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Sample records for administration space shuttle

  1. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  2. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  3. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  4. Tropospheric Wind Monitoring During Day-of-Launch Operations for National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Leach, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The Environments Group at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) monitors the winds aloft at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the countdown for all Space Shuttle launches. Assessment of tropospheric winds is used to support the ascent phase of launch. Three systems at KSC are used to generate independent tropospheric wind profiles prior to launch; 1) high resolution Jimsphere balloon system, 2) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) and 3) low resolution radiosonde system. Data generated by the systems are used to assess spatial and temporal wind variability during launch countdown to ensure wind change observed does not violate wind change criteria constraints.

  5. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Ken; Dalheim, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Presents an elementary teaching unit on NASA's space program, including teacher background information, suggested student activities, and a list of resources. Appended is a transcript of an interview conducted by elementary children with astronaut candidate Sherwood (Woody) Spring. (SJL)

  6. Space Shuttle Debris Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of debris damage to the Space Shuttle, and the use of computation to assist in the space shuttle applications. The presentation reviews the sources of debris, a mechanism for determining the probability of damaging debris impacting the shuttle, tools used, eliminating potential damaging debris sources, the use of computation to assess while inflight damage, and a chart showing the applications that have been used on increasingly powerful computers simulate the shuttle and the debris transport.

  7. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  8. The 2006 Kennedy Space Center Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the Performance of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian; Merry, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model that summarizes wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 km. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle program, which launches from KSC, utilizes the KSC RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the KSC RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted a validation study and a comparison analysis to the existing KSC RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed by JSC/Ascent Flight Design Division to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  9. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  10. Space-Shuttle applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.; Davis, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the performance potential of the Space Shuttle and the high-energy transportation system to be derived from it. It is shown that, in addition to its cost effectiveness in earth-orbital missions, the Shuttle promises to be of major significance for future solar-system exploration. Eventually, the Shuttle will make possible the use of large interplanetary payloads launched at high velocities to the far reaches of the solar system.

  11. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  12. The Space Shuttle At Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, Howard

    This report describes the Space Shuttle vehicles and is prepared by the Scientific and Technical Information Branch and Division of Public Affairs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The book is divided into nine chapters including information about the launching, flight, and orbit of the ships; the satellites and previous space…

  13. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Design and configurations of the Space Shuttle are examined. Attention is given to such features as the Orbiter, the guidance systems, design avionics, system design, and the flight control system centered about a redundant set of general purpose computers.

  14. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  15. Space Shuttle-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  16. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  17. Space shuttle requirements/configuration evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. P.

    1991-01-01

    Space Shuttle chronology; Space Shuttle comparison; Cost comparison; Performance; Program ground rules; Sizing criteria; Crew/passenger provisions; Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) characteristics; Space Shuttle program milestones; and Space Shuttle requirements are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  18. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  19. Space Shuttle redesign status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA has conducted an extensive redesign effort for the Space Shutle in the aftermath of the STS 51-L Challenger accident, encompassing not only Shuttle vehicle and booster design but also such system-wide factors as organizational structure, management procedures, flight safety, flight operations, sustainable flight rate, and maintenance safeguards. Attention is presently given to Solid Rocket Booster redesign features, the Shuttle Main Engine's redesigned high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps, the Shuttle Orbiter's braking and rollout (landing gear) system, the entry control mode of the flight control system, a 'split-S' abort maneuver for the Orbiter, and crew escape capsule proposals.

  20. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleer, Neil

    This booklet describes the history of the space shuttle, especially after the Challenger accident. Topics include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Return to Flight: The Recovery"; (3) "Space Shuttle Chronology"; (4) "Examples of Other Modifications on Shuttle's Major Systems"; (5) "Space Shuttle Recovery…

  1. Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

  2. Space Shuttle news reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the space shuttle vehicle and associated subsystems is given. Space transportation system propulsion, power generation, environmental control and life support system and avionics are among the topics. Also, orbiter crew accommodations and equipment, mission operations and support, and flight crew complement and crew training are addressed.

  3. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  4. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle is traced. Aerodynamic loads and dynamic characteristics, structural design, ascent and entry heating profiles, and propulsion systems are discussed. Problems in the area of systems management and flight control during entry and in the design of an effective thermal control system are discussed in detail.

  5. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  6. Space shuttle SRM development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, I. C.; Call, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The successful static testing of the fourth Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) is described. Transportation and support equipment concepts and component reusability are demonstrated. The evolution of the SRM transportation support equipment and special test equipment designs are reviewed, and development activities are discussed. Handling and processing aspects of large, heavy components are reviewed briefly.

  7. On the Wings of a Dream: The Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This booklet describes the development, training, and flight of the space shuttle. Topics are: (1) "National Aeronautics and Space Administration"; (2) "The Space Transportation System"; (3) "The 'Enterprise'"; (4) "The Shuttle Orbiter"; (5) "Solid Rocket Boosters"; (6) "The External…

  8. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  9. Space Shuttle main engine. NASA has not evaluated the alternate fuel turbopump costs and benefits. Report to the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    NASA's plans to develop an alternate high pressure fuel turbopump for the Space Shuttle's main engines were assessed by the General Accounting Office as a part of the evaluation of the Space Shuttle Safety and Obsolescence Upgrade program. The objective was to determine whether NASA has adequately analyzed cost, performance, and benefits that are expected to result from this program in comparison to other alternatives before resuming development of the alternate pump, which was suspended in 1992. The alternate fuel pump is one of five improvements being developed or planned to significantly enhance safety margins of the engines.

  10. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  11. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  12. Vibro-Acoustic Forecast for Space Shuttle Launches at Vandenberg AFB: The Payload Changeout Room and the Administration Building,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7 RD-0156 944 VIBRO-RCOUS’IC FORECAST FOR SPACE SHUTTLE LAUNCHES AT / VANDENBERG AFB: THE..( U ) WESTON OB ERVATORY MR F A CROWLEY ET AL. 31 OCT 84...altitude of 300 meters. At thi v t ir the enuivatent acoustic source is 100 meters below the Shuttle WI. Thie ,’ASP1E ma xir: is 1R4.5 Wb (151 b for . S ...is constrained to use only the first 1𔃺 meters of Shuttle traject ory. As the Shuttle moves south, backscatter OtI the PPR south wall .haould nearly

  13. Evolution of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nease, Ardell

    1993-02-01

    This paper initially examines the Space Shuttle's past and future role in the exploration and exploitation of space and then discusses the evolution of the Space Shuttle as a cost effective design solution to the nation's and the world's space requirements. The argument for Shuttle evolution is presented and a cost effective approach to evolving the Space Shuttle into tomorrow's Space Transportation System is described. Near term upgrades can increase safety and reliability, avoid obsolescence, reduce operations costs, and increase performance; they can be followed by the long term block changes that incorporate new technologies and make the Space Shuttle dramatically more useful and cost effective to operate. The balance between continued Shuttle System life vs replacement system development and production is placed in the perspective of mission needs, technological leverage, and fiscal reality. The paper concludes that the evolution of the Space Shuttle is the most cost effective solution to the nation's space transportation needs for more than thirty years.

  14. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  15. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  16. Space Shuttle Endeavour Heads West

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified 747, flew retired shuttle Endeavour from Kennedy Space Center in Florida to Houston on Sept. 19, 2012, to complete the first leg of Endeavour's trip to L...

  17. Space Shuttle Flyout: Landing Convoy

    NASA Video Gallery

    A team of trained technicians and specialized trucks and equipment is vital for getting a space shuttle safed after landing, helping the astronauts off the spacecraft and returning the shuttle to i...

