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Sample records for administration significantly reversed

  1. Left Atrial Reverse Remodeling: Mechanisms, Evaluation, and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Liza; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2017-01-01

    The left atrium is considered a biomarker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, particularly in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and atrial fibrillation in whom left atrial (LA) enlargement is of prognostic importance. LA enlargement with a consequent decrease in LA function represents maladaptive structural and functional "remodeling" that in turn promotes electrical remodeling and a milieu conducive for incident atrial fibrillation. Medical and nonmedical interventions may arrest this pathophysiologic process to the extent that subsequent reverse remodeling results in a reduction in LA size and improvement in LA function. This review examines cellular and basic mechanisms involved in LA remodeling, evaluates the noninvasive techniques that can assess these changes, and examines potential mechanisms that may initiate reverse remodeling.

  2. Hyperprolactinemia-induced ovarian acyclicity is reversed by kisspeptin administration

    PubMed Central

    Sonigo, Charlotte; Bouilly, Justine; Carré, Nadège; Tolle, Virginie; Caraty, Alain; Tello, Javier; Simony-Conesa, Fabian-Jesus; Millar, Robert; Young, Jacques; Binart, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is the most common cause of hypogonadotropic anovulation and is one of the leading causes of infertility in women aged 25–34. Hyperprolactinemia has been proposed to block ovulation through inhibition of GnRH release. Kisspeptin neurons, which express prolactin receptors, were recently identified as major regulators of GnRH neurons. To mimic the human pathology of anovulation, we continuously infused female mice with prolactin. Our studies demonstrated that hyperprolactinemia in mice induced anovulation, reduced GnRH and gonadotropin secretion, and diminished kisspeptin expression. Kisspeptin administration restored gonadotropin secretion and ovarian cyclicity, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons play a major role in hyperprolactinemic anovulation. Our studies indicate that administration of kisspeptin may serve as an alternative therapeutic approach to restore the fertility of hyperprolactinemic women who are resistant or intolerant to dopamine agonists. PMID:23006326

  3. In vivo administration of MKT-077 causes partial yet reversible impairment of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, E L; Koya, K; Modica-Napolitano, J; Li, Y; Chen, L B

    1996-02-01

    The effects of in vivo administration of a pharmacologically toxic dose of the lipophilic cationic compound, MKT-077, were investigated in selected vital organs of the rat. MKT-077 (15 mg/kg body weight), administered by bolus i.v. injection every day for 5 days, did not detectably influence rat heart and kidney mitochondrial respiration. Although the same dosage of MKT-077 significantly decreased respiratory rates in rat liver mitochondria relative to untreated controls, complete recovery was evident within 3 days following drug withdrawal. Whereas the mitochondrial DNA of rat kidney and liver appeared to be unaffected by MKT-077 treatment, levels of heart mtDNA were noticeably less than control levels in the immediate interval following drug administration. However, this latter effect was partially reversed as early as 10 days following treatment and completely reversed within a 30-day posttreatment period. These results strongly suggest that a pharmacologically toxic dose of MKT-077 minimally affects the overall functional integrity of mitochondria in such critical, although highly vulnerable, tissues as the heart, liver, and kidney.

  4. Reversal of experimental colitis disease activity in mice following administration of an adenoviral IL-10 vector

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Makoto; Mathis, J Michael; Jennings, Merilyn H; Jordan, Paul; Wang, Yuping; Ando, Tomoaki; Joh, Takashi; Alexander, J Steven

    2005-01-01

    Genetic deficiency in the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with the onset and progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The clinical significance of IL-10 expression is supported by studies showing that immune-augmentation of IL-10 prevents inflammation and mucosal damage in animal models of colitis and in human colitis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating cytokine, has been shown to prevent some inflammation and injury in animal and clinical studies, but the efficacy of IL-10 treatment remains unsatisfactory. We found that intra-peritoneal administration of adenoviral IL-10 to mice significantly reversed colitis induced by administration of 3% DSS (dextran sulfate), a common model of colitis. Adenoviral IL-10 (Ad-IL10) transfected mice developed high levels of IL-10 (394 +/- 136 pg/ml) within the peritoneal cavity where the adenovirus was expressed. Importantly, when given on day 4 (after the induction of colitis w/DSS), Ad-IL10 significantly reduced disease activity and weight loss and completely prevented histopathologic injury to the colon at day 10. Mechanistically, compared to Ad-null and DSS treated mice, Ad-IL10 and DSS-treated mice were able to suppress the expression of MAdCAM-1, an endothelial adhesion molecule associated with IBD. Our results suggest that Ad-IL10 (adenoviral IL-10) gene therapy of the intestine or peritoneum may be useful in the clinical treatment of IBD, since we demonstrated that this vector can reverse the course of an existing gut inflammation and markers of inflammation. PMID:16259632

  5. Significant reversibility of alcoholic brain shrinkage within 3 weeks of abstinence.

    PubMed

    Trabert, W; Betz, T; Niewald, M; Huber, G

    1995-08-01

    Chronic alcoholism is often associated with brain shrinkage or atrophy. During recent years, it has been demonstrated that this shrinkage is, at least in part, reversible when abstinence is maintained. There are different hypotheses concerning the mechanisms for this reversibility, but many questions are still open. Especially the time conditions for these reversible changes are subject of discussion. Twenty-eight male patients with severe alcohol dependence were investigated in a computed tomographic study at the beginning of abstinence and 3 weeks later. Planimetric evaluation of 5 selected slices revealed a significant decrease in liquor areas and an increase of brain volume. The densitometric analysis showed an increase in brain tissue density. In a multiple regression approach it was shown that the reversibility was mostly influenced by the age of the patients. Our results support neither the hypothesis of an increase in brain water as the most important principle for reversibility in alcoholic brain shrinkage nor the hypothesis of augmented dendritic growth. Other mechanisms like reduced (during chronic intoxication) and normalized (during abstinence) cerebral hemoperfusion have to be considered as possible mechanisms for the reversibility of alcoholic brain shrinkage.

  6. Engaging Law Enforcement in Overdose Reversal Initiatives: Authorization and Liability for Naloxone Administration.

    PubMed

    Davis, Corey S; Carr, Derek; Southwell, Jessica K; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-08-01

    Opioid overdose is reversible through the timely administration of naloxone, which has been used by emergency medical services for decades. Law enforcement officers (LEOs) are often the first emergency responders to arrive at an overdose, but they are not typically equipped with naloxone. This is rapidly changing; more than 220 law enforcement agencies in 24 states now carry naloxone. However, rollout in some departments has been hampered by concerns regarding officer and agency liability. We systematically examined the legal risk associated with LEO naloxone administration. LEOs can be authorized to administer naloxone through a variety of mechanisms, and liability risks related to naloxone administration are similar to or lower than those of other activities in which LEOs commonly engage.

  7. Significant Biogenic Silica Retention from Reverse Weathering in Non-deltaic Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, J. W.; Larson, A. M.; Darrow, E. S.; Carmichael, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal biogeochemical processes exert important controls on the net delivery of silicon to the ocean. Reverse weathering of biogenic silica by authigenic transformation has been suggested to be an important processes for silicon retention in coastal sediments. Many reported sediment biogenic silica measurements may underestimate this authigenically-transformed fraction; for example, the incorporation of metal hydroxides with the biogenic silica matrix suppresses the ability to distinguish it from mineral silica when using a traditional alkaline leach. Most studies demonstrating the importance of reverse weathering on biogenic silica have examined deltaic sediments in river dominated systems (e.g. Mississippi, Amazon), but this has not been examined in sediments which lack strong fluvial input. Using sediment cores from the outside the Mississippi River plume, we adapted a method which lessens the interference of metal hydroxides on biogenic silica by using an initial acid leach. The addition of this step increased the measured biogenic silica up to five-fold above that detected using a traditional alkaline digestion method. The magnitude of authigenically-altered biogenic silica in these cores was significant, representing a majority of the sediment biogenic silica pool at most depths. These findings confirm the importance of reverse-weathered biogenic silica as a mechanism for silicon retention and suggest the significance of this process may be more widespread.

  8. Myocardial metabolic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic significance of reversible thallium-201 abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Dilsizian, V.; O'Gara, P.T.; Udelson, J.E.; Schenke, W.H.; Quyyumi, A.; Fananapazir, L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Exercise-induced abnormalities during thallium-201 scintigraphy that normalize at rest frequently occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are indicative of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy and, during the same week, measurement of myocardial lactate metabolism and hemodynamics during pacing stress. Thirty-seven patients (74%) had one or more {sup 201}Tl abnormalities that completely normalized after 3 hours of rest; 26 had regional myocardial {sup 201}Tl defects, and 26 had apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation with exercise, with 15 having coexistence of these abnormal findings. Of the 37 patients with reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, 27 (73%) had metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia during rapid atrial pacing compared with four of 13 patients (31%) with normal {sup 201}Tl scans (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients had apparent cavity dilatation as their only {sup 201}Tl abnormality; their mean postpacing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly higher than that of the 13 patients with normal {sup 201}Tl studies (33 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). There was no correlation between the angiographic presence of systolic septal or epicardial coronary arterial compression and the presence or distribution of {sup 201}Tl abnormalities. Patients with ischemic ST segment responses to exercise had an 80% prevalence rate of reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities and a 70% prevalence rate of pacing-induced ischemia. However, 69% of patients with nonischemic ST segment responses had reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, and 55% had pacing-induced ischemia. Reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities during exercise stress are markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most likely identify relatively underperfused myocardium.

  9. Chronic administration of modafinil induces hyperalgesia in mice: reversal by L-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester and 7-nitroindazole.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rachna; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Bhattacharya, Swapan K

    2014-08-05

    Modafinil [2-((diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl) acetamide] is a central nervous system stimulant. It has received considerable attention as a potential psychotropic agent in several psychiatric disorders. The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of modafinil after acute administration on animal models of pain in mice. Also, this study evaluated the effect of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) and naloxone following chronic administration of modafinil. Modafinil was administered in the doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg once in acute study and it showed significantly increased tail-flick latency (tfl) and paw-licking latency. In formalin test modafinil (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced licking/biting time in both early and late phases in comparison to control. In chronic study, modafinil 100 mg/kg administered for 10 days, produced a progressive decrease in the reaction time (i.e., tfl/paw-licking latency) in comparison to day 1 values which started building up from day 4 and fully established at day 6, indicating hyperalgesic response. Prior administration of 7-NI (on day 7) and L-NAME (on day 10) prevented the hyperalgesic response while naloxone on day 10 did not have a significant effect on modafinil-induced hyperalgesia. These results demonstrate that modafinil has a potential role in pain as it exhibited antinociceptive effect after acute administration in a dose-dependent manner and on chronic administration it caused hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is reversed by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, suggesting the possibility of involvement of nitric oxide pathway. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of modafinil in clinical pain.

  10. Significance of the basin wide reverse polarity reflector in the Offshore Sydney Basin, East Australian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman Talukder, Asrarur; Nadri, Dariush; Rajput, Sanjeev; Clennell, Ben; Griffiths, Cedric; Breeze, David

    2010-05-01

    The Offshore Sydney Basin is located between latitudes 32°30'S and 34°30'S between the coastal cities of Newcastle in the north and Wollongong in the south, covering a total area of ~15,000 squire km. The structural framework of the offshore portion of the basin comprises five principal elements: the Offshore Syncline, an extension of the New England Fold Belt, an offshore extension of the Newcastle Syncline, the Offshore Uplift and the Outer Continental Shelf. The present easterly extent of the basin is the result of Cretaceous rifting and commencement of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Tasman Sea. The continental shelf is approximately 50 km wide offshore Sydney and is edged by relatively steep continental slope. This study has been carried out with 2D multichannel seismic data covering the northern half of the offshore basin. The Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the basin is characterized by two regional unconformities: one at the base of Cenozoic and another intra-Cenozoic. The unconformity at the base of Cenozoic is known as the Top Sydney Basin unconformity. In places the surface is displaced by faults and also characterized by possible mounds producing an overall highly irregular topography. Though most of the faults remained buried beneath the surface some continued up to seafloor. They seem to have NW-SE direction with significant lateral extension. The intra-Cenozoic unconformity forms a prominent reflector at about 80 to 200 msbs (TWT). It is characterized by an angular unconformity with the reflectors terminating onto it from beneath. It is also associated with prograding sequences beneath, terminating with toplap geometry, suggesting that it forms the boundary between a transgressive and regressive phase. This is interpreted as a prograding carbonate dominated shelf-edge. The most interesting aspect of this seismic reflector is that the major part of it presents reverse polarity with respect to the seafloor reflection. The amplitude of the reflector

  11. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1981: Environmental-Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The committee found significant developments under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There were no amendments to NEPA, but there were new rules affecting DOE defense-related nuclear facilities. Judicial developments continued a deference to agency discretion in environmental impact statement issues and conflicts with other laws. The administration's budget cuts effectively disabled the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). The report also outlines significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments for the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the Toxic Substances Act. 188 references. (DCK)

  12. Glucagon administration induces lowering of serum T3 and rise in reverse T3 in euthyroid healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kabadi, U M; Premachandra, B N

    1985-12-01

    Euthyroid sick syndrome is characterized by low serum T3 and raised reverse T3 (rT3). Most of the states with this syndrome are also documented to manifest hyperglucagonemia. Furthermore, several recent studies have suggested that glucagon may play a role in T4 monodeiodination in some of these states such as starvation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Therefore, hyperglucagonemia was induced by intravenous glucagon administration in euthyroid healthy volunteers and thyroid hormone levels were determined at frequent intervals up to six hours. Plasma glucose and insulin rose promptly on glucagon administration, thus establishing the physiologic effect of glucagon. Serum T4, free T4, T3 resin uptake, and TSH concentrations remained unaltered throughout the study period. Serum T3 declined to a significantly low level (P less than 0.05) between 60-90 minutes. Serum rT3 rose significantly (P less than 0.05) by four hours and the rise was progressive till the end of the study period. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperglucagonemia may be one of the factors responsible for lowering of T3 and a rise in rT3 in euthyroid sick syndrome.

  13. Axial flow reversal and its significance in air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; Das, A.; Yin, D.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years the potential of air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) flotation for fine coal cleaning has been demonstrated both in pilot plant testing and in a plant-site demonstration program. Further improvements in the ASH technology will depend, to some extent, on improved understanding of the complex multiphase fluid flow. Froth transport plays a very important role in determining the efficiency of fine coal cleaning by ASH flotation. It should be noted that the surface of zero axial velocity is of particular significance in froth transport because the location of this surface actually accounts for the amount of froth being transported to the overflow. In this regard, the axial flow reversal has been examined based on specially designed tracer experiments. On the basis of these experimental results, modeling efforts were made to characterize the flow pattern in the ASH. The theoretical predictions based on turbulent fluid dynamic considerations were found to describe experimental observations regarding the surface of zero axial velocity. These results that define the surface of zero axial velocity together with froth phase features established from X-ray CT measurements provide an excellent description of the flow characteristics in ASH flotation and explain the effect of various process variables, such as dimensionless area (A*), dimensionless flowrate (Q*), inlet pressure, percent solids, etc., on flotation recovery. On this basis it is expected that further advances in the design and operation of the ASH system can be made, leading to more efficient use of the ASH technology for fine coal cleaning.

  14. The origin and significance of reverse zoning in melilite from Allende Type B inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Paque, J. M.; Stolper, E.; Grossman, L.

    1984-01-01

    Many of Type B Allende inclusions are found to have reverse zoning over restricted portions of each crystal, in contrast to those in Type A's, which are reversely zoned throughout. Results of dynamic crystallization experiments on compositions similar to an average Type B inclusion are reported in which reversely zoned melilite rims were grown on normally zoned cores. The fact that these zoning patterns have been duplicated is interpreted as evidence that natural melilites having such zoning were formed by crystallization from a melt. Since reverse zoning could only be produced over a restricted range of experimental conditions, the presence in natural inclusions of the kinds of zoning patterns described here may place constraints on the conditions under which the inclusions formed.

  15. Reversals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers nine materials for remediating reversals in handicapped students at the early childhood and elementary levels. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession…

  16. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125

  17. Spatial Discrimination Reversal Learning in Weanling Rats Is Impaired by Striatal Administration of an NMDA-Receptor Antagonist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Deborah J.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    The striatum plays a major role in both motor control and learning and memory, including executive function and "behavioral flexibility." Lesion, temporary inactivation, and infusion of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist into the dorsomedial striatum (dmSTR) impair reversal learning in adult rats. Systemic administration of MK-801…

  18. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  19. Repeated carbon nanotube administrations in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes are promising materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, however, their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress, and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired after 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality, and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice. PMID:20693989

  20. Antibiotic administration routes significantly influence the levels of antibiotic resistance in gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Yang; Buckley, Timothy; Wang, Hua H

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the impact of oral exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic administration methods on antibiotic resistance (AR) gene pools and the profile of resistant bacteria in host gastrointestinal (GI) tracts using C57BL/6J mice with natural gut microbiota. Mice inoculated with a mixture of tet(M)-carrying Enterococcus spp. or blaCMY-2-carrying Escherichia coli were treated with different doses of tetracycline hydrochloride (Tet) or ampicillin sodium (Amp) and delivered via either feed or intravenous (i.v.) injection. Quantitative PCR assessment of mouse fecal samples revealed that (i) AR gene pools were below the detection limit in mice without prior inoculation of AR gene carriers regardless of subsequent exposure to corresponding antibiotics; (ii) oral exposure to high doses of Tet and Amp in mice inoculated with AR gene carriers led to rapid enrichment of corresponding AR gene pools in feces; (iii) significantly less or delayed development of AR in the GI tract of the AR carrier-inoculated mice was observed when the same doses of antibiotics were administered via i.v. injection rather than oral administration; and (iv) antibiotic dosage, and maybe the excretion route, affected AR in the GI tract. The shift of dominant AR bacterial populations in the gut microbiota was consistent with the dynamics of AR gene pools. The emergence of endogenous resistant bacteria in the gut microbiota corresponding to drug exposure was also observed. Together, these data suggest that oral administration of antibiotics has a prominent effect on AR amplification and development in gut microbiota, which may be minimized by alternative drug administration approaches, as illustrated by i.v. injection in this study and proper drug selection.

  1. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Air-Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Congress passed no significant amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1983. Under judicial developments, the committee describes seven categories of cases concerning: nonattainment areas under CAA section 107, the adequacy and appropriateness of state implementation plans and regulation of interstate air pollution, new source-permitting cases, regulation of hazardous air pollutants, enforcement and attorneys fees and the scope of section 304 and 307 of the CAA, sections 120 and 123 of the CAA, and 1983 Title II cases. Administration developments included new steps under Titles I and II of the CAA taken by the Environmental Protection Agency to promulgate final regulation on nonattainment sanctions and new source standards and to revise hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide standards for heavy-duty engines and for vehicles at high altitudes. 264 references.

  2. Sanitization of an Automatic Reverse-Osmosis Watering System: Removal of a Clinically Significant Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Molk, Denise M; Karr-May, Charlene L; Trang, Elaine D; Sanders, George E

    2013-01-01

    During environmental monitoring of our institution's rodent watering systems, one vivarium was found to have high bacterial loads in the reverse-osmosis (RO) automatic water system. These findings prompted evaluation of the entire RO water production and distribution system. Investigation revealed insufficient rack and RO system sanitization, leading to heavy biofilm accumulation within the system. Approximately 2 wk after discovery in the water system, one of the bacterial organisms isolated in the water supply, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, was isolated from a peritoneal abscess of a severely immunodeficient B6.Cg-Slc11a1r Rag1tm1Mom/Cwi mouse housed in the same vivarium, suggesting that rodents drinking from this system were being exposed randomly to fragments of biofilm. Plans were developed to sanitize the entire system. Hypercholorination was used first, followed by treatment with a combination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Between system sanitizations, a low-level chlorine infusion was added to the system as a biocide. Heterotrophic plate counts and bacterial isolation were performed on water samples obtained before and after sanitization procedures. We here discuss the process of identifying and correcting this important water-quality issue. PMID:23562105

  3. Functional significance of the discordance between transcriptional profile and left ventricular structure/function during reverse remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Topkara, Veli K.; Chambers, Kari T.; Yang, Kai-Chien; Tzeng, Huei-Ping; Evans, Sarah; Weinheimer, Carla; Kovacs, Attila; Barger, Philip; Mann, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms for reverse LV remodeling, we generated a conditional (doxycycline [dox] off) transgenic mouse tetracycline transactivating factor–TRAF2 (tTA-TRAF2) that develops a dilated heart failure (HF) phenotype upon expression of a proinflammatory transgene, TNF receptor–associated factor 2 (TRAF2), and complete normalization of LV structure and function when the transgene is suppressed. tTA-TRAF2 mice developed a significant increase in LV dimension with decreased contractile function, which was completely normalized in the tTA-TRAF2 mice fed dox for 4 weeks (tTA-TRAF2dox4W). Normalization of LV structure and function was accompanied by partial normalization (~60%) of gene expression associated with incident HF. Similar findings were observed in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy who underwent reverse LV remodeling following mechanical circulatory support. Persistence of the HF gene program was associated with an exaggerated hypertrophic response and increased mortality in tTA-TRAF2dox4W mice following transaortic constriction (TAC). These effects were no longer observed following TAC in tTA-TRAF2dox8W, wherein there was a more complete (88%) reversal of the incident HF genes. These results demonstrate that reverse LV remodeling is associated with improvements in cardiac myocyte biology; however, the persistence of the abnormal HF gene program may be maladaptive following perturbations in hemodynamic loading conditions. PMID:27158672

  4. Evaluating complications of local anesthesia administration and reversal with phentolamine mesylate in a portable pediatric dental clinic.

    PubMed

    Boynes, Sean G; Riley, Amah E; Milbee, Sarah; Bastin, Meghan R; Price, Maylyn E; Ladson, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to identify and quantify complications with local anesthetic administration and reversal on consecutive patients seen for comprehensive dental care in a school-based, portable dental clinic, and includes data on the patients seen by the participating portable dental providers. In 923 dental visits where local anesthetic was administered, a standardized form was used to gain further information and identify any complications; this was accompanied by a questionnaire for the student's teacher, in order to quantify the student's distraction and disruption ratings following the dental visit. After statistical analysis of the 923 consecutive cases, the overall complication rate was 5.3%. All of the complications were considered to be mild or moderate, and there were no severe event reports. The complications encountered most frequently (n = 49) were associated with self-inflicted soft tissue injury. The results of this study indicate that comprehensive care with local anesthesia delivered by a school-based portable dental clinic has a low risk of complications. Whereas safe administration of dental care is achievable with or without phentolamine mesylate as a local anesthetic reversal agent, its use was determined to improve safety outcomes. Three factors appeared to directly increase the incidence of complications: the administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block, attention deficit disorder, and obesity. Teacher evaluations demonstrated that children receiving care by a portable dental team were able to reorient back to classwork and were not disruptive to classmates.

  5. Neuropeptide Y administration reverses tricyclic antidepressant treatment-resistant depression induced by ACTH in mice.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Michelle S; Ruff, Jossana Rodrigues; de Oliveira Espinosa, Dieniffer; Piegas, Manuela Bastos; de Brito, Maicon Lenon Otenio; Rocha, Kellen Athaíde; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Goes, André Tiago Rossito; Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Donato, Franciele; Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Jesse, Cristiano R

    2015-07-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and a primary cause of disability. To better treat patients suffering this illness, elucidation of the underlying psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms is urgently needed. Based on the above-mentioned evidence, we sought to investigate the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) treatment in tricyclic antidepressant treatment-resistant depression induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration. Mice were treated with NPY (5.84, 11.7 or 23.4mmol/μl) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) for one or five days. The levels of serum corticosterone, tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in the hippocampus were analyzed. The behavioral parameters (depressive-like and locomotor activity) were also verified. This study demonstrated that ACTH administration increased serum corticosterone levels, KYN, 5-HIAA levels, IDO activity (hippocampus), immobility in the forced swimming test (FST) and the latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT). In addition, ACTH administration decreased the BDNF and NGF levels in the hippocampus of mice. NPY treatment was effective in preventing these hormonal, neurochemical and behavioral alterations. It is suggested that the main target of NPY is the modulation of corticosterone and neuronal plasticity protein levels, which may be closely linked with pharmacological action in a model of tricyclic antidepressant treatment-resistant depression. Thus, this study demonstrated a protective effect of NPY on the alterations induced by ACTH administration in mice, indicating that it could be useful as a therapy for the treatment of tricyclic antidepressant treatment-resistant depression.

  6. [The expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA and its significance in acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao-Li; Lin, Mao-Fang; Jin, Jie

    2003-02-01

    To investigate the expression of hTERT mRNA in bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs) from acute leukemia patients, the method of semi-quntitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of hTERT mRNA in marrow MNCs, and the telomerase activity of marrow MNCs was determined with the method of TRAP-PCR-ELISA by using a commercial kit. The results indicated that the expression of hTERT mRNA of marrow MNCs in 30 untreated AL patients was markedly higher than that in 12 CR cases (0.71 +/- 0.34 vs 0.43 +/- 0.25, P < 0.05) and 6 normal volunteers (0.71 +/- 0.34 vs 0.22 +/- 0.21, P < 0.01), respectively. Telomerase activity of marrow MNCs in 30 untreated AL patients was significantly higher than that in 12 CR cases (0.235 +/- 0.395 vs 0.012 +/- 0.015, P = 0.007). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the hTERT mRNA synthesis and telomerase activity in AL cells (r = 0.421, P < 0.01). The pencentage of blast cells in marrow smear of the untreated AL patients was positively correlated with both the expression of hTERT mRNA and the telomerase activity of bone marrow MNCs (r = 0.457, P < 0.05 and r = 0.411, P < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the expression of hTERT mRNA in bone marrow MNCs from untreated AL patients was correlated with their telomerase activity. It is suggested that the expression of hTERT mRNA leukemic cells indicates their higher proliferation ability.

  7. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for... handling a matter are responsible for insuring the completeness of the administrative file relating to it... supervisory personnel, responsible for handling the matter. (i) The recommendations and decisions are...

  8. 21 CFR 10.70 - Documentation of significant decisions in administrative file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decision on any matter under the laws administered by the Commissioner, whether it is raised formally, for... handling a matter are responsible for insuring the completeness of the administrative file relating to it... supervisory personnel, responsible for handling the matter. (i) The recommendations and decisions are...

  9. Administration of 17β-estradiol to ovariectomized obese female mice reverses obesity-hypertension through an ACE2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Shoemaker, Robin; Thatcher, Sean E; Batifoulier-Yiannikouris, Frederique; English, Victoria L; Cassis, Lisa A

    2015-06-15

    We recently demonstrated that female mice are resistant to the development of obesity-induced hypertension through a sex hormone-dependent mechanism that involved adipose angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study, we hypothesized that provision of 17β-estradiol (E2) to ovariectomized (OVX) high-fat (HF)-fed female hypertensive mice would reverse obesity-hypertension through an ACE2-dependent mechanism. Pilot studies defined dose-dependent effects of E2 in OVX female mice on serum E2 concentrations and uterine weights. An E2 dose of 36 μg/ml restored normal serum E2 concentrations and uterine weights. Therefore, HF-fed OVX female Ace2(+/+) and Ace2(-/-) mice were administered vehicle or E2 (36 μg/ml) for 16 wk. E2 administration significantly decreased body weights of HF-fed OVX female Ace2(+/+) and Ace2(-/-) mice of either genotype. At 15 wk, E2 administration decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) of OVX HF-fed Ace2(+/+) but not Ace2(-/-) females during the light but not the dark cycle. E2-mediated reductions in SBP in Ace2(+/+) females were associated with significant elevations in adipose ACE2 mRNA abundance and activity and reduced plasma ANG II concentrations. In contrast to females, E2 administration had no effect on any parameter quantified in HF-fed male hypertensive mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, E2 promoted ACE2 mRNA abundance through effects at estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and resulted in ERα-mediated binding at the ACE2 promoter. These results demonstrate that E2 administration to OVX females reduces obesity-induced elevations in SBP (light cycle) through an ACE2-dependent mechanism. Beneficial effects of E2 to decrease blood pressure in OVX obese females may result from stimulation of adipose ACE2.

  10. Long-term administration of inulin-type fructans has no significant lipid-lowering effect in normolipidemic humans.

    PubMed

    Forcheron, Fabien; Beylot, Michel

    2007-08-01

    Short-term studies have shown that the addition to diet of inulin-type fructans, a nondigestible carbohydrate, may have a plasma lipid-lowering effect in humans. Whether this beneficial effect persists during long-term administration has not been determined. The study was aimed at determining whether a prolonged (6 months) administration of inulin-type fructans to healthy subjects has a lipid-lowering action. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 17 healthy subjects were studied before and after 6 months of daily administration of placebo (8 subjects) or 10 g of a mix of inulin and oligofructose (9 subjects). During this 6-month period, they consumed their usual diet and did not modify their everyday way of life. We measured plasma lipid concentrations; cholesterol synthesis and hepatic lipogenesis; and adipose tissue and circulating mononuclear cell messenger RNA concentrations of key regulatory genes of cholesterol metabolism. Compared with the administration of placebo, the administration of inulin-type fructans had no effect on plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and hepatic lipogenesis and induced only a nonsignificant trend for decreased plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Cholesterol synthesis was not significantly modified. Of all the messenger RNA concentrations measured, none was significantly modified by the administration of inulin-type fructans. In conclusion, contrary to what was observed in short-term studies, we observed no significant beneficial effect of a long-term (6-month) administration of inulin-type fructans on plasma lipids in healthy human subjects.

  11. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1980: Environmental Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The reporting responsibilities of the Environmental Quality Committee cover those major federal environmental statutes not covered by the Air Quality, Water Quality, Urban Environment, or Public Lands and Land Use Committees. The 1980 report includes significant developments under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund). The dates of publication and page references in the Federal Register list the final procedures by agency in the appendix. 392 references.

  12. Minocycline reduces inflammatory parameters in the brain structures and serum and reverses memory impairment caused by the administration of amyloid β (1-42) in mice.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Michelle Lima; Mina, Francielle; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; Carneiro, Franciellen Gonçalves; Luz, Aline Pereira; Schiavo, Gustavo Luis; Andrighetti, Matheus Scopel; Scheid, Maylton Grégori; Bolfe, Renan Pereira; Budni, Josiane

    2017-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of age-related dementia. Cognitive decline, beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation are the main pathophysiological characteristics of AD. Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative with anti-inflammatory properties that has a neuroprotective effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of minocycline on memory, neurotrophins and neuroinflammation in an animal model of AD induced by the administration of Aβ (1-42) oligomer. Male BALB/c mice were treated with minocycline (50mg/kg) via the oral route for a total of 17days, 24h after intracerebroventricular administration of Aβ (1-42) oligomer. At the end of this period, was performed the radial maze test, and 24h after the last minocycline administration, serum was collected and the cortex and hippocampus were dissected for biochemical analysis. The administration of minocycline reversed the memory impairment caused by Aβ (1-42). In the hippocampus, minocycline reversed the increases in the levels of interleukin (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha (TNF-α) and, IL-10 caused by Aβ (1-42). In the cortex, AD-like model increase the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and, IL-4. Minocycline treatment reversed this. In the serum, Aβ (1-42) increased the levels of IL-1β and IL-4, and minocycline was able to reverse this action, but not to reverse the decrease of IL-10 levels. Minocycline also reversed the increase in the levels of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus caused by Aβ (1-42), and reduced Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) increases in the total cortex. Therefore, our results indicate that minocycline causes improvements in the spatial memory, and cytokine levels were correlated with this effect in the brain it. Besides this, minocycline reduced BDNF and NGF levels, highlighting the promising effects of minocycline in treating AD-like dementia.

  13. Maternal Intravenous Administration of Azithromycin Results in Significant Fetal Uptake in a Sheep Model of Second Trimester Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J.; Spiller, O. Brad; Ireland, Demelza J.; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  14. Reversed Scototaxis during Withdrawal after Daily-Moderate, but Not Weekly-Binge, Administration of Ethanol in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Holcombe, Adam; Howorko, Adam; Powell, Russell A.; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to severe psychological and physiological damage. Little is known, however, about the relative impact of a small, daily dose of alcohol (daily-moderate schedule) versus a large, once per week dose (weekly-binge schedule). In this study, we examined the effect of each of these schedules on behavioural measures of anxiety in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult wild-type zebrafish were administered either 0.2% ethanol on a daily-moderate schedule or 1.4% ethanol on a weekly-binge schedule for a period of 21 days, and then tested for scototaxis (preference for darkness) during withdrawal. Compared to a control group with no alcohol exposure, the daily-moderate group spent significantly more time on the light side of the arena (indicative of decreased anxiety) on day two of withdrawal, but not day 9 of withdrawal. The weekly-binge group was not significantly different from the control group on either day of withdrawal and showed no preference for either the light or dark zones. Our results indicate that even a small dose of alcohol on a daily basis can cause significant, though reversible, changes in behaviour. PMID:23675478

  15. Withdrawal from Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Deficits in Orbitofrontal-Dependent Reversal Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calu, Donna J.; Stalnaker, Thomas A.; Franz, Theresa M.; Singh, Teghpal; Shaham, Yavin; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Drug addicts make poor decisions. These decision-making deficits have been modeled in addicts and laboratory animals using reversal-learning tasks. However, persistent reversal-learning impairments have been shown in rats and monkeys only after noncontingent cocaine injections. Current thinking holds that to represent the human condition…

  16. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Solid and Hazardous Waste Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    There were several significant developments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substance Act (TSCA). Court cases on CERCLA involved basic liability issues, prerequisites to actions, and several miscellaneous issues, while adminstrative developments included issuing the national priorities list and amendments to the National Contingency Plan. Court decisions under RCRA addressed liability of those accepting wastes. The Environmental Protection Agency issued a new definition of solid waste and new regulations. Administrative developments under TSCA covered integrated control programs for new and existing chemicals, the collection of information on existing chemicals, and enforcement and inspection activities. 228 references.

  17. Combined administration of oxalic acid, succimer and its analogue for the reversal of gallium arsenide-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, Swaran J S; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Pant, Bhagwat P; Jaiswal, Devendra K

    2002-06-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a group III-VA intermetallic semiconductor, possesses superior electronic and optical properties and has a wide application in the electronics industry. Exposure to GaAs in the semiconductor industry is a potential occupational hazard because cleaning and slicing GaAs ingots to yield the desired wafer could generate GaAs particles. The ability of GaAs to induce oxidative stress has not yet been reported. The present study reports the role of oxidative stress in GaAs-induced haematological and liver disorders and its possible reversal overturn by administration of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and one of its analogue, monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA), either individually or in combination with oxalic acid. While DMSA and MiADMSA are potential arsenic chelators, oxalic acid is reported to be an effective gallium chelator. Male rats were exposed to 10 mg/kg GaAs orally, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. GaAs exposure was then stopped and rats were given a 0.5 mmol/kg dose of succimers (DMSA or MiADMSA), oxalic acid or a combination of the two, intraperitoneally once daily for 5 consecutive days. We found a significant fall in blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and blood glutathione (GSH) level, and an increased urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in erythrocytes of rats exposed to GaAs. Hepatic GSH levels decreased, whereas there was an increase in GSSG and MDA levels. The results suggest a role of oxidative stress in GaAs-induced haematological and hepatic damage. Administration of DMSA and MiADMSA produced effective recovery in most of the above variables. However, a greater effectiveness of the chelation treatment (i.e. removal of both gallium and arsenic from body organs) could be achieved by combined administration of succimer (DMSA) with oxalic acid since, after MiADMSA administration, a marked loss of essential metals (copper and zinc) is of concern.

  18. Intrahippocampal administration of a domain antibody that binds aggregated amyloid-β reverses cognitive deficits produced by diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Danielle M.; Fitzgerald, Dennis P.; O’Leary, Kelsey E.; Anderson, Brian M.; Lee, Christine C.; Tessier, Peter M.; McNay, Ewan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of high fat diets (HFD), diet-induced obesity (DIO) and Type 2 diabetes continues to increase, associated with cognitive impairment in both humans and rodent models. Mechanisms transducing these impairments remain largely unknown: one possibility is that a common mechanism may be involved in the cognitive impairment seen in obese and/or diabetic states and in dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD). DIO is well established as a risk factor for development of AD. Oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) is neurotoxic, and we showed that intrahippocampal oligomeric Aβ produces cognitive and metabolic dysfunction similar to that seen in DIO or diabetes. Moreover, animal models of DIO show elevated brain Aβ, a hallmark of AD, suggesting that this may be one source of cognitive impairment in both conditions. Methods Intrahippocampal administration of a novel anti-Aβ domain antibody for aggregated Aβ, or a control domain antibody, to control or HFD-induced DIO rats. Spatial learning measured in a conditioned contextual fear (CCF) task after domain antibody treatment; postmortem, hippocampal NMDAR and AMPAR were measured. Results DIO caused impairment in CCF, and this impairment was eliminated by intrahippocampal administration of the active domain antibody. Measurement of hippocampal proteins suggests that DIO causes dysregulation of hippocampal AMPA receptors, which is also reversed by acute domain antibody administration. Conclusions Our findings support the concept that oligomeric Aβ within the hippocampus of DIO animals may not only be a risk factor for development of AD but may also cause cognitive impairment before the development of dementia. General Significance and Interest Our work integrates the engineering of domain antibodies with conformational-and sequence-specificity for oligomeric amyloid beta with a clinically relevant model of diet-induced obesity in order to demonstrate not only the pervasive effects of obesity on several

  19. Melatonin administration reverses the alteration of amyloid precursor protein-cleaving secretases expression in aged mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mukda, Sujira; Panmanee, Jiraporn; Boontem, Parichart; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2016-05-16

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interestingly, Aβ is normally synthesized in the brain of healthy people; however, during advanced aging, the level of Aβ peptides increases. As a result, the aggregation of Aβ peptides leads to trafficking problems, synaptic loss, inflammation, and cell death. Melatonin, the hormone primarily synthesized and secreted from the pineal gland, is decreased with progressing age, particularly in Alzheimer's disease patients. The loss of melatonin levels and the abnormal accumulation of some proteins, such as Aβ peptides in the brains of AD patients are considered important factors in the initiation of the cognitive symptoms of dementia. A previous study in mice reported that increased brain melatonin levels remarkably diminished the potentially toxic Aβ peptide levels. The present study showed that aged mice significantly impaired spatial memory in the Morris Water Maze task. We also showed that α-, β-, and γ-secretases, which are type-I membrane protein proteases responsible for Aβ production, showed alterations in both mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus of aged mice. The long-term administration of melatonin, mice had shorter escape latencies and remained in the target quadrant longer compared to the aged group. Melatonin attenuated the reduction of α-secretase and inhibited the increase of β- and γ-secretases. Moreover, melatonin attenuated the upregulation of pNFkB and the reduction of sirtuin1 in the hippocampus of aged mice. These results suggested that melatonin protected against Aβ peptide production in aged mice. Hence, melatonin loss in aging could be recompensed through dietary supplementation as a beneficial therapeutic strategy for AD prevention and progression.

