV. All patients experienced relief from heart failure-associated symptoms after PTSMA. Cardiac MDCT showed significant reduction in the index of maximum LA volume during follow-up compared to before PTSMA in the same way as in echocardiography (93.6±34.1 mL/m2 vs 82.6±35.3 mL/m2, p=0.035). A Bland-Altman plot showed small mean differences and limits of agreement in the measurements of the index of maximum LA volume before and after PTSMA between echocardiography and MDCT. Conclusions The follow-up cardiac MDCT was a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of PTSMA on reduction of LA volume. Cardiac MDCT might provide comparable measurements of the LA volume in patients with drug-refractory symptomatic HOCM before and after PTSMA compared to echocardiography. PMID:27307994

  19. Improvement of bacterial clearance and relief of clinical signs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in pigs through upregulation of Th 1-specific responses by administration of a combination of two silicate minerals, biotite and bentonite

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Jin-A; JUNG, Bock-Gie; KIM, Tae-Hoon; KIM, Yun-Mi; KOH, Hong-Bum; LEE, Bong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Biotite and bentonite are phyllosilicate minerals that were originally used in industrial applications. Several beneficial activities of them have recently been reported, especially regulation of the immune system and antimicrobial effects. Therefore, we investigated the immune-enhancing and bacterial clearance effects of a biotite and bentonite mixture (BBM) on experimental infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to determine whether the BBM could be used as an alternative antibiotic. We administered 1% or 2% BBM as a feed supplement. We then evaluated the bacterial clearance effects of the BBM against S. Typhimurium. We also evaluated the immune-enhancing effect of the BBM through several immunological experiments that included examination of the lysozyme activity, CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio and the T-helper type 1 (Th 1) cytokine profile. The clinical signs of S. Typhimurium and the number of viable bacteria in feces and tissues were significantly decreased in both BBM groups, especially in the 2% BBM group. The BBM also markedly enhanced the lysozyme activity, CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio and expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in S. Typhimurium-challenged pigs. Therefore, the BBM could be a good candidate as an alternative antibiotic that improves Th 1-specific immune responses and the bacterial clearance effect. PMID:25947887

  20. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938