  18. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  19. Space Shuttle operational logistics plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center plan for logistics to support Space Shuttle Operations and to establish the related policies, requirements, and responsibilities are described. The Directorate of Shuttle Management and Operations logistics responsibilities required by the Kennedy Organizational Manual, and the self-sufficiency contracting concept are implemented. The Space Shuttle Program Level 1 and Level 2 logistics policies and requirements applicable to KSC that are presented in HQ NASA and Johnson Space Center directives are also implemented.

  20. Space shuttle avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

  1. Space shuttle navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

  2. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters are essential in assessing the flight performance of aerospace vehicles. The effects of the Earth's atmosphere on aerospace vehicles influence various aspects of the vehicle during ascent ranging from its flight trajectory to the structural dynamics and aerodynamic heatmg on the vehicle. Atmospheric databases charactenzing the wind and thermodynamic environments, known as Range Reference Atmospheres (RRA), have been developed at space launch ranges by a governmental interagency working group for use by aerospace vehicle programs. The National Aeronantics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle Program (SSP), which launches from Kennedy Space Center, utilizes atmosphenc statistics derived from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere (CCAFS RRA) database to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehlcle during ascent.

  3. Space Shuttle Wireless Crew Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Doe, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The design, development, and performance characteristics of the Space Shuttle's Wireless Crew Communications System are discussed. This system allows Space Shuttle crews to interface with the onboard audio distribution system without the need for communications umbilicals, and has been designed through the adaptation of commercially available hardware in order to minimize development time. Testing aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia has revealed no failures or design deficiencies.

  4. Space Shuttle Payload Information Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Payload Information Source Compact Disk (CD) is a joint NASA and USA project to introduce Space Shuttle capabilities, payload services and accommodations, and the payload integration process. The CD will be given to new payload customers or to organizations outside of NASA considering using the Space Shuttle as a launch vehicle. The information is high-level in a visually attractive format with a voice over. The format is in a presentation style plus 360 degree views, videos, and animation. Hyperlinks are provided to connect to the Internet for updates and more detailed information on how payloads are integrated into the Space Shuttle.

  5. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  6. ITOS/space shuttle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are reported of a study to explore the potential cost reductions in the operational ITOS weather satellite program as a consequence of shuttle/bug availability for satellite placement and retrieval, and satellite servicing and maintenance. The study program was divided into shuttle impact on equipment and testing costs, and shuttle impact on overall future ITOS operational program costs, and shuttle impact on configuration. It is concluded that savings in recurring spacecraft costs can be realized in the 1978 ITOS program, if a space shuttle is utilized.

  7. Space Shuttle development update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, V.

    1984-01-01

    The development efforts, since the STS-4 flight, in the Space Shuttle (SS) program are presented. The SS improvements introduced in the last two years include lower-weight loads, communication through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, expanded extravehicular activity capability, a maneuvering backpack and the manipulator foot restraint, the improvements in thermal projection system, the 'optional terminal area management targeting' guidance software, a rendezvous system with radar and star tracker sensors, and improved on-orbit living conditions. The flight demonstrations include advanced launch techniques (e.g., night launch and direct insertion to orbit); the on-orbit demonstrations; and added entry and launching capabilities. The entry aerodynamic analysis and entry flight control fine tuning are described. Reusability, improved ascent performance, intact abort and landing flexibility, rollout control, and 'smart speedbrakes' are among the many improvements planned for the future.

  8. Space Shuttle Glider. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Space Shuttle Glider is a scale model of the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter. The airplane-like orbiter usually remains in Earth orbit for up to two weeks at a time. It normally carries a six- to seven-person crew which includes the mission commander, pilot, and several mission and/or payload specialists who have specialized training associated with…

  9. Space Shuttle Status News Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Richard Gilbech, External Tank "Tiger Team" Lead, begins this space shuttle news conference with detailing the two major objectives of the team. The objectives include: 1) Finding the root cause of the foam loss on STS-114; and 2) Near and long term improvements for the external tank. Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Manager, presents a chart to explain the external tank foam loss during STS-114. He gives a possible launch date for STS-121 after there has been a repair to the foam on the External Tank. He further discusses the changes that need to be made to the surrounding areas of the plant in New Orleans, due to Hurricane Katrina. Bill Gerstemaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations, elaborates on the testing of the external tank foam loss. The discussion ends with questions from the news media about a fix for the foam, replacement of the tiles, foam loss avoidance, the root cause of foam loss and a possible date for a new external tank to be shipped to NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  10. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  11. Planned development of the space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information pertaining to the planned development of the space shuttle vehicle is presented. The package contains: (1) President's statement; (2) Dr. Fletcher's statement; (3) space shuttle fact sheet; (4) important reasons for the space shuttle.

  12. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAleer, Neil

    1989-01-01

    NASA celebrated its 30th anniversary in 1988, two days after the Space Shuttle soared into space once more. When Congress approved the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1958, the United States had successfully launched only four small satellites and no American astronaut had yet flown in space. In the three decades since, four generations of manned spacecraft have been built and flown, twelve men have walked on the Moon, more than 100 Americans have flown and worked in space, and communications satellites and other Space-Age technologies have transformed life on planet Earth. When NASA's Golden Anniversary is celebrated in 2008, it is likely that men and women will be permanently living and working in space. There may be a base on the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars may only be years away. If a brief history of the first half-century of the Space Age is written for that event, it will show clearly how the exploration of space has altered the course of human history and allowed us to take a better hold of our destiny on and off planet Earth.

  13. Space Shuttle contamination overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to particle and gaseous contamination associated with Shuttle payload orbital delivery. An approach to control contamination is discussed which consists of analytical environment assessment, vehicle design optimization, and flight environment measurement. The analytical assessment of orbital contamination source characteristics and their effects on the Shuttle orbital environment has resulted in vehicle design changes and a detailed understanding of system operational flexibility. Verification of resulting Shuttle contamination performance will be made by the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor.

  14. Quantum shuttle in phase space.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Tomás; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-06-27

    We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise.

  15. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbraten, Gordon L.; Henderson, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively flying the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (Ares I). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration, and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  16. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Norbraten, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively planning the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Implementing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (CLV). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the President s "Vision for Space Exploration," and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  17. Space Shuttle Program Legacy Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Share lessons learned on Space Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) culture, processes, and products that can guide future enterprises to improve mission success and minimize the risk of catastrophic failures. Present the chronology of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) S&MA organization over the 40-year history of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and identify key factors and environments which contributed to positive and negative performance.

  18. NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. “When I hear people say, or listen to media reports [that indicate], that the final shuttle flight marks the end of U.S. human spaceflight, I have to say, ‘these folks must be living on another planet.’ We are not ending human spaceflight; we are recommitting ourselves to it and taking the necessary and difficult steps today to ensure America's preeminence in human space exploration for years to come.”

  19. Space shuttle performance capabilities, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle performance capabilities and proposed space shuttle missions are discussed. The performance requirements of the space shuttle are described in terms of three reference missions. Mission requirements are defined by spacecraft or net payload weight and by orbital specifications or space destination. The predicted performance of various space shuttle configurations are analyzed.

  20. 14 CFR § 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  3. 14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  4. 14 CFR 1214.702 - Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT The Authority of the Space Shuttle Commander § 1214.702 Authority and responsibility of the Space Shuttle commander. (a) During all flight phases of a Space Shuttle flight, the Space... serviced by the Space Shuttle. The commander shall have authority throughout the flight to use...

  5. The Space Shuttle in perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial aspects of the Space Shuttle are examined, with attention given to charges to users, schedule of launches and reimbursement, kinds of payload and their selection, NASA authority, space allocation, and risk, liability, and insurance. It is concluded that insurance to reduce the risk, incentives that NASA is willing to make available to U.S. industry, and the demonstrated willingness of industry and the financial community to invest their funds in space ventures indicate that the new Shuttle capabilities will exponentially increase commercial activities in space during the 1980s.