  20. Antioxidants reverse the changes in energy metabolism of rat brain after chronic administration of L.-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Teodorak, Brena P; Scaini, Giselli; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Teixeira, Letícia J; Rebelo, Joyce; De Prá, Samira D T; Zeni, Neila; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-04-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase and is associated with neurologic and development difficulties in numerous patients. Considering that the mechanisms underlying the neurological dysfunction in hypertyrosinemic patients are poorly known and that high concentrations of tyrosine provoke mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, in the present study we investigated the in vivo influence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine, NAC; and deferoxamine, DFX) administration on the inhibitory effects on parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of rats, provoked by chronic administration of L.-tyrosine. Our results showed that chronic administration of L.-tyrosine results in a marked decrease in the activity of citrate synthase in all the analyzed structures and succinate dehydrogenase activities in hippocampus and striatum, and that antioxidants administration can prevent this inhibition in hippocampus and striatum. Moreover, chronic administration of L.-tyrosine inhibited the activity of complex I, II-III and IV in the striatum, which can be prevented by antioxidant treatment. However, the co-administration of NAC plus DFX could not prevent the inhibition of creatine kinase activity in the striatum. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the administration of antioxidants NAC and DFX attenuates the L.-tyrosine effects on enzymes of the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, suggesting that impairment of energy metabolism can be involved with oxidative stress. These results also indicate a possible neuroprotective role for NAC and DFX as a potential adjuvant therapy to the patients with Tyrosinemia type II.

  1. Reversible and persistent decreases in cocaine self-administration after cholinesterase inhibition: different effects of donepezil and rivastigmine.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Yang, Yungao; He, Shuangteng

    2011-02-01

    We recently observed that pretreatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor, tacrine can produce long-lasting reductions in cocaine-reinforced behavior, described as persistent attenuation. In addition to inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase, tacrine can potentiate actions of dopamine. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of donepezil (which selectively inhibits AChE) and rivastigmine (which inhibits both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase) on cocaine self-administration. High self-administration rats self-administered different doses of cocaine under a fixed ratio-5 schedule. Over a 4-day period, vehicle, donepezil, or rivastigmine was infused as animals were maintained in home cages (21 h per day), with signs of cholinergic stimulation (fasciculation, vacuous jaw movements, yawning, and diarrhea) scored by a blinded observer. Both compounds dose-dependently decreased cocaine self-administration, but differed in the potency and temporal pattern of their effects. Self-administration of low-dose cocaine was decreased to a greater degree by rivastigmine than donepezil (50% effective doses of 2.33 and 6.21 mg/kg/day, respectively), but this early effect did not continue beyond sessions immediately after treatment with rivastigmine. Group means for cocaine self-administration were decreased at some time points occurring between 1 and 3 days after the treatment with 10 mg/kg/day of donepezil (late effects), with decreases of more than 80% observed in some individual rats that persisted for 1 week or longer. Early, but not late, effects were correlated with signs of cholinergic stimulation. In summary, pretreatment with donepezil, but not rivastigmine produced persistent reductions in cocaine-reinforced behavior, which were not associated with signs of cholinergic stimulation.

  2. Lack of exercise leads to significant and reversible loss of scale invariance in both aged and young mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changgui; Coomans, Claudia P.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Meijer, Johanna H.

    2015-01-01

    In healthy humans and other animals, behavioral activity exhibits scale invariance over multiple timescales from minutes to 24 h, whereas in aging or diseased conditions, scale invariance is usually reduced significantly. Accordingly, scale invariance can be a potential marker for health. Given compelling indications that exercise is beneficial for mental and physical health, we tested to what extent a lack of exercise affects scale invariance in young and aged animals. We studied six or more mice in each of four age groups (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 y) and observed an age-related deterioration of scale invariance in activity fluctuations. We found that limiting the amount of exercise, by removing the running wheels, leads to loss of scale-invariant properties in all age groups. Remarkably, in both young and old animals a lack of exercise reduced the scale invariance in activity fluctuations to the same level. We next showed that scale invariance can be restored by returning the running wheels. Exercise during the active period also improved scale invariance during the resting period, suggesting that activity during the active phase may also be beneficial for the resting phase. Finally, our data showed that exercise had a stronger influence on scale invariance than the effect of age. The data suggest that exercise is beneficial as revealed by scale-invariant parameters and that, even in young animals, a lack of exercise leads to strong deterioration in these parameters. PMID:25675516

  3. Prompt administration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus hyperimmunoglobulin in patients diagnosed with CCHF and viral load monitorization by reverse transcriptase-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kubar, Ayhan; Haciomeroglu, Mustafa; Ozkul, Aykut; Bagriacik, Umit; Akinci, Esragul; Sener, Kenan; Bodur, Hurrem

    2011-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, causes a severe disease in humans with high mortality rates. In Turkey, the number of patients with CCHF has increased since 2002. Here, we aimed to treat CCHF patients with CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin. We prepared a CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin product from 22 individuals who survived CCHF infection. A total of 26 CCHF patients were enrolled into this study. For CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin administration, a Kubar Unit (KU) was defined. As a standard therapeutic approach, 400 KU of hyperimmunoglobulin were given to each patient as a single dose before viral load was detected. We used one-step real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR to monitor the viral load of CCHF patients. According to the one-step real-time PCR results, 15 patients with a viral load of 10(8) copies/mL or more were defined as high risk. In this high-risk group, the survival rate was found to be 86.6% (13/15) and 2 patients died despite CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin administration. CCHF is a very serious and highly fatal infection, particularly for patients in the defined high-risk group. Prompt administration of CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin might be a very promising new treatment approach, especially for high-risk individuals.

  4. Reversible fibroadenomatous mammary hyperplasia in male and female New Zealand white rabbits associated with cyclosporine A administration.

    PubMed

    Krimer, P M; Harvey, S B; Blas-Machado, U; Lauderdale, J D; Moore, P A

    2009-11-01

    All male and female New Zealand white rabbits in a limbal cell graft study developed marked generalized mammary gland hypertrophy. Postprocedural medications included ophthalmic 0.1% dexamethasone, ophthalmic 0.5% cyclosporine, and subcutaneous cyclosporine A. Cytologic examination revealed epithelial clusters with minimal malignant criteria. On histologic evaluation, there was diffuse glandular hyperplasia with mild cellular atypia and ductal ectasia separated by abundant hypercellular fibrous stroma, consistent with fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia. The hyperplasia resolved within 2 weeks of cessation of cyclosporine, and at necropsy identifiable mammary masses were not found. Very little has been reported about the use of cyclosporine in laboratory rabbits and its association with development of mammary gland hyperplasia. This is the first report in which administration of cyclosporine to male and female rabbits at a dose as low as 5 mg/kg/day induced benign fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia. This change regressed after cessation of the drug.

  5. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Public Lands and Land-Use Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme Court made three major land-use decisions during 1983, two dealing with federalism and the third with federal jiduciary obligation. The US Forest Service Small Tracts Act added flexibility to the disposal of small tracts. Court cases relating to national forests dealt with title disputes, oil and gas leasing, Indian religious practices, dual permitting under the Wilderness Act, and licensing hydro projects on Indian lands. The committee reports uneven administrative progress by the Forests Service in managing the forests. Legislation relating to Department of Interior Management Lands focuses on Outer Continental Shelf and federal coal leases and wilderness areas. The Supreme Court made several decisions involving the classification of sand and gravel as minerals, trespass, nonimpairment standards, herbicides, and other issues. 132 references.

  6. Prevalence and significance of reversible radionuclide ischemic perfusion defects in symptomatic aortic valve disease patients with or without concomitant coronary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pfisterer, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Bruendler, H.; Cueni, T.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and significance of exercise-induced localized perfusion defects in symptomatic patients with aortic valve disease, thallium-201 rest and exercise studies were performed in a consecutive series of 29 such patients prior to left heart catheterization with coronary arteriography. Eight patients had repeat studies after aortic valve replacement. Twelve of 17 patients with predominant aortic regurgitation (AR) had distinct LV apical defects during exercise despite normal coronary arteries, while 10 of 12 patients with aortic valve disease and associated coronary artery disease (CAD) had localized perfusion defects in LV areas other than the apex. In patients with AR, reversible apical perfusion defects can occur without CAD; these apical defects are probably a reflection of severe LV volume overload in AR. LV perfusion defects in areas other than the apex are specific for CAD in aortic valve disease, and concomitant CAD may not provoke regional LV perfusion deficits in aortic stenosis patients with severe LV hypertrophy.

  7. Simultaneous Administration of Dexamethasone and Vitamin E Reversed Experimental Varicocele-induced Impact in testicular tissue in Rats; Correlation with Hsp70-2 Chaperone Expression

    PubMed Central

    Khosravanian, Hajar; Razi, Mazdak; Farokhi, Farah; Khosravanian, Narges

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of isolated and co-administration of vitamin E (VitE) and dexamethasone (DEX) on varicocele (VCL)-induced damages in testicular tissue. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6), including; control-sham, non-treated VCL-induced, VitE-treated VCL-induced (VitE, 150 mg/kg, orally), DEX-administrated VCL-induced (DEX, 0.125 mg/kg, i.p.), VitE+DEX-received VCL-induced animals. The antioxidant status analyses, histopathological examinations, hormonal assay and tissue levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed. The germinal epithelium RNA damage and Leydig cells steroidogenesis were analyzed. Moreover, the Hsp70-2 protein expression was examined based on immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The sperm parameters, DNA integrity and chromatin condensation were investigated. Results: VitE and DEX in simultaneous form of administration significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated the tissue ALP level and attenuated the VCL-decreased GSH-px, SOD and TAC levels and remarkably (P<0.05) down-regulated the testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents. The VCL-induced histopathological alterations significantly (P<0.05) improved in VitE and DEX-administrated animals. The VitE and DEX co-administration reduced the VCL-increased RNA damage and elevated the Leydig cells steroidogenic activity. The Hsp70-2 protein level completely (P<0.05) increased in VitE and DEX alone–and-simultaneous-administrated animals. Finally, the VitE and DEX could significantly (P<0.05) improve the VCL-decreased semen quality and improved the sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Vit E by up-regulating the antioxidant status and DEX by reducing inflammation-dependent oxidative and nitrosative stresses could improve the VCL-reduced Hsp70-2 chaperone expression and ultimately protected the testicular endocrine activities and promoted

  8. Reversal of arsenic-induced hepatic apoptosis with combined administration of DMSA and its analogues in guinea pigs: role of glutathione and linked enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Deepshikha; Mehta, Ashish; Flora, Swaran J S

    2008-02-01

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water in the Indo-Bangladesh region, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated due to arsenic toxicity have been attributed as one of the initial signals that impart cellular toxicity, which is controlled by the internal antioxidant glutathione (GSH). In the present study, we investigated (i) the role of GSH and its linked enzymes, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in reversing chronic arsenic toxicity using a thiol chelating agent, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), or one of its analogues individually or in combination; (ii) if alterations in the carbon side chain of DMSA increased efficacy; and (iii) whether the combination therapy enhance arsenic removal from hepatic tissue and prevent hepatic apoptosis. Results indicated that chronic arsenic exposure led to a ROS-mediated, mitochondrial-driven, caspase-dependent apoptosis in hepatic cells with a significant increase in glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and decreased glutathione reductase levels. Monotherapy with DMSA and its analogues did show minimal recovery postchelation. However, the combination of DMSA with long carbon chain analogues like monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) or monocyclohexyl DMSA (MchDMSA) showed a better efficacy in terms of reducing the arsenic burden as well as reversing altered biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress and apoptosis. We also observed that GSH and its linked enzymes, especially glutathione reductase, play a vital role in scavenging ROS, maintaining GSH pools, and providing clinical recoveries. On the basis of the above observations, we recommend that combinational therapy of DMSA and its long carbon chain analogues MiADMSA or MchDMSA would be more effective in arsenic toxicity.

  9. Significant increase of salivary testosterone levels after single therapeutic transdermal administration of testosterone: suitability as a potential screening parameter in doping control.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Rautenberg, Claudia; Grosse, Joachim; Schoenfelder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The legally defensible proof of the abuse of endogenous steroids in sports is currently based on carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), i.e. a comparison between (13)C/(12)C ratios of diagnostic precursors and metabolites of testosterone. The application of this technique requires a chromatographic baseline separation of respective steroids prior to IRMS detection and hence laborious sample pre-processing of the urinary steroid extracts including clean up by solid-phase extraction and/or liquid chromatography. Consequently, an efficient pre-selection of suspicious control urine samples is essential for appropriate follow up confirmation by IRMS and effective doping control. Two single transdermal administration studies of testosterone (50 mg Testogel® and Testopatch® at 3.8 mg in 16 h, respectively) were conducted and resulting profiles of salivary testosterone and urinary steroid profiles and corresponding carbon isotope ratios were determined. Conventional doping control markers (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, threshold concentrations of androsterone, etiocholanolone, or androstanediols) did not approach or exceed critical thresholds. In contrast to these moderate variations, the testosterone concentration in oral fluid increased from basal values (30-142 pg/mg) to peak concentrations above 1000 pg/mg. It is likely that this significant increase in oral fluid is due to a pulsatile elevation of free (protein unbound) circulating testosterone after transdermal administration and may be assumed to represent a more diagnostic marker for transdermal testosterone administration.

  10. Significant mucosal sIgA production after a single oral or parenteral administration using in vivo CD40 targeting in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Ko; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Vuong, Christine N; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Mwangi, Waithaka; Bielke, Lisa R; Hargis, Billy M; Berghman, Luc R

    2016-10-01

    Many pathogens enter the host through mucosal surfaces and spread rapidly via the circulation. The most effective way to prevent disease is to establish mucosal and systemic immunity against the pathogen. However, current vaccination programs in poultry industry require repeated administrations of live-attenuated virus or large amounts (10 to 100μg) of antigen together with adjuvant to induce specific secretory IgA immune responses at the mucosal effector sites. In the present study, we show that a single administration of 0.4μg of oligopeptide complexed with an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 (chCD40) monoclonal antibody (Mab) effectively targets antigen-presenting cells of the bird's mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in vivo, and induces peptide-specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in the trachea 7days post administration. Anti-chCD40 Mab-peptide complex was administered once to four-week old male Leghorns via various mucosal routes (orally, via cloacal drinking, or oculo-nasally) or via subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization. Immunization through any of the three mucosal induction routes induced significant peptide-specific mucosal sIgA responses 7 and 14days after immunization. Interestingly, s.c. injection of the complex also induced mucosal sIgA. Our data suggest in vivo targeting of CD40 as a potential adjuvant platform, particularly for the purpose of enhancing and speeding up mucosal vaccine responses in chickens, and potentially other food animals. This is the first study able to elicit specific sIgA immune responses in remote mucosal sites with a single administration of only 0.4μg of antigen.

  11. Preformulation and characterization of a lidocaine hydrochloride and dexamethasone sodium phosphate thermo-reversible and bioadhesive long-acting gel for intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez-Camargo, Diana; Suñé-Negre, Josep Maria; Roig-Carreras, Manel; García-Montoya, Encarna; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; Miñarro-Carmona, Montserrat; Ticó-Grau, Josep Ramon

    2016-02-10

    The search for new formulations of anaesthetic agents that allow a localized administration and provide a prolonged effect is of great interest in the multimodal management of postoperative pain. The pre-formulation and characterization of a lidocaine and dexamethasone thermosensitive and bioadhesive long-acting gel for intraperitoneal administration was done as a tool in the management of pain in abdominal surgeries. The pre-formulation process was conducted by a systematic variation of the concentration of the different polymers, until setting it, in a suitable concentration that allowed an adequate gelation temperature. The poloxamer 407 (P407) was used as the main polymer; hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the bioadhesive agent and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to adjust the gelation temperature and physicochemical properties. The formulations were characterized by gelation temperature, pH, viscosity at 25°C and 37°C, gelation time, density and osmolality. Gelation temperature was decreased when increasing the concentration of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and poloxamer 407, this effect was also observed when adding lidocaine hydrochloride and dexamethasone sodium phosphate to the formulations. The gelation temperature did not have statistically significant relation with the PVP concentration (P-value of 0.6797), even though, there is a tendency in the gelation temperature by varying it. Between the developed formulations, the 12.5/3.3/0.4% (P407/HPMC/PVP) formulation presents an appropriate gelation temperature, a suitable viscosity for administration by syringe, an adequate and stable pH and osmolality to prevent tissue damage and a correct gelation time that allowed the formation of a prolonged release implant.

  12. Clinically Significant Symptom Reduction in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Micronutrients: An Open-Label Reversal Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Heather A; Rucklidge, Julia J; Blampied, Neville M; Johnstone, Jeanette M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effect and safety of a broad spectrum, 36 ingredient micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) in treating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: This open-label, on-off-on-off (reversal design) study followed 14 participants (8–12 years of age) with ADHD, diagnosed using standardized instruments, for 6 months with no dropouts. Following baseline assessment, including hematology and biochemistry screening, participants began an 8 week treatment phase with micronutrients titrated up to maximum dose (15 capsules/day). Treatment was withdrawn for 4 weeks, reinstated for a further 8 weeks, and then withdrawn for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes included the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Parent version (SDQ). Secondary outcomes were mood and global functioning. Results: Modified Brinley plots revealed a reduction in ADHD symptoms, improved mood, and improved overall functioning during intervention phases, and deterioration in ADHD symptoms, mood, and overall functioning during the withdrawal phases. Reliable change analyses, Cohen's d and percent superiority effect sizes, 95% confidence intervals and t tests confirmed clinically and statistically significant change between the intervention and withdrawal phases, with large effect sizes observed pre- to post-exposure of micronutrients (d = 1.2–2.2) on ADHD symptoms during intervention phases. Seventy-one percent of participants showed at least a 30% decrease in ADHD symptoms by the end of the second treatment phase, and 79% were identified as “much improved” or “very much improved” at the end of the second phase (5 months) based on the clinician-rated CGI when considering functioning generally. The SDQ showed that these benefits occurred across other areas of functioning including emotional symptoms, conduct

  13. In vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor during acute SIV infection leads to significant increases in viral load during chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Albrecht, Christina; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz; Mayne, Ann E; Dunbar, Paul; Russo, Robert; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Tara; Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A

    2014-03-01

    The studies reported herein are the first to document the effect of the in vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor for defining the potential role of NK cells during acute SIV infection of a group of 15 rhesus macaques (RM). An additional group of 16 MHC/KIR typed RM was included as controls. The previously optimized in vivo dose regimen (20 mg/kg daily for 35 days) led to a marked depletion of each of the major NK cell subsets both in the blood and gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT) during acute infection. While such depletion had no detectable effects on plasma viral loads during acute infection, there was a significant sustained increase in plasma viral loads during chronic infection. While the potential mechanisms that lead to such increased plasma viral loads during chronic infection remain unclear, several correlates were documented. Thus, during acute infection, the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor besides depleting all NK cell subsets also decreased some CD8⁺ T cells and inhibited the mobilization of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the blood and their localization to the GIT. Of interest is the finding that the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor during acute infection also resulted in the sustained maintenance during chronic infection of a high number of naïve and central memory CD4⁺ T cells, increases in B cells in the blood, but decreases in the frequencies and function of NKG2a⁺ NK cells within the GIT and blood, respectively. These data identify a unique role for JAK3 inhibitor sensitive cells, that includes NK cells during acute infection that in concert lead to high viral loads in SIV infected RM during chronic infection without affecting detectable changes in antiviral humoral/cellular responses. Identifying the precise mechanisms by which JAK3 sensitive cells exert their influence is critical with important implications for vaccine design against lentiviruses.

  14. Depressive-like behavior observed with a minimal loss of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons following administration of 6-hydroxydopamine is associated with electrophysiological changes and reversed with precursors of norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Miguelez, Cristina; Wang, Yangqing; Vidaurrazaga, Igor; Ugedo, Luisa; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Raskind, Murray A.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbid condition most often observed in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and during the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Dysfunction of the central noradrenergic nervous system is an important component in depression. In AD, locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons are significantly reduced pathologically and the reduction of LC neurons is hypothesized to begin very early in the progression of the disorder; however, it is not known if dysfunction of the noradrenergic system due to early LC neuronal loss is involved in mediating depression in early AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine in an animal model if a loss of noradrenergic LC neurons results in depressive-like behavior. The LC noradrenergic neuronal population was reduced by the bilateral administration of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) directly into the LC. Forced swim test (FST) was performed three weeks after the administration of 6-OHDA (5, 10 and 14 μg/μl), animals administered the 5 μg/μl of 6-OHDA demonstrated a significant increase in immobility, indicating depressive-like behavior. This increase in immobility at the 5 μg/μl dose was observed with a minimal loss of LC noradrenergic neurons as compared to LC neuronal loss observed at 10 and 14 μg/μl dose. A significant positive correlation between the number of surviving LC neurons after 6-OHDA and FST immobile time was observed, suggesting that in animals with a minimal loss of LC neurons (or a greater number of surviving LC neurons) following 6-OHDA demonstrated depressive-like behavior. As the 6-OHDA-induced loss of LC neurons is increased, the time spent immobile is reduced. Depressive-like behavior was also observed with the 5 μg/μl dose of 6-OHDA with a second behavior test, sucrose consumption. FTS increased immobility following 6-OHDA (5 μg/μl) was reversed by the administration of a single dose of L-1-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) or L-threo-3

  15. Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Laura A; Bassis, Christine M; Walacavage, Kim; Hashway, Sara; Leroueil, Pascale R; Morishita, Masako; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobials in a number of applications, including topical wound dressings and coatings for consumer products and biomedical devices. Ingestion is a relevant route of exposure for AgNPs, whether occurring unintentionally via Ag dissolution from consumer products, or intentionally from dietary supplements. AgNP have also been proposed as substitutes for antibiotics in animal feeds. While oral antibiotics are known to have significant effects on gut bacteria, the antimicrobial effects of ingested AgNPs on the indigenous microbiome or on gut pathogens are unknown. In addition, AgNP size and coating have been postulated as significantly influential towards their biochemical properties and the influence of these properties on antimicrobial efficacy is unknown. We evaluated murine gut microbial communities using culture-independent sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments following 28 days of repeated oral dosing of well-characterized AgNPs of two different sizes (20 and 110 nm) and coatings (PVP and Citrate). Irrespective of size or coating, oral administration of AgNPs at 10 mg/kg body weight/day did not alter the membership, structure or diversity of the murine gut microbiome. Thus, in contrast to effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeat dosing of AgNP, at doses equivalent to 2000 times the oral reference dose and 100-400 times the effective in vitro anti-microbial concentration, does not affect the indigenous murine gut microbiome.

  16. The mesolimbic system participates in the naltrexone-induced reversal of sexual exhaustion: opposite effects of intra-VTA naltrexone administration on copulation of sexually experienced and sexually exhausted male rats.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2013-11-01

    Male rats allowed to copulate until reaching sexual exhaustion exhibit a long-lasting sexual behavior inhibition (around 72 h) that can be reversed by systemic opioid receptor antagonist administration. Copulation activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MLS) and promotes endogenous opioid release. In addition, endogenous opioids, acting at the ventral tegmental area (VTA), modulate the activity of the MLS. We hypothesized that endogenous opioids participate in the sexual exhaustion phenomenon by interacting with VTA opioid receptors and consequently, its reversal by opioid antagonists could be exerted at those receptors. In this study we determined the effects of intra-VTA infusion of different doses of the non-specific opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.1-1.0 μg/rat) on the already established sexual behavior inhibition of sexually exhausted male rats. To elucidate the possible involvement of VTA δ-opioid receptors in the naltrexone-mediated reversal of sexual exhaustion, the effects of different doses of the selective δ-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (0.03-1.0 μg/rat) were also tested. Results showed that intra-VTA injection of 0.3 μg naltrexone reversed the sexual inhibition of sexually exhausted rats, evidenced by an increased percentage of animals capable of showing two successive ejaculations. Intra-VTA infused naltrindole did not reverse sexual exhaustion at any dose. It is concluded that the MLS is involved in the reversal of sexual exhaustion induced by systemic naltrexone, and that μ-, but not δ-opioid receptors participate in this effect. Intra-VTA naltrexone infusion to sexually experienced male rats had an inhibitory effect on sexual activity. The opposite effects of intra-VTA naltrexone on male rat sexual behavior expression of sexually experienced and sexually exhausted rats is discussed.

  17. The timing of administration, dose dependence and efficacy of dopa decarboxylase inhibitors on the reversal of motor disability produced by L-DOPA in the MPTP-treated common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Tayarani-Binazir, Kayhan A; Jackson, Michael J; Fisher, Ria; Zoubiane, Ghada; Rose, Sarah; Jenner, Peter

    2010-06-10

    Dopa decarboxylase inhibitors are routinely used to potentiate the effects of L-DOPA in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, neither in clinical use nor in experimental models of Parkinson's disease have the timing and dose of dopa decarboxylase inhibitors been thoroughly explored. We now report on the choice of dopa decarboxylase inhibitors, dose and the time of dosing relationships of carbidopa, benserazide and L-alpha-methyl dopa (L-AMD) in potentiating the effects of L-DOPA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated common marmoset. Pre-treatment with benserazide for up to 3h did not alter the motor response to L-DOPA compared to simultaneous administration with L-DOPA. There was some evidence of a relationship between carbidopa and benserazide dose and increased locomotor activity and the reversal of motor disability. But in general, commonly used dose levels of dopa decarboxylase inhibitors appeared to produce a maximal motor response to L-DOPA. In contrast, dyskinesia intensity and duration continued to increase with both carbidopa and benserazide dose. The novel dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, L-AMD, increased locomotor activity and improved motor disability to the same extent as carbidopa or benserazide but importantly this was accompanied by significantly less dyskinesia. This study shows that currently, dopa decarboxylase inhibitors may be routinely employed in the MPTP-treated primate at doses which are higher than those necessary to produce a maximal potentiation of the anti-parkinsonian effect of L-DOPA. This may lead to excessive expression of dyskinesia in this model of Parkinson's disease and attention should be given to the dose regimens currently employed.

  18. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  19. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Causes Significant Changes in Host Microbiota and Metabolome: Effects Reversed by Pathogen Clearance.

    PubMed

    Houlden, Ashley; Hayes, Kelly S; Bancroft, Allison J; Worthington, John J; Wang, Ping; Grencis, Richard K; Roberts, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris species are a globally important and prevalent group of intestinal helminth parasites, in which Trichuris muris (mouse whipworm) is an ideal model for this disease. This paper describes the first ever highly controlled and comprehensive investigation into the effects of T. muris infection on the faecal microbiota of mice and the effects on the microbiota following successful clearance of the infection. Communities were profiled using DGGE, 454 pyrosequencing, and metabolomics. Changes in microbial composition occurred between 14 and 28 days post infection, resulting in significant changes in α and β- diversity. This impact was dominated by a reduction in the diversity and abundance of Bacteroidetes, specifically Prevotella and Parabacteroides. Metabolomic analysis of stool samples of infected mice at day 41 showed significant differences to uninfected controls with a significant increase in the levels of a number of essential amino acids and a reduction in breakdown of dietary plant derived carbohydrates. The significant reduction in weight gain by infected mice probably reflects these metabolic changes and the incomplete digestion of dietary polysaccharides. Following clearance of infection the intestinal microbiota underwent additional changes gradually transitioning by day 91 towards a microbiota of an uninfected animal. These data indicate that the changes in microbiota as a consequence of infection were transitory requiring the presence of the pathogen for maintenance. Interestingly this was not observed for all of the key immune cell populations associated with chronic T. muris infection. This reflects the highly regulated chronic response and potential lasting immunological consequences of dysbiosis in the microbiota. Thus infection of T. muris causes a significant and substantial impact on intestinal microbiota and digestive function of mice with affects in long term immune regulation.

  20. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Final report, February 24, 1992--September 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1995-09-18

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the {open_quotes}beach cone{close_quotes} in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island, and they might have been instrumental in repairing an approximately 200 meter gap in the island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced (on the order of $3.00 per cubic yard). The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is not significant enough to hinder their effectiveness. A subcontract to Xavier University to assess the ecological quality of the experimental sites involved the study of the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals. The highest concentration of heavy metals were near a fishing camp while the lowest levels were in the beach sand of a barrier island. This suggests that the metals do not occur naturally in these areas, but have been placed in the sediments by man`s activities.

  1. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Annual report, February 24, 1993--February 23, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1994-07-07

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the ``beach cone`` in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations, and six sites were actually used. Six hundred beach cones were installed at the six sites in late July and early August, 1992. An additional 109 cones were installed at an eighth site in December of 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. The average increase in elevation was about 7 inches (0. 18 in) with a maximum buildup of 3 ft. (I in). At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard of sand or approximately $500,000 per mile of beach, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced. The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is negligible, does not hinder their effectiveness. We do not yet have sufficient data to state the categorical success of the beach cones, but results to date are encouraging.

  2. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. [Annual report], February 24, 1992--February 23, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1993-03-15

    The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the utility of a device called the ``beach cone`` in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the US Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. One of the initial sites was abandoned because it was found to be unsuitable for beach cone placement. The test sites have been observed for six months and preliminary findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. It is too soon to state the categorical success of the beach cones, but results to date are encouraging.

  3. Acute fasting-induced repression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is reversed by RF-9 administration in the adult male macaque.

    PubMed

    Batool, A; Naz, R; Wazir, M; Azam, A; Ullah, R; Wahab, F; Shahab, M

    2014-12-01

    Recently, hypothalamic RFRP-3 (a mammalian ortholog of avian GnIH) signaling has been proposed as an important negative modulator of the reproductive axis. The current study examined whether repression of reproductive hormonal expression during short-term fasting conditions in higher-order primate is influenced by altered RFRP-3 signaling. Eight intact postpubertal male macaques (Macaca mulatta) were administered a single intravenous bolus of RF-9 (n = 4), a potent and putative RFRP-3 receptor antagonist, or vehicle (n = 4) following a 48-h fasting condition. Intermittent blood samples were collected every 30 min during the 4-h post-bolus period, and blood glucose, plasma cortisol, and testosterone concentrations were measured. Relative to fed conditions, fasting reduced glucose and testosterone levels (p < 0.005) and increased cortisol levels (p < 0.05). Relative to baseline, mean testosterone levels were elevated 150 min after RF-9 (p < 0.05) but not vehicle administration. In addition, elevated mean plasma testosterone levels following RF-9 administration were equivalent to levels observed in normal fed monkeys. These results suggest an important role for RFRP-3 signaling in conveying metabolic state information to the reproductive axis in higher primates.

  4. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  5. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the engine incorporates a reverser, the endurance calibration, operation, and vibration tests prescribed...

  6. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  7. Reversible Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Madanieh, Raef; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vatti, Satya K; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies (CMs) have many etiological factors that can result in severe structural and functional dysregulation. Fortunately, there are several potentially reversible CMs that are known to improve when the root etiological factor is addressed. In this article, we discuss several of these reversible CMs, including tachycardia-induced, peripartum, inflammatory, hyperthyroidism, Takotsubo, and chronic illness–induced CMs. Our discussion also includes a review on their respective pathophysiology, as well as possible management solutions. PMID:26052233

  8. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  9. Sub-chronic Antipsychotic Drug Administration Reverses the Expression of Neuregulin 1 and ErbB4 in a Cultured MK801-Induced Mouse Primary Hippocampal Neuron or a Neurodevelopmental Schizophrenia Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Cunyan; Tang, Yamei; Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xianghui; Liu, Yong; Tang, Aiguo

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that specific environmental influences during the postpartum period might contribute to the development of schizophrenia (SZ). Administration of MK801 during early development led to persistent brain pathology. Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD67) and parvalbumin (PV), and neuregulin 1 (NRG1)/ErbB4 signaling were closely associated with SZ pathology. We postulated therefore that NMDA receptor antagonists exposure during the postpartum period may be associated with expression dysregulation of some of the SZ candidate proteins. To test this, we used mouse primary hippocampal neurons and neonatal male mice treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801 at postnatal day 4 (P4) or P7, followed by the treatments of antipsychotic drugs (i.e., olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol). The expressions of GAD67, PV, NRG1, and ErbB4 in in vitro and in vivo SZ models were detected with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Behavioral tests (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) were measured. We found MK801 decreased the expression of GAD67, PV, NRG1 and ErbB4, and induced obvious behavioral alterations, while antipsychotics reversed these alterations. These results suggest that exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist in early development may lead to long-lasting influence on the expression of specific proteins, such as GAD67, PV, NRG1, and ErbB4. Moreover, our results suggest that rescue of the activation of the NRG1/ErbB4 signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms by which antipsychotic drugs have an antipsychotic effect.

  10. Reversible Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    will have been introduced. 9. Reversible celular autemata We shall assume the reader to have some familiarity with the concept of cel- lular...10003 Mr. Kin B. Thcmpson 1 copy Technical Director Information Systems Divisia.i Naval Research Laboratory (OP-91T) Technical Information Division

  11. REVERSE OSMOSIS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    acetate membranes. Mechanisms of the process and porous cellulose acetate membrane technology are briefly reviewed. Based on a general capillary...The reverse osmosis process is discussed with particular reference to systems involving aqueous solutions and Loeb-Sourirajan-type porous cellulose

  12. Reversal of age-related increase in brain protein oxidation, decrease in enzyme activity, and loss in temporal and spatial memory by chronic administration of the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, J.M.; Starke-Reed, P.E.; Oliver, C.N.; Landum, R.W.; Cheng, M.S.; Wu, J.F.; Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Oxygen free radicals and oxidative events have been implicated as playing a role in bringing about the changes in cellular function that occur during aging. Brain readily undergoes oxidative damage, so it is important to determine if aging-induced changes in brain may be associated with oxidative events. Previously we demonstrated that brain damage caused by an ischemia/reperfusion insult involved oxidative events. In addition, pretreatment with the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) diminished the increase in oxidized protein and the loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity that accompanied ischemia/reperfusion injury in brain. We report here that aged gerbils had a significantly higher level of oxidized protein as assessed by carbonyl residues and decreased GS and neutral protease activities as compared to young adult gerbils. We also found that chronic treatment with the spin-trapping compound PBN caused a decrease in the level of oxidized protein and an increase in both GS and neutral protease activity in aged Mongolian gerbil brain. In contrast to aged gerbils, PBN treatment of young adult gerbils had no significant effect on brain oxidized protein content or GS activity. Male gerbils, young adults (3 months of age) and retired breeders (15-18 months of age), were treated with PBN for 14 days with twice daily dosages of 32 mg/kg. If PBN administration was ceased after 2 weeks, the significantly decreased level of oxidized protein and increased GS and neutral protease activities in old gerbils changed in a monotonic fashion back to the levels observed in aged gerbils prior to PBN administration. We also report that old gerbils make more errors than young animals and that older gerbils treated with PBN made fewer errors in a radial arm maze test for temporal and spatial memory than the untreated aged controls.

  13. Vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Belker, A M

    1987-02-01

    A vasovasostomy may be performed on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia, but also may be performed on an outpatient basis with epidural or general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is preferred by most of my patients, the majority of whom choose this technique. With proper preoperative and intraoperative sedation, patients sleep lightly through most of the procedure. Because of the length of time often required for bilateral microsurgical vasoepididymostomy, epidural or general anesthesia and overnight hospitalization are usually necessary. Factors influencing the preoperative choice for vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy in patients undergoing vasectomy reversal are considered. The preoperative planned choice of vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy for patients having vasectomy reversal described herein does not have the support of all urologists who regularly perform these procedures. My present approach has evolved as the data reported in Tables 1 and 2 have become available, but it may change as new information is evaluated. However, it offers a logical method for planning choices of anesthesia and inpatient or outpatient status for patients undergoing vasectomy reversal procedures.

  14. The Role of GABAB Receptors in Morphine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ramshini, Effat; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Alaei, Samaneh; Shahidani, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is only little information about the effects of GABA receptors agonist and antagonist on morphine self-administration. Present study was designed to assess role of GABAB receptors in the regulation of morphine-reinforced self-administration. Methods: This study was performed in four groups of rats: (1) Saline group, which received saline in the self-administration session. (2) Morphine group, which received morphine in saline solution in the self-administration session. (3) Baclofen + Morphine group, which received both baclofen 20 min before self- administration test and morphine in the self-administration session. (4) Phaclofen + Morphine group, which received both phaclofen 20 min before self- administration test and morphine in the self-administration session. The number of lever pressing and self-infusion were recorded. Results: Morphine significantly increased the number of active lever pressing dose dependently in self-administration session in comparative with saline group. Administration of baclofen, 20 min before morphine self-administration produced significant decrease in the initiation of morphine self-administration during all session. Conversely, pre-treatment of phaclofen increased the number of active lever pressing and self-infusion in this test. Conclusion: Our results indicated a short-term treatment by baclofen, reduced morphine-maintenance response in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that GABAB receptor agonists could be useful for reversing the neuroadaptations related to opiates. PMID:23542877

  15. No significant differences in the breadth of the foot-and-mouth disease serotype A vaccine induced antibody responses in cattle, using different adjuvants, mixed antigens and different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Tekleghiorghis, Tesfaalem; Weerdmeester, Klaas; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Moormann, Rob J M; Dekker, Aldo

    2014-09-15

    Inactivated whole virus foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are used worldwide for protection against FMD, but not all vaccines induce protection against all genetic variants of the same FMD virus serotype. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the "breadth" of the antibody response against different strains of the same FMD virus serotype in cattle could be improved by using a different adjuvant, a mix of antigens and/or different routes of administration. To this end, six groups of five cattle were vaccinated with different FMD virus serotype A strain vaccines formulated with Montanide ISA 206 VG adjuvant. Antibody responses for homologous and heterologous cross-reactivity against a panel of 10 different FMD virus serotype A strains were tested by a liquid-phase blocking ELISA. Results of cattle vaccinated with ISA 206 VG adjuvanted vaccine were compared with results obtained in a previous study using aluminium hydroxide-saponin adjuvant. No significant effect of adjuvant on the breadth of the antibody response was observed, neither for mixing of antigens nor for the route of administration (subcutaneous vs. intradermal). Comparison of antigen payload, however, increased both homologous and heterologous titres; a 10-fold higher antigen dose resulted in approximately four times higher titres against all tested strains. Our study shows that breadth of the antibody response depends mainly on the vaccine strain; we therefore propose that, for vaccine preparation, only FMD virus strains are selected that, among other important characteristics, will induce a wide antibody response to different field strains.

  16. 77 FR 39662 - Hazardous Materials; Reverse Logistics (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Materials; Reverse Logistics (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA... materials in the ``reverse logistics'' supply chain. Reverse logistics is the process that is initiated when... will propose to simplify the regulations for reverse logistics shipments and provide avenue means...