  6. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  7. Using Space Shuttle Data in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how to use data from television broadcasts of shuttle launches along with data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) "Educational Briefs for the Classroom" to establish relevant connections of high school physics with the real world. Includes graphs of range/altitude, speed/time, and three tables with launch…

  8. The space shuttle at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the orbital flight of the space shuttle and the development of the space transportation system are addressed. How the system came to be, why it is designed the way it is, what is expected of it, and how it may grow are among the questions considered. Emphasis is placed on the effect of the space transportation system on U.S. space exploration in the next decade, including plans to make space an extension of life on the Earth's surface.

  9. Space Shuttle critical function audit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacks, Ivan J.; Dipol, John; Su, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A large fault-tolerance model of the main propulsion system of the US space shuttle has been developed. This model is being used to identify single components and pairs of components that will cause loss of shuttle critical functions. In addition, this model is the basis for risk quantification of the shuttle. The process used to develop and analyze the model is digraph matrix analysis (DMA). The DMA modeling and analysis process is accessed via a graphics-based computer user interface. This interface provides coupled display of the integrated system schematics, the digraph models, the component database, and the results of the fault tolerance and risk analyses.

  10. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-03-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  11. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  12. Space Shuttle Launch: STS-129

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-129. Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member crew began an 11-day delivery flight to the International Space Station on Monday, Nov 16, 2009, with a 2:28 p.m. EST launch from NASA's Kennedy S...

  13. Space Shuttle Main Engine Flies High

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine is being lowered onto its handler before its journey to the test complex at Stennis Space Center. This building is where partially assembled Space Shuttle Main Engines are received and prepared for testing.

  14. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  15. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  16. Space Shuttle Propulsion System Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; VanHooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    This session includes the following sessions: (1) External Tank (ET) System Reliability and Lessons, (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Reliability Validated by a Million Seconds of Testing, (3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Reliability via Process Control, and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Reliability via Acceptance and Testing.

  17. Living aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The crew habitat of the Space Shuttle is briefly characterized. Subjects discussed include the overall layout of the crew quarters; the air-purification and climate-control facilities; menus and food-preparation techniques; dishwashing, laundry, toilet, bathing, and shaving procedures; and recreation and sleeping accommodations. Drawings and a photograph are provided.

  18. STS-63 Space Shuttle report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-63 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during this sixty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-second since the return to flight, and twentieth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the OV-103 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-68; three SSME's that were designated 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-070. The RSRM's that were an integral part of the SRB's were designated 360Q042A for the left SRB and 360L042B for the right SRB. The STS-63 mission was planned as an 8-day duration mission with two contingency days available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The primary objectives of the STS-63 mission were to perform the Mir rendezvous operations, accomplish the Spacehab-3 experiments, and deploy and retrieve the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy-204 (SPARTAN-204) payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the Cryogenic Systems Experiment (CSE)/Shuttle Glo-2 Experiment (GLO-2) Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS-2) (CGP/ODERACS-2) payload objectives, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Tests (AMOS). The objectives of the Mir rendezvous/flyby were to verify flight techniques, communication and navigation-aid sensor interfaces, and engineering analyses associated with Shuttle/Mir proximity operations in preparation for the STS-71 docking mission.

  19. Space Shuttle flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  20. Space Shuttle orbiter separation bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Evolution of the space shuttle from previous spacecraft systems dictated growth and innovative design of previously standard ordnance devices. Initially, one bolt design was programmed for both 747 and external tank application. However, during development and subsequent analyses, two distinct designs evolved. The unique requirements of both bolts include: high combined loading, redundant initiation, flush separation plane, self-righting and shank attenuation. Of particular interest are the test methods, problem areas, and use of subscale models which demonstrated feasibility at an early phase in the program. The techniques incorporated in the shuttle orbiter bolts are applicable to other mechanisms.

  1. Space Shuttle Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNutt, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Many students are not even aware of the many activities related to the US Space Program. The intent of this presentation is to introduce students to the world of space exploration and encourage them to pursue math, science, and engineering careers. If this is not their particular interest, I want to encourage them to pursue their dream.

  2. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric thermodynamic properties to evaluate structural dynamics and vehicle flight performance impacts by the atmosphere during ascent. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric thermodynamic properties at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used in Space. Shuttle Vehicle assessments are contained in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) Database. Database contains tabulations for monthly and annual means (mu), standard deviations (sigma) and skewness of wind and thermodynamic variables. Wind, Thermodynamic, Humidity and Hydrostatic parameters 1 km resolution interval from 0-30 km 2 km resolution interval 30-70 km Multiple revisions of the CCAFS RRA database have been developed since initial RRA published in 1963. 1971, 1983, 2006 Space Shuttle program utilized 1983 version for use in deriving "hot" and "cold" atmospheres, atmospheric density dispersions for use in vehicle certification analyses and selection of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for use in vehicle ascent design and certification analyses. During STS-114 launch preparations in July 2005 atmospheric density observations between 50-80 kft exceeded density limits used for aerodynamic ascent heating constraints in vehicle certification analyses. Mission specific analyses were conducted and concluded that the density bias resulted in small changes to heating rates and integrated heat loading on the vehicle. In 2001, the Air Force Combat Climatology Center began developing an updated RRA for CCAFS.

  3. Space Shuttle Corrosion Protection Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The launch pad environment can be corrosive to metallic substrates and the Space Shuttles are exposed to this environment when preparing for launch. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the thermal protection system and aging protective coatings are performing to insure structural integrity. The assessment of this cost resources and time. The information is invaluable when minimizing risk to the safety of Astronauts and Vehicle. This paper will outline a strategic sampling plan and some operational improvements made by the Orbiter Structures team and Corrosion Control Review Board.

  4. Space Shuttle Projects Overview to Columbia Air Forces War College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Jody; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of space shuttle projects. Some of the topics include: 1) Space Shuttle Projects; 2) Marshall Space Flight Center Space Shuttle Projects Office; 3) Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; 4) Space Shuttle Program Major Sites; 5) NASA Office of Space flight (OSF) Center Roles in Space Shuttle Program; 6) Space Shuttle Hardware Flow; and 7) Shuttle Flights To Date.

  5. Space Shuttle Propulsion Finishing Strong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.; Singer, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the SRB's on STS-4 and shutdown of an SSME during ascent on STS- 51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired to release the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early Program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. Human rating of solid rocket motors was truly achieved. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. These major events and lessons for the future are discussed. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The propulsion system elements evolved to high reliability and heavy lift capability. The Shuttle system, though not a operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS) and provided significant logistics and down mass for ISS operations. By the end of the Program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and is a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. The story of this amazing system is discussed in detail in the paper.

  6. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  7. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  8. A decade on board America's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular moments from a decade (1981-1991) of Space Shuttle missions, captured on film by the astronauts who flew the missions, are presented. First hand accounts of astronauts' experiences aboard the Shuttle are given. A Space Shuttle mission chronology featuring flight number, vehicle name, crew, launch and landing dates, and mission highlights is given in tabular form.

  9. Space Shuttle mission extension capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Space Shuttle missions are currently limited to 11 days, primarily due to depletion of the power reactants (hydrogen and oxygen). A power system Mission Extension Kit (MEK) is described which could provide the capability to stay on orbit 10 additional days. These extra days would benefit Space Station construction and missions such as materials processing, earth and celestial observation, and life science studies (Spacelab). Other constraints to longer missions which may dictate minor Orbiter modifications will be discussed. The power system MEK is particularly desirable because of its existing flight qualified hardware which can be delivered within 3 to 4 years.