  17. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  18. Pharmacological administration of granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor is of significant importance for the induction of a strong humoral and cellular response in patients immunized with recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Samanci, A; Yi, Q; Fagerberg, J; Strigård, K; Smith, G; Rudén, U; Wahren, B; Mellstedt, H

    1998-11-01

    Eighteen colorectal carcinoma patients without macroscopic disease after surgery were immunized using recombinant (r) human (h) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with (n=9) or without (n=9) the addition of soluble granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The dose of rhCEA per immunization was 100 microg (n=6), 316 microg (n=6) or 1000 microg (n=6). rhCEA was given s.c. on day 1 and 80 microg/day of GM-CSF s.c. on days 1-4. The schedule was repeated six times during a period of 9 months. All patients in the GM-CSF group developed a strong rhCEA-dose-dependent IgG antibody response while only one-third of the non-GM-CSF patients mounted a weak antibody response. All patients (9/9) in the GM-CSF group developed a strong rhCEA-specific proliferative T cell response as well as type I T cells (interferon gamma secretion). In 45% of the patients also a weak type II T cell response (interleukin-4 secretion) was evoked. Both MHC-class-I- and -II restricted rhCEA-specific T cells were noted. A specific cellular response (proliferation and/or cytokine secretion) against native hCEA could be found in 8/9 patients in the GM-CSF group, although at a significantly lower level than against rhCEA. In the non-GM-CSF group a weak rhCEA-specific T cell response was induced. Three patients had a proliferative response, 4 patients type I T cells and 6 patients type II T cells. No signs of autoimmune reactions were noted. Local pharmacological administration of GM-CSF seemed to be a prerequisite for the induction of a strong immunity against baculovirus-produced hCEA protein. However, the cellular response against native CEA was of a significantly lower magnitude.

  19. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  20. Reversing Readicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The "elephant in the room" when we talk about preparing critical thinkers for the 21st century, Gallagher believes, is U.S. students' lack of reading proficiency and their general disinclination to read. Gallagher's provocative argument is that a significant factor behind the decline of reading in young people is a set of practices…

  1. Flumazenil reversal of midazolam sedation for dental procedures.

    PubMed

    el-Attar, A; Adu-Gyamfi, Y; Tawfique, K

    1992-06-01

    The efficacy of flumazenil in the reversal of midazolam sedation was assessed in double-blind placebo controlled study. Thirty patients undergoing oral surgical procedures were included. Flumazenil administration was followed by immediate rise of the CNS functions scores to almost the baseline awake values. Compared to control group, patients were significantly more oriented and had better comprehension up to 15 minutes, more alert for 30 minutes and had better memory function up to 60 minutes. Peripheral oxygen saturation was significantly higher up to 15 minutes. Flumazenil allows better utilization and higher turn over rate where space and nursing resources are scarce.

  2. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  3. In-vivo administration of clozapine affects behaviour but does not reverse dendritic spine deficits in the 14-3-3ζ KO mouse model of schizophrenia-like disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, Emily J; Ramshaw, Hayley; Xu, Xiangjun; Saleh, Eiman; Clark, Scott R; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Lopez, Angel; Schwarz, Quenten; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-11-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia, which has been shown to reverse behavioural and dendritic spine deficits in mice. It has recently been shown that deficiency of 14-3-3ζ has an association with schizophrenia, and that a mouse model lacking this protein displays several schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. To test the effect of clozapine in this mouse model, 14-3-3ζ KO mice were administered clozapine (5mg/kg) for two weeks prior to being analysed in a test battery of cognition, anxiety, and despair (depression-like) behaviours. Following behavioural testing brain samples were collected for analysis of specific anatomical defects and dendritic spine formation. We found that clozapine reduced despair behaviour of 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the forced swim test (FST) and altered the behaviour of wild types and 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the Y-maze task. In contrast, clozapine had no effects on hippocampal laminar defects or decreased dendritic spine density observed in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Our results suggest that clozapine may have beneficial effects on clinical behaviours associated with deficiencies in the 14-3-3ζ molecular pathway, despite having no effects on morphological defects. These findings may provide mechanistic insight to the action of this drug.

  4. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  5. Reverse Current in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. W., III

    1978-01-01

    An idealized steady state model of a stream of energetic electrons neutralized by a reverse current in the pre-flare solar plasma was developed. These calculations indicate that, in some cases, a significant fraction of the beam energy may be dissipated by the reverse current. Joule heating by the reverse current is a more effective mechanism for heating the plasma than collisional losses from the energetic electrons because the Ohmic losses are caused by thermal electrons in the reverse current which have much shorter mean free paths than the energetic electrons. The heating due to reverse currents is calculated for two injected energetic electron fluxes. For the smaller injected flux, the temperature of the coronal plasma is raised by about a factor of two. The larger flux causes the reverse current drift velocity to exceed the critical velocity for the onset of ion cyclotron turbulence, producing anomalous resistivity and an order of magnitude increase in the temperature. The heating is so rapid that the lack of ionization equilibrium may produce a soft X-ray and EUV pulse from the corona.

  6. Vasectomy and its reversal.

    PubMed

    Belker, A M

    1985-12-01

    Techniques, results, complications, and medicolegal aspects of vasectomy are discussed in this article. Emphasis is placed on techniques that prevent spontaneous recanalization of the ends of the vas deferens after vasectomy. Factors that affect the reversibility of vasectomy are discussed. New microsurgical techniques of vasectomy reversal are described, and results of these new techniques are compared with results of nonmicrosurgical techniques of vasectomy reversal. Indications for bypass vasoepididymostomy during vasectomy reversal procedures, as well as techniques for performing vasoepididymostomy, are discussed.

  7. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  8. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  9. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  10. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  11. Reverse Correlation in Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringach, Dario; Shapley, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a review of reverse correlation in neurophysiology. We discuss the basis of reverse correlation in linear transducers and in spiking neurons. The application of reverse correlation to measure the receptive fields of visual neurons using white noise and m-sequences, and classical findings about spatial and color processing in…

  12. The Kinetics of Intramolecular Distribution of 15N in Uric Acid after Administration of [15N]Glycine A REAPPRAISAL OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PREFERENTIAL LABELING OF N-(3 + 9) OF URIC ACID IN PRIMARY GOUT

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Oded; Wyngaarden, James B.; Starmer, C. Frank

    1973-01-01

    The concept of an abnormality of glutamine metabolism in primary gout was first proposed on the basis of isotope data: when [15N]glycine was administered to gouty subjects, there was disproportionately great enrichment of N-(3 + 9) of uric acid, which derive from the amide-N of glutamine. An unduly high concentration of 15N in glutamine was postulated, and attributed to a hypothetical defect in catabolism of glutamine. Excess glutamine was proposed as the driving force of uric acid overproduction. We have reexamined this proposition in four gouty subjects: one mild overproducer of uric acid with “idiopathic gout,” one marked overproducer with high-grade but “partial” hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase deficiency, and two extraordinary overproducers with superactive phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetases. In the last three, the driving force of excessive purine biosynthesis is a known surplus of α-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate. Disproportionately high labeling of N-(3 + 9) was present in all four gouty subjects, most marked in the most flamboyant overproducers. The precursor glucine pool was sampled by periodic administration of benzoic acid and isolation of urinary hippuric acid. Similarly, the precursor glutamine pool was sampled by periodic administration of phenylacetic acid and isolation of the amide-N of urinary phenylacetylglutamine. The time course of 15N enrichment of hippurate differed from that of the amide-N of glutamine. Whereas initial enrichment values of hippurate were very high, those of glutamine-amide-N were low, increasing to a maximum at about 3 h, and then declining less rapidly than those of hippurate. However, enrichment values of hippurate and of phenacetyl glutamine were normal in all of the gouty subjects studied. Thus, preferential enrichment of N-(3 + 9) in gouty overproducers given [15N]glycine does not necessarily reflect a specific abnormality of glutamine metabolism, but rather appears to be a kinetic

  13. Quantum Operation Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-03-25

    The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

  14. Reversal by [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]enkephalin of the dopamine transporter loss caused by methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Tsao, L I; Cadet, J L; Su, T P

    1999-05-21

    A single administration of 40 mg/kg (i.p.) of methamphetamine caused a loss of dopamine transporter in the striatum of albino Swiss (CD-1) mouse for at least 3 weeks. The administration of a single dose of [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE) (18 mg/kg, i.p.), given at day 14 after the administration of methamphetamine, caused a significant, transient restoration of dopamine transporter level in the striatum. These results suggest that delta-opioid peptide DADLE is able to reverse the neuronal damage caused by methamphetamine.

  15. The eyeglass reversal.

    PubMed

    Oh, Songjoo

    2011-07-01

    Some figures, such as the Necker cube, are spontaneously reversible between alternative percepts. Before learning those skilled reversals, how do people achieve reversals for the very first time? It has been known that, in the case of a first reversal, people can be expected to see the reversal when given specific information about how the figures are ambiguous. This point was confirmed by using drawing versions of reversible figures. To demonstrate how intention plays a role in the initial reversal of a real object, a pair of regular eyeglasses, reversible in perspective, were presented to naïve observers in monocular vision. When the eyeglasses were viewed inwardly and the observers were given information that the eyeglasses could be ambiguous, they were able to easily see the reversal. When the eyeglasses were viewed outwardly, observers saw it only after they had been informed of exactly what the two alternative percepts were.Interestingly, many observers often mistakenly saw the inwardly viewed eyeglasses as placed outwardly from the beginning of the observation, while they saw the outwardly viewed eyeglasses correctly. Taking these results together, for the first reversal of a real object, the specificity of intention varies with the ambiguity of the object.

  16. Perspective: reverse evolution.

    PubMed

    Teotónio, H; Rose, M R

    2001-04-01

    For some time, the reversibility of evolution was primarily discussed in terms of comparative patterns. Only recently has this problem been studied using experimental evolution over shorter evolutionary time frames. This has raised questions of definition, experimental procedure, and the hypotheses being tested. Experimental evolution has provided evidence for multiple population genetic mechanisms in reverse evolution, including pleiotropy and mutation accumulation. It has also pointed to genetic factors that might prevent reverse evolution, such as a lack of genetic variability, epistasis, and differential genotype-by-environment interactions. The main focus of this perspective is on laboratory studies and their relevance to the genetics of reverse evolution. We discuss reverse evolution experiments with Drosophila, bacterial, and viral populations. Field studies of the reverse evolution of melanism in the peppered moth are also reviewed.

  17. Reversible logic for supercomputing.

    SciTech Connect

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.

    2005-05-01

    This paper is about making reversible logic a reality for supercomputing. Reversible logic offers a way to exceed certain basic limits on the performance of computers, yet a powerful case will have to be made to justify its substantial development expense. This paper explores the limits of current, irreversible logic for supercomputers, thus forming a threshold above which reversible logic is the only solution. Problems above this threshold are discussed, with the science and mitigation of global warming being discussed in detail. To further develop the idea of using reversible logic in supercomputing, a design for a 1 Zettaflops supercomputer as required for addressing global climate warming is presented. However, to create such a design requires deviations from the mainstream of both the software for climate simulation and research directions of reversible logic. These deviations provide direction on how to make reversible logic practical.

  18. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam

    2010-11-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  19. Epinephrine inhibits analgesic tolerance to intrathecal administrated morphine and increases the expression of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha.

    PubMed

    Satarian, Leila; Javan, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2008-01-17

    Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis inhibits development of morphine tolerance. Also, the expression of CaMKIIalpha is increased following chronic administration of morphine. In the current study, we tried to examine the effect of epinephrine, on the development of morphine tolerance; and also evaluate the expression of CaMKIIalpha as a molecular index for tolerance development. Analgesic tolerance was induced by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of morphine 15 microg/rat, twice a day for 5 days. To study the effect of epinephrine on development or reversal of morphine tolerance, epinephrine was administrated 20 min before morphine injections. Analgesia was assessed using tail flick test. Gene expression assays were done using RT-PCR. Following 5 days of combined administration of morphine and epinephrine (2, 5 or 10 microg/rat), in day 6, morphine produced potent analgesia. Administration of saline and morphine during days 1-5, caused reduced analgesic effect of morphine on day 6. After tolerance induction during 5 days, co-administration of epinephrine and morphine for another 5 days, significantly reversed the tolerance. Both morphine and epinephrine increased the expression of CaMKIIalpha. The expression of CaMKIIalpha was highly increased following combined administration of epinephrine and morphine. Our results showed the inhibition and reversal of analgesic tolerance to local administrated morphine by epinephrine. We observed the increased expression of CaMKIIalpha without development of morphine tolerance in animals treated with combined epinephrine and morphine.

  20. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    SciTech Connect

    Cubitt, Toby; Kastoryano, Michael; Montanaro, Ashley; Temme, Kristan

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  1. EPA Administrative Law Judge Legal Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains Decisions and Orders originating from EPAs Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ), which is an independent office in the Office of the Administrator of the EPA. The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws. Administrative Law Judges preside in enforcement and permit proceedings in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act. Most enforcement actions initiated by the EPA are for the assessment of civil penalties. The Decisions and Orders are organized into three categories: (1) alphabetical listing by the respondent involved, (2) reverse chronological listing by date, and (3) Decisions and Orders under FIFRA Section 6. This dataset includes Decisions and Orders dating back to 1989 in the Reverse Chronological list, Decisions and Orders dating back to 1997 in the Alphabetical list, and a few Decisions and Orders dating back to 1974 under FIFRA Section 6.

  2. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) reverses hyperglycemia in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Luguang Luo, John Z.Q. Jackson, Ivor M.D.

    2008-09-12

    Hyperglycemia in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) null mice indicates that TRH is involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Further, TRH levels in the pancreas peak during the stages of late embryonic and early neonatal {beta} cell development. These observations are consistent in linking TRH to islet cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we examined the effect of TRH administration in damaged pancreatic rat (streptozotocin, STZ) to determine whether TRH could improve damaged pancreatic {beta} cells function. We hypothesize that TRH is able to reverse STZ-induced hyperglycemia by increasing pancreatic islet insulin content, preventing apoptosis, and potentially induce islet regeneration. It was found that following intra-peritoneal (ip) injection, TRH (10 {mu}g/kg body weight (bwt)) reverses STZ (65 mg/kg bwt)-induced hyperglycemia (TRH given 3 days after STZ injection). Increased circulating insulin levels and insulin content in extracted pancreas suggests that TRH reversed STZ-induced hyperglycemia through improving pancreatic islet {beta} cell function. Further studies show a significantly lower level of apoptosis in islets treated with TRH as well as the presence of proliferation marker nestin and Brdu, suggesting that the TRH has the potential to prevent apoptosis and stimulate islet proliferation.

  3. Reversal of experimental pulmonary hypertension by PDGF inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Dony, Eva; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Pullamsetti, Soni; Savai, Rajkumar; Roth, Markus; Sydykov, Akylbek; Lai, Ying Ju; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    Progression of pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased proliferation and migration of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. PDGF is a potent mitogen and involved in this process. We now report that the PDGF receptor antagonist STI571 (imatinib) reversed advanced pulmonary vascular disease in 2 animal models of pulmonary hypertension. In rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension, therapy with daily administration of STI571 was started 28 days after induction of the disease. A 2-week treatment resulted in 100% survival, compared with only 50% in sham-treated rats. The changes in RV pressure, measured continuously by telemetry, and right heart hypertrophy were reversed to near-normal levels. STI571 prevented phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor and suppressed activation of downstream signaling pathways. Similar results were obtained in chronically hypoxic mice, which were treated with STI571 after full establishment of pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, expression of the PDGF receptor was found to be significantly increased in lung tissue from pulmonary arterial hypertension patients compared with healthy donor lung tissue. We conclude that STI571 reverses vascular remodeling and cor pulmonale in severe experimental pulmonary hypertension regardless of the initiating stimulus. This regimen offers a unique novel approach for antiremodeling therapy in progressed pulmonary hypertension. PMID:16200212

  4. A Change of Administration: A Significant Organizational Life Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Deborah E.

    The case study presented in this paper illustrates how the succession process for principals is similar to that described by Gabarro in his study of corporate succession. Leader succession involves five major stages: (1) taking hold; (2) immersion; (3) reshaping; (4) consolidation; and (5) refinement. Success most frequently occurs in conjunction…

  5. An algebra of reversible computation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  6. Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Bloomer, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of steady-state reverse and forward-to-reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original QCSEE 4-segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30-deg half-angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30-deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress and approximately a 20% improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35% of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff-to-reverse thrust transients.

  7. Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Blodmer, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of steady state reverse and forward to reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original quiet, clean, short haul, experimental engine four segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30 deg half angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30 deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress, and approximately a 20 percent improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35 percent of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff to reverse thrust transients.

  8. Effects of taurine administration on exercise.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Yoshihisa; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime; Mishima, Hajime; Adachi, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Taurine concentration in rat skeletal muscles after endurance running, with and without taurine administration was studied. Taurine concentrations in skeletal muscles was significantly decreased in exercised groups without taurine administration. However, taurine administration reduced the decrease of taurine concentration in skeletal muscles in exercise. Oral administration of taurine has effect for maintaining taurine concentration in skeletal muscles in exercise. The duration of running time to exhaustion of rats, with and without taurine administration were studied. The duration of running time to exhaustion was significantly increased by taurine administration. Oral administration of taurine increases the ability of physical endurance. Rat urinary excretions of creatinine, creatine, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) after treadmill running, with and without taurine administration were studied. Rat urinary excretions of creatinine, creatine, 3-MH after treadmill running was significantly decreased with taurine administration. Taurine administration was considered to reduce the exercise-induced muscle fatigue.

  9. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  10. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  11. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  12. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  13. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  14. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  15. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  16. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  17. Imipramine attenuates neuroinflammatory signaling and reverses stress-induced social avoidance.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Karol; Shea, Daniel T; McKim, Daniel B; Reader, Brenda F; Sheridan, John F

    2015-05-01

    Psychosocial stress is associated with altered immunity, anxiety and depression. Previously we showed that repeated social defeat (RSD) promoted microglia activation and social avoidance behavior that persisted for 24days after cessation of RSD. The aim of the present study was to determine if imipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant) would reverse RSD-inducedsocial avoidance and ameliorate neuroinflammatory responses. To test this, C57BL/6 mice were divided into treatment groups. One group from RSD and controls received daily injections of imipramine for 24days, following 6 cycles of RSD. Two other groups were treated with saline. RSD mice spent significantly less time in the interaction zone when an aggressor was present in the cage. Administration of imipramine reversed social avoidance behavior, significantly increasing the interaction time, so that it was similar to that of control mice. Moreover, 24days of imipramine treatment in RSD mice significantly decreased stress-induced mRNA levels for IL-6 in brain microglia. Following ex vivo LPS stimulation, microglia from mice exposed to RSD, had higher mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and this was reversed by imipramine treatment. In a second experiment, imipramine was added to drinking water confirming the reversal of social avoidant behavior and decrease in mRNA expression of IL-6 in microglia. These data suggest that the antidepressant imipramine may exert its effect, in part, by down-regulating microglial activation.

  18. Reversibility of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengxi; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2015-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is a serious health problem worldwide, which can be induced by a wide spectrum of chronic liver injuries. However, until today, there is no effective therapy available for liver fibrosis except the removal of underlying etiology or liver transplantation. Recent studies indicate that liver fibrosis is reversible when the causative agent(s) is removed. Understanding of mechanisms of liver fibrosis regression will lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes recent research progress on mechanisms of reversibility of liver fibrosis. While most of the research has been focused on HSCs/myofibroblasts and inflammatory pathways, the crosstalk between different organs, various cell types and multiple signaling pathways should not be overlooked. Future studies that lead to fully understanding of the crosstalk between different cell types and the molecular mechanism underlying the reversibility of liver fibrosis will definitely give rise to new therapeutic strategies to treat liver fibrosis.

  19. Verapamil reverses PTH- or CRF-induced abnormal fatty acid oxidation in muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, A.F.; Smogorzewski, M.; Massry, S.G.

    1988-12-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with impaired long chain fatty acids (LCFA) oxidation by skeletal muscle mitochondria. This is due to reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT). These derangements were attributed to the secondary hyperparathyroidism of CRF, since prior parathyroidectomy in CRF rats reversed these abnormalities and PTH administration to normal rats reproduced them. It was proposed that these effects of PTH are mediated by its ionophoric property leading to increased entry of calcium into skeletal muscle. A calcium channel blocker may, therefore, correct these derangements. The present study examined the effects of verapamil on LCFA oxidation, CPT activity by skeletal muscle mitochondria, and /sup 45/Ca uptake by skeletal muscle obtained from CRF rats and normal animals treated with PTH with and without verapamil. Both four days of PTH administration and 21 days of CRF produced significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in LCFA oxidation and CPT activity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, and significant (P less than 0.01) increment in /sup 45/Ca uptake by skeletal muscle. Simultaneous treatment with verapamil corrected all these derangements. Administration of verapamil alone to normal rats did not cause a significant change in any of these parameters. The data are consistent with the proposition that the alterations in LCFA in CRF or after PTH treatment are related to the ionophoric action of the hormone and could be reversed by a calcium channel blocker.

  20. What is inside a nonionic reverse micelle? Probing the interior of Igepal reverse micelles using decavanadate.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, M A; Crans, D C; Levinger, N E

    2009-05-19

    The interiors of reverse micelles formed using nonionic surfactants to sequester water droplets in a nonpolar environment have been investigated using the decavanadate molecule as a probe. Chemical shifts and line widths of the three characteristic signals in the 51V NMR spectrum of decavanadate, corresponding to vanadium atoms in equatorial peripheral, equatorial interior, and axial locations, measure the local proton concentration and characteristics of the reverse micellar interior near the decavandate probe. All samples investigated indicate deprotonation of the vanadate probe in the reverse micelle environment. However, the relative mobility of the decavanadate molecule depends on the reverse micellar components. Specifically, the 51V NMR signals of the decavandate in reverse micelles formed using only the Igepal CO-520 surfactant display sharp signals indicating that the decavandate molecule tumbles relatively freely while reverse micelles formed from a mixture of Igepal CO-610 and -430 present a more viscous environment for the decavanadate molecule; the nature of the interior of the nonionic reverse water pool varies significantly depending on the specific Igepal. The 51V NMR spectra also indicate that the interior core water pool of the reverse micelles is less acidic than the bulk aqueous solution from which the samples were created. Together, these data provide a description that allows for a comparison of the water pools in these different nonionic reverse micelles.

  1. Dynamics of magnetization reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Vladimir L.

    2000-03-01

    Advanced magnetic recording systems are designed for extremely high areal densities and data rate. These two aspects require both magnetization reversal at very short times (< 1 ns) and long term ( ~ 5-10 years) stability against thermal fluctuations. There are two basic physics problems associated with these requirements. The first is a characterization of thermal-dynamic reversal over very wide time range. The second is an understanding of the physics of the relaxation mechanisms. Both these subjects will be reviewed in this talk. Thermal dynamic reversal requires solution of the Landau-Lifshitz equation with fluctuations. We have solved this problem in terms of the ``random walk" dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator [1,2]. The expressions for the switching field versus pulse time are analytic and show good agreement with measurements on CrO_2. Our studies of fundamental relaxation mechanisms have involved a two step approach. First the results of computer simulations of magnetization reversal without phenomenological damping will be discussed. In this case coherent rotation of the magnetization excites spin waves during which an excess of Zeeman energy is transformed to anisotropy and exchange energies. However, for fine grains whose size is sufficiently small so that the grain magnetization is virtually uniform, non-linear spin waves cannot assist reversal [3]. A new analytic model of reversal that couples coherent rotation to impurity ions by an anisotropic exchange mechanism will be discussed. These impurity ions are assumed to relax at a very high rate to the lattice. [1] V.L.Safonov, JMMM 195, 523 (1999); J.Appl.Phys. 85, 4370 (1999). [2] V.L.Safonov, H.N.Bertram, MMM'99, CU-09. [3] V.L.Safonov, H.N.Bertram, J.Appl.Phys. 85, 5072 (1999); MMM'99, CD-11.

  2. Novel Designs of Quantum Reversible Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xuemei; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Fulong; Zhu, Junru; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-11-01

    Reversible logic, as an interesting and important issue, has been widely used in designing combinational and sequential circuits for low-power and high-speed computation. Though a significant number of works have been done on reversible combinational logic, the realization of reversible sequential circuit is still at premature stage. Reversible counter is not only an important part of the sequential circuit but also an essential part of the quantum circuit system. In this paper, we designed two kinds of novel reversible counters. In order to construct counter, the innovative reversible T Flip-flop Gate (TFG), T Flip-flop block (T_FF) and JK flip-flop block (JK_FF) are proposed. Based on the above blocks and some existing reversible gates, the 4-bit binary-coded decimal (BCD) counter and controlled Up/Down synchronous counter are designed. With the help of Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL), these counters above have been modeled and confirmed. According to the simulation results, our circuits' logic structures are validated. Compared to the existing ones in terms of quantum cost (QC), delay (DL) and garbage outputs (GBO), it can be concluded that our designs perform better than the others. There is no doubt that they can be used as a kind of important storage components to be applied in future low-power computing systems.

  3. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  4. Lower lateral crural reverse plasty.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Azizli, Elad; Erdoğdu, Suleyman

    2013-11-01

    The lateral crus plays a significant role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Excessive concavities of the lower lateral crura can lead to heavy aesthetic disfigurement of the nasal tip and to insufficiencies of the external nasal valve. The lateral crus of the alar cartilage may also cause a concavity of the alar rim and even collapse of the alar rim in severe cases. Surgical techniques performed on the lateral crus help to treat both functional and aesthetic deformities of the lateral nasal tip. We present a reverse plasty technique for the lateral crus, and we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

  5. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  6. Reversible Chemochromic Hydrogen Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), affiliated with the University of Central Florida, has invented a reversible pigment that changes from light beige to blue when exposed to hydrogen and back to light beige when exposed to atmospheric oxygen. In laboratory and environmental studies, the FSEC pigment in its tape form failed to change color adequately when exposed to hydrogen after one day of exposure at Kennedy Space Center's Beach Corrosion Test Facility. The reversible hydrogen-detecting tape also lost its ability to change color after being placed in an environmental chamber at 45 C for one day. The first attempts at extruding the reversible pigment into various polymers were unsuccessful because of the pigment's poor thermal stability. The goal of this project was to formulate a pigment with improved thermal and environmental stability for extrusion into a variety of appropriate polymer matrices. The formulation of the reversible hydrogen-detecting pigment was modified by removing one reagent and chemically modifying the hydrogen sensitive ingredient. This was intended to improve the hydrophobicity of the pigment and alter the thermal degradation mechanism.

  7. Time reversal communication system

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  8. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    MedlinePlus

    ... depending on a woman's age and other factors. Success rates may be as high as 80 percent or ... details of the procedure Discuss the likelihood of success and your ability to get pregnant after the procedure Discuss other options for pregnancy, such as IVF A tubal ligation reversal can be done as ...

  9. Language Reversion Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bot, Kees; Clyne, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal study on language maintenance and loss among Dutch-English bilinguals in Australia revealed little loss in both languages over the years. This leads to the hypothesis of a "critical threshold" that must be reached to retain the second language. First language reversion appears commonly among immigrants who did not reach this…

  10. Lysyl oxidase activity contributes to collagen stabilization during liver fibrosis progression and limits spontaneous fibrosis reversal in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Susan B; Ikenaga, Naoki; Peng, Zhen-Wei; Sverdlov, Deanna Y; Greenstein, Andrew; Smith, Victoria; Schuppan, Detlef; Popov, Yury

    2016-04-01

    Collagen stabilization through irreversible cross-linking is thought to promote hepatic fibrosis progression and limit its reversibility. However, the mechanism of this process remains poorly defined. We studied the functional contribution of lysyl oxidase (LOX) to collagen stabilization and hepatic fibrosis progression/reversalin vivousing chronic administration of irreversible LOX inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN, or vehicle as control) in C57Bl/6J mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis. Fibrotic matrix stability was directly assessed using a stepwise collagen extraction assay and fibrotic septae morphometry. Liver cells and fibrosis were studied by histologic, biochemical methods and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR. During fibrosis progression, BAPN administration suppressed accumulation of cross-linked collagens, and fibrotic septae showed widening and collagen fibrils splitting, reminiscent of remodeling signs observed during fibrosis reversal. LOX inhibition attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation markers and promoted F4/80-positive scar-associated macrophage infiltration without an increase in liver injury. In reversal experiments, BAPN-treated fibrotic mice demonstrated accelerated fibrosis reversal after CCl4withdrawal. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that LOX contributes significantly to collagen stabilization in liver fibrosis, promotes fibrogenic activation of attenuated hepatic stellate cells, and limits fibrosis reversal. Our data support the concept of pharmacologic targeting of LOX pathway to inhibit liver fibrosis and promote its resolution.-Liu, S. B., Ikenaga, N., Peng, Z.-W., Sverdlov, D. Y., Greenstein, A., Smith, V., Schuppan, D., Popov, Y. Lysyl oxidase activity contributes to collagen stabilization during liver fibrosis progression and limits spontaneous fibrosis reversal in mice.

  11. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    PubMed

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant.

  12. Interleukin-1 beta-induced anorexia is reversed by ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Patricia Verónica; Cragnolini, Andrea Beatriz; Schiöth, Helgi Birgir; Scimonelli, Teresa Nieves

    2006-12-01

    Interleukins, in particular interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), reduce food intake after peripheral and central administration, which suggests that they contribute to anorexia during various infectious, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, ghrelin stimulates food intake by acting on the central nervous system (CNS) and is considered an important regulator of food intake in both rodents and humans. In the present study, we investigated if ghrelin could reverse IL-1beta-induced anorexia. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 15, 30 or 45 ng/microl of IL-1beta caused significant suppression of food intake in 20 h fasting animals. This effect lasted for a 24h period. Ghrelin (0.15 nmol or 1.5 nmol/microl) produced a significant increase in cumulative food intake in normally fed animals. However, it did not alter food intake in 20 h fasting animals. Central administration of ghrelin reduced the anorexic effect of IL-1beta (15 ng/microl). The effect was observed 30 min after injection and lasted for the next 24h. This study provides evidence that ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide capable of antagonizing IL-1beta-induced anorexia.

  13. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  14. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  15. Gridded electron reversal ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

  16. URCHIN: Reverse ray tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altay, Gabriel; Theuns, Tom

    2014-12-01

    URCHIN is a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) reverse ray tracer (i.e. from particles to sources). It calculates the amount of shielding from a uniform background that each particle experiences. Preservation of the adaptive density field resolution present in many gas dynamics codes and uniform sampling of gas resolution elements with rays are two of the benefits of URCHIN; it also offers preservation of Galilean invariance, high spectral resolution, and preservation of the standard uniform UV background in optically thin gas.

  17. Reversing Glass Wettability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, J. E., Jr.; Kaukler, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment reverses wettability of glassware: Liquids that normally wet glass no longer do, and those that do not wet glass are made to do so. Useful in research on container effects in nucleation and growth of secondary phase from solution. Treatment consists of spreading 3 percent (by weight) solution of silicone oil in hexane isomers over glass, drying in air, and curing at 300 degrees C in vacuum for one hour.

  18. Time reversal interactive objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ing, Ros Ki; Quieffin, Nicolas; Catheline, Stefan; Fink, Mathias

    2001-05-01

    Time reversal has shown to be a fruitful concept in nondestructive testing in underwater acoustic or in ultrasonic imaging. In this paper this technique is adapted in the audible range to transform every day objects into tactile sensitive interfaces. A quick historical background is presented in the ultrasonic field and specially in chaotic cavity. In all time reversal experiments, it is demonstrated that a wave field spatially and temporally recorded is able to back propagate to its source. In other words, the field contains all the information on the location of the source. In the interactive experiments, it is shown that touching an object like a window, a table or a world globe generates an acoustic field easily detectable with one or two acoustic sensors. Using the concept of time reversal, the source location is deduced in real time. Then, touching objects at specific locations (virtual switches) is used to activate devices. Such devices are for example lights, stereo volume, or computer software. From a technical point of view, all these interactive experiments just use some computation easily performed with a standard personnel computer.

  19. An unusual presentation of a rare disease: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following abdominal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Carly R.N.; McMurray, Robert C.; Criman, Erik T.; Clark, Margaret E.; Gillern, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an unusual disease of unknown incidence and cause. There are a wide range of associated, predisposing medical causes to include pregnancy, renal failure, immunosuppressive medication administration and hypertension. The diagnosis is made following the radiographic identification of characteristic vasogenic edema in the setting of neurologic impairment. A significant portion of patients will have long-term, if not permanent, sequelae of the disease. We present a patient who developed PRES following a hemicolectomy that was complicated by an anastomotic leak. She went on to a complete recovery following surgical treatment of the leak and supportive care. PMID:27887021

  20. 45 CFR 150.457 - Review by Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) The ALJ has incorrectly assumed or denied jurisdiction or extended his or her authority to a degree..., reversal, or remand. (c) Within 30 days of the date of the initial agency decision, the Administrator will...) Within 30 days of receipt of a notice that the Administrator intends to review an initial agency...

  1. 20 CFR 655.212 - Administrative-judicial reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consideration of any written memorandums of law submitted, either affirm, reverse or modify the OFLC... §§ 655.204(d), 655.205(d), 655.206(c), or 655.211, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall immediately assign an Administrative Law Judge to review the record for legal sufficiency, and the OFLC...

  2. The Liverpool Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal : New evidences for a complex magnetic field behavior during reversals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, P.; Perrin, M.; Hoffman, K. A.; Singer, B. S.

    2009-04-01

    We carried out a detailed and continuous paleomagnetic re-sampling of the reversed-to-normal Eocene -36 Ma- geomagnetic transition recorded in the Liverpool (NSW, Australia) volcanic range [Hoffman, 1986]. Our main objective was to obtain a precise description of the variation in the paleofield vector (direction and absolute intensity) as the geomagnetic field reverses. With more than 30 transitional directions documented, the Liverpool reversal is, along with the Miocene record -16.2 Ma- of the Steens Mountain (Oregon, USA) [Mankinen et al., 1985] and the Matuyama-Brunhes -780 Ka- record of Hawaii [Coe et al, 2004], among the best example of a transition record from a volcanic sequence. The Liverpool polarity reversal shows a complex path of the Virtual Geomagnetic poles between the initial (reverse) and final (normal) polarities. Two loops in the trajectory of VGPs before the actual polarity switch are documented [Hoffman, 1986]. Such swings preceding the reversal seems to be a common characteristic of reversal since similar features are described on the Steens Mountain [Jarboe et al., 2007] and a long period of instability, estimated to 18 ka, is now well established prior to the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal [Singer et al., 2005]. In the present study, we found an additional swing through the reversed polarity yielding a complex R-T-R-T-R-T-R-T-N path for VGPs to achieve the reversal process. During the sampling campaign, we did not find evidence for significant hiatus in the eruptive activity such as soil horizons or sediments. We do not believe either that some part of the volcanic sequence be duplicate by the presence of tectonic faults. Hence, we think that the three excursions and the actual reversal belong to a single phenomenon. In order to strengthen this conclusion, precise Ar/ Ar will be performed. Twelve flows (5 of transitional and 7 of reversed polarity, respectively) all located in the lower half part of the Liverpool record, yielded paleointensity

  3. Paine Appointed Administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew

  4. Two modes of administration of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test to kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Caskey, W E; Larson, G L

    1977-12-01

    Using Otis-Lennon IQs 104 kindergarten children were paired and divided into two groups. The first was administered a group Bender test based on transparencies of the Bender designs and 10 to 14 days later the standard individual Bender Test. The second group was administered the Bender tests in reverse order. A significant correlation was found between Koppitz scores from the group and the individual Bender scores. It is suggested that the group Bender test might be used as a screening device without significant loss of information on a later administration of the individual Bender test.

  5. The alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin reduces heroin self-administration in rats with extended access to heroin administration.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, Thomas N; Walker, Brendan M; Cottone, Pietro; Zorrilla, Eric P; Koob, George F

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that noradrenergic antagonists alleviate some of the symptoms of opiate withdrawal and dependence. Clinical studies also have shown that modification of the noradrenergic system may help protect patients from relapse. The present study tested the hypothesis that a dysregulated noradrenergic system has motivational significance in heroin self-administration of dependent rats. Prazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic antagonist (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered to adult male Wistar rats with a history of limited (1 h/day; short access) or extended (12 h/day; long access) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Prazosin dose-dependently reduced heroin self-administration in long-access rats but not short-access rats, with 2 mg/kg of systemic prazosin significantly decreasing 1 h and 2 h heroin intake. Prazosin also reversed some changes in meal pattern associated with extended heroin access, including the taking of smaller and briefer meals (at 3 h), while also increasing total food intake and slowing the eating rate within meals (both 3 h and 12 h). Thus, prazosin appears to stimulate food intake in extended access rats by restoring meals to the normal size and duration. The data suggest that the alpha1 adrenergic system may contribute to mechanisms that promote dependence in rats with extended access.

  6. Reversible brazing process

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  7. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  8. Social isolation stress significantly enhanced the disruption of prepulse inhibition in mice repeatedly treated with methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongmei; Okuda, Hirotomo; Iwabuchi, Kentaro; Sakurai, Eiko; Chen, Zhong; Kato, Motohisa; Iinuma, Kazuie; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2004-10-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) causes reverse tolerance or behavioral sensitization in mice. However, the effects of social isolation stress on the METH-caused reverse tolerance have not been studied until now. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social isolation stress on METH-caused reverse tolerance by examining the prepulse inhibition of startle response (PPI). PPI was tested in socially isolated and grouped mice after repeated METH injections. Locomotor activity and PPI were also examined just after a four-week isolation rearing period as a control experiment. After completing behavioral experiments, the mice were sacrificed, and the contents of monoamines, including histamine in the brain, were measured. Social isolation stress significantly lowered the locomotion and disrupted PPI. Repeated injections of METH enhanced the effects of social isolation on PPI. The content of dopamine and histamine significantly increased in the cortex, and the turnover rate of dopamine decreased significantly. These findings demonstrate that social isolation stress significantly enhances METH-induced behavioral sensitization and that the altered histaminergic neuron system might play an important role in METH-induced behavioral sensitization in addition to dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission. Our data suggest that social isolation is involved in the development of METH-induced psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related psychiatric disorders.

  9. Anabolic Steroid Reversal of Denervation Atrophy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    10-1-0932 TITLE: Anabolic Steroid Reversal of Denervation Atrophy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Jonathan E. Isaacs...certainly “denervation atrophy” plays a significant role. Anabolic steroids , which have been shown to cause hypertrophy of muscle fibers, increase net...of satellite cells to muscle fibers. In conclusion, there did not seem to be a functional benefit for anabolic steroid treatment following

  10. Reverse engineering molecular hypergraphs.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahsanur; Poirel, Christopher L; Badger, David J; Estep, Craig; Murali, T M

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of molecular interaction networks is pervasive in systems biology. This research relies almost entirely on graphs for modeling interactions. However, edges in graphs cannot represent multiway interactions among molecules, which occur very often within cells. Hypergraphs may be better representations for networks having such interactions, since hyperedges can naturally represent relationships among multiple molecules. Here, we propose using hypergraphs to capture the uncertainty inherent in reverse engineering gene-gene networks. Some subsets of nodes may induce highly varying subgraphs across an ensemble of networks inferred by a reverse engineering algorithm. We provide a novel formulation of hyperedges to capture this uncertainty in network topology. We propose a clustering-based approach to discover hyperedges. We show that our approach can recover hyperedges planted in synthetic data sets with high precision and recall, even for moderate amount of noise. We apply our techniques to a data set of pathways inferred from genetic interaction data in S. cerevisiae related to the unfolded protein response. Our approach discovers several hyperedges that capture the uncertain connectivity of genes in relevant protein complexes, suggesting that further experiments may be required to precisely discern their interaction patterns. We also show that these complexes are not discovered by an algorithm that computes frequent and dense subgraphs.