  10. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  11. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  12. Transition to the space shuttle operations era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The tasks involved in the Space Shuttle Development Program are discussed. The ten major characteristics of an operational Shuttle are described, as well as the changes occurring in Shuttle processing, on-line operations, operations engineering, and support operations. A summary is given of tasks and goals that are being pursued in the effort to create a cost effective and efficient system.

  13. Earth Resources Survey and the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stow, W. K.; Andryczyk, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    The impact that the shuttle is expected to have on the Earth Resources Program and several concepts for exploiting the shuttle characteristics are discussed. The utilization of the space shuttle in its sortie mode for earth resources and the application of an earth observations standard package to earth resources missions were studied.

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  15. STS-80 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The STS-80 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the eightieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102).

  16. Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration are included. An up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program is provided. Tables are designed to provide suvery information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

  17. Space Shuttle power extension package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, J. P., Jr.; Craig, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A modification kit for the Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter is proposed to provide more power and mission duration for payloads. The power extension package (PEP), a flexible-substrate solar array deployed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter remote manipulator system, can provide as much as 29 kW total power for durations of 10 to 48 days. The kit is installed only for those flights which require enhanced power or duration. The PEP is made possible by development of the flexible-substrate array technology and, in itself, contributes to the technology base for the use of large area solar cells. Modifications to the Orbiter thermal control and life support systems to improve heat balance and to reduce consumables are proposed. The changes consist of repositioning the Orbiter forward radiators and replacing the lithium hydroxide scrubber with a regenerable solid amine.

  18. Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores

  19. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  20. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  1. Space shuttle main engine controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

  2. Space Shuttle Trace Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dencker, W.

    1975-01-01

    A Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) with the ability to detect the presence of toxic contaminants in the Space Shuttle atmosphere within the subparts-per-million range is under development. The design is a modification of the miniaturized Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) developed for the Viking Mars Lander. An ambient air sample is injected onto the GC column from a constant volume sample loop and separated into individual compounds for identification by the MS. The GC-MS interface consists of an effluent divider and a silver-paladium separator, an electrochemical cell which removes more than 99.99% of the hydrogen carrier gas. The hydrogen is reclaimed and repressurized without affecting the separator efficiency, a feature which enables a considerable weight reduction in the carrier gas supply system.

  3. Thunderstorm observations from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonnegut, B.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Brook, M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of the Nighttime/Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiments done on the STS-2 and STS-4 flights are covered. During these two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia, the astronaut teams of J. Engle and R. Truly, and K. Mattingly II and H. Hartsfield took motion pictures of thunderstorms with a 16 mm cine camera. Film taken during daylight showed interesting thunderstorm cloud formations, where individual frames taken tens of seconds apart, when viewed as stereo pairs, provided information on the three-dimensional structure of the cloud systems. Film taken at night showed clouds illuminated by lightning with discharges that propagated horizontally at speeds of up to 10 to the 5th m/sec and extended for distances on the order of 60 km or more.

  4. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  5. STS-55 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the Space Shuttle Payloads, Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Booster, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, and the Main Engine subsystems performance during the 55th flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the 14th flight of Columbia is presented.

  6. STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  7. Access to space: The Space Shuttle's evolving rolee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duttry, Steven R.

    1993-04-01

    Access to space is of extreme importance to our nation and the world. Military, civil, and commercial space activities all depend on reliable space transportation systems for access to space at a reasonable cost. The Space Transportation System or Space Shuttle was originally planned to provide transportation to and from a manned Earth-orbiting space station. To justify the development and operations costs, the Space Shuttle took on other space transportation requirements to include DoD, civil, and a growing commercial launch market. This research paper or case study examines the evolving role of the Space Shuttle as our nation's means of accessing space. The case study includes a review of the events leading to the development of the Space Shuttle, identifies some of the key players in the decision-making process, examines alternatives developed to mitigate the risks associated with sole reliance on the Space Shuttle, and highlights the impacts of this national space policy following the Challenger accident.

  8. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  9. Space Shuttle Documentary (Narrated by William Shatner)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This feature-length documentary looks at the history of the most complex machine ever built. For 30 years, NASA's space shuttle carried humans to and from space, launched amazing observatories, and...

  10. Skylab, Space Shuttle, Space Benefits Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The pamphlet "Skylab" describes very generally the kinds of activities to be conducted with the Skylab, America's first manned space station. "Space Shuttle" is a pamphlet which briefly states the benefits of the Space Shuttle, and a concise review of present and future benefits of space activities is presented in the pamphlet "Space Benefits…

  11. STS-113 visitors watch the Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Watching the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 are NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe (left) and Associate Administrator of Public Affairs Glen Mahone. Liftoff occurred ontime at 7:49:47 p.m. EST. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. Also onboard are the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5. Endeavour is scheduled to land at KSC after an 11-day journey.

  12. Legal issues inherent in Space Shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mossinghoff, G. J.; Sloup, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (NASAct) is discussed with reference to its relevance to the operation of the Space Shuttle. The law is interpreted as giving NASA authority to regulate specific Shuttle missions, as well as authority to decide how much space aboard the Shuttle gets rented to whom. The Shuttle will not, however, be considered a 'common carrier' either in terms of NASAct or FAA regulations, because it will not be held available to the public-at-large, as are the flag carriers of various national airlines, e.g., Lufthansa, Air France, Aeroflot, etc. It is noted that the Launch Policy of 1972, which ensures satellite launch assistance to other countries or international organizations, shall not be interpreted as conferring common carrier status on the Space Shuttle.

  13. Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Hillje, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    A major phase of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) Development Program was the acquisition of data through the space shuttle wind tunnel testing program. It became obvious that the large number of configuration/environment combinations would necessitate an extremely large wind tunnel testing program. To make the most efficient use of available test facilities and to assist the prime contractor for orbiter design and space shuttle vehicle integration, a unique management plan was devised for the design and development phase. The space shuttle program is reviewed together with the evolutional development of the shuttle configuration. The wind tunnel testing rationale and the associated test program management plan and its overall results is reviewed. Information is given for the various facilities and models used within this program. A unique posttest documentation procedure and a summary of the types of test per disciplines, per facility, and per model are presented with detailed listing of the posttest documentation.

  14. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  15. Liftoff of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a complement of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest Shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995.

  16. Liftoff of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a compliment of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest Shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995.

  17. Launch of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a complement of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995. In this view the fence line near the launch pad is evident in the foreground.

  18. Electromagnetic Compatibility for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). It includes an overview of the design of the shuttle with the areas that are of concern for the electromagnetic compatibility. It includes discussion of classical electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the work performed to control the electromagnetic interference. Another area of interest is electrostatic charging and the threat of electrostatic discharge and the attempts to reduce damage to the Shuttle from these possible hazards. The issue of electrical bonding is als reviewed. Lastly the presentation reviews the work performed to protect the shuttle from lightning, both in flight and on the ground.

  19. Space shuttle thermal scale modeling application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, K. N.; Foster, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The critical thermal control problems and verification of thermal mathematical model results for the space shuttle concept are discussed. The use of a small scale thermal model of the space shuttle is proposed. It was determined that a one-third scale model of the space shuttle would serve as a useful tool throughout the entire thermal design and verification program. The major considerations in modeling the conduction-radiation-convection fields, the level of detail for modeling various systems, preliminary test requirements, and potential applications of the thermal scale model are summarized.

  20. President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Watching a successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery from the roof of the Launch Control Center are (left to right) U.S. President Bill Clinton, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, Astronaut Robert Cabana and NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on mission STS-95. Cabana will command the crew of STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission to carry hardware to space for the assembly of the International Space Station, targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3.

  1. President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Watching a successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery from the roof of the Launch Control Center are (left to right) Astronaut Eileen Collins (in flight suit) with unidentified companions, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, Astronaut Robert Cabana, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, and U.S. President Bill Clinton. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on mission STS-95. Collins will command the crew of STS-93, the first woman to hold that position. Cabana will command the crew of STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission to carry hardware to space for the assembly of the International Space Station, targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3.

  2. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On Launch Pad 39A, the Rotating Service Structure has rolled back to reveal Space Shuttle Atlantis poised for launch. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  3. Microbiology of the Space Shuttle water system.

    PubMed

    Koenig, D W; Pierson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has a once-through water system that is initially filled on the ground, partially drained before launch and then refilled with fuel-cell generated water on orbit. The microbiological standard for the Space Shuttle potable water system during this study period allowed only 1 microbe of any kind per l00mL and no detectable coliforms. Contamination episodes in more than 15 years of Shuttle operation have been rare; however, for the past 24 missions, bacterial contamination has been detected in 33% of the samples collected 3d before launch. These samples have had on average 55CFU/100mL of bacteria, with the median less than 1CFU/100mL. Burkholderia cepacia has been the primary contaminant of the Shuttle water supply system both before and after flight. Water samples assessed during the STS-70 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery were found to be contaminated (<20CFU/100mL) with B. cepacia and B. pickettii. In 1991, waste and water lines were removed from the Space Shuttle Columbia and the waste lines were found to harbor biofilms containing Bacillus spp. Nevertheless, the water systems of the four Space Shuttle vehicles provide extremely pure water.

  4. Designing the Space Shuttle Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David; VanHooser, Kathrine; Wlzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. Both the solid rocket motors and the space shuttle main engine throttle during early ascent flight to limit aerodynamic loads on the structure. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, and the SSME's continue operation to achieve orbital velocity approximately eight and a half minutes after liftoff. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970 s. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper discusses a number of the system level technical challenges including development and operations.

  5. A Celebration of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    On September 23, 2011, NASA Langley hosted a Shuttle Celebration at the Virginia Air & Space Center in Hampton, Va. More than 650 guests attended, including STS-135 Commander Chris Ferguson and NAS...

  6. Composite reinforced propellant tanks. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. D.; Martin, M. J.; Aleck, B. J.; Landes, R.

    1975-01-01

    Design studies involving weight and cost were carried out for several structural concepts applicable to space shuttle disposable tankage. An effective design, a honeycomb stabilized pressure vessel, was chosen. A test model was designed and fabricated.

  7. Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews many of the innovations from Kennedy Space Center engineering for ground operations that were made during the shuttle program. The innovations are in the areas of detection, image analysis, protective equipment, software development and communications.

  8. STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

  9. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 'fish-eye' lens was used to record the image.

  10. Report to the NASA Administrator by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel on the Space Shuttle Program. Part 1: Observations and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Each system was chosen on the basis of its importance with respect to crew safety and mission success. An overview of the systems management is presented. The space shuttle main engine, orbiter thermal protection system, avionics, external tanks and solid rocket boosters were examined. The ground test and ground support equipment programs were studied. Program management was found to have an adequate understanding of the significant ground and flight risks involved.

  11. Annual report to the NASA Administrator by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. Part 2: Space shuttle program. Section 1: Observations and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The NASA and contractor management systems, including policies, practices, and procedures for the development of critical systems, subsystems and integration of the program elements, were investigated. The technical development status of critical systems, subsystems, and interfaces is presented. Space shuttle elements were qualified as to potential risks and hazards. The elements included the orbiter, external tanks, main engine, solid rocket boosters, and the ground support facilities.

  12. Probabilistic Approaches for Evaluating Space Shuttle Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesely, William

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Space Shuttle PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) are to: (1) evaluate mission risks; (2) evaluate uncertainties and sensitivities; (3) prioritize contributors; (4) evaluate upgrades; (5) track risks; and (6) provide decision tools. This report discusses the significance of a Space Shuttle PRA and its participants. The elements and type of losses to be included are discussed. The program and probabilistic approaches are then discussed.

  13. Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-47 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke on September 12, 1992. The primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was the Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  14. Space shuttle operations integration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Operations Integration Plan is presented, which is to provide functional definition of the activities necessary to develop and integrate shuttle operating plans and facilities to support flight, flight control, and operations. It identifies the major tasks, the organizations responsible, their interrelationships, the sequence of activities and interfaces, and the resultant products related to operations integration.

  15. Space Shuttle booster thrust imbalance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. R.; Blackwell, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the Shuttle SRM thrust imbalance during the steady-state and tailoff portions of the boost phase of flight are presented. Results from flights STS-1 through STS-13 are included. A statistical analysis of the observed thrust imbalance data is presented. A 3 sigma thrust imbalance history versus time was generated from the observed data and is compared to the vehicle design requirements. The effect on Shuttle thrust imbalance from the use of replacement SRM segments is predicted. Comparisons of observed thrust imbalances with respect to predicted imbalances are presented for the two space shuttle flights which used replacement aft segments (STS-9 and STS-13).

  16. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  17. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  18. Revitalizing the hydrodynamic support for space shuttle. [adaptation of Saturn V hydrodynamic support to space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sholes, G.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of the equipment retained from the Saturn V hydrodynamic support (HDS) is described along with the work necessary to supplement, modify, and refurbish it for the space shuttle mated vehicle ground vibration test (MVGVT). The design changes necessary to adapt the Saturn V HDS design for the space shuttle are described and the results of the inventory and inspection are given.

  19. Infrared spectral measurement of space shuttle glow

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadijian, M.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared spectral measurements of the space shuttle glow were successfully conducted during the STS-39 space shuttle mission. Analysis indicates that NO, NO[sup +], OH, and CO are among the molecules associated with the infrared glow phenomenon. During orbiter thruster firings the glow intensities in the infrared are enhanced by factors of 10x to 100x with significant changes in spectral distribution. These measurements were obtained with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) payload which included a cryogenic infrared circular variable filter (CVF) spectrometer (0.6 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]) and a number of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiometers (0.2 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]m and 9.9 [mu]m to 10.4 [mu]m). In addition, glow measurements were unsuccessfully attempted with the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) with its 2.5 [mu]m to 25 [mu]m Fourier transform interferometer. SKIRT CVF obtained over 14,000 spectra of quiescent shuttle glow, thruster enhanced shuttle glow, upper atmosphere airglow, aurora, orbiter environment, and deep space non-glow backgrounds during its eight day mission. The SKIRT radiometers operated almost continuously throughout the mission to provide a detailed history of the IR/VIS/UV optical environment associated with the operation of large spacecraft structures in low earth orbit. This dissertation will primarily address those measurements conducted by the SKIRT spectrometer as they relate to space shuttle glow in the infrared. The STS-39 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched from the NASA Kennedy Space Center on 28 April 1991 into a 57 degree inclination circular orbit at an altitude of 260 km.

  20. Simulating Avionics Upgrades to the Space Shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deger, Daniel; Hill, Kenneth; Braaten, Karsten E.