  11. Reversal of sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, A

    1977-09-03

    It is difficult to know what conclusions one can reach in a study of 103 women who asked for reversal of sterilization (Mr. R.M.L. Winston, July 30, p. 305) when there are no data about the numbers and characteristics of the women who were sterilized and have not asked for reversal. And Mr. Winston's conclusion that it "seems unwise to sterilise women under 30 particularly immediately after pregnancy or if their marriage is in jeopardy" is therefore difficult to justify and has a disconcertingly paternalistic ring. It also implies that the stability or otherwise of a marriage should be a prime concern of obstetricians when women request sterilization. But what distrubed me most about Mr. Winston's article was his statement that "most women in this survey had been told that termination would not be undertaken without sterilisation." I wonder if this form of ultimatum, which Mr. Winston condemns, is likely to increase now that this operation is performed under a fee-for-service system?

  12. Word Processing: The Air Force Administrators’ Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    LEYEL > WORD PROCESSING ERRORCOP Qis 4 pL THE? ~ AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATOR$.! ’--s..HANDBOOK 400 Zi LUPRED F~ Fiir [rLT The views and opinions...INSTRUCTIONSBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUMBER .O.Vk Er.;. NO. R CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. ’TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED WORD ...Accession No. ADB 040882 L 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide it necessary and identify by block number) Administration / / Administrative Systems

  13. Reversible Data Hiding Based on DNA Computing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Biocomputing, especially DNA, computing has got great development. It is widely used in information security. In this paper, a novel algorithm of reversible data hiding based on DNA computing is proposed. Inspired by the algorithm of histogram modification, which is a classical algorithm for reversible data hiding, we combine it with DNA computing to realize this algorithm based on biological technology. Compared with previous results, our experimental results have significantly improved the ER (Embedding Rate). Furthermore, some PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratios) of test images are also improved. Experimental results show that it is suitable for protecting the copyright of cover image in DNA-based information security. PMID:28280504

  14. Reversible Data Hiding Based on DNA Computing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Xie, Yingjie; Zhou, Shihua; Zhou, Changjun; Zheng, Xuedong

    2017-01-01

    Biocomputing, especially DNA, computing has got great development. It is widely used in information security. In this paper, a novel algorithm of reversible data hiding based on DNA computing is proposed. Inspired by the algorithm of histogram modification, which is a classical algorithm for reversible data hiding, we combine it with DNA computing to realize this algorithm based on biological technology. Compared with previous results, our experimental results have significantly improved the ER (Embedding Rate). Furthermore, some PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratios) of test images are also improved. Experimental results show that it is suitable for protecting the copyright of cover image in DNA-based information security.

  15. Neural correlates of letter reversal in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Blackburne, Liwei King; Eddy, Marianna D; Kalra, Priya; Yee, Debbie; Sinha, Pawan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging) and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs) of this phenomenon in children, ages 5-12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing.

  16. Reversal of radial glow distribution in helicon plasma induced by reversed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y, Wang; G, Zhao; C, Niu; Z, W. Liu; J, T. Ouyang; Q, Chen

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the reversal of radial glow distribution induced by reversed magnetic field is reported. Based on the Boswell antenna which is symmetric and insensitive to the magnetic field direction, it seems such a phenomenon in theory appears impossible. However, according to the diagnostic of the helicon waves by magnetic probe, it is found that the direction of magnetic field significantly affects the propagation characteristic of helicon waves, i.e., the interchange of the helicon waves at the upper and the lower half of tube was caused by reversing the direction of magnetic field. It is suggested that the variation of helicon wave against the direction of magnetic field causes the reversed radial glow distribution. The appearance of the traveling wave does not only improve the discharge strength, but also determines the transition of the discharge mode.

  17. 21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lacking a normal immunosuppressive defense due to therapy or congenital abnormality. The device...

  18. 21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lacking a normal immunosuppressive defense due to therapy or congenital abnormality. The device...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lacking a normal immunosuppressive defense due to therapy or congenital abnormality. The device...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lacking a normal immunosuppressive defense due to therapy or congenital abnormality. The device...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5450 - Patient care reverse isolation chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Patient care reverse isolation chamber. 880.5450 Section 880.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lacking a normal immunosuppressive defense due to therapy or congenital abnormality. The device...

  2. Evolution of the reverse total shoulder prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Reza; Kwon, Young W

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has gained significant popularity due to its ability to address difficult reconstructive shoulder problems that could not be adequately treated in the past. The concept of the reverse shoulder prosthesis was introduced in the 1970s, but the initial attempts were associated with high complication and implant failure rates. The pioneering work of Paul Grammont (shifting the center of rotation medially and distally) and the development of the DELTA prosthesis have been fundamental to all subsequent reverse shoulder arthroplasty systems. These semiconstrained prostheses utilize the deltoid to improve function and stability of the shoulder joint by coupling a convex glenoid with a concave humeral component. Modern generations of reverse shoulder prosthesis continue to evolve on the fundamentals of Grammont. Though results of these new prosthesis demonstrate promising outcomes, many controversies and challenges continue to be refined. An historical review of the evolution of reverse shoulder arthroplasty is presented, as well as the currently expanding indications for its application.

  3. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Van Neste, Charles W.; Senesac, Lawrence R.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  4. Biochemical Reversal of Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2006-03-01

    We cite our progress on biochemical reversal of aging. However, it may be circa 2 years before we have necessary substances at low cost. Meanwhile, without them, a number of measures can be adopted providing marked improvement for the problems of aging in modern societies. For example, enzymes are needed to excrete toxins that accelerate aging; Hg is the ultimate toxin that disables all enzymes (including those needed to excrete Hg itself). Low Hg level in the urine, due to loss of excretory ability, causes the diagnosis of Hg toxicity to almost always be missed. Hg sources must be removed from the body! Another example is excess sugar; hyperglycemia decreases intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) by competitively inhibiting the insulin- mediated active transport of AA into cells. Thus, immunity is impaired by low leucocyte AA. AA is needed for new proteins in aging tissues. Humans must supplement AA; their need same as in AA-synthesizing mammals.

  5. Reverse slapper detonator

    DOEpatents

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  6. Reversible fluctuation rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. M.

    1999-10-01

    The analysis of a Feynman's ratchet system [J. M. R. Parrondo and P. Español, Am. J. Phys. 64, 1125 (1996)] and of its electrical counterpart, a diode engine [I. M. Sokolov, Europhys. Lett. 44, 278 (1998)] has shown that ``fluctuation rectifiers'' consisting of a nonlinear element (ratchet, diode) and a linear element (vane, resistor) kept at different temperatures always show efficiency smaller than the Carnot value, thus indicating the irreversible mode of operation. We show that this irreversibility is not intrinsic for a system in simultaneous contact with two heat baths at different temperatures and that a fluctuation rectifier can work reversibly. This is illustrated by a model with two diodes switched in opposite directions, where the Carnot efficiency is achieved when backward resistivity of the diodes tends to infinity.

  7. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  8. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Smithers, Christopher J; Young, Allan A; Walch, Gilles

    2011-12-01

    The reverse shoulder arthroplasty emerged as a potential solution for those patients who could not be managed effectively with a conventional total shoulder arthroplasty. Grammont revolutionized the design by medializing and distalizing the center of rotation and utilizing a large convex glenoid surface and concave humeral component with a neck-shaft angle of 155°. This design has been highly successful in cuff deficient shoulders, and indications continue to broaden. Many mid-term studies have improved upon the early encouraging results. Long-term studies are starting to emerge, demonstrating good survivorship, but progressive functional and radiographic deterioration continue to be concerning. Careful patient selection and attention to appropriate technique are required to reduce the current high rate of complications. New prosthesis designs are continuing to develop to address some of these limitations.

  9. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  10. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  11. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOEpatents

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2003-12-09

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  12. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOEpatents

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2006-04-25

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  13. Carbon Disulfide Mediates Socially-Acquired Nicotine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tengfei; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The social environment plays a critical role in smoking initiation as well as relapse. We previously reported that rats acquired nicotine self-administration with an olfactogustatory cue only when another rat consuming the same cue was present during self-administration. Because carbon disulfide (CS2) mediates social learning of food preference in rodents, we hypothesized that socially acquired nicotine self-administration is also mediated by CS2. We tested this hypothesis by placing female adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats in operant chambers equipped with two lickometers. Licking on the active spout meeting a fixed-ratio 10 schedule triggered the concurrent delivery of an i.v. infusion (saline, or 30 µg/kg nicotine, free base) and an appetitive olfactogustatory cue containing CS2 (0–500 ppm). Rats that self-administered nicotine with the olfactogustatory cue alone licked less on the active spout than on the inactive spout. Adding CS2 to the olfactogustatory cue reversed the preference for the spouts. The group that received 500 ppm CS2 and the olfactogustatory cue obtained a significantly greater number of nicotine infusions than other groups. After extinction training, the original self-administration context reinstated nicotine-seeking behavior in all nicotine groups. In addition, in rats that received the olfactogustatory cue and 500 ppm CS2 during SA, a social environment where the nicotine-associated olfactory cue is present, induced much stronger drug-seeking behavior compared to a social environment lacking the olfactogustatory cue. These data established that CS2 is a critical signal that mediates social learning of nicotine self-administration with olfactogustatory cues in rodents. Additionally, these data showed that the social context can further enhance the drug-seeking behavior induced by the drug-taking environment. PMID:25532105

  14. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  15. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  16. Rehabilitation Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...

  17. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  18. Histopathology and apoptosis in an animal model of reversible renal injury

    PubMed Central

    Shuvy, Mony; Nyska, Abraham; Beeri, Ronen; Abedat, Suzan; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Lotan, Chaim

    2014-01-01

    High adenine phosphate (HAP) diet serves as an animal model of chronic renal failure (RF). Induction of RF and establishment of end organ damage require long exposure periods to this diet. Previously, we have shown that RF is reversible after diet cessation even after protracted administration. In this study, we explored the underlying renal changes and cellular pathways occurring during administration and after cessation of the diet. Kidneys were obtained from rats fed HAP diet for 7 weeks, and from rats fed HAP diet followed a 10 week recovery period on normal diet. The kidneys of HAP diet group were significantly enlarged due to tubular injury characterized by massive cystic dilatation and crystal deposition. Kidney injury was associated with markers of apoptosis as well as with activation of apoptosis related pathways. Diet cessation was associated with a significant reduction in kidney size, tubules diameter, and crystals deposition. The recovery from renal injury was coupled with regression of apoptotic features. This is the first study showing the potential reversibility of long standing RF model, allowing optimal evaluation of uremia-chronic effects. PMID:20181466

  19. Legal and Administrative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  20. Women in Administration 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. Office of Communications Services.

    In a survey by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC), women are shown to hold 2,905 of the 13,638 administrative positions reported by 106 major U.S. public universities--slightly more than 21 percent of the administrators at state and land-grant universities. The median number of women administrators at…

  1. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  2. Magnetic reversals and mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study of reversals of the earth's magnetic field over the past 165 Myr are presented. A stationary periodicity of 30 Myr emerges which predicts pulses of increased reversal activity centered at 10, 40, 70, . . . Myr before the present. The correlation between the reversal intensity and biological extinctions is examined, and a nontrivial discrepancy is found between the magnetic and extinction periodicity.

  3. Prolonged Oral Administration of Oleuropein Might Protect Heart against Aconitine-induced Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Esmailidehaj, Mansour; Mirhosseini, Seyed-Jalil; Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Rasoulian, Bahram; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Haghshenas, Damoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it was surveyed to know whether an oral single dose of oleuropein could mimic the cardiac preconditioning in rats’ hearts or whether its prolonged oral administration could protect the heart against the aconitine-induced arrhythmia in rats. Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into two series (n = 8 in each group). In the first series, all groups (except the control (Con) group) were given a single oral dose of oleuropein (20 mg/Kg) 1, 3, 24 and 48 h before the infusion of aconitine. In the second series, except the Con group, the other four groups were given oral oleuropein (20 mg/Kg/day) for 3, 7, 14 and 28 days, before the infusion of aconitine. Electrocardiogram was recorded to monitor arrhythmia. Data of the first series showed that the initiation time of arrhythmia, the initiation of ventricular tachycardia (VT), the numbers of reversible ventricular fibrillation (VF) and the death time had no significant difference compared with Con group. In the second series, a significant protection was occurred only in the 28 days group that was evident with increased initiation time of arrhythmia, increased initiation time of VT, and increased the number of reversible VF and death time in compared to the Con group. The findings of this study show that the oral administration of a single dose of oleuropein could not mimic the preconditioning effects in rat hearts, but the prolonged administration of oleuropein for about four weeks could protect the heart against aconitine-induced arrhythmia. PMID:24250560

  4. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  5. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  6. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  7. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  8. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  9. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Loram, Lisa C; Strand, Keith A; Taylor, Frederick R; Sloane, Evan; Van Dam, Anne-Marie; Rieger, Jayson; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-05-01

    A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in two different models of neuropathic pain in addition to downregulating glial activation markers in the spinal cord. We aimed to determine whether a single intrathecal administration of an A2AR agonist was able to attenuate motor symptoms induced by experimental autoimmune encephalopathy. Two A2AR agonists (CGS21680 and ATL313) significantly attenuated progression of motor symptoms following a single intrathecal administration at the onset of motor symptoms. OX-42, a marker of microglial activation, was significantly attenuated in the lumbar spinal cord following A2AR administration compared to vehicle. Therefore, A2AR agonists attenuate motor symptoms of EAE by acting on A2AR in the spinal cord.

  10. Plasma prostaglandin E2 concentrations after single dose administration of ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Pasloske, K; Burger, J; Conlon, P

    1998-01-01

    Ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) is a relatively new, potent, non-narcotic analgesic with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity and has been associated with gastric and renal toxicity in people and dogs. The objectives of this study were to establish whether endogenous PGE2 exists in the plasma of healthy dogs and to determine if, and to what magnitude, ketorolac alters PGE2 plasma concentrations after administration. Enzyme immunoassay measurement of a stable PGE2 derivative, bicyclo PGE2, showed that after i.v. administration of 0.5 mg/kg ketorolac tromethamine, 1 and 24 h plasma samples contained significantly (P < or = 0.01) less PGE2 than did plasma samples collected from dogs before the drug treatment. After p.o. administration, 1 h plasma samples contained significantly (P < or = 0.01) less PGE2 than did pretreatment samples, and the 24 h post-drug administration samples contained significantly (P < or = 0.01) less plasma PGE2 than the 96 h plasma samples. The results of this study suggest that a clinically effective single i.v. or p.o. dose of ketorolac tromethamine to healthy dogs causes a significant but reversible decrease in endogenous PGE2 production which may partially explain the drug's low therapeutic index. PMID:9684056

  11. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  12. Time Reversal Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, H; /SLAC

    2009-01-27

    This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.

  13. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Algahtani, Abdulhadi; Aldarmahi, Ahmad; Hmoud, Mohammed; Marzuk, Yousef; Shirah, Bader

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological syndrome characterized by headache, altered mental status, seizures, or loss of vision. In this study, we report the largest series of PRES coming from Saudi Arabia and explore the etiology, clinical presentation, and outcome. We also report new imaging findings associated with this condition. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of all cases of PRES admitted to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between the years 2005 and 2015. A neurologist reviewed all charts and analyzed the clinical presentations, etiological factors, and outcomes, and a neuroradiologist reviewed the imaging studies. Only patients with clinical and imaging features consistent with PRES were included in the study. Results: We collected 31 patients who had clinical and radiological features consistent with PRES. Females were more affected than males (18 females and 13 males), and patients’ age ranged from 6 to 95 years, with a mean of 38.3 years. Patients were treated by removing the precipitating causes and treating the underlying conditions. Resolution of neurologic signs occurred within 2 to 3 weeks in all patients. Conclusion: In our opinion, PRES itself is usually a benign condition with complete recovery if the condition is recognized early and managed appropriately. Although clinical signs are nonspecific, the constellation of symptoms including headache, visual problems, seizures, and altered level of consciousness should suggest the possibility of PRES, especially in high-risk group. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging are often characteristic and may be the first clue to the diagnosis. PMID:28042366

  14. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  15. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  16. Reversibility in nucleocytoplasmic transport

    PubMed Central

    Kopito, Ronen Benjamine; Elbaum, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic exchange of proteins and RNAs is mediated by receptors that usher their cargo through the nuclear pores. Peptide localization signals on each cargo determine the receptors with which it will interact. Those interactions are normally regulated by the small GTPase Ran. Hydrolysis of GTP provides the chemical energy required to create a bona fide thermodynamic pump that selectively and directionally accumulates its substrates across the nuclear envelope. A common perception is that cargo delivery is irreversible, e.g., a protein imported to the nucleus does not return to the cytoplasm except perhaps via a specific export receptor. Quantitative measurements using cell-free nuclei reconstituted in Xenopus egg extract show that nuclear accumulation follows first-order kinetics and reaches steady state at a level that follows a Michaelis–Menten function of the cytoplasmic cargo concentration. This saturation suggests that receptor-mediated translocation across the nuclear pore occurs bidirectionally. The reversibility of accumulation was demonstrated directly by exchange of the cytosolic medium and by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Based on our results, we offer a simple biophysical model that predicts the observed behavior. A far-reaching consequence is that the nuclear localization signal dictates the fate of a protein population rather than that of the individual molecules that bear it, which remain free to shuttle back and forth. This implies an open communication between the nucleus and cytoplasm and a ubiquitous mechanism for signaling in both directions. PMID:17646647

  17. Correlation of electrostatic fluctuation and reversal of toroidal field in the reversed-field pinch plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Koguchi, Haruhisa; Sakakita, Hajime; Hirano, Yoichi; Kiyama, Satoru

    2011-06-15

    The magnetic fluctuations and electrostatic probe potential have been measured in the Toroidal Pinch Experiment - RX (TPE-RX) reversed-field pinch plasma [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)] (at the plasma surface r/a = 1.00). Fast electrons with energy comparable to or slightly higher than the core electron temperature are observed as many spikes in the electrostatic probe signal. These electrons are diffused by a fluctuating magnetic field from the core region. During the period of mild deepening of the reversal of the edge toroidal field, a significant reduction in the spike signal, increases in electron density and soft x-ray radiation, and a decrease in the D{alpha} line radiation are observed, even though the reduction in magnetic fluctuations is not significant during the same period, which indicates that the mild deepening of the reversal of the toroidal field can improve the confinement of fast electrons.

  18. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  19. Play: The Reversal Theory Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, J. H.

    The intention of this theoretical paper is to present a reversal theory interpretation of play phenomena. Reversal theory, a developing theory in psychology, concerns the complex relationship between experience and motivation. One of the central charactieristics of the theory is that it attempts to understand why so much of human behavior is…

  20. Reverse Transfer Project, Summer 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Elizabeth

    In 1986, a Reverse Transfer Project was initiated at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) in order to promote the summer school attendance at MVCC of "reverse transfer" students (i.e., students who attended another institution during the regular academic year). A mailing, containing a cover letter, informational brochure, summer catalog, and…

  1. Preference Reversal in Multiattribute Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; Chater, Nick

    2010-01-01

    A central puzzle for theories of choice is that people's preferences between options can be reversed by the presence of decoy options (that are not chosen) or by the presence of other irrelevant options added to the choice set. Three types of reversal effect reported in the decision-making literature, the attraction, compromise, and similarity…

  2. Reversal with sugammadex for rocuronium-induced deep neuromuscular block after pretreatment of magnesium sulfate in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Woon Seok; Song, Shin Mi

    2017-01-01

    Background Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been used in the treatment of pre-eclampsia, hypertension and arrhythmia. Magnesium enhances the neuromuscular block of rocuronium. This study has been conducted to evaluate the reversal efficacy of sugammadex from deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during consistent pretreatment of MgSO4 in rabbits. Methods Twenty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups, a control group or study groups (50% MgSO4 150–200 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg/h IV), and received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. When post-tetanic count 1–2 appeared, sugammadex 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg was administered in the 2-mg group, control and 4-mg group, and 8-mg group, respectively. The recovery course after reversal of sugammadex administration was evaluated in each group. Results The mean serum concentration of magnesium was maintained at more than 2 mmol/L in the study groups, and the total dose of MgSO4 was more than 590 mg. The reversal effect of sugammadex on rocuronium-induced NMB in pretreated MgSO4 was not different from that in the group without MgSO4. The recovery time to train-of-four ratio 0.9 after sugammadex administration in the 2-mg group was longer than in the other groups (P < 0.001); there were no other significant differences among the groups. Conclusions The reversal of sugammadex from a deep rocuronium-induced NMB during large pretreatment of MgSO4 was not affected. However, we should consider that the reversal effect of sugammadex varied depending on the dose. PMID:28367292

  3. Classical Analog to Entanglement Reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Ben; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2015-08-01

    In this Letter we study the problem of secrecy reversibility. This asks when two honest parties can distill secret bits from some tripartite distribution pX Y Z and transform secret bits back into pX Y Z at equal rates using local operation and public communication. This is the classical analog to the well-studied problem of reversibly concentrating and diluting entanglement in a quantum state. We identify the structure of distributions possessing reversible secrecy when one of the honest parties holds a binary distribution, and it is possible that all reversible distributions have this form. These distributions are more general than what is obtained by simply constructing a classical analog to the family of quantum states known to have reversible entanglement. An indispensable tool used in our analysis is a conditional form of the Gács-Körner common information.

  4. The Reversal of Stoma Following Open Abdomen Management.

    PubMed

    Yetişir, Fahri; Şarer, AkgünEbru; Acar, H Zafer; Çiftciler, Erdinç

    2016-06-01

    Bowel stoma formation is very often required during open abdomen (OA) management; we aim to report our stoma reversal series following OA management retrospectively. A retrospective analysis of 31 patients who underwent the reversal of the stoma created during OA management between January 2008 and September 2014 was performed. Twenty-eight of these 31 patients were included in this study. The stoma-related complications are more common after OA management during waiting time interval for reversal. At this time interval, patients with jejunostomy had more stoma-related complications than patients with ileostomy (p = 0.008) and colostomy. (p = 0.001). Waiting time interval was shorter for reversal of jejunostomy than reversal of ileostomy (p = 0.014) and colostomy (p = 0.001). Operation time for jejunostomy (p = 0.016) and colostomy reversal (p = 0.001) were significantly longer than the ileostomy reversal. There was no difference between early and late reversal of stoma regarding morbidity and mortality. The stoma-related complications are more common following OA management during waiting time interval for stoma reversal. The reversal time is more critical for this kind of patients especially with life-threatening complicated jejunostomy. For loop stoma created during OA management, the reversal may be performed after average 50 days without increasing morbidity and mortality. The reversal of end stoma created during OA management has high morbidity. If it is possible, loop stoma should be preferred during OA management.

  5. Asenapine Effects on Cognitive and Monoamine Dysfunction Elicited by Subchronic Phencyclidine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, John D.; Groman, Stephanie; Jentsch, J. David; Valles, Rodrigo; Shahid, Mohammed; Wong, Erik; Marston, Hugh; Roth, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    of administration and reaching significance after 2–4 weeks of dosing. In week 4, the improvement with asenapine 150 μg/kg (p=0.01) rendered the performance of PCP-exposed monkeys indistinguishable from that of normal monkeys without compromising fine motor function. Asenapine administration (150 μg/kg twice daily) produced an increase in dopamine and serotonin turnover in most brain regions of control monkeys and asenapine (50–150 μg/kg) increased dopamine and serotonin turnover in several brain regions of subchronic PCP-treated monkeys. No significant changes in the steady-state levels of dopamine or serotonin were observed in any brain region except for the central amygdala, in which a significant depletion of dopamine was observed in PCP-treated control monkeys; asenapine treatment reversed this dopamine depletion. A significant decrease in serotonin utilization was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in PCP monkeys, which may underlie poor reversal learning. In the same brain regions, dopamine utilization was not affected. Asenapine ameliorated this serotonin deficit in a dose-related manner that matched its efficacy for reversing the cognitive deficit. Conclusions In this model of cognitive dysfunction, asenapine produced substantial gains in executive functions that were maintained with long-term administration. The cognition-enhancing effects of asenapine and the neurochemical changes in serotonin and dopamine turnover seen in this study are hypothesized to be primarily related to its potent serotonergic and noradrenergic receptor binding properties, and support the potential for asenapine to reduce cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:21875607

  6. Effects of vitamin E administration on Plasmodium berghei induced pathological changes and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M A; Zuwahu, M M B; Isah, M B; Jatau, I D; Aliyu, A B; Umar, I A

    2012-03-01

    The effects of daily intraperitoneal doses of 1000 i.u/kg body weight of vitamin E on the course of Plasmodium berghei NK 65 infection and the parasite-induced anemia as well as alterations in the relative weight of some selected organs and antioxidant status in mice were investigated. The number of parasitized red cells were not initially affected by the vitamin administration but were persistently lowered after 11th day post infection to the termination of the experiment. The P. berghei infection was found to induce anemia, significantly (P<0.05) increased the relative weight of liver, spleen and kidney but significantly decreased (P<0.05) the relative brain weight. However, all the parasite-induced changes in these parameters were significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated by the vitamin administration. Furthermore, malonydialdehyde concentration in the serum, liver and brain of infected animals was significantly (P<0.05) increased whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by the infection. But vitamin E administration was found to, a significant degree (P<0.05), reversed the disease-induced alterations in these oxidative stress markers. It was concluded that vitamin E at the dose and route used prevented P. berghei induced anemia as well as alterations in relative organ weight and antioxidant status in mice.

  7. Reversal and Rotation Errors by Normal and Retarded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, F. William

    1973-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the incidence of and relationships among word and letter reversals in writing and Bender-Gestalt rotation errors in matched samples of normal and retarded readers. No significant diffenences were found in the two groups. (TO)

  8. Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M. ); Miller, K. )

    1994-09-01

    Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

  9. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  10. [Effect of intra-amnial thyroxine administration in the fetus].

    PubMed

    Dudenhausen, J W

    1984-12-01

    Stimulation of the surfactant production in foetal lung cells by thyroxine has been shown in experiments on animals. In humans, too, thyroxine instilled intra-amnially should increase lung maturity. Therefore, amniotic fluid samples were taken from 22 women before the 35th week of gestation before instilling 500 micrograms levothyroxine and then during labour, and blood samples were taken half an hour and also 24 hours after instillation of thyroxine into the amniotic fluid and during labour. The concentration of thyroxine, triiodinethyronine and reversed triiodinethyronine were measured radioimmunologically in the amniotic fluid samples and blood samples, and the lecithin concentration was also determined enzymatically in the amniotic fluid samples. The occurrence of cases of membrane syndrome in the examined group, and the foetal heart rate were subsequently determined after thyroxine had been administered. The results showed that the foetus resorbed the thyroxine administered intra-amnially and--in a manner typical of foetal metabolism--converted it by preference to rT3. The thyroxine dosage leads to only a temporary increase in foetal thyroid gland hormones. The thyroxine given intra-amnially is not absorbed in considerable amounts by the mother. The lecithin content of the amniotic fluid was significantly increased after a dose of thyroxine, possibly a reversible increase. The membrane syndrome rate laid below the expected number; in 5 of the 22 cases a foetal tachycardia was observed about 2 days after thyroxine administration.

  11. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  12. Reversal of a Suspected Paradoxical Reaction to Zopiclone with Flumazenil

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Cheme; Roust Aaberg, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    We describe the care for an elderly woman who was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) to receive noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After administration of the sleeping pill zopiclone, a nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonist (NBRA), the patient became agitated and was confused, a possible paradoxical reaction to benzodiazepines. These symptoms were immediately resolved after treatment with flumazenil, usually used to reverse the adverse effects of benzodiazepines or NBRAs and to reverse paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. This case indicates that zopiclone induced behavioral changes resembling a paradoxical reaction to benzodiazepines and these symptoms may be treated with flumazenil. PMID:27672456

  13. Sildenafil acutely reverses the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction response of the newborn pig.

    PubMed

    Tessler, Rogerio; Wu, Shengping; Fiori, Renato; Macgowan, Christopher K; Belik, Jaques

    2008-09-01

    Sildenafil is a pulmonary vasodilator shown to be effective in neonates, but conflicting data exist regarding its effect on arterial oxygenation. To address this issue, we tested the sildenafil effect on the piglet's hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) response. A segmental lung atelectasis was created by obstructing the corresponding bronchus. Total pulmonary and specific flows to the atelectatic and contra-lateral lobes were measured by magnetic resonance (MR) before and 30-min post sildenafil (0.2 and 1 mg/kg i.v.) or saline administration. Flow was reduced (p < 0.01) in the atelectatic and increased in the contra-lateral lobe indicating an effective HPV response. Sildenafil at both doses significantly (p < 0.01) increased flow solely to the atelectatic lobe. At a dose of 1 mg/kg, sildenafil induced a decrease in Pao2 from 285 +/- 37 to 161 +/- 22 mm Hg (p < 0.01). We conclude that the HPV response in the newborn is capable of almost completely reducing blood flow to nonventilated lung units and is reversed following sildenafil i.v. administration in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of lung parenchymal disease, the use of i.v. sildenafil as a pulmonary vasodilator may worsen arterial oxygenation by reversing the HPV response in nonventilated lung units.

  14. First order reversal curve studies of the magnetization reversal behavior in nanoscale magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Joseph Edward

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation investigates the magnetic reversal processes in three types of fundamentally interesting and technologically important materials. In a FORC measurement, ˜100 partial hysteresis curves are used to map out magnetization reversal processes. A partial derivative of the FORC data yields a distribution, rho, which contains detailed information about the magnetization reversal processes. Throughout this thesis, the FORC method was developed into a rigorous experimental tool to address challenges in studying magnetization reversal. The materials studied are: Co/Pt multilayers, spring magnets, and La1-xSrxCoO3. Co/Pt multilayer thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy show three distinct stages for reversal. Significant irreversible switching persists well beyond the apparent saturation field due to residual domains. These residual domains fell below the resolution limit of transmission x-ray microscopy measurements. In the conventional spring magnet Fe/epitaxial-SmCo, the reversal proceeds by reversible rotation of the Fe soft layer followed by irreversible switching of the SmCo hard layer. FORC studies of the Fe/epitaxial-SmCo spring magnets reveal rich features during partial SmCo layer demagnetization. Features at high fields track the amount of SmCo that has reversed while at low fields the change in interlayer coupling is observed. To directly measure the exchange field, a second order reversal curve (SORC) method is introduced. Comparison of the epitaxial Fe/SmCo is also made to FeNi/polycrystalline-FePt where the FeNi and FePt layers reverse in a continuous manner. La1-xSrxCoO3 shows a variation in magnetic behavior ranging from isolated ferromagnetic clusters to long range bulk ferromagnetic order with increased Sr doping. This manifests itself in an evolution in rho ranging from little feature at low doping to features tilting towards negative bias at high doping indicating an onset of long range FM order. With increasing temperature

  15. Reverse Genetics in Ecological Research

    PubMed Central

    Schwachtje, Jens; Kutschbach, Susan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2008-01-01

    By precisely manipulating the expression of individual genetic elements thought to be important for ecological performance, reverse genetics has the potential to revolutionize plant ecology. However, untested concerns about possible side-effects of the transformation technique, caused by Agrobacterium infection and tissue culture, on plant performance have stymied research by requiring onerous sample sizes. We compare 5 independently transformed Nicotiana attenuata lines harboring empty vector control (EVC) T-DNA lacking silencing information with isogenic wild types (WT), and measured a battery of ecologically relevant traits, known to be important in plant-herbivore interactions: phytohormones, secondary metabolites, growth and fitness parameters under stringent competitive conditions, and transcriptional regulation with microarrays. As a positive control, we included a line silenced in trypsin proteinase inhibitor gene (TPI) expression, a potent anti-herbivore defense known to exact fitness costs in its expression, in the analysis. The experiment was conducted twice, with 10 and 20 biological replicates per genotype. For all parameters, we detected no difference between any EVC and WT lines, but could readily detect a fitness benefit of silencing TPI production. A statistical power analyses revealed that the minimum sample sizes required for detecting significant fitness differences between EVC and WT was 2–3 orders of magnitude larger than the 10 replicates required to detect a fitness effect of TPI silencing. We conclude that possible side-effects of transformation are far too low to obfuscate the study of ecologically relevant phenotypes. PMID:18253491

  16. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  18. Normal CSF levels of met-enkephalin-like material in a case of naloxone-reversible congenital insensitivity to pain.

    PubMed

    Cesselin, F; Bourgoin, S; Hamon, M; Artaud, F; Testut, M F; Rascol, A; Montastruc, J L

    1984-05-01

    In a case of naloxone-reversible congenital insensitivity to pain, met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the CSF was in the normal range and not affected by the administration of naloxone. Chromatographic analysis of the met-enkephalin-like material revealed that it corresponded to at least two classes of molecules. A clear difference in the relative proportions of these two classes was detected in the CSF of the patient insensitive to pain when compared to controls. The possible functional significance of this alteration is discussed in relation to the well known antinociceptive action of enkephalins.

  19. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  20. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  1. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  2. Traditionalism and Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mark

    Administration is defined as the enactment of moral choices influencing subordinates within an organizational setting. It is distinguished from management, which is considered to involve a lower level of discretion. Educational administration is therefore in the moral domain; it involves discretionary, moral choices in a field that is itself moral…

  3. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  4. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  5. Administrative Theory in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    This monograph analyzes transition in educational administrative theory. A brief introductory section describes the theoretical movement, the substance and repercussions of Thomas Greenfield's critique of educational administrative theory in 1974, and emerging qualitative approaches. Seven readings, all written by the volume's author, view…

  6. Improving Educational Administrative Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, A. E.

    This paper discusses the financial crisis facing public education in the United States today and argues that the most effective response to this crisis is to improve the decision-making skills of educational administrators. Based on a review of the literature on administrative decision-making and organizational change, the author examines several…

  7. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…

  8. Handbook for the ESL/ABE Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Joanna Sculley; Daugherty, John

    This 1975 handbook consists of three books to be used, together or independently, by administrators in developing, implementing, and evaluating an adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program. The first book, an administrator's checklist, is designed as an inventory that specifies succinctly the critical and significant program elements. The…

  9. Preparing College Administrators: Fact and Fancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalcup, Robert J.; Wilson, Jerry L.

    The universality of administrative functions and tasks is sufficiently established to make special preparation programs for any one group of higher education administrators unjustifiable. This thesis is based on research undertaken to determine if significant differences existed in the functions or tasks performed by presidents, vice-presidents of…

  10. Reverse engineering quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeckl, Robert

    2012-12-01

    An approach to the foundations of quantum theory is advertised that proceeds by "reverse engineering" quantum field theory. As a concrete instance of this approach, the general boundary formulation of quantum theory is outlined.

  11. Dielectrophoresis of reverse phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rodriguez, N; Bryning, Z; Markx, G H

    2005-08-01

    Reverse miniemulsions, emulsions of droplets of size 200 nm-1 microm of a polar liquid dispersed in an apolar continuous liquid phase, exhibit strong electrokinetic responses in low-frequency electric fields. The electrokinetic behaviour of a reverse miniemulsion, previously developed for use as electronic paper, has been investigated under static and flow conditions, in uniform and non-uniform electric fields. Results reveal that when using frequencies lower than 10 Hz strong aggregation of the droplets occurs. In uniform electric fields, under static conditions, droplets reversibly aggregate into honeycomb-like or irregular aggregates. Under flow conditions, droplets aggregate into approximately equidistant streams. In non-uniform electric fields the droplets reversibly aggregate in high-field regions, and can be guided along regions of high field strength in a flow. The potential of the technique for the formation of structured materials is discussed.

  12. Deciphering records of geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Polarity reversals of the geomagnetic field are a major feature of the Earth's dynamo. Questions remain regarding the dynamical processes that give rise to reversals and the properties of the geomagnetic field during a polarity transition. A large number of paleomagnetic reversal records have been acquired during the past 50 years in order to better constrain the structure and geometry of the transitional field. In addition, over the past two decades, numerical dynamo simulations have also provided insights into the reversal mechanism. Yet despite the large paleomagnetic database, controversial interpretations of records of the transitional field persist; they result from two characteristics inherent to all reversals, both of which are detrimental to an ambiguous analysis. On the one hand, the reversal process is rapid and requires adequate temporal resolution. On the other hand, weak field intensities during a reversal can affect the fidelity of magnetic recording in sedimentary records. This paper is aimed at reviewing critically the main reversal features derived from paleomagnetic records and at analyzing some of these features in light of numerical simulations. We discuss in detail the fidelity of the signal extracted from paleomagnetic records and pay special attention to their resolution with respect to the timing and mechanisms involved in the magnetization process. Records from marine sediments dominate the database. They give rise to transitional field models that often lead to overinterpret the data. Consequently, we attempt to separate robust results (and their subsequent interpretations) from those that do not stand on a strong observational footing. Finally, we discuss new avenues that should favor progress to better characterize and understand transitional field behavior.

  13. Novel designs of nanometric parity preserving reversible compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoaei, Soghra; Haghparast, Majid

    2014-08-01

    Reversible logic is a new field of study that has applications in optical information processing, low power CMOS design, DNA computing, bioinformatics, and nanotechnology. Low power consumption is a basic issue in VLSI circuits today. To prevent the distribution of errors in the quantum circuit, the reversible logic gates must be converted into fault-tolerant quantum operations. Parity preserving is used to realize fault tolerant in this circuits. This paper proposes a new parity preserving reversible gate. We named it NPPG gate. The most significant aspect of the NPPG gate is that it can be used to produce parity preserving reversible full adder circuit. The proposed parity preserving reversible full adder using NPPG gate is more efficient than the existing designs in term of quantum cost and it is optimized in terms of number of constant inputs and garbage outputs. Compressors are of importance in VLSI and digital signal processing applications. Effective VLSI compressors reduce the impact of carry propagation of arithmetic operations. They are built from the full adder blocks. We also proposed three new approaches of parity preservation reversible 4:2 compressor circuits. The third design is better than the previous two in terms of evaluation parameters. The important contributions have been made in the literature toward the design of reversible 4:2 compressor circuits; however, there are not efforts toward the design of parity preservation reversible 4:2 compressor circuits. All the scales are in the nanometric criteria.

  14. The effects of cortisol administration on approach-avoidance behavior: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Roelofs, Karin; Rotteveel, Mark; van Dijk, J Gert; Spinhoven, Philip; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the effects of cortisol administration (50 mg) on approach and avoidance tendencies in low and high trait avoidant healthy young men. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which participants evaluated the emotional expression of photographs of happy and angry faces by making an approaching (flexion) or avoiding (extension) arm movement. The task consisted of an affect-congruent (approach happy faces and avoid angry faces) and an affect-incongruent (reversed instruction) condition. Behavioral and ERP analyses showed that cortisol enhanced congruency effects for angry faces in highly avoidant individuals only. The ERP effects involved an increase of both early (P150) and late (P3) positive amplitudes, indicative of increased processing of the angry faces in high avoidant subjects after cortisol administration. Together, these results suggest a context-specific effect of cortisol on processing of, and adaptive responses to, motivationally significant threat stimuli, particularly in participants highly sensitive to threat signals.