    2008-01-01

    Cockpit Avionics Prototyping Environment (CAPE) is a computer program that simulates the functions of proposed upgraded avionics for a space shuttle. In CAPE, pre-existing space-shuttle-simulation programs are merged with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) display-development program, yielding a package of software that enables high-fi46 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 delity simulation while making it possible to rapidly change avionic displays and the underlying model algorithms. The pre-existing simulation programs are Shuttle Engineering Simulation, Shuttle Engineering Simulation II, Interactive Control and Docking Simulation, and Shuttle Mission Simulator playback. The COTS program Virtual Application Prototyping System (VAPS) not only enables the development of displays but also makes it possible to move data about, capture and process events, and connect to a simulation. VAPS also enables the user to write code in the C or C++ programming language and compile that code into the end-product simulation software. As many as ten different avionic-upgrade ideas can be incorporated in a single compilation and, thus, tested in a single simulation run. CAPE can be run in conjunction with any or all of four simulations, each representing a different phase of a space-shuttle flight.

  1. STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

  2. Scientific uses of the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the possible missions which could be accomplished by the space shuttle. The areas of scientific endeavor which were considered are as follows: (1) atmospheric and space physics, (2) high energy astrophysics, (3) infrared astronomy, (4) optical and ultraviolet astronomy, (5) solar physics, (6) life sciences, and (7) planetary exploration. Specific projects to be conducted in these broader areas are defined. The modes of operation of the space shuttle are analyzed. Instruments and equipment required for conducting the experiments are identified.

  3. Space Shuttle Orbital Drag Parachute Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The drag parachute system was added to the Space Shuttle Orbiter's landing deceleration subsystem beginning with flight STS-49 in May 1992. The addition of this subsystem to an existing space vehicle required a detailed set of ground tests and analyses. The aerodynamic design and performance testing of the system consisted of wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations, pilot-in-the-loop simulations, and full-scale testing. This analysis and design resulted in a fully qualified system that is deployed on every flight of the Space Shuttle.

  4. Advanced Space Shuttle simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; Smith, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A non-recursive model (based on von Karman spectra) for atmospheric turbulence along the flight path of the shuttle orbiter was developed. It provides for simulation of instantaneous vertical and horizontal gusts at the vehicle center-of-gravity, and also for simulation of instantaneous gusts gradients. Based on this model the time series for both gusts and gust gradients were generated and stored on a series of magnetic tapes, entitled Shuttle Simulation Turbulence Tapes (SSTT). The time series are designed to represent atmospheric turbulence from ground level to an altitude of 120,000 meters. A description of the turbulence generation procedure is provided. The results of validating the simulated turbulence are described. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. One-dimensional von Karman spectra are tabulated, while a discussion of the minimum frequency simulated is provided. The results of spectral and statistical analyses of the SSTT are presented.

  5. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jue, Fred; Kuck, Fritz; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump

  6. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lights on the Fixed Service Structure give a holiday impression at Launch Pad 39A where Space Shuttle Atlantis is poised for launch. Above the yellow-orange external tank is the Gaseous Oxygen Vent Arm, with the '''beanie cap''' vent hood raised. Before cryogenic loading, the hood will be lowered into position over the external tank vent louvers to vent gaseous oxygen vapors away from the Shuttle. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  7. STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

  8. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  9. Microbial survival in space shuttle crash.

    PubMed

    McLean, Robert J C; Welsh, Allana K; Casasanto, Valerie A

    2006-03-01

    A slow growing, heat resistant bacterium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Microbispora sp., was recovered from the wreckage of the ill-fated space shuttle Columbia (STS-107). As this organism survived disintegration of the space craft, heat of reentry, and impact, it supports the possibility of a natural mechanism for the interplanetary spread of life by meteorites.

  10. Space Shuttle. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Della

    The teacher's guide and student materials provide elementary and junior high school students with an understanding of the space shuttle as a new kind of transportation for conveying goods and performing services in space. The unit is appropriate for a learning center approach, individual instruction, or use with the entire class. It is organized…

  11. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  12. STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

  13. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  14. Plasma waves associated with the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Water molecules outgassed from the Space Shuttle suffer collisional charge-exchange with ionospheric oxygen ions, thereby forming unstable distributions of pick-up water ions and leading to high levels of plasma waves near the Shuttle. Liouville's equation with a charge-exchange source term is solved for the water ion distribution function as a function of position relative to the Shuttle. The observational characteristics of the near zone Shuttle waves are summarized. A linear theory in which beam like distributions of water ions drive Doppler shifted lower hybrid waves via the modified two stream instability is developed. This theory explains many characteristics of the near zone waves. Further work on the effects of wave nonlinearities and spatial inhomogeneity is required to explain the detailed frequency spectrum of the waves. The observed wave levels apparently satisfy the threshold condition for modulational instability of lower hybrid waves.

  15. STS-36 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechelay, Joseph E.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-36 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle and the sixth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, Atlantis. In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-33/LWT-26), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2029), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) (designated as BI-036). The STS-36 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as such, the classified portions of the mission are not discussed. The unclassified sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  16. STS-49: Space shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-49 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the first flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavor vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-43 (LWT-36); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's designated as BI-050. The lightweight RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated as 360L022A for the left RSRM and 360L022B for the right RSRM.

  17. STS-48 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-48 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-42 (LUT-35); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-046. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L018A for the left SRB and 360L018B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the flight was to successfully deploy the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) payload.

  18. STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

  19. STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

  20. STS-40 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-40 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-first flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-41 (LWT-34), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-044. The primary objective of the STS-40 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Getaway Special (GAS) payloads and the Middeck O-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) payload.

  1. STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

  2. Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

  3. Annual report to the NASA Administrator by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. Part 2: Space shuttle program. Section 2: Summary of information developed in the Panel's fact-finding activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The management areas and the individual elements of the shuttle system were investigated. The basic management or design approach including the most obvious limits or hazards that are significant to crew safety was reviewed. Shuttle program elements that were studied included the orbiter, the space shuttle main engine, the external tank project, solid rocket boosters, and the launch and landing elements.

  4. Space Shuttle Navigation in the GPS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle navigation architecture was originally designed in the 1970s. A variety of on-board and ground based navigation sensors and computers are used during the ascent, orbit coast, rendezvous, (including proximity operations and docking) and entry flight phases. With the advent of GPS navigation and tightly coupled GPS/INS Units employing strapdown sensors, opportunities to improve and streamline the Shuttle navigation process are being pursued. These improvements can potentially result in increased safety, reliability, and cost savings in maintenance through the replacement of older technologies and elimination of ground support systems (such as Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN), Microwave Landing System (MLS) and ground radar). Selection and missionization of "off the shelf" GPS and GPS/INS units pose a unique challenge since the units in question were not originally designed for the Space Shuttle application. Various options for integrating GPS and GPS/INS units with the existing orbiter avionics system were considered in light of budget constraints, software quality concerns, and schedule limitations. An overview of Shuttle navigation methodology from 1981 to the present is given, along with how GPS and GPS/INS technology will change, or not change, the way Space Shuttle navigation is performed in the 21 5 century.

  5. STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

  6. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  7. Space shuttle flying qualities and criteria assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1987-01-01

    Work accomplished under a series of study tasks for the Flying Qualities and Flight Control Systems Design Criteria Experiment (OFQ) of the Shuttle Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is summarized. The tasks involved review of applicability of existing flying quality and flight control system specification and criteria for the Shuttle; identification of potentially crucial flying quality deficiencies; dynamic modeling of the Shuttle Orbiter pilot/vehicle system in the terminal flight phases; devising a nonintrusive experimental program for extraction and identification of vehicle dynamics, pilot control strategy, and approach and landing performance metrics, and preparation of an OEX approach to produce a data archive and optimize use of the data to develop flying qualities for future space shuttle craft in general. Analytic modeling of the Orbiter's unconventional closed-loop dynamics in landing, modeling pilot control strategies, verification of vehicle dynamics and pilot control strategy from flight data, review of various existent or proposed aircraft flying quality parameters and criteria in comparison with the unique dynamic characteristics and control aspects of the Shuttle in landing; and finally a summary of conclusions and recommendations for developing flying quality criteria and design guides for future Shuttle craft.

  8. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This closeup reveals Space Shuttle Atlantis after rollback of the Rotating Service Structure. Extended to the side of Atlantis is the orbiter access arm, with the White Room at its end. The White Room provides entry for the crew into Atlantis's cockpit. Below Atlantis, on either side of the tail are the tail service masts. They support the fluid, gas and electrical requirements of the orbiter's liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen aft T-0 umbilicals. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  9. Microbiology studies in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Past space microbiology studies have evaluated three general areas: microbe detection in extraterrestrial materials; monitoring of autoflora and medically important species on crewmembers, equipment, and cabin air; and in vitro evaluations of isolated terrestrial species carried on manned and unmanned spaceflights. These areas are briefly reviewed to establish a basis for presenting probable experiment subjects applicable to the Space Shuttle era. Most extraterrestrial life detection studies involve visitations to other heavenly bodies. Although this is not applicable to the first series of Shuttle flights, attempts to capture meteors and spores in space could be important. Human pathogen and autoflora monitoring will become more important with increased variety among crewmembers. Inclusion of contaminated animal and plant specimens in the space lab will necessitate inflight evaluation of cross-contamination and infection potentials. The majority of Shuttle microbiology studies will doubtless fall into the third study area. Presence of a space lab will permit a whole range of experimentation under conditions similar to these experienced in earth-based laboratories. The recommendations of various study groups are analyzed, and probable inflight microbiological experiment areas are identified for the Life Sciences Shuttle Laboratory.

  10. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  11. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  12. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  13. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  14. The partnership: Space shuttle, space science, and space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Philip E.; Freitag, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Space Station Program functions, design, and planned implementation is presented. The discussed functions for the permanently manned space facility include: (1) development of new technologies and related commercial products; (2) observations of the Earth and the universe; (3) provision of service facilities for resupply, maintenance, upgrade and repair of payloads and spacecraft; (4) provision of a transportation node for stationing, processing and dispatching payloads and vehicles; (5) provision of manufacturing and assembly facilities; (6) provision of a storage depot for parts and payloads; and (7) provision of a staging base for future space endeavors. The fundamental concept for the Space Station, as given, is that it be designed, operated, and evolved in response to a broad variety of scientific, technological, and commercial user interests. The Space Shuttle's role as the principal transportation system for the construction and maintenance of the Space Station and the servicing and support of the station crew is also discussed.

  15. STS-113 visitors watch the Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Among the visitors watching the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 are NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe (top, center) and Glen Mahone, associate administrator for public affairs, NASA (left of O'Keefe). Liftoff occurred ontime at 7:49:47 p.m. EST. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. Also onboard are the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5. Endeavour is scheduled to land at KSC after an 11-day journey.

  16. STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  17. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  18. Space Shuttle Mission Sequence-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This diagram illustrates the Space Shuttle mission sequence. The Space Shuttle was approved as a national program in 1972 and developed through the 1970s. Part spacecraft and part aircraft, the Space Shuttle orbiter, the brain and the heart of the Space Transportation System (STS), required several technological advances, including thousands of insulating tiles able to stand the heat of reentry over the course of many missions, as well as sophisticated engines that could be used again and again without being thrown away. The airplane-like orbiter has three main engines, that burn liquid hydrogen and oxygen stored in the large external tank, the single largest structure in the Shuttle. Attached to the tank are two solid rocket boosters that provide the vehecile with most of the thrust needed for liftoff. Two minutes into the flight, the spent solids drop into the ocean to be recovered and refurbished for reuse, while the orbiter engines continue burning until approximately 8 minutes into the flight. After the mission is completed, the orbiter lands on a runway like an airplane.

  19. Space Shuttle Light Weight External Tank Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) with callouts. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Separate pressurized tank sections within the external tank hold the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts that branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. The main engines consume 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's external tank is currently the only part of the launch vehicle that is not reused. After its 526,000-gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5-minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET.

  20. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The current and near-future state-of-the-art in visual simulation equipment technology is related to the requirements of the space shuttle visual system. Image source, image sensing, and displays are analyzed on a subsystem basis, and the principal conclusions are used in the formulation of a recommended baseline visual system. Perceptibility and visibility are also analyzed.

  1. Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

  2. Space Shuttle Technical Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffee, N. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Articles providing a retrospective presentation and documentation of the key scientific and engineering achievements of the Space Shuttle Program are compiled. Topics areas include: (1) integrated avionics; (2) guidance, navigation, and control; (3) aerodynamics; (4) structures; (5) life support; environmental control; and crew station; and (6) ground operations.

  3. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  4. Laser contouring of Space Shuttle tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, P. J.; Minardi, A.; He, Mingli; Shelton, Bret

    Straight through and partial cuts were made in fibrous silicon-based ceramic insulation materials (used on the Space Shuttle) to determine the feasibility of laser machining. Experimental results were accumulated from over 800 exposures to determine the belt conditions for cutting. Laser intensity, feedrate, and other parameters were varied to determine conditions for cutting and are discussed in the paper.

  5. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 35mm camera was used to record the image, which includes much of the base of the launch site as well as the launch itself.

  6. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 70mm camera was used to record the image. Note the vegetation and the reflection of the launch in the water across from the launch pad.

  7. Identification of space shuttle main engine dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Guo, Ten-Huei; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    System identification techniques are used to represent the dynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The transfer function matrices of the linearized models of both the closed loop and the open loop system are obtained by using the recursive maximum likelihood method.

  8. The Space Shuttle Program and Its Support for Space Bioresearch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, J. A.; Heberlig, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aimed at not only providing low cost transportation to and from near earth orbit, but also to conduct important biological research. Fields of research identified include gravitational biology, biological rhythms, and radiation biology. (PS)

  9. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment

  10. Scintillation Effects on Space Shuttle GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Kramer, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    Irregularities in ionospheric electron density result in variation in amplitude and phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, or scintillation. GPS receivers tracking scintillated signals may lose carrier phase or frequency lock in the case of phase sc intillation. Amplitude scintillation can cause "enhancement" or "fading" of GPS signals and result in loss of lock. Scintillation can occur over the equatorial and polar regions and is a function of location, time of day, season, and solar and geomagnetic activity. Mid latitude regions are affected only very rarely, resulting from highly disturbed auroral events. In the spring of 1998, due to increasing concern about scintillation of GPS signals during the upcoming solar maximum, the Space Shuttle Program began to assess the impact of scintillation on Collins Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR) units that are to replace Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN) units on the Space Shuttle orbiters. The Shuttle Program must determine if scintillation effects pose a threat to safety of flight and mission success or require procedural and flight rule changes. Flight controllers in Mission Control must understand scintillation effects on GPS to properly diagnose "off nominal" GPS receiver performance. GPS data from recent Space Shuttle missions indicate that the signals tracked by the Shuttle MAGR manifest scintillation. Scintillation is observed as anomalous noise in velocity measurements lasting for up to 20 minutes on Shuttle orbit passes and are not accounted for in the error budget of the MAGR accuracy parameters. These events are typically coincident with latitude and local time occurrence of previously identified equatorial spread F within about 20 degrees of the magnetic equator. The geographic and seasonal history of these events from ground-based observations and a simple theoretical model, which have potential for predicting events for operational purposes, are reviewed.