  15. Modafinil administration improves working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals who demonstrate baseline impairment.

    PubMed

    Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Modafinil improves working memory in healthy subjects and individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, though the effects of modafinil have not been evaluated on working memory in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated whether a daily dose of 400 mg of modafinil, administered over three consecutive days, would enhance performance on a measure of working memory relative to test performance at baseline and following 3 days of placebo administration in 11 methamphetamine addicted, nontreatment-seeking volunteers. The results revealed that participants demonstrating relatively poor performance on the third day of a 3-day washout period (ie, at baseline), showed significant improvement on measures of working memory, but not on measures of episodic memory or information processing speed. In contrast, for participants demonstrating relatively high performance at baseline, modafinil administration did not affect test scores. The findings provide an initial indication that modafinil can reverse methamphetamine-associated impairments in working memory.

  16. Safe administration of blood components.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katy

    The transfusion process has many stages, each involving different members of staff in different locations. This gives rise to a significant potential for errors. Nurses are involved in many of these stages and therefore require knowledge, skills and competence in the process to ensure the safety of patients. This third article in our five-part series on blood transfusion discusses the safe administration of blood components and the key principles to which nurses must adhere.

  17. GDNF reverses priming for dyskinesia in MPTP-treated, L-DOPA-primed common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Iravani, M M; Costa, S; Jackson, M J; Tel, B C; Cannizzaro, C; Pearce, R K; Jenner, P

    2001-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and degeneration of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum. Although L-DOPA treatment provides the most effective symptomatic relief for PD it does not prevent the progression of the disease, and its long-term use is associated with the onset of dyskinesia. In rodent and primate studies, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) may prevent 6-OHDA- or MPTP-induced nigral degeneration and so may be beneficial in the treatment of PD. In this study, we investigate the effects of GDNF on the expression of dyskinesia in L-DOPA-primed MPTP-treated common marmosets, exhibiting dyskinesia. GDNF or saline was administered by two intraventricular injections, 4 weeks apart, to MPTP-treated, L-DOPA-treated common marmosets primed to exhibit dyskinesia. Prior to GDNF or saline administration, all animals displayed marked dyskinesia when treated with L-DOPA. GDNF administration produced a significant improvement in motor disability and, following the second injection of GDNF, a significant improvement in the locomotor activity was observed. Following the administration of L-DOPA there was a greater reversal of disability and a reduction in the intensity of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in GDNF-treated animals compared to saline-treated controls. However, there was no significant difference in L-DOPA's ability to increase locomotor activity between GDNF-treated and saline-treated animals. GDNF treatment caused a significant increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra, but no change in [(3)H]mazindol binding to dopamine terminals was found in the striatum of GDNF-treated animals compared to saline-treated controls. In GDNF-treated animals a small but significant reduction in enkephalin mRNA was observed in the caudate nucleus but not in the putamen or the nucleus accumbens. Substance P mRNA expression was equally reduced in the

  18. Arenavirus reverse genetics for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Riaño, Emilio; Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; Carlos de la Torre, Juan; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2013-06-01

    Arenaviruses are important human pathogens with no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed vaccines available and current antiviral therapy being limited to an off-label use of the nucleoside analogue ribavirin of limited prophylactic efficacy. The development of reverse genetics systems represented a major breakthrough in arenavirus research. However, rescue of recombinant arenaviruses using current reverse genetics systems has been restricted to rodent cells. In this study, we describe the rescue of recombinant arenaviruses from human 293T cells and Vero cells, an FDA-approved line for vaccine development. We also describe the generation of novel vectors that mediate synthesis of both negative-sense genome RNA and positive-sense mRNA species of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) directed by the human RNA polymerases I and II, respectively, within the same plasmid. This approach reduces by half the number of vectors required for arenavirus rescue, which could facilitate virus rescue in cell lines approved for human vaccine production but that cannot be transfected at high efficiencies. We have shown the feasibility of this approach by rescuing both the Old World prototypic arenavirus LCMV and the live-attenuated vaccine Candid#1 strain of the New World arenavirus Junín. Moreover, we show the feasibility of using these novel strategies for efficient rescue of recombinant tri-segmented both LCMV and Candid#1.

  19. Rationale and design of the randomized, double-blind trial testing INtraveNous and Oral administration of elinogrel, a selective and reversible P2Y(12)-receptor inhibitor, versus clopidogrel to eVAluate Tolerability and Efficacy in nonurgent Percutaneous Coronary Interventions patients (INNOVATE-PCI).

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Sergio; Rao, Sunil V; Harrington, Robert A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Gibson, C Michael; Roe, Matthew T; Kochman, Janusz; Huber, Kurt; Zeymer, Uwe; Madan, Mina; Gretler, Daniel D; McClure, Matthew W; Paynter, Gayle E; Thompson, Vivian; Welsh, Robert C

    2010-07-01

    Despite current dual-antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel, adverse clinical events continue to occur during and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The failure of clopidogrel to provide optimal protection may be related to delayed onset of action, interpatient variability in its effect, and an insufficient level of platelet inhibition. Furthermore, the irreversible binding of clopidogrel to the P2Y(12) receptor for the life span of the platelet is associated with increased bleeding risk especially during urgent or emergency surgery. Novel antiplatelet agents are required to improve management of patients undergoing PCI. Elinogrel is a potent, direct-acting (ie, non-prodrug), selective, competitive, and reversible P2Y(12) inhibitor available in both intravenous and oral formulations. The INNOVATE-PCI study is a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, clopidogrel-controlled trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of this novel antiplatelet agent in patients undergoing nonurgent PCI.

  20. Auraptene consolidates memory, reverses scopolamine-disrupted memory in passive avoidance task, and ameliorates retention deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizian, Kaveh; Yaghoobi, Najmeh Sadat; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Shahraki, Jafar; Rezaee, Ramin; Hashemzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Auraptene (7-geranyloxycoumarin) (AUR), from Citrus species has shown anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and beta-secretase inhibitory effects. Scopolamine is a nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist which causes short-term memory impairments and is used for inducing animal model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This research aimed to investigate the effect of AUR on scopolamine-induced avoidance memory retention deficits in step-through task in mice. Materials and Methods: The effect of four-day pre-training injections of AUR (50, 75, and 100 mg/kg, subcutaneous (SC)) and scopolamine (1 mg/kg, IP), and their co-administration on avoidance memory retention in step-through passive avoidance task, was investigated by measuring the latency to enter to the dark chamber. Results: Pre-training administration of AUR caused significant increase in step-through latency in comparison with control group, 48, 96, and 168 hr after training trial. The findings of this study showed that scopolamine (1 mg/kg, IP, for four consecutive days) impaired passive avoidance memory retention compared to saline-treated animals. Step-through passive avoidance task results showed that AUR markedly reversed scopolamine-induced avoidance memory retention impairments, 24 and 168 hr after training trial in step-through task. Conclusion: Results from co-administration of AUR and scopolamine showed that AUR reversed scopolamine-induced passive avoidance memory retention impairments. PMID:26730337

  1. Anomalous spontaneous reversal in magnetic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Pan; Eisenmenger, Johannes; Miller, Casey W; Schuller, Ivan K

    2006-04-07

    We observe a thermally induced spontaneous magnetization reversal of epitaxial ferromagnet/antiferromagnet heterostructures under a constant applied magnetic field. Unlike any other magnetic system, the magnetization spontaneously reverses, aligning antiparallel to an applied field with decreasing temperature. We show that this unusual phenomenon is caused by the interfacial antiferromagnetic coupling overcoming the Zeeman energy of the ferromagnet. A significant temperature hysteresis exists, whose height and width can be tuned by the field applied during thermal cycling. The hysteresis originates from the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy in the system. The observation of this phenomenon leads to open questions in the general understanding of magnetic heterostructures. Moreover, this shows that in general heterogeneous nanostructured materials may exhibit unexpected phenomena absent in the bulk.

  2. Reversible State Transition in Nanoconfined Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Wang, Chunlei; Liu, Jian; Wen, Binghai; Tu, Yusong; Wang, Zuowei; Fang, Haiping

    2014-02-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we find a reversible transition between the dispersion and aggregation states of solute molecules in aqueous solutions confined in nanoscale geometry, which is not observed in macroscopic systems. The nanoscale confinement also leads to a significant increase of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC). A theoretical model based on Gibbs free energy calculation is developed to describe the simulation results. It indicates that the reversible state transition is attributed to the low free energy barrier (of order kBT) in between two energy minima corresponding to the dispersion and aggregation states, and the enhancement of the CAC results from the fact that at lower concentrations the number of solute molecules is not large enough to allow the formation of a stable cluster in the confined systems.

  3. Forward and reverse transfer function model synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A process for synthesizing a mathematical model for a linear mechanical system using the forward and reverse Fourier transform functions is described. The differential equation for a system model is given. The Bode conversion of the differential equation, and the frequency and time-domain optimization matching of the model to the forward and reverse transform functions using the geometric simplex method of Nelder and Mead (1965) are examined. The effect of the window function on the linear mechanical system is analyzed. The model is applied to two examples; in one the signal damps down before the end of the time window and in the second the signal has significant energy at the end of the time window.

  4. Thermodynamically reversible processes in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, John D.

    2017-02-01

    Equilibrium states are used as limit states to define thermodynamically reversible processes. When these processes are understood in terms of statistical physics, these limit states can change with time due to thermal fluctuations. For macroscopic systems, the changes are insignificant on ordinary time scales and what little change there is can be suppressed by macroscopically negligible, entropy-creating dissipation. For systems of molecular sizes, the changes are large on short time scales. They can only sometimes be suppressed with significant entropy-creating dissipation, and this entropy creation is unavoidable if any process is to proceed to completion. As a result, at molecular scales, thermodynamically reversible processes are impossible in principle. Unlike the macroscopic case, they cannot be realized even approximately when we account for all sources of dissipation, and argumentation invoking them on molecular scales can lead to spurious conclusions.

  5. Local anesthesia reversal.

    PubMed

    Malamed, Stanley F

    2010-03-01

    PM (OraVerse) enables the dentist or dental hygienist (where permitted) to significantly decrease the duration of residual STA in patients where such numbness may prove to be potentially injurious (children, geriatric, and special needs patients), or a negative influence on their quality of life (speaking, eating, negative body image). (Note: As of August 3, 2009, dental hygienists are permitted to administer PM in the following states: Alaska, Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, Montana, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin.)

  6. Reversible Rings with Involutions and Some Minimalities

    PubMed Central

    Fakieh, W. M.; Nauman, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    In continuation of the recent developments on extended reversibilities on rings, we initiate here a study on reversible rings with involutions, or, in short, ∗-reversible rings. These rings are symmetric, reversible, reflexive, and semicommutative. In this note we will study some properties and examples of ∗-reversible rings. It is proved here that the polynomial rings of ∗-reversible rings may not be ∗-reversible. A criterion for rings which cannot adhere to any involution is developed and it is observed that a minimal noninvolutary ring is of order 4 and that a minimal noncommutative ∗-reversible ring is of order 16. PMID:24489510

  7. Resolution of chronic bacterial-induced prostatic inflammation reverses established fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Letitia; Hutson, Paul R.; Bushman, Wade

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostatic inflammation has been suggested to contribute to the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms by inducing fibrosis. We previously used a well-characterized mouse model of bacterial-induced prostate inflammation to demonstrate that chronic prostatic inflammation induces collagen deposition. Here, we examined stability of the newly synthesized collagen in bacterial-induced prostatic inflammation and the reversibility of fibrosis after resolution of infection and inflammation. Methods Uropathogenic E. coli 1677 was instilled transurethrally into adult C3H/HeOuJ male mice to induce chronic prostatic inflammation. Collagen was labeled by 3H-proline administration for 28 days post-inoculation and 3H-hydroxyproline incorporation measured to determine stability of the newly synthesized collagen. Inflammation score was graded using a previously established system and total collagen content was measured by picrosirius red staining quantitation and hydroxyproline content. Resolution of inflammation and reversal of collagen deposition was assessed after treatment with antibiotic enrofloxacin for two weeks on day 28 post-inoculation followed by an eight-week recovery period. Results Decay analysis of incorporated 3H-hydroxyproline revealed the half-life of newly synthesized collagen to be significantly shorter in infected/inflamed prostates than in controls. Treatment with antibiotic enrofloxacin completely eradicated bacterial infection and allowed resolution of inflammation. This was followed by marked attenuation of collagen content and correlation analysis verified a positive association between the resolution of inflammation and the reversal of collagen deposition. Conclusions These data demonstrate, for the first time, that inflammation-induced prostatic fibrosis is a reversible process. PMID:25284058

  8. Drug Education for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Peter; McKeon, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    The formulation of a drug policy and the implementation of that policy in a firm but fair manner are the responsibility of the school administrator. Authors give serious consideration to this responsibility. (Editor/RK)

  9. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... blog post. April 11, 2017 ‘Organs-on-Chips’ Technology: FDA Testing Groundbreaking Science More FDA Voice Blog ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  10. Administrative Law Judges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  11. Needed: Nursing Administration Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Eunice M.

    1976-01-01

    A master's program that synthesizes clinical nursing knowledge with management theory and skills is one way to prepare nursing service administrators capable of exerting an influence on today's complex health care system. (Editor)

  12. The Administrator Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michael F.

    1974-01-01

    Proposes that education establish for administrators systematic, rigorous, albeit subjective, selection procedures that recognize the principle of organizational democracy and the public nature of the educational enterprise. (Author/DN)

  13. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  14. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  15. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  16. Company Administration Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    iTRATION CENTER AND FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON. INDIANA 46216 ATZI -XO 16 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...Mail, files, records management* publications, voting, etc.). ... AnnexA II ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company...administration as follows: A. 2 I * * " " " ’+ " " ’ ’ ’ ’’ ’ , ’" I ATZI -XO 18 October 1973 SUBJECT: Letter of Instruction - Company Administration Study tea

  17. Significance of periodogram peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne; Zucker, Shay

    2016-10-01

    Three versions of significance measures or False Alarm Probabilities (FAPs) for periodogram peaks are presented and compared for sinusoidal and box-like signals, with specific application on large-scale surveys in mind.

  18. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Abhishek P; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42–60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%–6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery. PMID:26975488

  19. Oral chelators in transfusion-dependent thalassemia major patients may prevent or reverse iron overload complications.

    PubMed

    Farmaki, Kallistheni; Tzoumari, Ioanna; Pappa, Christina

    2011-06-15

    Combined chelation treatment may be a better approach for transfusion-dependent thalassemia major patients with iron overload complications because of increased efficacy. Combination therapy with desferrioxamine and deferiprone has already been reported to improve survival dramatically by reversing cardiac dysfunction and other endocrine complications. Some patients have intolerance or inconvenience to parenteral desferrioxamine. The hypothesis of this study was that combining two oral chelators, deferiprone and deferasirox, might lead to similar results. Following approval by the hospital ethical committee and a written informed consent from each patient, 16 patients who fulfilled the criteria participated in a study protocol for a period of up to 2 years. Efficacy measures analysis demonstrated a statistically significant decrease of total body iron load as estimated by serum ferritin, LIC and MRI T2* indices. Regarding the safety assessment, the incidence of adverse events was minor compared to the associated toxicity of monotherapy of each drug. No new onset of iron overload-related complications was demonstrated. A reversal of cardiac dysfunction was observed in 2/4 patients, while the mean LVEF increased significantly. Regarding endocrine assessment, in 2/8 patients with impaired glucose tolerance, we noted a significant decrease in the mean 2h glucose in OGTT. Additionally an improvement in gonadal function was observed and one male and one female gave birth to two healthy children without hormonal stimulation. Combined oral chelation in thalassemia offers the promise of easier administration, better compliance and may lead to an improvement of patient quality of life by preventing or even reversing iron overload complications.

  20. N-Acetylcysteine Reverses Cocaine Induced Metaplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Khaled; Pacchioni, Alejandra; Moran, Megan; Olive, M. Foster; Gass, Justin T.; Lavin, Antonieta; Kalivas, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by an impaired ability to develop adaptive behaviors that can compete with cocaine seeking, implying a deficit in the ability to induce plasticity in cortico-accumbens circuitry critical for regulating motivated behavior. RWe found that rats withdrawn from cocaine self-administration had a marked in vivo deficit in the ability to develop long-term potentation (LTP) and depression (LTD) in the nucleus accumbens core subregion following stimulation of prefrontal cortex. N-acetylcysteine treatment prevents relapse in animal models and craving in humans by activating cystine-glutamate exchange and thereby stimulating extrasynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). N-acetylcysteine treatment restored the ability to induce LTP and LTD by indirectly stimulating mGluR2/3 and mGluR5, respectively. Cocaine self-administration induces metaplasticity that inhibits the further induction of synaptic plasticity, and this impairment can be reversed by N-acetylcysteine, a drug that also prevents relapse. PMID:19136971

  1. Reverse shift mechanism for automotive manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, M.; Ogawa, S.

    1987-03-03

    A reverse shift mechanism is described for an automotive manual transmission of a type having a reverse idler gear which is movable to selectively complete a reverse gear train, the reverse shift mechanism comprising: a reverse shift arm having a portion disposed adjacent the reverse idler gear and pivotally carried with respect to a transmission casing so that the portion rocks along a direction of axis of the reverse idler gear in response to shifting operation. The portion of the reverse shift arm is provided with a blind hole which is open at a first end toward the reverse idler gear and is closed at a second end away from the reverse idler gear; and a shift arm shoe carried by the portion of the reverse shift arm adjacent the reverse idler gear for pushing the reverse idler gear. The shift arm shoe has an end adapted to engage with a circumferential groove formed in the reverse idler gear and an opposing end shaped to fit in the blind hole of the reverse shift arm; whereby the shift arm shoe is prevented from coming off during assembly by virtue of a vacuum effect created by air confined in the blind hole by fitting engagement between the opposing end and the blind hole, and is held in place after assembly by being clamped between the groove of the reverse idler gear and the blind hole of the reverse shift arm.

  2. Reversal of chemical-induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats by puerarin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuihua; Ji, Guang; Liu, Jianwen

    2006-07-01

    Puerarin is a major isoflavonoid compound isolated from Pueraria lobata, an edible vine used widely for various medicinal purposes. It has been used for centuries in China to counteract alcohol intoxication. However, the effects of puerarin on chemical-induced liver fibrosis have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of puerarin on liver fibrosis in Wistar rats induced by alcohol plus carbon tetrachloride administration. Liver fibrosis was produced in rats by treatment with a mixture (50% alcohol, 8 g/kg per day; corn oil, 2 g/kg per day; pyrazole, 24 mg/kg per day; ig) once a day and by intraperitoneal injection of 0.25 ml/kg of a 25% solution of carbon tetrachloride in olive oil twice a week for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, treatment with puerarin (0.4 and 0.8 g/kg ig, daily for 4 weeks) was conducted to examine its therapeutic effects. At the same time, the model group and treatment group continued to receive the chemical mixture, while the control group received saline instead of the chemical mixture. Upon pathological examination, the puerarin-treated rats significantly reversed the symptoms of liver fibrosis and other hepatic lesions. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as indexes of hepatic cell disruption, were reduced with puerarin treatment, whereas no significant effect was discovered in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities. A significant increase in apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) was found by flow cytometric analysis of the hepatic tissues. And the expression of bcl-2 mRNA was down-regulated after puerarin administration. Consequently, all these results showed that puerarin could effectively reverse chemical-induced liver fibrosis in experimental rats, via the recovery of hepatic injury as well as the induction of apoptosis in activated HSC.

  3. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed lagging-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with lagging-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Summer Research Assistantship (SRA) Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  4. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring By Reverse Iontophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anroop B; Goel, Ankit; Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic molecules possessing distinct pharmacokinetic variation, narrow therapeutic index and concentration dependent therapeutic/adverse effects demand constant monitoring. The current methods for blood sampling are invasive and possess low patient compliance. Human skin, selective and effective membrane to chemical permeation, offers an alternative route for the extraction of endogenous molecules in the body. Significant attention has been received in the application of reverse iontophoresis in extracting drugs/biomaterials from the subdermal region. This technique involves transiting of a low electric current across the skin usually with couple of skin electrodes to extract charged as well as neutral molecules. Electromigration and electroosmosis are the two basic mechanisms involved in transport of molecules. Several in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential of reverse iontophoresis as a noninvasive tool in clinical chemistry and therapeutic drug monitoring. This technology is currently being used in device such as Glucowatch Biogrpaher which allows blood glucose detection across skin layers. Advances in technology and rapid progress in research has widely improved the opportunity of this system, and the recent trend indicates that several products are likely to be developed very soon. This review provides an overview about the recent developments in reverse iontophoresis for therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:24826025

  5. Mode of GH administration and gene expression in the female rat brain.

    PubMed

    Walser, Marion; Schiöler, Linus; Oscarsson, Jan; Åberg, Maria A I; Wickelgren, Ruth; Svensson, Johan; Isgaard, Jörgen; Aberg, N David

    2017-03-08

    The endogenous secretion of growth hormone (GH) is sexually dimorphic in rats with females having a more even and males a more pulsatile secretion and low trough levels. The mode of GH administration, mimicking the sexually dimorphic secretion, has different systemic effects. In the brains of male rats, we have previously found that the mode of GH administration differently affects neuron haemoglobin beta (Hbb) expression whereas effects on other transcripts were moderate. The different modes of GH administration could have different effects on brain transcripts in female rats. Hypophysectomised female rats were given GH either as injections twice daily or as continuous infusion and GH-responsive transcripts were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the hippocampus and parietal cortex (cortex). The different modes of GH-administration markedly increased Hbb and 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (Alas2) in both brain regions. As other effects were relatively moderate, a mixed model analysis (MMA) was used to investigate general effects of the treatments. In the hippocampus, MMA showed that GH-infusion suppressed glia- and neuron-related transcript expression whereas GH-injections increased expression. In the cortex, GH-infusion instead increased neuron-related transcripts, whereas GH-injections had no significant effect. Interestingly, this contrasts to previous results from male rat cortex where GH-infusion generally decreased expression levels. In conclusion, the results indicate that there is a small but significant difference in response to mode of GH administration, in the hippocampus as compared to the cortex. For both modes of GH administration, there was a robust effect on Hbb and Alas2.

  6. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  7. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed-for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants' responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants' performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse's approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks.

  8. Reverse Genetics Approaches to Control Arenavirus

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Several arenavirus cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health problem in their endemic regions. To date, no licensed vaccines are available to combat human arenavirus infections, and anti-arenaviral drug therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. The development of arenavirus reverse genetics approaches provides investigators with a novel and powerful approach for the investigation of the arenavirus molecular and cell biology. The use of cell-based minigenome systems has allowed examining the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in arenavirus replication and transcription and the identification of novel anti-arenaviral drug targets without requiring the use of live forms of arenaviruses. Likewise, it is now feasible to rescue infectious arenaviruses entirely from cloned cDNAs containing predetermined mutations in their genomes to investigate virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis, as well as to facilitate screens to identify anti-arenaviral drugs and development of novel live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. Recently, reverse genetics have also allowed the generation of tri-segmented arenaviruses expressing foreign genes, facilitating virus detection and opening the possibility of implementing live-attenuated arenavirus-based vaccine vector approaches. Likewise, the development of single-cycle infectious, reporter-expressing, arenaviruses has provided a new experimental method to study some aspects of the biology of highly pathogenic arenaviruses without the requirement of high-security biocontainment required to study HF-causing arenaviruses. In this chapter we summarize the current knowledge on arenavirus reverse genetics and the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques for the development of arenavirus vaccines and vaccine vectors. PMID:27076139

  9. Reverse Genetics Approaches to Control Arenavirus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Several arenavirus cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health problem in their endemic regions. To date, no licensed vaccines are available to combat human arenavirus infections, and anti-arenaviral drug therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. The development of arenavirus reverse genetics approaches provides investigators with a novel and powerful approach for the investigation of the arenavirus molecular and cell biology. The use of cell-based minigenome systems has allowed examining the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in arenavirus replication and transcription and the identification of novel anti-arenaviral drug targets without requiring the use of live forms of arenaviruses. Likewise, it is now feasible to rescue infectious arenaviruses entirely from cloned cDNAs containing predetermined mutations in their genomes to investigate virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis, as well as to facilitate screens to identify anti-arenaviral drugs and development of novel live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. Recently, reverse genetics have also allowed the generation of tri-segmented arenaviruses expressing foreign genes, facilitating virus detection and opening the possibility of implementing live-attenuated arenavirus-based vaccine vector approaches. Likewise, the development of single-cycle infectious, reporter-expressing, arenaviruses has provided a new experimental method to study some aspects of the biology of highly pathogenic arenaviruses without the requirement of high-security biocontainment required to study HF-causing arenaviruses. In this chapter we summarize the current knowledge on arenavirus reverse genetics and the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques for the development of arenavirus vaccines and vaccine vectors.

  10. Time-reversed, flow-reversed ballistics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E. J.; Scheffler, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of planar sheet jet formation are studied to examine the hydrodynamic issues involved when simulations are carried out in the inverse direction, that is, with reversed time and flow. Both a realistic copper equation of state and a shockless equation of state were used. These studies are an initial step in evaluating this technique as a ballistics design tool.

  11. Reversible Switching of Cooperating Replicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urtel, Georg C.; Rind, Thomas; Braun, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    How can molecules with short lifetimes preserve their information over millions of years? For evolution to occur, information-carrying molecules have to replicate before they degrade. Our experiments reveal a robust, reversible cooperation mechanism in oligonucleotide replication. Two inherently slow replicating hairpin molecules can transfer their information to fast crossbreed replicators that outgrow the hairpins. The reverse is also possible. When one replication initiation site is missing, single hairpins reemerge from the crossbreed. With this mechanism, interacting replicators can switch between the hairpin and crossbreed mode, revealing a flexible adaptation to different boundary conditions.

  12. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems. PMID:27338448

  13. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-06-22

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  14. Long-acting reversible contraception.

    PubMed

    Peck, Susan A

    2013-10-01

    Although short-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives, such as oral contraceptives and the contraceptive patch and vaginal ring, remain the most commonly used contraceptive methods in the United States, they are also associated with the highest failure rates. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods, such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, offer high continuation rates and very low failure rates, and are safe for use in most women. The provision of LARC methods to adolescent, young adult and nulliparous women is a relatively new concept that offers an innovative option for these populations.

  15. Stagnation point reverse flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Ben T. (Inventor); Neumeier, Yedidia (Inventor); Seitzman, Jerry M. (Inventor); Jagoda, Jechiel (Inventor); Weksler, Yoav (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for combusting a combustible fuel includes providing a vessel having an opening near a proximate end and a closed distal end defining a combustion chamber. A combustible reactants mixture is presented into the combustion chamber. The combustible reactants mixture is ignited creating a flame and combustion products. The closed end of the combustion chamber is utilized for directing combustion products toward the opening of the combustion chamber creating a reverse flow of combustion products within the combustion chamber. The reverse flow of combustion products is intermixed with combustible reactants mixture to maintain the flame.

  16. Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today's challenges.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Marrot, Benoit; Moulin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

  17. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.

  18. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  19. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  20. Centralized administrative services management.

    PubMed

    Freed, D H

    1994-06-01

    Virtually every hospital has imposed guidelines or controls on one or more administrative service expenses. However, the actual deployment of such strategies is often voluntary, decentralized, disjointed and episodic. An alternative approach is to cluster administrative elements across hospital departments and make them the responsibility of a dedicated manager. This approach treats administrative services as an organizing principle with uniform, predictable standards of service and cost. Customer requirements for products and services are met without the need for them to physically manage that process. Materiel managers can demonstrate a leadership role by applying their professionalism and know-how to a set of products and services traditionally ignored or dealt with in an uncoordinated manner. While some initial resistance can be expected as traditional barriers are disassembled, the results should be very rewarding for the hospital and materiel manager alike.

  1. Equilibrium properties of hybrid field reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Onofri, M.; Osin, D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Hubbard, K.; Gota, H.

    2017-01-01

    Field Reversed Configurations (FRCs) heated by neutral beam injection may include a large fast ion pressure that significantly modifies the equilibrium. A new analysis is required to characterize such hybrid FRCs, as the simple relations used up to now prove inaccurate. The substantial contributions of fast ions to FRC radial pressure balance and diamagnetism are described. A simple model is offered to reconstruct more accurately the equilibrium parameters of elongated hybrid FRCs. Further modeling requires new measurements of either the magnetic field or the plasma pressure.

  2. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  3. Shared services centers can drive significant savings.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jim

    2011-06-01

    A study of more than 30 U.S. integrated delivery systems (IDSs) found that implementing effective shared services centers can drive significant cost savings in human resources, accounts payable, and procurement. Many IDSs have not adopted effective shared services strategies. Implementing administrative shared services involves low risk and a relatively low start-up investment.

  4. Composite Defect Significance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-13

    A12i 299 COMPOSITE DEFECT SIGNIFICANCE(U) MATERIALS SCIENCES 1/1 \\ CORP SPRING HOUSE PA S N CHATTERJEE ET AL. 13 JUL 82 MSC/TFR/1288/il87 NADC-80848...Directorate 30 Sensors & Avionics Technology Directorate 40 Communication & Navigation Technology Directorate 50 Software Computer Directorate 60 Aircraft ...instructions concerning commercial products herein do not constitute an endorsement by the Government nor do they convey or imply the license or right to use

  5. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  6. Response Reversals in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Trisha; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a dynamic sequential sampling model and a recently proposed model for confidence judgments in recognition memory (T. Van Zandt, 2000b), the authors examine the tendency for rememberers to reverse their responses after a primary decision. In 4 experiments, speeded "old"-"new" decisions were made under bias followed by a 2nd response', either…

  7. Reversible energy quenching and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, S. G.; Burshtein, A. I.

    2010-05-01

    The kinetics of reversible energy transfer from photo-excited donors to energy acceptors is studied at arbitrary concentrations of both and any relationship between the decay-times of the reactants. The backward reaction of transfer products in a bulk is included in the consideration. Its contribution to delayed fluorescence, resulting from the energy conservation on the long-lived acceptors, is specified.

  8. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry.

  9. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  10. REVERSING THE SPIRAL TOWARD FUTILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PROCTOR, SAMUEL D.

    CONDITIONS THAT ENGENDER FUTILITY AND HOSTILITY AMONG NEGROES CAN BE REVERSED BY COMPETENT, DEDICATED TEACHERS. FACTORS LEADING TO NEGRO ATTITUDES OF DEFEAT ARE ANALYZED. EXPERIENCE OF REJECTION AND AWARENESS OF BEING DIFFERENT AND INFERIOR ARE AMONG THE FIRST REALIZATIONS OF THE NEGRO. FROM REJECTION GROWS FEAR OF WHITE INSTITUTIONS AND OF…

  11. Oral administration of stavudine induces hyperalgesia without affecting activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Weber, Juliane; Mitchell, Duncan; Kamerman, Peter R

    2007-12-05

    We have investigated whether long-term oral administration of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) stavudine affects nociception in Sprague-Dawley rats, and whether any changes of nociception are accompanied by deterioration in activity and appetite. Stavudine (50 mg kg(-1)) was administered to rats orally once daily for six weeks in gelatine cubes. Mechanical hyperalgesia of the tail was assessed using a bar algometer, and thermal hyperalgesia by tail immersion in 49 degrees C water. Withdrawal latencies were compared to those of rats receiving placebo gelatine cubes. Withdrawal latencies to the noxious thermal challenge were not affected by stavudine, but those to the mechanical challenge were significantly decreased in rats receiving stavudine, compared to rats receiving placebo, from week three to week six of drug administration (P<0.05, ANCOVA with Newman Keuls post-hoc comparisons). The overall condition of the rats was assessed by recording daily voluntary wheel running distance and maximum running speed, food intake and body mass. Daily stavudine administration did not adversely affect voluntary running activity, appetite or growth. We have shown that long-term daily oral administration of the NRTI stavudine results in mechanical hyperalgesia in rats within three weeks without affecting appetite, growth and physical activity.

  12. 5 CFR 1620.45 - Suspending TSP loans, restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... distribution resulted from the employee's separation or placement in nonpay status to perform military service...-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions. 1620.45 Section 1620.45 Administrative Personnel..., restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions. (a) Suspending TSP loans...

  13. 5 CFR 1620.45 - Suspending TSP loans, restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution resulted from the employee's separation or placement in nonpay status to perform military service...-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions. 1620.45 Section 1620.45 Administrative Personnel..., restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions. (a) Suspending TSP loans...

  14. Effect of reverse shoulder design philosophy on muscle moment arms.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Matthew A; Diep, Phong; Roche, Chris; Flurin, Pierre Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Routman, Howard

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzes the muscle moment arms of three different reverse shoulder design philosophies using a previously published method. Digital bone models of the shoulder were imported into a 3D modeling software and markers placed for the origin and insertion of relevant muscles. The anatomic model was used as a baseline for moment arm calculations. Subsequently, three different reverse shoulder designs were virtually implanted and moment arms were analyzed in abduction and external rotation. The results indicate that the lateral offset between the joint center and the axis of the humerus specific to one reverse shoulder design increased the external rotation moment arms of the posterior deltoid relative to the other reverse shoulder designs. The other muscles analyzed demonstrated differences in the moment arms, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. This study demonstrated how the combination of variables making up different reverse shoulder designs can affect the moment arms of the muscles in different and statistically significant ways. The role of humeral offset in reverse shoulder design has not been previously reported and could have an impact on external rotation and stability achieved post-operatively.

  15. Growth temperature reversibly modulates the virulence of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Mauchline, W S; James, B W; Fitzgeorge, R B; Dennis, P J; Keevil, C W

    1994-01-01

    In chemostat culture, the virulence of two strains of Legionella pneumophila was shown to be significantly (P < 0.05) reduced when the culture temperature was lowered from 37 to 24 degrees C. This modulation was reversed by returning the temperature to 37 degrees C, which resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in virulence. PMID:8005687

  16. GM-CSF upregulated in rheumatoid arthritis reverses cognitive impairment and amyloidosis in Alzheimer mice.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Tim D; Bennett, Steven P; Mori, Takashi; Governatori, Nicholas; Runfeldt, Melissa; Norden, Michelle; Padmanabhan, Jaya; Neame, Peter; Wefes, Inge; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Arendash, Gary W; Potter, Huntington

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a negative risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While it has been commonly assumed that RA patients' usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) helped prevent onset and progression of AD, NSAID clinical trials have proven unsuccessful in AD patients. To determine whether intrinsic factors within RA pathogenesis itself may underlie RA's protective effect, we investigated the activity of colony-stimulating factors, upregulated in RA, on the pathology and behavior of transgenic AD mice. 5 microg bolus injections of macrophage, granulocyte, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors (M-CSF, G-CSF, or GM-CSF) were administered unilaterally into the hippocampus of aged cognitively-impaired AD mice and the resulting amyloid load reductions determined one week later, using the artificial cerebrospinal fluid-injected contralateral sides as controls. G-CSF and more significantly, GM-CSF reduced amyloidosis throughout the treated brain hemisphere one week following bolus administration to AD mice. 20 daily subcutaneous injections of 5 microg of GM-CSF (the most amyloid-reducing CSF in the bolus experiment) were administered to balanced cohorts of AD mice after assessment in a battery of cognitive tests. Reductions in amyloid load and improvements in cognitive function were assessed. Subcutaneous GM-CSF administration significantly reduced brain amyloidosis and completely reversed the cognitive impairment, while increasing hippocampal synaptic area and microglial density. These findings, along with two decades of accrued safety data using Leukine, recombinant human GMCSF, in elderly leukopenic patients, suggest that Leukine should be tested as a treatment to reverse cerebral amyloid pathology and cognitive impairment in AD.

  17. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  18. Administrative Sides of Librarying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the author used administrative skills learned as a school library media specialist to meet the demands of a university department chair. Topics include the influence of decisions that are made; budgeting; evaluation concerns and responsibilities; determining guidelines and goals; political concerns; and the flow of information. (LRW)

  19. The Administration of Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifford C.

    1978-01-01

    Among all the tasks of the admissions officer in developing a successful marketing program, the hardest may be that of convincing other college administrators of the importance of admissions to the institution's survival. Discussed are long-range planning, budgeting, staff selection and training, and implementing a plan. (Author/LBH)

  20. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  1. IVA: Improving Vocational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    These six instructional units are intended to provide instructors of vocational education administration with a systematic package of materials for their programs of preservice and/or inservice instruction and to provide materials which could be reproduced for learner use. These units cover the following subject matter: (1) federal legislation…

  2. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  3. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  4. The Administrative Internship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison, Judith A., Ed.; Warren, Andrea, Ed.

    This monograph was developed as part of the project known as Internships, Certification, Equity-Leadership, and Support (ICES). The Kansas project successfully field-tested a model for mobilizing statewide resources to prepare women for administrative careers and to place them in appropriate positions. The crucial component of the training program…

  5. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  7. Redis database administration tool

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J. J.

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  8. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  9. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  10. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  11. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of…

  12. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  13. Advanced Contract Administration. First Week

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-14

    administration. Keywords: Contracting/administrative contracting officer relations Financial management; Production management , Quality assurance; Subcontracting; Claims; Government property; Ethics data sources and modifications.

  14. Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, E.G.

    1994-03-01

    An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n {yields} p + e + {bar v}{sub e}) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta ({sigma}{sub n} {center_dot} p{sub p} {times} p{sub e}). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D.

  15. Effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on cognition in rhesus monkeys with a chronic cocaine self-administration history.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Garg, Pradeep K; Garg, Sudha; Nader, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine use is associated with impaired cognitive function, which may negatively impact treatment outcomes. One pharmacological strategy to improve cognition involves nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. However, the effects of chronic cocaine exposure on nAChR distribution and function have not been characterized. Thus, one goal of this study was to examine nAChR availability in rhesus monkeys with an extensive cocaine self-administration history (n = 4; ~6 years, mean intake, 1463 mg/kg) compared to age-matched cocaine-naive control monkeys (n = 5). Using [¹¹C]-nicotine and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, cocaine-experienced monkeys showed significantly higher receptor availability in the hippocampus compared to cocaine-naive monkeys. A second goal was to examine the effects of nAChR agonists on multiple domains of cognitive performance in these same monkeys. For these studies, working memory was assessed using a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task, associative learning and behavioral flexibility using stimulus discrimination and reversal learning tasks. When administered acutely, the nonselective high-efficacy agonist nicotine, the low-efficacy α4β2* subtype-selective agonist varenicline and the high-efficacy α7 subtype-selective agonist, PNU-282987 significantly improved DMS performance in both cocaine-naive and cocaine-experienced monkeys. Individual doses of nicotine and varenicline that engendered maximum cognitive enhancing effects on working memory did not affect discrimination or reversal learning, while PNU-282987 disrupted reversal learning in the cocaine-naive monkeys. These findings indicate that a cocaine self-administration history influenced nAChR distribution and the effects of nAChR agonists on cognitive performance, including a reduced sensitivity to the disrupting effects on reversal learning. The cognitive enhancing effects of nAChR agonists may be beneficial in combination with behavioral treatments for

  16. Reversion phenomena of Cu-Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, S.; Nagata, K.; Kobayashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-Cr alloys which were given various aging and reversion treatments were investigated in terms of electrical resistivity and hardness. Transmission electron microscopy was one technique employed. Some results obtained are as follows: the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion at a constant temperature decreases as the aging temperature rises. In a constant aging condition, the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion increases, and the time required for a maximum reversion becomes shorter as the reversion temperature rises. The reversion phenomena can be repeated, but its amount decreases rapidly by repetition. At first, the amount of reversion increases with aging time and reaches its maximum, and then tends to decrease again. Hardness changes by the reversion are very small, but the hardness tends to soften slightly. Any changes in transmission electron micrographs by the reversion treatment cannot be detected.

  17. Plasma disposition of enrofloxacin following intravenous and intramuscular administration in donkeys.

    PubMed

    Sekkin, S; Gokbulut, C; Kum, C; Karademir, U

    2012-11-03

    This study was designed to investigate the plasma disposition and systemic availability of enrofloxacin (ENR) following intramuscular and intravenous administrations. Six donkeys (Equus asinus) were used in this study. The animals were allocated into two groups (intramuscular and intravenous groups). After a 2-week washout period, the experiment was repeated with the groups reversed according to a two-phase crossover design. In phase I, group I received intravenously the commercially available injectable solution of ENR at the dose of 5 mg/kg and group II received intramuscularly the same ENR formulation at the same dose rate. Blood samples were collected 1 hour prior to drug administration and various times between 5 minutes and 48 hours post-treatments. The samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The half-life and mean residence time of ENR (12.08 hours and 17.85 hours) after intramuscular route were significantly longer compared with intravenous administration (9.54 hours and 7.46 hours, respectively) and these were associated with a flip-flop phenomenon. A marked proportion of ENR (20-21 per cent) was metabolised to ciprofloxacin (CPR) following both administration routes and the half-life of CPR paralleled that of the parent drug after intramuscular administration. Mean absorption time was relatively long (10.39 hours), and the bioavailability of ENR was 76.56 per cent after intramuscular route in the donkeys. The plasma concentration is lower after intramuscular administration at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg, and may need a higher dose to provide sufficient plasma concentration in donkeys compared with horses.

  18. Research on the influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint under sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang

    2016-12-09

    With the concerns of ecological and circular economy along with sustainable development, reverse logistics has attracted the attention of enterprise. How to achieve sustainable development of reverse logistics has important practical significance of enhancing low carbon competitiveness. In this paper, the system boundary of reverse logistics carbon footprint is presented. Following the measurement of reverse logistics carbon footprint and reverse logistics carbon capacity is provided. The influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint are classified into five parts such as intensity of reverse logistics, energy structure, energy efficiency, reverse logistics output, and product remanufacturing rate. The quantitative research methodology using ADF test, Johansen co-integration test, and impulse response is utilized to interpret the relationship between reverse logistics carbon footprint and the influencing factors more accurately. This research finds that energy efficiency, energy structure, and product remanufacturing rate are more capable of inhibiting reverse logistics carbon footprint. The statistical approaches will help practitioners in this field to structure their reverse logistics activities and also help academics in developing better decision models to reduce reverse logistics carbon footprint.

  19. Quantifying nursing workflow in medication administration.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bane, Anne D; Featherstone, Erica; Hayes, Judy; Woolf, Seth; Hurley, Ann; Bates, David W; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    New medication administration systems are showing promise in improving patient safety at the point of care, but adoption of these systems requires significant changes in nursing workflow. To prepare for these changes, the authors report on a time-motion study that measured the proportion of time that nurses spend on various patient care activities, focusing on medication administration-related activities. Implications of their findings are discussed.

  20. Reversal by phenytoin of carbamazepine-induced water intoxication: a pharmacokinetic interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Perucca, E; Richens, A

    1980-01-01

    The hypothesis that phenytoin may antagonise the antidiuretic effect of carbamazepine has been examined by comparing the free water clearance response to a standard water load in 36 patients stabilised on different drug regimes. The diuretic response to the water load was significantly greater in patients receiving chronic treatment with carbamazepine and phenytoin in combination than in matched control subjects receiving carbamazepine as a single drug. Acute administration of phenytoin (1,100 mg), however, had no significant influence on carbamazepine-induced antidiuresis. Evidence is presented that reversal of the antidiuretic effect of carbamazepine by chronic phenytoin administration is secondary to a marked reduction of the serum carbamazepine concentration during combined therapy. These results suggest that the risk of developing water intoxication is greater in patients receiving carbamazepine alone than in those receiving phenytoin in combination. Since the antidiuretic effect is correlated with the serum carbamazepine concentration rather than with the prescribed daily dose, monitoring the serum level of the drug is likely to provide the best rational approach to the prevention of excessive water retention. PMID:7205298

  1. Reversing the Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, F.; Vandewalle, N.

    2005-12-01

    We propose a lattice model for studying the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), i.e. the phase segregation occuring when a granular material is vertically shaked. The model considers the tap intensity and the mobility μ of the grains as the main physical parameters. Different mobilities for different grain species lead to segregation (BNE) patterns, reverse segregation (RBNE) patterns, “sandwhich" layered structures or vertical domains. A phase diagram (decompaction χ, mobility difference between both species Δ μ) is obtained in which the different phases are emphasized. In a narrow region of the diagram, different phases coexist. It is shown that the BNE segregation could be reversed by increasing the tap intensity or the characteristics of the grains. Numerical results are compared with earlier experimental works.

  2. [Pneumothorax after "reversed" bungee jump].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M N; Jensen, B N

    1999-10-04

    We here present a case of pneumothorax in a 24 year-old previously healthy man who had performed an uncomplicated "reversed" bungee jump a few hours before. A high resolution CT scan of the thorax taken three weeks later was normal. The high energy produced during a "reversed" bungee jump, up to 7-8 g corresponds to the threshold value for NASA astronauts, and can cause injuries in healthy persons. In this case we believe that there is a correlation between the pneumothorax and the high energy jump. Bungee jumping is a very popular amusement, millions of jumps have been carried out since 1979, when the sport was introduced. No register and therefore no ratio of risk exists.

  3. Molecular Simulation of Reverse Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, Janamejaya; Ladanyi, Branka

    2009-03-01

    Reverse micelles (RM) are surfactant assemblies containing a nanosized water pool dissolved in a hydrophobic solvent. Understanding their properties is crucial for insight into the effect of confinement on aqueous structure, dynamics as well as physical processes associated with solutes in confinement. We perform molecular dynamics simulations for the RM formed by the surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT) in isooctane (2,2,4-trimethyl pentane) in order to study the effect of reverse micelle size on the aqueous phase. The structure of the RM is quantified in terms of the radial and pair density distributions. Dynamics are studied in terms of the mean squared displacements and various orientational time correlation functions in different parts of the RM so as to understand the effect of proximity to the interface on aqueous dynamics. Shape fluctuations of the RM are also analyzed.

  4. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  5. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Nibedita; Dongare, Pradeep A; Mishra, Rajeeb Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice. PMID:26644615

  6. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  7. Inference of reversible tree languages.

    PubMed

    López, Damián; Sempere, José M; García, Pedro

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we study the notion of k-reversibility and k-testability when regular tree languages are involved. We present an inference algorithm for learning a k-testable tree language that runs in polynomial time with respect to the size of the sample used. We also study the tree language classes in relation to other well known ones, and some properties of these languages are proven.

  8. A Theory of Preference Reversals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    has been .%..’... Preference Reversals 35 called "probability equivalence" ( Johnson and Schkade, 1984). In this method, a subject is shown a sure gain...and Schoemaker, 19821 Hershey and Schosmaker, 19831 Johnson and Schkade, 1984). While Expression 2hoory has not been applied to these assessment...Bass. Johnson , I. J., a Schkade, D. A. (1984). Anchoring, adjustment and bias in utility assessments. Unpublished manuscript, Carnegie-Mellon

  9. Mentoring and Tutoring within Administrative Internship Programs in American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Elaine L.; Bratlien, Maynard J.

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a significant national research project conducted by the authors and sponsored by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration. It analyzes the varying aspects of administrative internships in American universities today. Professors of Educational Administration from around the nation were surveyed on-line…

  10. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  11. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  12. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  13. Thrombolysis, Complete Recanalization, Diffusion Reversal, and Luxury Perfusion in Hyperacute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Ouchi, Takahiro; Okubo, Seiji; Abe, Arata; Aoki, Junya; Nogami, Akane; Sato, Takahiro; Hokama, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Yutaro; Suzuki, Shizuka; Mishina, Masahiro; Kimura, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year old man was admitted to our stroke care unit 1.8 hours after onset of cardioembolic stroke. Administration of issue-plasminogen activator achieved complete recanalization, and his lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) disappeared and single photon emission computed tomography showed luxury perfusion. DWI reversal and luxury perfusion were sometimes observed in hyperacute stroke patients, especially timely reperfusion was achieved. However, the relationships between DWI reversal and luxury perfusion were not well known. Transient DWI reversal may be associated with luxury perfusion in patients treated with t-PA, via early complete recanalization achieved by thrombolysis.

  14. miR-365 targets β-arrestin 2 to reverse morphine tolerance in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Tao; Song, Zongbin; Zou, Yu; Ding, Zhuofeng; Guo, Qulian; Dong, Xinzhong; Zou, Wangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Morphine tolerance is a challenging clinical problem that limits its clinical application in pain treatment. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate gene expression in a post transcriptional manner, and their dysregulation causes various diseases. However, the significance of miRNAs in morphine tolerance is still poorly understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that microRNA-365 (miR-365) is a key functional small RNA that reverses morphine tolerance through regulation of β-arrestin 2 in rats. Here, microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-365 was robustly decreased in the spinal cord after chronic morphine administration. In situ hybridization and immunochemistry double staining showed that miR-365 was expressed in neurons of the spinal cord. We identified β-arrestin 2 as the target gene of miR-365 by bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. The data showed that overexpression of miR-365 prevented and reversed established morphine tolerance, and increased expression of miR-365 caused a decrease in expression of β-arrestin 2 protein. miR-365 downregulation is involved in the development and maintenance of morphine tolerance through regulation of β-arrestin 2, and miR-365 upregulation provides a promising and novel approach for treatment of morphine tolerance. PMID:27922111

  15. Fronto-temporal white matter connectivity predicts reversal learning errors.

    PubMed

    Alm, Kylie H; Rolheiser, Tyler; Mohamed, Feroze B; Olson, Ingrid R

    2015-01-01

    Each day, we make hundreds of decisions. In some instances, these decisions are guided by our innate needs; in other instances they are guided by memory. Probabilistic reversal learning tasks exemplify the close relationship between decision making and memory, as subjects are exposed to repeated pairings of a stimulus choice with a reward or punishment outcome. After stimulus-outcome associations have been learned, the associated reward contingencies are reversed, and participants are not immediately aware of this reversal. Individual differences in the tendency to choose the previously rewarded stimulus reveal differences in the tendency to make poorly considered, inflexible choices. Lesion studies have strongly linked reversal learning performance to the functioning of the orbitofrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and in some instances, the amygdala. Here, we asked whether individual differences in the microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract that connects anterior and medial temporal lobe regions to the orbitofrontal cortex, predict reversal learning performance. Diffusion tensor imaging and behavioral paradigms were used to examine this relationship in 33 healthy young adults. The results of tractography revealed a significant negative relationship between reversal learning performance and uncinate axial diffusivity, but no such relationship was demonstrated in a control tract, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Our findings suggest that the uncinate might serve to integrate associations stored in the anterior and medial temporal lobes with expectations about expected value based on feedback history, computed in the orbitofrontal cortex.

  16. Fronto-temporal white matter connectivity predicts reversal learning errors

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Kylie H.; Rolheiser, Tyler; Mohamed, Feroze B.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2015-01-01

    Each day, we make hundreds of decisions. In some instances, these decisions are guided by our innate needs; in other instances they are guided by memory. Probabilistic reversal learning tasks exemplify the close relationship between decision making and memory, as subjects are exposed to repeated pairings of a stimulus choice with a reward or punishment outcome. After stimulus–outcome associations have been learned, the associated reward contingencies are reversed, and participants are not immediately aware of this reversal. Individual differences in the tendency to choose the previously rewarded stimulus reveal differences in the tendency to make poorly considered, inflexible choices. Lesion studies have strongly linked reversal learning performance to the functioning of the orbitofrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and in some instances, the amygdala. Here, we asked whether individual differences in the microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract that connects anterior and medial temporal lobe regions to the orbitofrontal cortex, predict reversal learning performance. Diffusion tensor imaging and behavioral paradigms were used to examine this relationship in 33 healthy young adults. The results of tractography revealed a significant negative relationship between reversal learning performance and uncinate axial diffusivity, but no such relationship was demonstrated in a control tract, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Our findings suggest that the uncinate might serve to integrate associations stored in the anterior and medial temporal lobes with expectations about expected value based on feedback history, computed in the orbitofrontal cortex. PMID:26150776

  17. All-linear time reversal by a dynamic artificial crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chumak, Andrii V.; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Karenowska, Alexy D.; Serga, Alexander A.; Gregg, John F.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2010-01-01

    The time reversal of pulsed signals or propagating wave packets has long been recognized to have profound scientific and technological significance. Until now, all experimentally verified time-reversal mechanisms have been reliant upon nonlinear phenomena such as four-wave mixing. In this paper, we report the experimental realization of all-linear time reversal. The time-reversal mechanism we propose is based on the dynamic control of an artificial crystal structure, and is demonstrated in a spin-wave system using a dynamic magnonic crystal. The crystal is switched from an homogeneous state to one in which its properties vary with spatial period a, while a propagating wave packet is inside. As a result, a linear coupling between wave components with wave vectors k≈π/a and k′=k−2ππ/a≈−π/a is produced, which leads to spectral inversion, and thus to the formation of a time-reversed wave packet. The reversal mechanism is entirely general and so applicable to artificial crystal systems of any physical nature. PMID:21266991

  18. Preliminary experiments on the noise generated by target-type thrust reverser models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, O. A.; Stone, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments are reported on the noise generated by model V-gutter and semicylindrical target-type reversers with circular nozzles. Nozzles were 5.24 and 7.78 cm in diameter. Nozzle pressure ratio ranged from 1.25 to 1.72. The spacing between reversers and nozzle, as well as the reverser orientation, was also varied. More noise was generated with reversers than with the nozzle alone. The measured maximum overall sound pressure level varied with the sixth power of the nozzle exit velocity. Noise levels were more uniform in regard to directivity with reversers than with the nozzle alone. It is concluded that thrust reversers, can be a significant noise problem, especially for STOL aircraft using thrust reversers during approach.

  19. Nigella Sativa reverses osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue. It is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to increased risk of fracture. There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogen after menopause and the development of osteoporosis. About 33% of women over 50 will experience bone fractures as a result of osteoporosis. Nigella Sativa (NS) has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone and joint diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of Nigella Sativa on osteoporosis produced by ovariectomy in rats. Methods Female Wistar rats aged 12–14 months were divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized supplemented with nigella sativa (OVX-NS) orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. After 12 weeks, plasma levels of calcium (Ca+2), phosphorous (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrates, nitric oxide surrogate, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Histological examination of the liver and the tibia was conducted. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results OVX rats showed significant decrease in plasma Ca+2, accompanied by a significant increase in plasma ALP, amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, MDA, nitrates, TNF-α and IL-6. These changes were reversed by NS supplementation in OVX-NS group to be near SHAM levels. Histological examination of the tibias revealed discontinuous eroded bone trabeculae with widened bone marrow spaces in OVX rats accompanied by a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bone thickness compared to Sham rats. These parameters were markedly reversed in OVX-NS rats. Histological examination of the liver showed mononuclear cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels at the portal area in OVX rats which were not found

  20. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  1. Rapid evaluation of reverse-osmosis membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Simultaneous reverse-osmosis tests conducted with centrifuges having multiple compartment heads are discussed. Equipment for retaining reverse-osmosis membrane is illustrated. Method of conducting tests is described.

  2. Reverse-flow strategy in biofilters treating CS₂ emissions.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Naiara; Gallastegui, Gorka; Gurtubay, Luis; Barona, Astrid; Elías, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The bacteriostatic properties of carbon disulphide (CS₂) hamper its biodegradation in conventional biofilters. The response of four biofilters operating in downflow mode and reverse-flow mode was compared in a laboratory-scale plant treating CS₂ under sudden short-term changes in operating conditions. A process shutdown for 24 h, an inlet concentration increase and an interruption of the inlet air humidification for 48 h at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 240 s did not impact significantly on biodegradation performance, regardless of flow mode. Nevertheless, a reduction in the EBRT to 60 s resulted in a significant decrease in removal efficiency in all the biofilters. The CS₂ degradation profile showed that the reverse-flow mode strategy rendered a more homogenous distribution of biomass along the bed height. The benefits of the reverse-flow mode were demonstrated even when the unidirectional flow mode was re-established.

  3. The development of a radioimmunoassay for reverse triiodothyronine sulfate in human serum and amniotic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Sing-Yung ); Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Lian ); Polk, D.; Reviczky, A.; Williams, J. III; Chopra, I.J.; Fisher, D.A. )

    1993-06-01

    Sulfated iodothyronines including T[sub 4]-sulfate (T[sub 4]S) and T[sub 3]-sulfate (T[sub 3]S) have been identified in human serum and amniotic fluid. Little is know, however, about the existence of sulfate conjugation of reverse T[sub 3] (rT[sub 3]S) in man. In this report, the authors employed a novel, sensitive, and specific rT[sub 3]S RIA to address this question. The rabbit antiserum to rT[sub 3]S was highly specific; T[sub 4], T[sub 3], rT[sub 3], and 3,3'-T[sub 2] showed less than 0.002% cross-reaction with the antiserum. Only T[sub 4]S and T[sub 3]S cross-reacted significantly (0.3% and 0.01%, respectively); other analogs cross-reacted less than 0.0001%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 14 pmol/L (1.0 ng/dL). The mean serum rT[sub 3]S concentration (pmol/L) was 40 in euthyroid subjects. Values were similar in hypothyroid patients (38) and pregnant women (52) but significantly (P < 0.01) elevated to 176 in hyperthyroid patient, 74 in patients with nonthyroid illnesses, and 684 in cord sera of newborns. Serum rT[sub 3]S increased significantly in hyperthyroid patients 1 day after administration of 1 g sodium ipodate orally. Reverse T[sub 3]S was detected consistently in amniotic fluid at 14 to 22 weeks of gestation and showed a marked rise 1-3 weeks after intraamniotic administration of 500-1000 [mu]g T[sub 4]. The various data suggest that : (1) rT[sub 3]S is a normal component of human serum and amniotic fluid; (2) it is derived from metabolism of T[sub 4] or rT[sub 3]; (3) circulating rT[sub 3]S increases in hyperthyroidism and in circumstances where type I 5'-monodeiodinating activity is low, e.g. nonthyroid illnesses, fetal life, and after administration of ipodate. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Aging-reversing properties of thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2013-02-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) aroused our interest when we were engaged in related experiments, so we decided to study its effects on organs, tissues, and aging-related metabolic and hormonal markers when administered in acute or chronic (oral) doses at various time points in its cyclic circadian pattern. We also wanted to determine what effects, if any, it had on aging processes in two essential systems, namely gonadal-reproductive and kidney-urinary. Our results show positive changes as a result of short-term acute and long-term chronic oral administration of TRH to old mice that included rapid correction to more juvenile levels of most typical aging-related hormonal and metabolic measurements. Remarkably, testes function was maintained by means of a 4-month oral treatment with TRH in aging mice. As we suspected upon seeing a significant increase in testes weight, TRH resulted in maintenance or even reconstitution of testes structure and function when administered in the drinking water. This was demonstrated by the active formation and proliferation of mature spermatogonia and the intensive spermatogenesis in the follicles. The same TRH treatment led to protection for the kidneys from amyloid and hyalin infiltration of tubuli and glomeruli, which typically occurs in aging mice. In fact, we observed massive deposits of amyloid and hyalin material infiltrating the shrunken glomeruli and negatively affecting filtration capacity of the untreated mice, whereas this was barely present in the TRH-treated mice. Advanced hyalin degeneration could also be observed in the tubular vessels of the untreated control mice. These experiments with TRH supplementation show clear aging-delaying and apparently even aging-reversing effects of the neuropeptide, whether it was administered parenterally or orally. TRH, like melatonin, is an anti-aging agent with a broad spectrum of activities that, because of their actions, suggest that TRH has a fundamental role in the regulation

  5. Reversal of haloperidol-induced motor deficits by mianserin and mesulergine in rats.

    PubMed

    Shireen, Erum; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2011-01-01

    Although haloperidol is widely prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, its beneficial effects are accompanied by extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Role of 5-HT-2A/2C receptors in the attenuation of acute Parkinsonian-like effects of typical antipsychotics is investigated by prior administration of mianserin and mesulergine to rats injected with haloperidol. In the first part of study effects of various doses of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) were determined on motor activity and a selected dose (1 mg/kg) was used to monitor attenuation of parkinsonian effects by two different doses of 5-HT-2A/2C receptor antagonists mianserin (2.5 & 5.0 mg/kg) and mesulergine (1.0 & 3.0 mg/kg). Rats treated with haloperidol at doses of 0.5-5.0 mg/kg exhibited impaired motor coordination and a decrease in exploratory activity in an open field. The dose response curve showed that at a dose of 1 mg/kg significant and submaximal effects are produced on motor coordination and exploratory activity. Coadministration of mianserin and mesulergine attenuated and reversed haloperidol-induced motor deficits in a dose dependent manner. The mechanism involved in the attenuation / reversal of haloperidol-induced parkinsonian like symptoms by mianserin and mesulergine is discussed. Prior administration of mianserin or mesulergine may be of use in the alleviation of EPS induced by conventional antipsychotic drugs.The findings have potential implication in the treatment of schizophrenia and motor disorders.

  6. HuR interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, and modulates reverse transcription in infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Lemay, Julie; Maidou-Peindara, Priscilla; Bader, Thomas; Ennifar, Eric; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Benarous, Richard; Liu, Lang Xia

    2008-01-01

    Reverse transcription of the genetic material of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a critical step in the replication cycle of this virus. This process, catalyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT), is well characterized at the biochemical level. However, in infected cells, reverse transcription occurs in a multiprotein complex – the reverse transcription complex (RTC) – consisting of viral genomic RNA associated with viral proteins (including RT) and, presumably, as yet uncharacterized cellular proteins. Very little is known about the cellular proteins interacting with the RTC, and with reverse transcriptase in particular. We report here that HIV-1 reverse transcription is affected by the levels of a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein – the RNA-binding protein HuR. A direct protein-protein interaction between RT and HuR was observed in a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed in vitro by homogenous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF). We mapped the domain interacting with HuR to the RNAse H domain of RT, and the binding domain for RT to the C-terminus of HuR, partially overlapping the third RRM RNA-binding domain of HuR. HuR silencing with specific siRNAs greatly impaired early and late steps of reverse transcription, significantly inhibiting HIV-1 infection. Moreover, by mutagenesis and immunoprecipitation studies, we could not detect the binding of HuR to the viral RNA. These results suggest that HuR may be involved in and may modulate the reverse transcription reaction of HIV-1, by an as yet unknown mechanism involving a protein-protein interaction with HIV-1 RT. PMID:18544151

  7. Reverse transcriptase: mediator of genomic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Brosius, J; Tiedge, H

    1995-01-01

    Reverse transcription has been an important mediator of genomic change. This influence dates back more than three billion years, when the RNA genome was converted into the DNA genome. While the current cellular role(s) of reverse transcriptase are not yet completely understood, it has become clear over the last few years that this enzyme is still responsible for generating significant genomic change and that its activities are one of the driving forces of evolution. Reverse transcriptase generates, for example, extra gene copies (retrogenes), using as a template mature messenger RNAs. Such retrogenes do not always end up as nonfunctional pseudogenes but form, after reinsertion into the genome, new unions with resident promoter elements that may alter the gene's temporal and/or spatial expression levels. More frequently, reverse transcriptase produces copies of nonmessenger RNAs, such as small nuclear or cytoplasmic RNAs. Extremely high copy numbers can be generated by this process. The resulting reinserted DNA copies are therefore referred to as short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). SINEs have long been considered selfish DNA, littering the genome via exponential propagation but not contributing to the host's fitness. Many SINEs, however, can give rise to novel genes encoding small RNAs, and are the migrant carriers of numerous control elements and sequence motifs that can equip resident genes with novel regulatory elements [Brosius J. and Gould S.J., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 10706-10710, 1992]. Retrosequences, such as SINEs and portions of retroelements (e.g., long terminal repeats, LTRs), are capable of donating sequence motifs for nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, transcriptional enhancers and silencers, poly(A) addition sequences, determinants of RNA stability or transport, splice sites, and even amino acid codons for incorporation into open reading frames as novel protein domains. Retroposition can therefore be considered as a major

  8. Cleaning Our World through Reverse Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randazzo, Gabe; LaJevic, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade artists have begun to experiment with "reverse pollution" techniques, such as reverse graffiti, which focuses on cleaning environmental surfaces. Having recently been introduced to the works of Moose, the artist known for inventing the reverse graffiti technique, the authors decided to design a curriculum to increase…

  9. Novel oral anticoagulants and reversal agents: Considerations for clinical development.

    PubMed

    Sarich, Troy C; Seltzer, Jonathan H; Berkowitz, Scott D; Costin', James; Curnutte, John T; Gibson, C Michael; Hoffman, Maureane; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Levy, Jerrold H; Mintz, Paul D; Reilly, Paul A; Sager, Philip T; Singer, Daniel E; Stockbridge, Norman; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Kowey, Peter R

    2015-06-01

    This white paper provides a summary of presentations and discussions that were held at an Anticoagulant-Induced Bleeding and Reversal Agents Think Tank co-sponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at the FDA's White Oak Headquarters on April 22, 2014. Attention focused on a development pathway for reversal agents for the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs). This is important because anticoagulation is still widely underused for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Undertreatment persists, although NOACs, in general, overcome some of the difficulties associated with anticoagulation provided by vitamin K antagonists. One reason for the lack of a wider uptake is the absence of NOAC reversal agents. As there are neither widely accepted academic and industry standards nor a definitive regulatory policy on the development of such reversal agents, this meeting provided a forum for leaders in the fields of cardiovascular clinical trials and cardiovascular safety to discuss the issues and develop recommendations. Attendees included representatives from pharmaceutical companies; regulatory agencies; end point adjudication specialist groups; contract research organizations; and active, academically based physicians. There was wide and solid consensus that NOACs overall offer improvements in convenience, efficacy, and safety compared with warfarin, even without reversal agents. Still, it was broadly accepted that it would be helpful to have reversal agents available for clinicians to use. Because it is not feasible to do definitive outcomes studies demonstrating a reversal agent's clinical benefits, it was felt that these agents could be approved for use in life-threatening bleeding situations if the molecules were well characterized preclinically, their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles were well understood, and showed no harmful adverse events in early human testing. There was also consensus

  10. Reversible battery charger for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tenglong

    Electric power system in today's world is on the verge of significant transformation. For the past few years or so, "Smart grid" has been one of the hottest topics in national news and professional conferences in the electric power industry. The next-generation electricity grid, known as "smart" or "intelligent," is expected to accommodate all generation and storage options, whereupon Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology emerges in Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles and has been a promising technology. This thesis presents a reversible battery charger for electric vehicle with V2G function and associated control strategy for the power flowing between the grid and EV. The reversible battery charger is being proposed to connect the power grid and EV battery group of 12 batteries of 12V in series on an EV of Electric Vehicle Evaluation Lab in University of Massachusetts Lowell. The method uses a matrix converter and bidirectional de-dc converter. The charger was simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK environment. The results are presented to show the charger operation under different mode.

  11. Reversible phenotypic plasticity with continuous adaptation.

    PubMed

    Pfab, Ferdinand; Gabriel, Wilfried; Utz, Margarete

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel model for continuous reversible phenotypic plasticity. The model includes a one-dimensional environmental gradient, and we describe performance of an organism as a function of the environmental state by a Gaussian tolerance curve. Organisms are assumed to adapt their tolerance curve after a change of the environmental state. We present a general framework for calculating the genotype fitness if such adaptations happen in a continuous manner and apply the model to a periodically changing environment. Significant differences of our model with previous models for plasticity are the continuity of adaptation, the presence of intermediate phenotypes, that the duration of transformations depends on their extent, fewer restrictions on the distribution of the environment, and a higher robustness with respect to assumptions about environmental fluctuations. Further, we show that continuous reversible plasticity is beneficial mainly when environmental changes occur slow enough so that fully developed phenotypes can be exhibited. Finally we discuss how the model framework can be generalized to a wide variety of biological scenarios from areas that include population dynamics, evolution of environmental tolerance and physiology.

  12. Reversal of vecuronium with neostigmine in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Y; Hattori, H; Sanbe, N; Nakajima, H; Akatu, M; Murakawa, M

    2004-08-01

    Reversal of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with neostigmine was compared in two groups of 16 subjects: patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls. When the first twitch of the train-of-four had returned to 25% of the control value, neostigmine 40 microg x kg(-1) and atropine 20 microg x kg(-1) were given to reverse the neuromuscular blockade. The train-of-four ratio was lower at 3 min, 6 min, 9 min, 12 min and 15 min after reversal in the diabetic group than in the control group but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Fifteen minutes after reversal, the number of patients in whom recovery from neuromuscular blockade was judged insufficient to guarantee good respiratory function (train-of-four ratio < 0.74) did not differ between the groups. However, 15 min after reversal, the number of patients with a train-of-four ratio < 0.9 was significantly higher in the Diabetic Group than in the Control Group (15 vs. 10, p = 0.033).

  13. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian Eric

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  14. Reversible Photoswitching of Carbon Dots

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Syamantak; Verma, Navneet Chandra; Gupta, Abhishek; Nandi, Chayan Kanti

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of reversible photoswitching in carbon nanodots with red emission. A mechanism of electron transfer is proposed. The cationic dark state, formed by the exposure of red light, is revived back to the bright state with the very short exposure of blue light. Additionally, the natural on-off state of carbon dot fluorescence was tuned using an electron acceptor molecule. Our observation can make the carbon dots as an excellent candidate for the super-resolution imaging of nanoscale biomolecules within the cell. PMID:26078266

  15. Least-squares reverse-time migration of Cranfield VSP data for monitoring CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TAN, S.; Huang, L.

    2012-12-01

    Cost-effective monitoring for carbon utilization and sequestration requires high-resolution imaging with a minimal amount of data. Least-squares reverse-time migration is a promising imaging method for this purpose. We apply least-squares reverse-time migration to a portion of the 3D vertical seismic profile data acquired at the Cranfield enhanced oil recovery field in Mississippi for monitoring CO2 injection. Conventional reverse-time migration of limited data suffers from significant image artifacts and a poor image resolution. Lease-squares reverse-time migration can reduce image artifacts and improves the image resolution. We demonstrate the significant improvements of least-squares reverse-time migration by comparing its migration images of the Cranfield VSP data with that obtained using the conventional reverse-time migration.

  16. Retrospective Evaluation of Laparoscopic Versus Open Hartmann's Reversal: A Single-Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Brathwaite, Shayna; Kuhrt, Maureen; Yu, Lianbo; Arnold, Mark; Husain, Syed; Harzman, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Restoration of intestinal continuity after Hartmann's procedure has significant associated morbidity. There has been a trend toward increasing utilization of laparoscopy in colorectal surgery, with improvements in short-term outcomes. This study evaluates our experience with laparoscopic Hartmann's procedure reversal. Methods All patients who underwent laparoscopic and open reversal of Hartmann's procedure between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Demographics, length of stay, postoperative morbidity, and mortality were compared between the 2 groups. Results Nineteen patients underwent laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal and 62 underwent open reversal. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, mean operative times, blood loss, reoperation, and readmission rates between the groups. The laparoscopic group had a shorter length of hospitalization (5.7 vs. 7.9 d, P < 0.01). Conclusions Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's pouch is a safe and feasible alternative to the open reversal technique. Patients who undergo the laparoscopic technique have a shorter length of hospital stay. PMID:26429059

  17. pH-sensitive micelles for the intracellular co-delivery of curcumin and Pluronic L61 unimers for synergistic reversal effect of multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Shi, Hong; Qiao, Mingxi; Zhang, Zehui; Yang, Wenting; Dong, Lingying; Xie, Fucheng; Zhao, Chunpeng; Kang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Pluronic L61 unimers, which are biomacromolecular modulators, and curcumin, a small-molecule modulator, were co-formulated into pH-sensitive micelles to reveal the full synergistic potential of combination drug treatments to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Compared to monotherapy, combined therapy significantly improved the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin (DOX) against MCF-7/ADR cells. In mechanistic studies, both L61 and curcumin enhanced the cytotoxic effect by acting on mitochondrial signalling pathways. The compounds selectively accumulated in the mitochondria and disabled the mitochondria by dissipating the mitochondrial membrane potential, decreasing the ATP levels, and releasing cytochrome c, which initiated a cascade of caspase-9 and caspase-3 reactions. Furthermore, both curcumin and L61 down-regulated the expression and function of P-gp in response to drug efflux from the MCF-7/ADR cells. In the MCF-7/ADR tumour-bearing mouse model, intravenous administration of the combined therapy directly targeted the tumour, as revealed by the accumulation of DiR in the tumour site, which led to a significant inhibition of tumour growth without measurable side effects. In conclusion, co-formulation consisting of L61 and curcumin in pH-sensitive micelles induced significant synergistic effects on the reversal of MDR. Therefore, the intracellular co-delivery of various MDR modulators has great potential to reverse MDR in tumours. PMID:28195164

  18. Exercise prescription to reverse frailty.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nick W; Smart, Rowan R; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-10-01

    Frailty is a clinical geriatric syndrome caused by physiological deficits across multiple systems. These deficits make it challenging to sustain homeostasis required for the demands of everyday life. Exercise is likely the best therapy to reverse frailty status. Literature to date suggests that pre-frail older adults, those with 1-2 deficits on the Cardiovascular Health Study-Frailty Phenotype (CHS-frailty phenotype), should exercise 2-3 times a week, for 45-60 min. Aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and balance training components should be incorporated but resistance and balance activities should be emphasized. On the other hand, frail (CHS-frailty phenotype ≥ 3 physical deficits) older adults should exercise 3 times per week, for 30-45 min for each session with an emphasis on aerobic training. During aerobic, balance, and flexibility training, both frail and pre-frail older adults should work at an intensity equivalent to a rating of perceived exertion of 3-4 ("somewhat hard") on the Borg CR10 scale. Resistance-training intensity should be based on a percentage of 1-repetition estimated maximum (1RM). Program onset should occur at 55% of 1RM (endurance) and progress to higher intensities of 80% of 1RM (strength) to maximize functional gains. Exercise is the medicine to reverse or mitigate frailty, preserve quality of life, and restore independent functioning in older adults at risk of frailty.

  19. Steganography using reversible texture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Chung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for steganography using a reversible texture synthesis. A texture synthesis process resamples a smaller texture image, which synthesizes a new texture image with a similar local appearance and an arbitrary size. We weave the texture synthesis process into steganography to conceal secret messages. In contrast to using an existing cover image to hide messages, our algorithm conceals the source texture image and embeds secret messages through the process of texture synthesis. This allows us to extract the secret messages and source texture from a stego synthetic texture. Our approach offers three distinct advantages. First, our scheme offers the embedding capacity that is proportional to the size of the stego texture image. Second, a steganalytic algorithm is not likely to defeat our steganographic approach. Third, the reversible capability inherited from our scheme provides functionality, which allows recovery of the source texture. Experimental results have verified that our proposed algorithm can provide various numbers of embedding capacities, produce a visually plausible texture images, and recover the source texture.

  20. Long-term melatonin administration increases polyunsaturated fatty acid percentage in plasma lipids of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Pita, Maria L; Hoyos, Marta; Martin-Lacave, Inés; Osuna, Carmen; Fernández-Santos, Jose M; Guerrero, Juan M

    2002-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the fatty acid composition of plasma and tissue lipids. Melatonin administration to rats fed with a standard diet only increased long-chain n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total plasma lipids and liver phospholipids but induced significant changes in hypercholesterolemic rats. In plasma, palmitoleic and oleic acids increased and n-6 and n-3 PUFA decreased in hypercholesterolemic rats; theses changes were reversed by melatonin administration. The analysis of lipid fractions revealed that only the cholesteryl ester fraction was affected by melatonin. Histological studies of the carotid artery intima revealed the appearance, in hypercholesterolemic rats, of fatty streaks produced by a mass of foam cells covered by the endothelium and by a thin layer of mononucleated cells. These changes were prevented by melatonin. We conclude that long-term melatonin administration modifies the fatty acid composition of rat plasma and liver lipids and ameliorates the arterial fatty infiltration induced by cholesterol.

  1. Direct observation of time reversal violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, J.

    2013-06-01

    A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of "in" and "out" states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

  2. Time reversal violation for entangled neutral mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, J.

    2013-07-01

    A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of "in" and "out" states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

  3. Reversible reactivity by optic nerve astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daniel; Qu, Juan; Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2013-08-01

    Reactive astrocytes are typically studied in models that cause irreversible mechanical damage to axons, neuronal cell bodies, and glia. Here, we evaluated the response of astrocytes in the optic nerve head to a subtle injury induced by a brief, mild elevation of the intraocular pressure. Astrocytes demonstrated reactive remodeling that peaked at three days, showing hypertrophy, process retraction, and simplification of their shape. This was not accompanied by any significant changes in the gene expression profile. At no time was there discernible damage to the optic axons, as evidenced by electron microscopy and normal anterograde and retrograde transport. Remarkably, the morphological remodeling was reversible. These findings underscore the plastic nature of reactivity. They show that reactivity can resolve fully if the insult is removed, and suggest that reactivity per se is not necessarily deleterious to axons. This reaction may represent very early events in the sequence that eventually leads to glial scarring.

  4. Administrator Protections in Negotiated Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisapia, John Ralph; Sells, Jack D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents specific examples of provisions currently found in administrator-board collective bargaining agreements that protect administrators from the adverse effects of both bilateral decisions made by boards with teachers, and unilateral decisions made by boards concerning principals. (Author)

  5. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  6. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is ... Visit the Office of Community Services Website The Family Room Blog RSS Feed Building Community, Building Hope: ...

  7. Spatial Reversal Learning in Chronically Sensitized Rats and in Undrugged Sensitized Rats with Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist Quinpirole

    PubMed Central

    Hatalova, Hana; Radostova, Dominika; Pistikova, Adela; Vales, Karel; Stuchlik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine plays a role in generating flexible adaptive responses in changing environments. Chronic administration of D2-like agonist quinpirole (QNP) induces behavioral sensitization and stereotypical behaviors reminiscent of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Some of these symptoms persist even after QNP discontinuation. In QNP-sensitization, perseverative behavior has often been implicated. To test the effect of QNP-sensitization on reversal learning and its association with perseveration we selected an aversively motivated hippocampus-dependent task, active place avoidance on a Carousel. Performance was measured as the number of entrances into a to-be-avoided sector (errors). We tested separately QNP-sensitized rats in QNP-drugged and QNP-undrugged state in acquisition and reversal tasks on the Carousel. In acquisition learning there were no significant differences between groups and their respective controls. In reversal, QNP-sensitized drugged rats showed a robust but transient increase in number of errors compared to controls. QNP-sensitized rats in an undrugged state were not overtly different from the control animals but displayed an altered learning manifested by more errors at the beginning compensated by quicker learning in the second session compared to control animals. Importantly, performance was not associated with perseveration in neither QNP-sensitized drugged nor QNP-sensitized undrugged animals. The present results show that chronic QNP treatment induces robust reversal learning deficit only when the substance is continuously administered, and suggest that QNP animal model of OCD is also feasible model of cognitive alterations in this disorder. PMID:24782730

  8. Simulating feedback and reversibility in substrate-enzyme reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zwieten, D. A. J.; Rooda, J. E.; Armbruster, D.; Nagy, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    We extend discrete event models (DEM) of substrate-enzyme reactions to include regulatory feedback and reversible reactions. Steady state as well as transient systems are modeled and validated against ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. The approach is exemplified in a model of the first steps of glycolysis with the most common regulatory mechanisms. We find that in glycolysis, feedback and reversibility together act as a significant damper on the stochastic variations of the intermediate products as well as for the stochastic variation of the transit times. This suggests that these feedbacks have evolved to control both the overall rate of, as well as stochastic fluctuations in, glycolysis.

  9. Evidence of thyroxine formation following iodine administration in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, K. D.; Sauer, R. L.; Bull, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine (I2) has been proposed to be used as a water disinfectant on the manned space station. Previous work has shown that subchronic administration of I2 to Sprague-Dawley rats in drinking water significantly increases plasma thyroxine/triiodothyronine (T4/T3) levels. This is not observed with iodide (I-) treatment. The present study addresses the possibility that I2 reacts with deiodinated T4 metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract to resynthesize T4. Incubation of diiodothyronine (T2), T3, or reverse T3 with I2 in phosphate-buffered saline resulted in the formation of T4 as measured by radioimmunoassay. Washes from the initial segments of the small intestine of the rat show that substrates are present that react with I2 to produce T4. Single oral doses of I2 to rats produced significant dose-related increases in serum T4 and decreases in T3 concentrations after 2 h. Administration of an equivalent dose of I- did not alter significantly plasma T4 concentrations. Higher concentrations of a radioactive substance that bound a T4-specific antibody are present in plasma of animals treated with 125I2 compared to 125I-. These data support the hypothesis that I2 reacts with metabolites of thyroid hormone in the gastrointestinal tract to resynthesize T4 and elevate its levels in blood.

  10. Administrative Uses of the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Dennis W.; Atkinson, Gene

    1983-01-01

    An outline of microcomputer applications for administrative computing in education is followed by discussions of aspects of office automation, database management systems, management information systems, administrative computer systems, and software. Several potential problems relating to administrative computing in education are identified.…

  11. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  12. Three Generations of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, F. G.

    This paper compares two Australian educational administration texts published in 1963 to reflect critically on the radical changes that have occurred in educational administration in Australia since then. The books are "Headmasters for Better Schools," by Bassett, Crane, and Walker; and "Training the Administrator," by…

  13. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  14. The Cultural Context of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Flora Ida

    To explicate the relevance of cultural context to educational administration practices, this paper contrasts United States cultural attitudes and administrative practices with those of Latin America. Drawing on Leslie A. White's definition of culture, the author presents the Weberian model of administration as exemplary for the United States,…

  15. Comparing Administrators' Perceptions of SBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; Woodworth, Beth

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of administrators of small rural districts hold about school-based management (SBM) and to compare them with the perceptions of administrators in larger, nonrural districts. Administrators' perceptions of what should occur in SBM were compared with what they perceived does occur. Responses…

  16. Nickel-cadmium Battery Cell Reversal from Resistive Network Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the individual cell short-down procedures often used for storing or reconditioning nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries, it is possible for significant reversal of the lowest capacity cells to occur. The reversal is caused by the finite resistance of the common current-carrying leads in the resistive network that is generally used during short-down. A model is developed to evaluate the extent of such a reversal in any specific battery, and the model is verified by means of data from the short-down of a f-cell, 3.5-Ah battery. Computer simulations of short-down on a variety of battery configurations indicate the desirability of controlling capacity imbalances arising from cell configuration and battery management, limiting variability in the short-down resistors, minimizing lead resistances, and optimizing lead configurations.

  17. Clinical importance of reversibility in primary goitrous hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinari, M; Okamura, K; Tokuyama, T; Shiroozu, A; Nakashima, T; Inoue, K; Omae, T

    1983-01-01

    Twenty seven hypothyroid patients with a serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of over 40 mU/1 were followed up for three to 20 weeks without replacement therapy. The serum thyroid hormone concentrations increased with a dramatic decrease in serum TSH values in 14 patients (reversible group) but there was no significant change in the other 13 (irreversible group). Fourteen out of 19 patients with goitre but none of the eight patients without goitre belonged to the reversible group. All of the 11 patients with a high uptake of iodide by the thyroid, three of the six with a normal uptake, and none of the 10 with a low uptake belonged to the reversible group. These observations indicate that patients with goitrous hypothyroidism with a preserved thyroid uptake of iodide are likely to become euthyroid spontaneously without replacement therapy. PMID:6412796

  18. Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse Electron Transport Extend Animal Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P; Sanz, Alberto

    2016-04-12

    Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse electron transport extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse electron transport rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse electron transport. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging.

  19. Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse Electron Transport Extend Animal Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M.; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P.; Sanz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse electron transport extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse electron transport rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse electron transport. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging. PMID:27076081

  20. Transport with reversed shear in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mueller, D.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Maingi, R.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2007-05-15

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], plasmas with strongly reversed magnetic shear, s{identical_to}(r/q)(dq/dr)<0, in the plasma core exhibit a marked improvement in electron confinement compared to otherwise similar plasmas with positive or only weakly reversed magnetic shear. The q profile itself is determined by the early evolution of the plasma current, the plasma cross section, and the neutral-beam heating power. In the region of shear reversal, the electron thermal diffusivity can be significantly reduced. Detailed experimental investigation of this phenomenon has been made possible by the successful development of a motional Stark effect (MSE) polarimetry diagnostic suitable for the low magnetic field in NSTX, typically 0.35-0.55 T. Measurements of the electron and ion temperature, density, and plasma toroidal rotation profiles are also available with high spatial and temporal resolution for analysis of the plasma transport properties.

  1. TNFα reverse signaling promotes sympathetic axon growth and target innervation

    PubMed Central

    Kisiswa, Lilian; Osório, Catarina; Erice, Clara; Vizard, Thomas; Wyatt, Sean; Davies, Alun M

    2013-01-01

    Reverse signaling via members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is increasingly recognized among cells of the immune system where it controls multiple aspects of immune function. Here we document TNFα reverse signaling in the nervous system for the first time and show that it plays a crucial role in establishing sympathetic innervation. During postnatal development, sympathetic axons express TNFα as they grow and branch in their target tissues which in turn express TNFR1. In culture, soluble forms of TNFR1 act directly on postnatal sympathetic axons to promote growth and branching by a mechanism that depends on membrane integrated TNFα and downstream MEK/ERK activation. Sympathetic innervation density is significantly reduced in several tissues in postnatal and adult mice lacking either TNFα or TNFR1. These findings reveal that target-derived TNFR1 acts as a reverse signaling ligand for membrane-integrated TNFα to promote sympathetic axon growth and branching. PMID:23749144

  2. Analysis of Polar Reversals of Solar Cycle 22 and 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of synoptic magnetograms, one to three activity complexes (systems of active regions) were identified in each reversal as the main cause of polar field reversals in each cycle. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed lagging-polarity flux from these complexes was found to correlate well in time with the polar field changes. In each case significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with lagging-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. This result indicates the importance of the Joy's law tilt and consequent high-latitude polarity bias in polar reversals.This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Summer Research Assistantship (SRA) Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  3. Role of Reverse Divalent Cation Diffusion in Forward Osmosis Biofouling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Hashmi, Sara M; Nghiem, Long D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-11-17

    We investigated the role of reverse divalent cation diffusion in forward osmosis (FO) biofouling. FO biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was simulated using pristine and chlorine-treated thin-film composite polyamide membranes with either MgCl2 or CaCl2 draw solution. We related FO biofouling behavior-water flux decline, biofilm architecture, and biofilm composition-to reverse cation diffusion. Experimental results demonstrated that reverse calcium diffusion led to significantly more severe water flux decline in comparison with reverse magnesium permeation. Unlike magnesium, reverse calcium permeation dramatically altered the biofilm architecture and composition, where extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) formed a thicker, denser, and more stable biofilm. We propose that FO biofouling was enhanced by complexation of calcium ions to bacterial EPS. This hypothesis was confirmed by dynamic and static light scattering measurements using extracted bacterial EPS with the addition of either MgCl2 or CaCl2 solution. We observed a dramatic increase in the hydrodynamic radius of bacterial EPS with the addition of CaCl2, but no change was observed after addition of MgCl2. Static light scattering revealed that the radius of gyration of bacterial EPS with addition of CaCl2 was 20 times larger than that with the addition of MgCl2. These observations were further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy imaging, where bacterial EPS in the presence of calcium ions was globular, while that with magnesium ions was rod-shaped.

  4. Characterization of the fouling phenomenon in reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, M.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation explores the application of a bench scale reverse osmosis test cell apparatus as a research tool. This versatile system was used to explore the response of a reverse osmosis membrane to various types of feedwaters. As a result of this research, an easy, accurate experimental method for predicting the rejection in any reverse osmosis system has been developed and demonstrated. The dissertation illustrates a simple procedure to identify if a precipitating feedwater solution will foul a reverse osmosis membrane. The research also presents evidence that suggests that the common practice of increasing feed flow rates to clean a membrane may not always be an acceptable method to revive a system. In addition to this information about the RO systems, the dissertation provides insight into the environment around the membrane surface. Statistically significant information about the nature and behavior of the membrane permeation coefficient is presented. Evidence is provided to demonstrate the negative effects on membrane performance of small amounts of grease contamination from the process equipment. Insight into the resistive nature of membranes, boundary layers, and fouling deposits is also presented. Throughout the course of this research, the relationship between concentration polarization and the permeate flux is illustrated. This is done first in the traditional terms of wall concentration, and later in terms of flow resistance. This dissertation also provides an experimental demonstration of both the detachment of a boundary layer from a membrane and the resistive nature of a precipitated fouling layer in a reverse osmosis system.

  5. Advancing Reversible Shape Memory by Tuning Network Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoxi; Zhou, Jing; Vatankhah Varnosfaderani, Mohammad; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Gang, Oleg; Sheiko, Sergei; University of north carolina at chapel hill Collaboration; Brookhaven National Lab-CFN Collaboration

    Recently, reversible shape memory (RSM) has been realized in conventional semi-crystalline elastomers without applying any external force and synthetic programming. The mechanism is ascribed to counteraction between thermodynamically driven relaxation of a strained polymer network and kinetically preferred self-seeding recrystallization of constrained network strands. In order to maximize RSM's performance in terms of (i) range of reversible strain, (ii) rate of strain recovery, and (iii) relaxation time of reversibility, we have designed a systematic series of networks with different topologies and crosslinking densities, including purposely introduced dangling chains and irregular meshes. Within a broad range of crosslink density ca. 50-1000 mol/m3, we have demonstrated that the RSM's properties improve significantly with increasing crosslink density, regardless of network topology. Actually, one of the most irregular networks with densest crosslinking allowed achieving up to 80% of the programmed strain being fully reversible, fast recovery rate up to 0.05 K-1, and less than 15% decrease of reversibility after hours of annealing at partial melt state. With this understanding and optimization of RSM, we pursue an idea of shape control through self-assembly of shape-memory particles. For this purpose, 3D printing has been employed to prepare large assemblies of particles possessing specific shapes and morphologies.

  6. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.

  7. Time reversal for modified oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Soto, R.; Suslov, S. K.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a new completely integrable case of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in ®n with variable coefficients for a modified oscillator that is dual (with respect to time reversal) to a model of the quantum oscillator. We find a second pair of dual Hamiltonians in the momentum representation. The examples considered show that in mathematical physics and quantum mechanics, a change in the time direction may require a total change of the system dynamics to return the system to its original quantum state. We obtain particular solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We also consider a Hamiltonian structure of the classical integrable problem and its quantization.

  8. Operations Research and Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, T. C . E.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the uses of operations research (OR) in higher education administration by reviewing the higher education system's most significant operational problems: resource allocation, financial planning, budgeting, formation of student project groups, scheduling and classroom allocation, student registration, tuition and fee structure…

  9. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  10. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  11. The first demonstration of the existence of reverse transcriptases in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Masayori

    2017-01-15

    It has been long thought that reverse transcriptases are unique to the eukaryotes. However, through our research on a peculiar single stranded DNA called msDNA in Myxococcus xanthus, it was predicted that its synthesis requires reverse transcriptases. Subsequently, Lim and Maas as well as our group demonstrated the existence of reverse transcriptases for the production of msDNA. In this review, I describe how the discovery of msDNA led to the discovery of reverse transcriptases in bacteria and discuss the evolutionary significance of the discovery of revise transcriptases in bacteria.

  12. Propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Il; Yoon, Suk Wang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro. The time-reversed Lamb waves were successfully launched at 200 kHz in 18 bovine tibiae through a time reversal process of Lamb waves. The group velocities of the time-reversed Lamb waves in the bovine tibiae were measured using the axial transmission technique. They showed a significant correlation with the cortical thickness and tended to follow the theoretical group velocity of the lowest order antisymmetrical Lamb wave fairly well, consistent with the behavior of the slow guided wave in long cortical bones.

  13. Time-reversed lasing in the terahertz range and its preliminary study in sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yun; Liu, Huaqing; Deng, Xiaohua; Wang, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    Time-reversed lasing in a uniform slab and a grating structure are investigated in the terahertz range. The results show that both the uniform slab and grating can support terahertz time-reversed lasing. Nevertheless, due to the tunable effective refractive index, the grating structure can not only exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab, but also can realize significant absorption in a broader operating frequency range. Furthermore, applications of terahertz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are preliminarily studied in a single-channel coherent perfect absorber system.

  14. Process of forming compounds using reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion systems

    DOEpatents

    Linehan, John C.; Fulton, John L.; Bean, Roger M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for producing a nanometer-sized metal compound. The process comprises forming a reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system comprising a polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. A first reactant comprising a multi-component, water-soluble metal compound is introduced into the polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. This first reactant can be introduced into the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system during formation thereof or subsequent to the formation of the reverse micelle or microemulsion system. The water-soluble metal compound is then reacted in the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system to form the nanometer-sized metal compound. The nanometer-sized metal compound is then precipitated from the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system.

  15. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade.

  16. Dynamics of high-bypass-engine thrust reversal using a variable-pitch fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. W.; Sagerser, D. R.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The test program demonstrated that successful and rapid forward-to reverse-thrust transients can be performed without any significant engine operational limitations for fan blade pitch changes through either feather pitch or flat pitch. For through-feather-pitch operation with a flight inlet, fan stall problems were encountered, and a fan blade overshoot technique was used to establish reverse thrust.

  17. Do benzodiazepines mimic reverse-turn structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Masayuki; Marshall, Garland R.

    2006-05-01

    The role of benzodiazepine derivatives (BZD) as a privileged scaffold that mimics β-turn structures (Ripka et al. (1993) Tetrahedron 49:3593-3608) in peptide/protein recognition was reexamined in detail. Stable BZD ring conformers were determined with MM3, and experimental reverse-turn structures were extracted from the basis set of protein crystal structures previously defined by Ripka et al. Ideal β-turns were also modeled and similarly compared with BZD conformers. Huge numbers of conformers were generated by systematically scanning the torsional degrees of freedom for BZDs, as well as those of ideal β-turns for comparison. Using these structures, conformers of BZDs were fit to experimental structures as suggested by Ripka et al., or modeled classical β-turn conformers, and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values were calculated for each pairwise comparison. Pairs of conformers with the smallest RMSD values for overlap of the four α-β side-chain orientations were selected. All overlaps of BZD conformers with experimental β-turns yielded one or more comparisons where the least RMSD was significantly small, 0.48-0.86 Å, as previously suggested. Utilizing a different methodology, the overall conclusion that benzodiazepines could serve as reverse-turn mimetics of Ripka et al. is justified. The least RMSD values for the overlap of BZDs and modeled classical β-turns were also less than 1 Å. When comparing BZDs with experimental or classical β-turns, the set of experimental β-turns selected by Ripka et al. fit the BZD scaffolds better than modeled classical β-turns; however, all the experimental β-turns did not fit a particular BZD scaffold better. A single BZD ring conformation, and/or chiral orientation, can mimic some, but not all, of the experimental β-turn structures. BZD has two central ring conformations and one chiral center that explains why the four variations of the BZD scaffold can mimic all types of β-turn structure examined. It was

  18. Removal of radionuclides in drinking water by membrane treatment using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal.

    PubMed

    Montaña, M; Camacho, A; Serrano, I; Devesa, R; Matia, L; Vallés, I

    2013-11-01

    A pilot plant had been built to test the behaviour of ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis reversal (EDR) in order to improve the quality of the water supplied to Barcelona metropolitan area from the Llobregat River. This paper presents results from two studies to reduce natural radioactivity. The results from the pilot plant with four different scenarios were used to design the full-scale treatment plant built (SJD WTP). The samples taken at different steps of the treatment were analysed to determine gross alpha, gross beta and uranium activity. The results obtained revealed a significant improvement in the radiological water quality provided by both membrane techniques (RO and EDR showed removal rates higher than 60%). However, UF did not show any significant removal capacity for gross alpha, gross beta or uranium activities. RO was better at reducing the radiological parameters studied and this treatment was selected and applied at the full scale treatment plant. The RO treatment used at the SJD WTP reduced the concentration of both gross alpha and gross beta activities and also produced water of high quality with an average removal of 95% for gross alpha activity and almost 93% for gross beta activity at the treatment plant.

  19. Ameliorative effect of tacrine on spatial memory deficit in chronic two-vessel occluded rats is reversible and mediated by muscarinic M1 receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Y; Ikenoya, M; Matsumoto, K; Li, H; Watanabe, H

    2000-04-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that permanent two-vessel occlusion (2VO)-induced working memory deficit was improved by daily administration of tacrine, a cholinesterase inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of tacrine in 2VO rats using the eight-arm radial maze task. Daily administration of tacrine (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg i.p.) started 5 weeks after the 2VO operation significantly improved the maze performance. In the delay-interposition task, a significant impairment of maze performance was observed in the tacrine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated rats at a delay of 90 min but not delays of 5 or 30 min. Sham-operated rats were not affected by delay. After leaving animals with no further treatment for 4 weeks, the tacrine-pretreated 2VO rats showed significantly impaired performance compared to the sham-operated control animals. However, the performance of the tacrine-pretreated 2VO rats was significantly improved by restarting the daily administration of tacrine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.). The effect of tacrine was reversed by the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine and the selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine. Moreover, a microdialysis study revealed that tacrine (1 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) level for a period of over 3 h in the cerebral cortex of 2VO rats. These findings suggest that the ameliorative effect of tacrine on the spatial memory deficit in 2VO rats is reversible and may be mediated by stimulating the muscarinic M1 receptor via elevation of the extracellular ACh level in the brain.

  20. Pulmonary administration of Am80 regenerates collapsed alveoli.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hitomi; Horiguchi, Michiko; Ozawa, Chihiro; Akita, Tomomi; Hirota, Keiji; Shudo, Koichi; Terada, Hiroshi; Makino, Kimiko; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2014-12-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an intractable pulmonary disease, which causes widespread and irreversible alveoli collapse. Nevertheless, there is no effective drug therapy that regenerates lung tissue or prevents the progression of COPD and clinical management of patients remains mostly supportive. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Am80 is useful as a novel pulmonary emphysema therapeutic drug. In this study, we treated the human alveolar epithelial stem cells with Am80 to clarify the differentiation-inducing mechanism and administrated Am80 transpulmonarily into elastase-induced COPD model mice to evaluate the effect of Am80 on pulmonary emphysema. First, we accordingly investigated whether Am80 had a differentiation-inducing effect on human alveolar epithelial stem cells, Am80 induced differentiation of human alveolar epithelial stem cells to alveolar type I and II cells dose dependently, and the proportion of differentiated into type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells as a result of treatment with 10 μM of Am80 for 7 days was approximately 20%. Second, we attempted to identify the major factor involved in the differentiation-inducing effect of human alveolar epithelial stem cells induced by Am80 using microarray analysis. In a microarray analysis, WNT1, lectin, SLIT, chordin, ck12, ck11, and neurexin3 showed the largest variation in the Am80-treated group compared with the controls. In quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay, Am80 resulted in significant reduction in the WNT1 expression ratio whereas increase in the neurexin3 expression ratio. We evaluated the repairs effect for collapsed alveoli by Am80 of pulmonary administration. In untreated and Am80-treated mice the average CT value at 2 days was, respectively, -506 and -439 and there was a significant difference. Likewise, the assessment of the distance between alveolar walls, Lm, confirmed that there was a significant difference between control (68.0±3.8 μm) and

  1. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  2. Reverse polarization in conjugated heterocycle polythiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu-Xia; Liu, De-Sheng; Zhang, Da-Cheng; Xie, Shi-Jie; Han, Sheng-Hao; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2005-01-01

    Reverse polarization in polythiophene under an applied electric field has been studied in the framework of the tight-binding model. It is found that the applied electronic field has a great influence on the excited states of polythiophene. The effect of the heteroatoms on the polarization has been calculated and analysed carefully. It is indicated that a reverse polarization of biexcitons in polythiophene will be observed more easily. The heteroatoms increase this reversed polarization strength apparently.

  3. Reversibility of a Symmetric Linear Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    The characterization of the size of the cellular space of a particular type of reversible symmetric linear cellular automata is introduced in this paper. Specifically, it is shown that those symmetric linear cellular with 2k + 1 cells, and whose transition matrix is a k-diagonal square band matrix with nonzero entries equal to 1 are reversible. Furthermore, in this case the inverse cellular automata are explicitly computed. Moreover, the reversibility condition is also studied for a general number of cells.

  4. Women: A Significant National Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Administrative Women in Education, Washington, DC.

    Believing that society, including children, suffers from the underutilization of more than half the talents available to educational administration, an annual meeting was devoted to a workshop designed to present and provide study of the pertinent facts. Keynote addresses by Congresswoman Edith Green, Wayne O. Reed, Earl C. Funderburk, Dorothy…

  5. Why do airlines want and use thrust reversers? A compilation of airline industry responses to a survey regarding the use of thrust reversers on commercial transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    Although thrust reversers are used for only a fraction of the airplane operating time, their impact on nacelle design, weight, airplane cruise performance, and overall airplane operating and maintenance expenses is significant. Why then do the airlines want and use thrust reversers? In an effort to understand the airlines need for thrust reversers, a survey of the airline industry was made to determine why and under what situations thrust reversers are currently used or thought to be needed. The survey was intended to help establish the cost/benefits trades for the use of thrust reversers and airline opinion regarding alternative deceleration devices. A compilation and summary of the responses given to the survey questionnaire is presented.

  6. On the regimes of charge reversal.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Angeles, Felipe; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo

    2008-05-07

    Charge reversal of the planar electrical double layer is studied by means of a well known integral equation theory. By a numerical analysis, a diagram is constructed with the onset points of charge reversal in the space of the fundamental variables of the system. Within this diagram, two regimes of charge reversal are identified, which are referred to as oscillatory and nonoscillatory. We found that these two regimes can be distinguished through a simple formula. Furthermore, a symmetry between electrostatic and size correlations in charge reversal is exhibited. Agreement of our results with other theories and molecular simulations data is discussed.

  7. Reversal of liver cirrhosis in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anish M; Malhotra, Ashish; Kothari, Shivangi; Baddoura, Walid; Depasquale, Joseph; Spira, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is generally considered irreversible but there are reports in which there is documented reversal of fibrosis/cirrhosis in various clinical conditions like Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. The subgroup of patients with autoimmune hepatitis that will have reversal of cirrhosis is not known. We present two cases with documented liver cirrhosis that had reversal of cirrhosis after treatment with immunosuppressive agents. We postulate that patients presenting with acute hepatitis and no other fibrogenic factors have higher chances of reversal of liver cirrhosis as compared to those presenting as chronic liver injury.

  8. Profile of women undergoing reversal of sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Desai, P; Barbhaya, M; Desai, M; Modi, D

    1998-04-01

    Two hundred twenty women who were subjected to reversal of female sterilisation over 7 years were analysed. It was found that death of the male child was the strongest reason for seeking a reversal. This was coupled with the parity of these subjects being two or less in 70% instances at the time of primary sterilisation surgery. Nearly 85.9% reversal were sought in the higher age groups clubbed together. This has an adverse bearing on success of reversal surgery as the fertility potential of a woman declines physiologically as age advances.

  9. Utility of methylene blue for the reversal of excessive levels of methemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, J.; Von Bredow, J.; Brown, L.; Kaminskis, A.; Bossone, C.

    1993-05-13

    Many new prophylactic and therapeutic compounds are being studied as potential sources of methemoglobin useful in counteracting the lethal effects of cyanide intoxication. The formation of methemoglobin also leads to a reduction in the blood oxygen carrying capacity which may, in extreme cases, lead to lethal consequences. The i.v. administration of Methylene blue rapidly reverses methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Unanticipated high levels of methemoglobin (65 - 85%) in three sheep exposed to propiophenone derivatives led to a lethal outcome in one untreated sheep and complete recovery in two sheep which were treated with 3.0 mg/kg methylene blue i.v. methemoglobin was reduced to safe levels within minutes following administration. A similar exposure of dogs to propriophenone derivatives led to high levels (77 - 78%) of methemoglobin which were readily reversed following the intravenous administration of the same dose of methylene blue.

  10. Vitamin E Reverses Multidrug Resistance In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jingling; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Yongjun; Racette, Kelly; Wang, Dun; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to successful and effective chemotherapeutic treatments of cancers. This study explored the reversal effects of vitamin E on MDR tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, elucidating the potential mechanism of this reversal. VE at a concentration of 50 μM exhibited a significant reversal of the MDR effect (compared to only PTX in DMSO, p < 0.05) in two human MDR cell lines (H460/taxR and KB-8-5). The MDR cell xenograft model was established to investigate the effect of VE on reversing MDR in vivo. Mice intravenously injected with Taxol (10 mg/kg) with VE (500 mg/kg, IP) showed an ability to overcome the MDR. VE and its derivatives can significantly increase intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin (P-gp substrate), but not alter the levels of P-gp expression. These treatments also did not decrease the levels of intracellular ATP, but were still able to inhibit the verapamil-induced ATPase activity of P-gp. The new application of VE as an MDR sensitizer will be attractive due to the safety of this treatment. PMID:23624302

  11. A reverse transfection technology to genetically engineer adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Arimichi; Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2007-02-01

    A new non-viral method of gene transfection was designed to enhance the level of gene expression for rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Pullulan was cationized using chemical introduction of spermine to prepare cationized pullulan of non-viral carrier (spermine-pullulan). The spermine-pullulan was complexed with a plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of luciferase and coated on the surface of culture substrate together with Pronectin of artificial cell adhesion protein. MSCs were cultured and transfected on the complex-coated substrate (reverse transfection), and the level and duration of gene expression were compared with those of MSCs transfected by culturing in the medium containing the plasmid DNA-spermine-pullulan complex (conventional method). The reverse transfection method enhanced and prolonged gene expression significantly more than did the conventional method. The reverse method permitted the transfection culture of MSCs in the presence of serum, in contrast to the conventional method, which gave cells a good culture condition to lower cytotoxicity. The reverse transfection was carried out for a non-woven fabric of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coated with the complex and Pronectin using agitation and stirring culture methods. The two methods enhanced the level and duration of gene expression for MSCs significantly more than did the static method. It is possible that medium circulation improves the culture conditions of cells in terms of oxygen and nutrition supply and waste excretion, resulting in enhanced gene expression.

  12. Alterations of the oxidative status in rat hippocampus and prodepressant effect of chronic testosterone enanthate administration.

    PubMed

    Joksimović, Jovana; Selaković, Dragica; Jakovljević, Vladimir; Mihailović, Vladimir; Katanić, Jelena; Boroja, Tatjana; Rosić, Gvozden

    2017-03-24

    In a last few decades, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) abuse has become serious health concern especially among adolescents. AASs abuse has been reported to be involved in pathogenesis of various mood disorders, including depression. In order to evaluate the effects of chronic (6 weeks) testosterone enanthate (TE) treatment in supraphysiological dose and exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, 32 male rats were divided into four groups: control (C), testosterone enanthate (T, 20 mg/kg/w, s.c.), exercise (E, swimming for 1 h/day), and combined group-testosterone enanthate plus exercise (T + E). TE produced prodepressant effect in tail suspension test (TST) parameters compared to the control and exercise groups, while exercise induced the opposite effect. Simultaneous TE administration along with exercise attenuated the antidepressant effect of exercise reversing the parameters of TST to the control values. Oxidative stress markers in rat hippocampus were significantly altered following applied protocols. TE administration increased index of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and decreased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), while exercise induced the opposite effect, with no change in glutathione (GSH) levels. Our results indicate that TE chronic treatment resulted in clear depressive-like behavior, even abolishing beneficial antidepressant effects of exercise in TST that was accompanied with increased oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. The antidepressant effect of exercise correlated with the improvement of redox status in hippocampal tissue. Behavioral parameters obtained in TST significantly correlated with the levels of oxidative stress markers.

  13. Protective effect of oral L-arginine administration on gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Can, C; Sen, S; Boztok, N; Tuglular, I

    2000-03-03

    We investigated the effects of orally supplemented L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide (NO) and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor in gentamicin-induced renal failure. Rats were given gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day s.c.), gentamicin and L-arginine (2 g/l, drinking water), gentamicin and L-NAME (100 mg/l, drinking water) or gentamicin plus L-arginine and L-NAME. After 8 days, the gentamicin group developed marked renal failure, characterized by a significantly decreased creatinine clearance and increased blood creatinine, fractional excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of lithium, urine gamma glutamyl transferase, systolic blood pressure and daily urine volume when compared to controls. Renal histological analysis confirmed tubular necrosis. L-arginine administration caused normalization of these parameters, whereas L-NAME led to aggravation of the failure. Concomitant administration of L-NAME and L-arginine to gentamicin-treated rats caused no significant changes when compared to the rats receiving gentamicin alone. We conclude that L-arginine supplementation has beneficial effects in gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats and that these effects are reversed by the NO-synthase inhibitor, L-NAME.

  14. Laboratory assessment of warfarin reversal with global coagulation tests versus international normalized ratio in patients with intracranial bleeding.

    PubMed

    Voils, Stacy A; Martin, Erika J; Mohammed, Bassem M; Bayrlee, Ahmad; Brophy, Donald F

    2015-06-01

    We assess the in-vivo relationship between international normalized ratio (INR) and global coagulation tests in patients with life-threatening bleeding who received prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) for warfarin reversal. This was a prospective pilot study in adult patients with intracranial bleeding related to anticoagulation with warfarin. Thromboelastography (TEG), thrombin generation parameters and INR were assessed at baseline, 30  min, 2 and 24  h after PCC. Changes in laboratory parameters and relationship between INR and global coagulation tests were assessed over time. Eight patients mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 72 (16) were included and received mean (SD) dose of PCC 24 (5) units/kg. Four patients died during the study, all with INR values more than 1.5 thirty minutes after PCC. Mean (SD) INR was 3.0 (1.3) and decreased significantly to 1.8 (0.48) thirty minutes after PCC (P < 0.01). Baseline endogenous thrombin potential and thrombin peak were 890  nmol/min and 123  nmol and increased significantly to 1943  nmol/min (P < 0.01) and 301  nmol (P < 0.01) 30  min after PCC administration. Reaction (R)-time decreased significantly (P = 0.02), and maximum amplitude and overall coagulation index (CI) significantly increased during treatment (P < 0.01, respectively). Thrombin generation and TEG values corrected after PCC administration; however, INR did not fully correct. Patients that died tended to be older with prolonged INR values across the study period. INR and TEG values correlated well with thrombin generation before administration of PCC, but this relationship was lost afterward.

  15. Entropic uncertainty and measurement reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Wehner, Stephanie; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-11-01

    The entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information (EUR-QSI) from [Berta et al., Nat. Phys. 6, 659 (2010)] is a unifying principle relating two distinctive features of quantum mechanics: quantum uncertainty due to measurement incompatibility, and entanglement. In these relations, quantum uncertainty takes the form of preparation uncertainty where one of two incompatible measurements is applied. In particular, the "uncertainty witness" lower bound in the EUR-QSI is not a function of a post-measurement state. An insightful proof of the EUR-QSI from [Coles et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 210405 (2012)] makes use of a fundamental mathematical consequence of the postulates of quantum mechanics known as the non-increase of quantum relative entropy under quantum channels. Here, we exploit this perspective to establish a tightening of the EUR-QSI which adds a new state-dependent term in the lower bound, related to how well one can reverse the action of a quantum measurement. As such, this new term is a direct function of the post-measurement state and can be thought of as quantifying how much disturbance a given measurement causes. Our result thus quantitatively unifies this feature of quantum mechanics with the others mentioned above. We have experimentally tested our theoretical predictions on the IBM Quantum Experience and find reasonable agreement between our predictions and experimental outcomes.

  16. The Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallesh, Nayantara; Wright, Matthew

    Statistical disclosure is a well-studied technique that an attacker can use to uncover relations between users in mix-based anonymity systems. Prior work has focused on finding the receivers to whom a given targeted user sends. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of statistical disclosure in finding all of a users' contacts, including those from whom she receives messages. To this end, we propose a new attack called the Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack (RSDA). RSDA uses observations of all users sending patterns to estimate both the targeted user's sending pattern and her receiving pattern. The estimated patterns are combined to find a set of the targeted user's most likely contacts. We study the performance of RSDA in simulation using different mix network configurations and also study the effectiveness of cover traffic as a countermeasure. Our results show that that RSDA outperforms the traditional SDA in finding the user's contacts, particularly as the amounts of user traffic and cover traffic rise.

  17. Reverse engineering adverse outcome pathways.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Chipman, J Kevin; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or incompletely characterized, mechanisms of action. The application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) can be used to overcome these limitations. This approach was used to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas). Gene expression changes in FHM ovaries in response to seven different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions, were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. Potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide were examined using two mutual information-based methods to infer gene regulatory networks and potential AOPs. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict network paths from stressor to adverse outcome as candidate AOPs. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment, thus leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biological processes, biomarkers, or alternative endpoints that can be used to monitor an AOP. Finally, the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology were identified and a road map for the utilization of these tools presented.

  18. Reversing expectations during discourse comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ming; Kuperberg, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In two ERP experiments, we asked whether comprehenders used the concessive connective, even so, to predict upcoming events. Participants read coherent and incoherent scenarios, with and without even so, e.g. “Elizabeth had a history exam on Monday. She took the test and aced/failed it. (Even so), she went home and celebrated wildly.”, as they rated coherence (Experiment 1) or simply answered intermittent comprehension questions (Experiment 2). The semantic function of even so was used to reverse real-world knowledge predictions, leading to an attenuated N400 to coherent versus incoherent target words (“celebrated”). Moreover, its pragmatic communicative function enhanced predictive processing, leading to more N400 attenuation to coherent targets in scenarios with than without even so. This benefit however, did not come for free: the detection of failed event predictions triggered a later posterior positivity and/or an anterior negativity effect, and costs of maintaining alternative likelihood relations manifest as a sustained negativity effect on sentence-final words. PMID:25914891

  19. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  20. Entropic uncertainty and measurement reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Wehner, Stephanie; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-07-01

    The entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information (EUR-QSI) from (Berta et al 2010 Nat. Phys. 6 659) is a unifying principle relating two distinctive features of quantum mechanics: quantum uncertainty due to measurement incompatibility, and entanglement. In these relations, quantum uncertainty takes the form of preparation uncertainty where one of two incompatible measurements is applied. In particular, the ‘uncertainty witness’ lower bound in the EUR-QSI is not a function of a post-measurement state. An insightful proof of the EUR-QSI from (Coles et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 210405) makes use of a fundamental mathematical consequence of the postulates of quantum mechanics known as the non-increase of quantum relative entropy under quantum channels. Here, we exploit this perspective to establish a tightening of the EUR-QSI which adds a new state-dependent term in the lower bound, related to how well one can reverse the action of a quantum measurement. As such, this new term is a direct function of the post-measurement state and can be thought of as quantifying how much disturbance a given measurement causes. Our result thus quantitatively unifies this feature of quantum mechanics with the others mentioned above. We have experimentally tested our theoretical predictions on the IBM quantum experience and find reasonable agreement between our predictions and experimental outcomes.

  1. Selective Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Reversed Zinc Chloride-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment via Increasing Cholinergic Marker Expression.

    PubMed

    Tabrizian, Kaveh; Azami, Kian; Belaran, Maryam; Soodi, Maliheh; Abdi, Khosrou; Fanoudi, Sahar; Sanati, Mehdi; Mottaghi Dastjerdi, Negar; Soltany Rezaee-Rad, Mohammad; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Zinc, an essential micronutrient and biochemical element of the human body, plays structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in numerous physiological functions. In the current study, the effects of a pretraining oral administration of zinc chloride (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days and post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W as a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor (10, 50, and 100 μM/side), alone and in combination, on the spatial memory retention in Morris water maze (MWM) were investigated. Animals were trained for 4 days and tested 48 h after completion of training. Also, the molecular effects of these compounds on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), as a cholinergic marker in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and medial septal area (MSA), were evaluated. Behavioral and molecular findings of this study showed that a 2-week oral administration of zinc chloride (50 mg/kg) impaired spatial memory retention in MWM and decreased ChAT expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W revealed a significant increase in ChAT immunoreactivity. Furthermore, post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W into the CA1 region of the hippocampus reversed zinc chloride-induced spatial memory impairment in MWM and significantly increased ChAT expression in comparison with zinc chloride-treated animals. Taken together, these results emphasize the role of selective iNOS inhibitors in reversing zinc chloride-induced spatial memory deficits via modulation of cholinergic marker expression.

  2. [Administrative support for Asperger's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Shu

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, administrative support for developmental disabilities, such as Asperger's syndrome, has come to be conspicuous with "Law for Supporting Persons with Developmental Disabilities", which went into effect in 2005, and promotion of "Special Support Education". However, these supports are still insufficient, because administrative support for the Asperger's syndrome in Japan, having just started very recently. Developmental disabilities, such as Asperger's syndrome, are by no means mild as disabilities, it is required to fill up administrative support for them from now on.

  3. Development management for nursing administration.

    PubMed

    Heyden, R; Luyas, G; Henry, B

    1990-04-01

    What are the needs of a nurse administrator in a developing country? For that matter, what are the requirements for a nurse administrator in areas of lesser developed delivery in this country (e.g., care of the homeless, care of indigent populations)? Heyden, Luyas, and Henry look at the educational needs of these nurse managers and compare the needs to the typical education received in nursing administration programs.

  4. Reverse genetics approaches to combat pathogenic arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans, and evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Moreover, arenaviruses pose a biodefense threat. No licensed anti-arenavirus vaccines are available, and current anti-arenavirus therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin, which is only partially effective and is associated with anemia and other side effects. Therefore, it is important to develop effective vaccines and better antiviral drugs to combat the dual threats of naturally occurring and intentionally introduced arenavirus infections. The development of arenavirus reverse genetic systems is allowing investigators to conduct a detailed molecular characterization of the viral cis-acting signals and trans-acting factors that control each of the steps of the arenavirus life cycle, including RNA synthesis, packaging and budding. Knowledge derived from these studies is uncovering potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention, as well as facilitating the establishment of assays to identify and characterize candidate antiviral drugs capable of interfering with specific steps of the virus life cycle. Likewise, the ability to generate predetermined specific mutations within the arenavirus genome and analyze their phenotypic expression would significantly contribute to the elucidation of arenavirus-host interactions, including the basis of their ability to cause severe HF. This, in turn, could lead to the development of novel, potent and safe arenavirus vaccines. PMID:18782590

  5. Reverse genetics approaches to combat pathogenic arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Juan C

    2008-12-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans, and evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Moreover, arenaviruses pose a biodefense threat. No licensed anti-arenavirus vaccines are available, and current anti-arenavirus therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin, which is only partially effective and is associated with anemia and other side effects. Therefore, it is important to develop effective vaccines and better antiviral drugs to combat the dual threats of naturally occurring and intentionally introduced arenavirus infections. The development of arenavirus reverse genetic systems is allowing investigators to conduct a detailed molecular characterization of the viral cis-acting signals and trans-acting factors that control each of the steps of the arenavirus life cycle, including RNA synthesis, packaging and budding. Knowledge derived from these studies is uncovering potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention, as well as facilitating the establishment of assays to identify and characterize candidate antiviral drugs capable of interfering with specific steps of the virus life cycle. Likewise, the ability to generate predetermined specific mutations within the arenavirus genome and analyze their phenotypic expression would significantly contribute to the elucidation of arenavirus-host interactions, including the basis of their ability to cause severe HF. This, in turn, could lead to the development of novel, potent and safe arenavirus vaccines.

  6. Durability Evaluation of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoyu Zhang; James E. O'Brien; Robert C. O'Brien; Gregory K. Housley

    2013-11-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide cells (SOCs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. Reversible operation of SOCs includes electricity generation in the fuel cell mode and hydrogen generation in the electrolysis mode. Degradation is a more significant issue when operating SOCs in the electrolysis mode. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOCs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus for single cell and small stack tests has been developed for this purpose. Cells were obtained from four industrial partners. Cells from Ceramatec Inc. and Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) showed improved durability in electrolysis mode compared to previous stack tests. Cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials Inc. (St. Gobain) and SOFCPower Inc. demonstrated stable performance in the fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode, especially at high current density. Electrolyte-electrode delamination was found to have a significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the electrode microstructure helped to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements were performed during the tests to characterize cell performance and degradation.

  7. Oral Corticosterone Administration Reduces Insulitis but Promotes Insulin Resistance and Hyperglycemia in Male Nonobese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Burke, Susan J; Batdorf, Heidi M; Eder, Adrianna E; Karlstad, Michael D; Burk, David H; Noland, Robert C; Floyd, Z Elizabeth; Collier, J Jason

    2017-03-01

    Steroid-induced diabetes is the most common form of drug-induced hyperglycemia. Therefore, metabolic and immunological alterations associated with chronic oral corticosterone were investigated using male nonobese diabetic mice. Three weeks after corticosterone delivery, there was reduced sensitivity to insulin action measured by insulin tolerance test. Body composition measurements revealed increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. Overt hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL) manifested 6 weeks after the start of glucocorticoid administration, whereas 100% of the mice receiving the vehicle control remained normoglycemic. This phenotype was fully reversed during the washout phase and readily reproducible across institutions. Relative to the vehicle control group, mice receiving corticosterone had a significant enhancement in pancreatic insulin-positive area, but a marked decrease in CD3(+) cell infiltration. In addition, there were striking increases in both citrate synthase gene expression and enzymatic activity in skeletal muscle of mice in the corticosterone group relative to vehicle control. Moreover, glycogen synthase expression was greatly enhanced, consistent with elevations in muscle glycogen storage in mice receiving corticosterone. Corticosterone-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and changes in muscle gene expression were all reversed by the end of the washout phase, indicating that the metabolic alterations were not permanent. Thus, male nonobese diabetic mice allow for translational studies on the metabolic and immunological consequences of glucocorticoid-associated interventions in a mouse model with genetic susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

  8. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    1982-01-01

    Describes a human resources development program for school administrators, including training in management functions, leader behavior skills, instructional leadership skills, and more traditional topics. (Author/JM)

  9. Ethical Dilemmas in Administrative Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the dimensions of ethics in administrative practice, identifies some of the characteristic circumstances that frequently precipitate ethical dilemmas, and suggests strategies for addressing ethical dilemmas. (Author)

  10. The Educational Administrator's Survival Guide to Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Public Schools.

    Guidelines are presented for use by educational administrators in selecting a microcomputer for administrative purposes. The selection process described is based on the determination of functions to be automated, and the identification of the software that best automates these functions. Topics addressed include general software applications that…

  11. Reversible temperature exchange upon thermal contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Eugene G.; Pshenichka, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    According to a well-known principle of thermodynamics, the transfer of heat between two bodies is reversible when their temperatures are infinitesimally close. As we demonstrate, a little-known alternative exists: two bodies with temperatures different by an arbitrary amount can completely exchange their temperatures in a reversible way if split into infinitesimal parts that are brought into thermal contact sequentially.

  12. Reversing Africa's Decline. Worldwatch Paper 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.; Wolf, Edward C.

    This paper highlights some of the themes that any successful strategy to reverse the decline of Africa must embrace. Africa is a continent experiencing a breakdown in the relationship between people and their natural support systems. Famine and the threat of famine are among the manifestations of this breakdown. This decline can be reversed. To do…

  13. The Rate Laws for Reversible Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the rate laws for reversible reactions. Indicates that although prediction of the form of the rate law for a reverse reaction given the rate law for the forward reaction is not certain, the number of possibilities is limited because of relationships described. (JN)

  14. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more than...-flight use must be designed so that no unsafe condition will result during normal operation of the system... reversing systems. (1) Each system must be designed so that no single failure, likely combination...

  15. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more than...-flight use must be designed so that no unsafe condition will result during normal operation of the system... reversing systems. (1) Each system must be designed so that no single failure, likely combination...

  16. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more than...-flight use must be designed so that no unsafe condition will result during normal operation of the system... reversing systems. (1) Each system must be designed so that no single failure, likely combination...

  17. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reversing systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that during any... of the thrust reverser. (2) Each system intended for inflight use must be designed so that no unsafe... systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that no single failure...

  18. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reversing systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that during any... of the thrust reverser. (2) Each system intended for inflight use must be designed so that no unsafe... systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that no single failure...

  19. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reversing systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that during any... of the thrust reverser. (2) Each system intended for inflight use must be designed so that no unsafe... systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that no single failure...

  20. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more than...-flight use must be designed so that no unsafe condition will result during normal operation of the system... reversing systems. (1) Each system must be designed so that no single failure, likely combination...

  1. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more than...-flight use must be designed so that no unsafe condition will result during normal operation of the system... reversing systems. (1) Each system must be designed so that no single failure, likely combination...

  2. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reversing systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that during any... of the thrust reverser. (2) Each system intended for inflight use must be designed so that no unsafe... systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that no single failure...

  3. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reversing systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that during any... of the thrust reverser. (2) Each system intended for inflight use must be designed so that no unsafe... systems— (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that no single failure...

  4. The New Reverse Transfer: A National Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Janice Nahra; Wilson, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, higher education professionals and researchers have used the term reverse transfer to describe a specific group of students. A current review of community college literature and higher education policy reflects a contextual change of the term, and today reverse transfer has grown to include students who transfer from a two-year…

  5. Remendable Polymeric Materials Using Reversible Covalent Bonds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Novel Polymeric Dienes and Dienophiles: Synthesis of Reversibly Cross- Linked Elastomers . Macromolecules, 35, 7246- 7253. Goiti, E., M. Huglin, and J...Materials and Nanotechnology in Engineering. Edited by Du, 6423, 112. Liu, Y., and Y. Chen, 2007: Thermally Reversible Cross- Linked Polyamides with...High Toughness and Self- Repairing Ability from Maleimide- and Furan- Functionalized Aromatic Polyamides . Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 208

  6. Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves.

    PubMed

    Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Christopher C; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-11-24

    A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines by columnar convection. Here we present an example of another class of reversing-geodynamo model, which operates in a regime of comparatively low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity. This class does not fit into the paradigm of reversal regimes that are dictated by the value of the local Rossby number (the ratio of advection to Coriolis force). Instead, stretching of the magnetic field by a strong shear in the east-west flow near the imaginary cylinder just touching the inner core and parallel to the axis of rotation is crucial to the reversal mechanism in our models, which involves a process akin to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.

  7. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  8. Three component vibrational time reversal communication

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department of Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.

  9. Observation of the reversed Cherenkov radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhaoyun; Tang, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhanliang; Zhang, Yabin; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Min; Gong, Yubin

    2017-03-01

    Reversed Cherenkov radiation is the exotic electromagnetic radiation that is emitted in the opposite direction of moving charged particles in a left-handed material. Reversed Cherenkov radiation has not previously been observed, mainly due to the absence of both suitable all-metal left-handed materials for beam transport and suitable couplers for extracting the reversed Cherenkov radiation signal. In this paper, we develop an all-metal metamaterial, consisting of a square waveguide loaded with complementary electric split ring resonators. We demonstrate that this metamaterial exhibits a left-handed behaviour, and we directly observe the Cherenkov radiation emitted predominantly near the opposite direction to the movement of a single sheet electron beam bunch in the experiment. These observations confirm the reversed behaviour of Cherenkov radiation. The reversed Cherenkov radiation has many possible applications, such as novel vacuum electronic devices, particle detectors, accelerators and new types of plasmonic couplers.

  10. Parkinson’s disease managing reversible neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Cole, Ted; McDougall, Beth; Westaway, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptom course has been classified as an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease. This paper documents 29 PD and treatment-induced systemic depletion etiologies which cause and/or exacerbate the seven novel primary relative nutritional deficiencies associated with PD. These reversible relative nutritional deficiencies (RNDs) may facilitate and accelerate irreversible progressive neurodegeneration, while other reversible RNDs may induce previously undocumented reversible pseudo-neurodegeneration that is hiding in plain sight since the symptoms are identical to the symptoms being experienced by the PD patient. Documented herein is a novel nutritional approach for reversible processes management which may slow or halt irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease and correct reversible RNDs whose symptoms are identical to the patient’s PD symptoms. PMID:27103805

  11. Three component vibrational time reversal communication

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department ofmore » Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.]« less

  12. Uncommon indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Yoon Suk; Huri, Gazi; Garbis, Nickolas G; McFarland, Edward G

    2013-12-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty have been the traditional method for treating a variety of shoulder conditions, including arthritis, cuff tear arthropathy, and some fracture types. However, these procedures did not provide consistently good results for patients with torn rotator cuffs. The development of the reverse prosthesis by Grammont in the late 20th century revolutionized the treatment of the rotator-cuff-deficient shoulder with arthritis. The main indication for the reverse prosthesis remains the patient with cuff tear arthropathy who has pain and loss of motion. Because the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty produced such good results in these patients, the indications for the reverse prosthesis have expanded to include other shoulder conditions that have previously been difficult to treat successfully and predictably. This review discusses and critically reviews these newer indications for the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

  13. Uncommon Indications for Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Yoon Suk; Huri, Gazi; Garbis, Nickolas G.

    2013-01-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty have been the traditional method for treating a variety of shoulder conditions, including arthritis, cuff tear arthropathy, and some fracture types. However, these procedures did not provide consistently good results for patients with torn rotator cuffs. The development of the reverse prosthesis by Grammont in the late 20th century revolutionized the treatment of the rotator-cuff-deficient shoulder with arthritis. The main indication for the reverse prosthesis remains the patient with cuff tear arthropathy who has pain and loss of motion. Because the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty produced such good results in these patients, the indications for the reverse prosthesis have expanded to include other shoulder conditions that have previously been difficult to treat successfully and predictably. This review discusses and critically reviews these newer indications for the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:24340143

  14. Estimation and uncertainty of reversible Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Wu, Hao; Paul, Fabian; Noé, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Reversibility is a key concept in Markov models and master-equation models of molecular kinetics. The analysis and interpretation of the transition matrix encoding the kinetic properties of the model rely heavily on the reversibility property. The estimation of a reversible transition matrix from simulation data is, therefore, crucial to the successful application of the previously developed theory. In this work, we discuss methods for the maximum likelihood estimation of transition matrices from finite simulation data and present a new algorithm for the estimation if reversibility with respect to a given stationary vector is desired. We also develop new methods for the Bayesian posterior inference of reversible transition matrices with and without given stationary vector taking into account the need for a suitable prior distribution preserving the meta-stable features of the observed process during posterior inference. All algorithms here are implemented in the PyEMMA software — http://pyemma.org — as of version 2.0.

  15. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure.

    PubMed

    Fiscon, Valentino; Portale, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Antonio; Migliorini, Giovanni; Frigo, Flavio

    2014-12-01

    Reestablishing continuity after a Hartmann's procedure is considered a major surgical procedure with high morbidity/mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the short-/long-term outcome of laparoscopic restoration of bowel continuity after HP. A prospectively collected database of colorectal laparoscopic procedures (>800) performed between June 2005 and June 2013 was used to identify 20 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure (LHR). Median age was 65.4. Ten patients (50 %) had undergone surgery for perforated diverticulitis, 3 (15 %) for cancer, and 7 (35 %) for other reasons (volvulus, posttraumatic perforation, and sigmoid perforation from foreign body). Previous HP had been performed laparoscopically in only 3 patients. Median operative time was 162.5 min. All the procedures were completed laparoscopically. Intraoperative complication rate was nil. Post-operative mortality and morbidity were respectively 0 and 10 % (1 pneumonia, 1 bowel obstruction from post-anastomotic stenosis which required resection and redo of the anastomosis). Median time to first flatus was 3 days, to normal diet 5 days. Median hospital stay was 9 days without readmissions. We followed up the patients for a median of 44 months: when asked, all 20 (100 %) said they would undergo the operation (LHR) again; 3 (15 %) had been re-operated of laparoscopic mesh repair for incisional hernia. When performed by experienced surgeons, LHR is a feasible, safe, reproducible operation, which allows early return of bowel function, early discharge and fast return to work for the patient. It has a low morbidity rate.

  16. Linalool reverses neuropathological and behavioral impairments in old triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Sabogal-Guáqueta Angélica; Edison, Osorio; Patricia, Cardona-Gómez Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Several types of treatments have been tested to block or delay the onset of the disease, but none have been completely successful. Diet, lifestyle and natural products are currently the main scientific focuses. Here, we evaluate the effects of oral administration of the monoterpene linalool (25 mg / kg), every 48 hours for 3 months, on aged (21–24 months old) mice with a triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Linalool-treated 3xTg-AD mice showed improved learning and spatial memory and greater risk assessment behavior during the elevated plus maze. Hippocampi and amygdalae from linalool-treated 3xTg-AD mice exhibited a significant reduction in extracellular β-amyloidosis, tauopathy, astrogliosis and microgliosis as well as a significant reduction in the levels of the pro-inflammatory markers p38 MAPK, NOS2, COX2 and IL-1β. Together, our findings suggest that linalool reverses the histopathological hallmarks of AD and restores cognitive and emotional functions via an anti-inflammatory effect. Thus, linalool may be an AD prevention candidate for preclinical studies. PMID:26549854

  17. Comparison of reversible and nonreversible aqueous-soluble lipidized conjugates of salmon calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2008-01-01

    Reversible aqueous lipidization (REAL) at the interdisulfide bond has been shown to improve the deliverability of some peptide drugs. Recently, we developed a nonreversible aqueous lipidization method targeted at the interdisulfide bond of salmon calcitonin (sCT). The resultant derivative had comparable hypocalcemic activity to sCT after subcutaneous injection in rats, despite possessing significantly different biophysical properties. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative evaluation of the biophysical properties of the reversible aqueous-soluble lipidized sCT (REAL-sCT) and its corresponding nonreversible aqueous-soluble compound (Mal-sCT) with a view to correlate these properties to the bioactivities of the peptides. REAL-sCT and Mal-sCT were successfully synthesized, purified and identified. Both conjugates showed comparable retention times in a C-18 HPLC column, as well as robust helical structures and aggregation behavior in water, although REAL-sCT was shown by dynamic light scattering experiments to form larger aggregates than Mal-sCT in water. The larger particle size of REAL-sCT correlated with its stronger resistance to degradation by intestinal enzymes. Unlike Mal-sCT, REAL-sCT was rapidly converted to sCT in liver juice; however, the regenerated sCT appeared to degrade at a slower rate than unmodified sCT in the liver juice. Compared with sCT, REAL-sCT after subcutaneous injection as an aqueous solution at a dose of 0.15 mg/kg produced a prolonged hypocalcemic activity that lasted at least 24 h in the rat. Using a novel LC-MS/MS method that was developed for this study, we were able to show concomitant increases in REAL-sCT and sCT plasma concentrations with time, the latter prevailing at 10% the molar concentration of the former. In contrast, sCT was not present in the plasma following the subcutaneous injection of Mal-sCT, although a comparable hypocalcemic activity with shorter duration was observed. Oral administration of REAL

  18. Reversion of BDNF, Akt and CREB in Hippocampus of Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Rats: Effects of Phytochemical, Bacopa Monnieri

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Somoday; Kumar, Sourav; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to explore the behavioural effects and to understand the possible mode of action of Bacopa monnieri extract (BME) on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced depressive model and the biochemical alterations such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Akt, cyclic-AMP response element binding (CREB) protein level in the hippocampus of rats. Methods We examined the effects of chronic administration of BME on CUS exposed rats for 28 days. Behavioural changes were assessed by sucrose consumption and open field test to assess the effect of BME on CUS-induced depression. The mechanisms underlying antidepressant like action of BME was further evaluated by measuring levels of BDNF, Akt, and CREB in the hippocampus of rat brain and compared with the standard tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine (20 mg/kg body weight). Results Exposure to CUS for 28 days produced depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by significant decreases in sucrose consumption, locomotor activity including decreased BDNF, Akt and CREB levels in the hippocampus. Daily administration of BME at a dose of (80 mg/kg body weight) significantly reverses the behavioral alteration and restored the normal level of BDNF, total and phospho-Akt, total and phospho CREB in the hippocampus of CUS induced rats as compared to vehicle treated control rats. Conclusion These findings suggest that BME ameliorates CUS induced behavioural depression in rats and that can be used as a potent therapeutic agent in treating depressive like behavior. PMID:28096878

  19. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  20. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

  1. Attitudes, Administrative Styles, and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, J. Stanley

    1984-01-01

    The literature on administrative style is reviewed. Attention is directed to four basic concepts of administrative style: (1) the structured, classical, traditional model; (2) the participatory or employee-involved operation; (3) a more behavioral scientific style; and (4) the situational or environmental style. These ideas are more fully…

  2. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  3. Selecting Child Care Administrative Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Offers advice on the selection of child care administrative software. Directors should consider needs, computer experience, budget, time, and temperament, and should also ask lots of questions and test demo versions. Choices range from custom programs and existing business products to child care administrative software packages. Includes directory…

  4. Development Management for Nursing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyden, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the educational needs of nurse administrators in developing counties and in areas of lesser development in the United States and compares them to the typical education received in nursing administration programs. Concludes that a focus on development management is needed. (JOW)

  5. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  6. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  7. The Magic of Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Edward G.

    We are better prepared today to deal with the problems in library administration, because we not only have the basic work of management theorists, but also staffs who are better educated and more interested in participation. During the last 25 years, there have been two strands in library administration. The older, human relations approach allowed…

  8. Outsourcing real estate lease administration.

    PubMed

    Kardel, S

    1996-09-01

    Real estate lease administration is becoming increasingly important to healthcare organizations; however, not all organizations possess the in-house expertise to carry out this specialized function. For such organizations, outsourcing lease administration may be a more efficient way to manage their real estate portfolios and possibly improve their bottom lines.

  9. Cardinal Virtues of Academic Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to articulate the basic elements of a comprehensive ethic of academic administration, organized around a set of three cardinal virtues: "commitment" to the good of the institution; good administrative "judgment"; and "conscientiousness" in discharging the duties of the office. In addition to explaining this framework and…

  10. College Administration: Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltner, Bill D., Ed.

    Ten colleges participated in a project to: (1) help organize and strengthen administrative teams in developing two-year and four-year colleges throughout the Southeast; (2) to assist administrative teams in identifying specific roles for each team member and in developing an understanding of team responsibilities; and (3) to assist administrative…

  11. Expanding Role of the Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jack R.

    The role of the secondary school administrator can be viewed in two ways: From a defensive point of view with the administrator marshaling the forces of organization, stimulating effort, capturing the imagination, inspiring teachers, coordinating efforts, and serving as a model of sustained effort; or from an alternative point of view with the…

  12. Idaho Driver Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This guide provides information for school administrators and directors of commercial driver training schools about conducting driver education courses in Idaho. The first part of the guide, which applies to both public schools and commercial schools, covers the following areas: administration, sample letters and forms, instructional time…

  13. Educational Administration: The Developing Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of 18 papers originally prepared for a 1975 conference that attempted to assess past developments in the knowledge and practice of educational administration and to identify future directions for research, leadership, and preparation. Individual papers include "Educational Administration, 1954-1974,""Roald F. Campbell: Teacher,…

  14. The Dissimilarity of Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, John

    1970-01-01

    The responsibilities of educational administrators do not extend to the products of the educational institutions. Rather, they end at the point where they maintain satisfactory conditions for leisure activities. In this respect, educational administration may serve as a model for the governance of an increasing number of organizations, both public…

  15. The Enigma of Administrative Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchler, Merv

    1981-01-01

    Writers attempting to describe administration have approached the subject from a number of perspectives. Researchers such as Gulick (1937) identified planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting as functional elements of administration. Hemphill, Griffiths, and Fredericksen (1962), using simulated job settings,…

  16. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  17. Effect and mechanism of siderite on reverse flotation of hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wan-zhong; Li, Dong; Luo, Xi-mei; Yao, Jin; Sun, Qian-yu

    2016-04-01

    The effects of siderite on reverse flotation of hematite were investigated using micro flotation, adsorption tests, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The flotation results show that interactions between siderite and quartz are the main reasons that siderite significantly influences the floatability. The interactions are attributed to dissolved siderite species and fine siderite particles. The interaction due to the dissolved species is, however, dominant. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theoretical calculations reveal that adhesion on quartz increases when the siderite particle size decreases and that fine particles partly influence quartz floatability. Chemical solution calculations indicate that the dissolved species of siderite might convert the surface of active quartz to CaCO3 precipitates that can be depressed by starch. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the results of adsorption tests and FTIR spectroscopy and explain the reasons why siderite significantly influences reverse flotation of hematite.

  18. Silicon-induced reversibility of cadmium toxicity in rice

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad Ansar; Detterbeck, Amelie; Clemens, Stephan; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) modulates tolerance to abiotic stresses, but little is known about the reversibility of stress effects by supplementing previously stressed plants with Si. This is surprising since recovery experiments might allow mechanisms of Si-mediated amelioration to be addressed. Rice was exposed to 10 µM CdCl2 for 4 d in hydroponics, followed by 0.6mM Si(OH)4 supplementation for 4 d. Si reversed the effects of Cd, as reflected in plant growth, photosynthesis, elemental composition, and some biochemical parameters. Cd-dependent deregulation of nutrient homeostasis was partially reversed by Si supply. Photosynthetic recovery within 48h following Si supply, coupled with strong stimulation of the ascorbate–glutathione system, indicates efficient activation of defense. The response was further verified by transcript analyses with emphasis on genes encoding members of the stress-associated protein (SAP) family. The transcriptional response to Cd was mostly reversed following Si supply. Reprogramming of the Cd response was obvious for Phytochelatin synthase 1, SAP1 , SAP14, and the transcription factor genes AP2/Erf020, Hsf31, and NAC6 whose transcript levels were strongly activated in roots of Cd-stressed rice, but down-regulated in the presence of Si. These findings, together with changes in biochemical parameters, highlight the significance of Si in growth recovery of Cd-stressed rice and indicate a decisive role for readjusting cell redox homeostasis. PMID:27122572

  19. Reversing storm hotspots on sandy beaches: Spatial and temporal characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, J.H.; Farris, A.S.; Sullivan, C.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal erosion hotspots are defined as sections of coast that exhibit significantly higher rates of erosion than adjacent areas. This paper describes the spatial and temporal characteristics of a recently identified type of coastal erosion hotspot, which forms in response to storms on uninterrupted sandy coasts largely free from human intervention. These are referred to here as reversing storm hotspots because the erosion is reversed by accretion of a similar magnitude to the storm-induced erosion. The accretion occurs within a few days or weeks of fair weather after the storm. Reversing storm hotspots observed here, on two US east coast beaches, have a longshore length averaging 3.86 km, a cross-shore excursion (magnitude of erosion or accretion) averaging 15.4 m, and a time scale of days to weeks associated with individual storm events. These spatial and temporal scales clearly distinguish reversing storm hotspots from previously described forms of longshore variability in erosion, including those attributed to several types of shoreline undulations and hotspots associated with long-term shoreline change. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentration of synfuel process condensates by reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, S.B.; Ray, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors will discuss the use of a novel, fouling-resistant, inside-skinned hollow-fiber membrane configuration as an energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional treatment of synfuel process condensate waters. Reverse osmosis has been used in the past only to polish condensate waters that were first treated by conventional means. In the work described in this paper, a reverse-osmosis system actually replaces traditional biotreatment of condensate waters or replaces the solvent-extraction process in the treatment train. The membranes used in this reverse-osmosis system are capable of rejecting at least 90% of the phenols as well as high percentages of other organics contained in actual process condensate waters. Furthermore, these membranes have operated for several months on synfuel condensate waters and showed no significant decrease in performance. Energy and cost estimates of a reverse-osmosis system based on such membranes will be discussed in detail, including a comparison of operating costs of this system with the operating costs of conventional treatment systems.

  1. Magnetization reversal of patterned disks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhuyun; Wang, Xiao; Cheng, X. M.; Liu, Yaohua; Te Velthuis, Suzanne; Rosenmann, Daniel; Divan, Ralu

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic vortex dynamics in magnetic disks have been extensively studied. However, spin dynamics in magnetic disks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) still remain to be fully understood. Magnetic configurations in disks with strong PMA are more complicated than magnetic vortices, resulting in novel spin dynamics with potential applications. In this work, we study the magnetization reversal of Co/Pd multilayered disks with PMA. Magnetic disks (3-8 microns in diameter) with the structure of [Co (0.3 nm)/Pd (0.5 nm)]5/Co(0.3nm) were patterned on Si substrates via direct laser writing lithography, electron beam evaporation, and lift-off methods. A Kerr microscope was used to image magnetization reversal processes at various bias fields. The imaging results revealed a nucleation dominated magnetization reversal process with the growth of dendritic domains. The coercivity of the disks is significantly bigger than that of thin films with the same structure. Quantitative analysis of the real time Kerr imaging results shed light on the magnetization reversal mechanism of the patterned disks with PMA. Work at Bryn Mawr is supported by NSF under Grant No. 1053854. Work at Argonne National Laboratory and use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. Variability and reversibility of the slow and forced vital capacity in chronic airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gove, R I; Shepherd, J; Burge, P S

    1987-04-01

    The variability of the forced (FVC) and slow vital capacity (SVC) manoeuvres were compared in 33 adult patients with chronic airflow obstruction. The reversibility of the two manoeuvres to nebulized salbutamol were compared in 18 of the patients. Both manoeuvres had equally small variances both before and after bronchodilator. The degree of reversibility of the FVC was however significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than the SVC. Although both measurements are equally variable, the FVC has a greater capacity for reversibility, which may have clinical significance.

  3. [Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome associated with carbamazepine-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Natsumi; Fujita, Yukio; Sekine, Akiko; Ikeda, Masaki; Okamoto, Koichi

    2009-04-01

    A 21-year-old man developed idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia, and was admitted to our hospital. Although neuralgia was promptly resolved after oral carbamazepine (CBZ) administration, he developed arterial hypertension (from 110/60 mmHg to 170/126 mmHg) followed by consciousness disturbance several days after the initiation of carbamazepine. MRI T2-weighted, FLAIR and ADC images demonstrated transient hyperintense lesions of the bilateral fronto-parieto-occipital subcortical white matter. These lesions showed isointensity on diffusion-weighted images. Since these alterations suggested the presence of vasogenic edema induced by hypertension, we diagnosed him as having reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) induced by hypertension. Persistent hypertension despite the administration of various anti-hypertension drugs finally improved after oral CBZ therapy was discontinued. Therefore, we considered that hypertension was induced by oral CBZ therapy. This is a rare case in which high blood pressure was caused by CBZ. There is no previous report of RPLS induced by CBZ administration. Further investigation to determine whether CBZ is capable of causing arterial hypertension is warranted.

  4. Adsorption and recovery issues of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Wagner, Elsa; Vuignier, Karine; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-01-01

    The poor recovery of large biomolecules is a well-known issue in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Several papers have reported this problem, but the reasons behind this behavior are not yet fully understood. In the present study, state-of-the-art reversed-phase wide-pore stationary phases were used to evaluate the adsorption of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. These biomolecules possess molar mass of approximately 150,000 g/mol and isoelectric points between 6.6 and 9.3. Two types of stationary phases were tested, the Phenomenex Aeris Widepore (silica based), with 3.6 μm superficially porous particles, and the Waters Acquity BEH300 (ethylene-bridged hybrid), with 1.7 μm fully porous particles. A systematic investigation was carried out using 11 immunoglobulin G1, G2, and G4 antibodies, namely, panitumumab, natalizumab, cetuximab, bevacizumab, trastuzumab, rituximab, palivizumab, belimumab, adalimumab, denosumab, and ofatumumab. All are approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in various therapeutic indications and are considered as reference antibodies. Several test proteins, such as human serum albumin, transferrin, apoferritin, ovalbumin, and others, possessing a molar mass between 42,000 and 443,000 g/mol were also evaluated to draw reliable conclusions. The purpose of this study was to find a correlation between the adsorption of monoclonal antibodies and their physicochemical properties. Therefore, the impact of isoelectric point, molar mass, protein glycosylation, and hydrophobicity was investigated. The adsorption of intact antibodies on the stationary phase was significantly higher than that of proteins of similar size, isoelectric point, or hydrophobicity. The present study also demonstrates the unique behavior of monoclonal antibodies, contributing some unwanted and unpredictable strong secondary interactions.

  5. Reverse osmosis of blast-furnace scrubber water

    SciTech Connect

    Terril, M.E.; Neufeld, R.D.

    1983-05-01

    The use of reverse osmosis for treatment of waters discharged from cooling-water recycle systems in conjunction with spiral-wound cellulose acetate membranes is discussed. The use of the membranes represents a significant potential for capital-cost savings. Cellulose acetate displays low rejections of cyanide and phenol at pH value below 7. A pilot-scale experimental method, the theoretical approach, and permeate water quality data are given. (JMT)

  6. 5 CFR 551.206 - Administrative exemption criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... judgment with respect to matters of significance merely because improper performance of the employee's... Administrative exemption criteria. An administrative employee is an employee whose primary duty is the performance of office or non-manual work directly related to the management or general business operations,...

  7. 5 CFR 551.206 - Administrative exemption criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... judgment with respect to matters of significance merely because improper performance of the employee's... Administrative exemption criteria. An administrative employee is an employee whose primary duty is the performance of office or non-manual work directly related to the management or general business operations,...

  8. 5 CFR 551.206 - Administrative exemption criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... judgment with respect to matters of significance merely because improper performance of the employee's... Administrative exemption criteria. An administrative employee is an employee whose primary duty is the performance of office or non-manual work directly related to the management or general business operations,...

  9. 5 CFR 551.206 - Administrative exemption criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... judgment with respect to matters of significance merely because improper performance of the employee's... Administrative exemption criteria. An administrative employee is an employee whose primary duty is the performance of office or non-manual work directly related to the management or general business operations,...

  10. 5 CFR 551.206 - Administrative exemption criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... judgment with respect to matters of significance merely because improper performance of the employee's... Administrative exemption criteria. An administrative employee is an employee whose primary duty is the performance of office or non-manual work directly related to the management or general business operations,...

  11. School Business Administration: A Planning Approach. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candoli, I. Carl; And Others

    The school business administration function in the operation of American schools has undergone dramatic changes during the past several years. Changing demographics, high technology, the movement to professionalize school administration, and changes by the legislative and judicial systems have all had significant impact on the character of school…

  12. Race and Gender Bias in the Administration of Corporal Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Braden, Jeffery B.

    1990-01-01

    Examined disciplinary actions taken by school building administrators after receiving discipline referral to identify evidence of race and gender bias in administration of corporal punishment (CP). Analysis of discipline files (n=6,244) demonstrated statistically significant relationships between race and CP and between gender and CP. Results…

  13. Pharmacological Blockade of Serotonin 5-HT7 Receptor Reverses Working Memory Deficits in Rats by Normalizing Cortical Glutamate Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventure, Pascal; Aluisio, Leah; Shoblock, James; Boggs, Jamin D.; Fraser, Ian C.; Lord, Brian; Lovenberg, Timothy W.; Galici, Ruggero

    2011-01-01

    The role of 5-HT7 receptor has been demonstrated in various animal models of mood disorders; however its function in cognition remains largely speculative. This study evaluates the effects of SB-269970, a selective 5-HT7 antagonist, in a translational model of working memory deficit and investigates whether it modulates cortical glutamate and/or dopamine neurotransmission in rats. The effect of SB-269970 was evaluated in the delayed non-matching to position task alone or in combination with MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, and, in separate experiments, with scopolamine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist. SB-269970 (10 mg/kg) significantly reversed the deficits induced by MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) but augmented the deficit induced by scopolamine (0.06 mg/kg). The ability of SB-269970 to modulate MK-801-induced glutamate and dopamine extracellular levels was separately evaluated using biosensor technology and microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex of freely moving rats. SB-269970 normalized MK-801 -induced glutamate but not dopamine extracellular levels in the prefrontal cortex. Rat plasma and brain concentrations of MK-801 were not affected by co-administration of SB-269970, arguing for a pharmacodynamic rather than a pharmacokinetic mechanism. These results indicate that 5-HT7 receptor antagonists might reverse cognitive deficits associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction by selectively normalizing glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:21701689

  14. Mirror reversal: empirical tests of competing accounts.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yohtaro; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2007-11-01

    In a mirror, left and right are said to look reversed. Surprisingly, this very familiar phenomenon, mirror reversal, has still no agreed-upon account to date. This study compared a variety of accounts in the light of empirical data. In Experiment 1, 102 students judged whether the mirror image of a person or a character looked reversed or not in 15 settings and also judged the directional relation between its components. In Experiment 2, 52 students made the reversal judgements in 13 settings. It was found for the first time that a substantial proportion of people denied the left-right mirror reversal of a person, whereas virtually all of them did recognize that of a character. This discrepancy strongly suggested that these two kinds of mirror reversal are produced by different processes, respectively. A number of findings including this discrepancy clearly contradicted two accounts that are currently active: the one based on the priority of the up-down and front-back axes over the left-right axis, and the one based on the physical rotation of an object. All the findings were consistent with an account that considered mirror reversal a complex of three different phenomena produced by three different processes, respectively.

  15. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  16. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  17. Reversible Suppression of Menstruation with Antiprogestins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    begun studies with both vaginal administration and dosing by intrauterine device in rhesus macaques as follows. a. Vaginal administration of...administration of vaginal gels containing 20 mg P per monkey prevented the menses that normally follows P implant withdrawal without producing serum P... macaque . Further analysis of vaginal administration of antiprogestins will be pursued in Years 3 and 4. b. STUDIES WITH IUDS. For IUD experiments we

  18. Mass drug administration for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Poirot, Eugenie; Skarbinski, Jacek; Sinclair, David; Kachur, S Patrick; Slutsker, Laurence; Hwang, Jimee

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA), defined as the empiric administration of a therapeutic antimalarial regimen to an entire population at the same time, has been a historic component of many malaria control and elimination programmes, but is not currently recommended. With renewed interest in MDA and its role in malaria elimination, this review aims to summarize the findings from existing research studies and program experiences of MDA strategies for reducing malaria burden and transmission. Objectives To assess the impact of antimalarial MDA on population asexual parasitaemia prevalence, parasitaemia incidence, gametocytaemia prevalence, anaemia prevalence, mortality and MDA-associated adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE+, EMBASE, to February 2013. We also searched CABS Abstracts, LILACS, reference lists, and recent conference proceedings. Selection criteria Cluster-randomized trials and non-randomized controlled studies comparing therapeutic MDA versus placebo or no MDA, and uncontrolled before-and-after studies comparing post-MDA to baseline data were selected. Studies administering intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) to sub-populations (for example, pregnant women, children or infants) were excluded. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies were stratified by study design and then subgrouped by endemicity, by co-administration of 8-aminoquinoline plus schizonticide drugs and by plasmodium species. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Two cluster-randomized trials, eight non-randomized controlled studies and 22 uncontrolled before-and-after studies are included in this review. Twenty-two studies (29 comparisons) compared MDA to placebo or no intervention of which two comparisons were

  19. A high performance field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Garate, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Rostoker, N.; Andow, R.; Aefsky, S.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRCs), high-beta, prolate compact toroids embedded in poloidal magnetic fields, face notable stability and confinement concerns. These can be ameliorated by various control techniques, such as introducing a significant fast ion population. Indeed, adding neutral beam injection into the FRC over the past half-decade has contributed to striking improvements in confinement and stability. Further, the addition of electrically biased plasma guns at the ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved stability. Together, these enabled the build-up of a well-confined and dominant fast-ion population. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable hot FRCs (with total plasma temperature of ∼1 keV) with record lifetimes were achieved. These accomplishments point to the prospect of advanced, beam-driven FRCs as an intriguing path toward fusion reactors. This paper reviews key results and presents context for further interpretation.

  20. Time reversal violation for entangled neutral mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabeu, J.

    2014-07-01

    A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique solution for the test of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and φ, Factories. The two quantum effects of the decays as filtering measurements of the meson states and the transfer of information of the first decay to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of "in" and "out" states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system. The perspectives for future additional studies of TRV are discussed.