  11. STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

  12. Noise Control in Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic limits in habitable space enclosures are required to ensure crew safety, comfort, and habitability. Noise control is implemented to ensure compliance with the acoustic requirements. The purpose of this paper is to describe problems with establishing acoustic requirements and noise control efforts, and present examples of noise control treatments and design applications used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Included is the need to implement the design discipline of acoustics early in the design process, and noise control throughout a program to ensure that limits are met. The use of dedicated personnel to provide expertise and oversight of acoustic requirements and noise control implementation has shown to be of value in the Space Shuttle Orbiter program. It is concluded that to achieve acceptable and safe noise levels in the crew habitable space, early resolution of acoustic requirements and implementation of effective noise control efforts are needed. Management support of established acoustic requirements and noise control efforts is essential.

  13. Turbulence indicators for Space Shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, Michael

    1992-01-01

    A report on the research and analysis for identifying turbulent regions from the surface to 16 km for Space Shuttle launches is presented. The research demonstrates that the results from the FPS-16 radar/jimsphere balloon system in measuring winds can indicate the presence of or conditions ripe for turbulence in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is shown that atmospheric data obtained during the Shuttle launches by the rawinsonde in conjunction with the jimsphere provide the necessary meteorological data to compute aerodynamic parameters to identify turbulence.

  14. Study of alternate space shuttle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A study of alternate space shuttle concepts was conducted to examine the stage-and-one-half concept and its potential for later conversion and use in the two stage reusable shuttle system. A study of external hydrogen tank concepts was conducted to determine the issues involved in the design and production of a low-cost expendable tank system. The major objectives of the study were to determine: (1) realistic drop tank program cost estimates, (2) estimated drop tank program cost for selected specific designs, and (3) change in program cost due to variations in design and manufacturing concepts and changes in program assumptions.

  15. Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, Robert R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

  16. Toward a history of the space shuttle. An annotated bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.; Gillette, Aaron K.

    1992-12-01

    This selective, annotated bibliography discusses those works judged to be most essential for researchers writing scholarly studies on the Space Shuttle's history. A thematic arrangement of material concerning the Space Shuttle will hopefully bring clarity and simplicity to such a complex subject. Subjects include the precursors of the Space Shuttle, its design and development, testing and evaluation, and operations. Other topics revolve around the Challenger accident and its aftermath, promotion of the Space Shuttle, science on the Space Shuttle, commercial uses, the Space Shuttle's military implications, its astronaut crew, the Space Shuttle and international relations, the management of the Space Shuttle Program, and juvenile literature. Along with a summary of the contents of each item, judgments have been made on the quality, originality, or importance of some of these publications. An index concludes this work.

  17. Aerodynamic and base heating studies on space shuttle configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Heating rate and pressure measurements were obtained on a 25-O space shuttle model in a vacuum chamber. Correlation data on windward laminar and turbulent boundary layers and leeside surfaces of the space shuttle orbiter are included.

  18. Toward a history of the space shuttle. An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Compiler); Gillette, Aaron K. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This selective, annotated bibliography discusses those works judged to be most essential for researchers writing scholarly studies on the Space Shuttle's history. A thematic arrangement of material concerning the Space Shuttle will hopefully bring clarity and simplicity to such a complex subject. Subjects include the precursors of the Space Shuttle, its design and development, testing and evaluation, and operations. Other topics revolve around the Challenger accident and its aftermath, promotion of the Space Shuttle, science on the Space Shuttle, commercial uses, the Space Shuttle's military implications, its astronaut crew, the Space Shuttle and international relations, the management of the Space Shuttle Program, and juvenile literature. Along with a summary of the contents of each item, judgments have been made on the quality, originality, or importance of some of these publications. An index concludes this work.

  19. STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

  20. Space shuttle L-tube radiator testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to support the development of the Orbiter Heat Rejection System. The details of the baseline radiator were defined by designing, fabricating, and testing representative hardware. The tests were performed in the Space Environmental Simulation Laboratory Chamber A. An IR source was used to simulate total solar and infrared environmental loads on the flowing shuttle radiators panel. The thermal and mechanical performance of L tube space radiators and their thermal coating were established.

  1. Microbial survival in space shuttle crash

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Robert J.C.; Welsh, Allana K.; Casasanto, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    A slow growing, heat resistant bacterium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Microbispora sp., was recovered from the wreckage of the ill-fated space shuttle Columbia (STS-107). As this organism survived disintegration of the space craft, heat of reentry, and impact, it supports the possibility of a natural mechanism for the interplanetary spread of life by meteorites. PMID:21804644

  2. Space shuttle: Structural integrity and assessment study. [development of nondestructive test procedures for space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A study program was conducted to determine the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements and to develop a preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the entire space shuttle vehicle. The rationale and guidelines for structural analysis and NDE requirements development are discussed. Recommendations for development of NDE technology for the orbiter thermal protection system and certain structural components are included. Recommendations to accomplish additional goals toward space shuttle inspection are presented.

  3. STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

  4. STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  5. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  6. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  7. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  8. Space Shuttle Pinhole Formation Mechanism Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1998-01-01

    Pinholes have been observed to form on the wing leading edge of the space shuttle after about 10-15 flights. In this report we expand upon previous observations by Christensen (1) that these pinholes often form along cracks and are associated with a locally zinc-rich area. The zinc appears to come from weathering and peeling paint on the launch structure. Three types of experimental examinations are performed to understand this issue further: (A) Detailed microstructural examination of actual shuttle pinholes (B) Mass spectrometric studies of coupons containing, actual shuttle pinholes and (C) Laboratory furnace studies of ZnO/SiC reactions and ZnO/SiC protected carbon/carbon reaction. On basis of these observations we present a detailed mechanism of pinhole formation due to formation of a corrosive ZnO-Na-2-O-SiO2 ternary glass, which flows into existing cracks and enlarges them.

  9. Space shuttle molecular and wake vacuum measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Carignan, G. R.; Miller, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The wake environment of the space shuttle is analyzed to determine whether it is feasible to perform ultrahigh vacuum experiments in or near the payload bay with the shuttle oriented such that the payload bay faces the antivelocity direction. Several mechanisms were considered by which molecules could approach the payload bay from this direction and their relative contributions to the wake environment are estimated. These mechanisms include ambient atmospheric molecules that have velocities in excess of the orbital velocity which can overtake the shuttle, ambient atmospheric molecules that are backscattered by collisions with the shuttle induced atmosphere, and self scattering from the induced atmosphere. These estimates are compared with the measurements made with the collimated mass spectrometer which was part of the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor flown on several of the early shuttle flights. Although the collimated mass spectrometer was not designed for this purpose and the instrument background for the species for which the collimator is effective is above the expected levels, upper limits can be established for these species in the wake environment which are consistent with the analysis. There was considerably more helium and argon observed in the wake direction than was predicted, however. Possible origins of these gases are discussed.

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine Debris Testing Methodology and Impact Tolerances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Stephens, Walter

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster every effort is being made to determine the susceptibility of Space Shuttle elements to debris impacts. Ice and frost debris is formed around the aft heat shield closure of the orbiter and liquid hydrogen feedlines. This debris has been observed to liberate upon lift-off of the shuttle and presents potentially dangerous conditions to the Space Shuttle Main Engine. This paper describes the testing done to determine the impact tolerance of the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzle coolant tubes to ice strikes originating from the launch pad or other parts of the shuttle.

  11. STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

  12. Space Shuttle security policies and programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle vehicle consists of the orbiter, external tank, and two solid rocket boosters. In dealing with security two major protective categories are considered, taking into account resource protection and information protection. A review is provided of four basic programs which have to be satisfied. Aspects of science and technology transfer are discussed. The restrictions for the transfer of science and technology information are covered under various NASA Management Instructions (NMI's). There were two major events which influenced the protection of sensitive and private information on the Space Shuttle program. The first event was a manned space flight accident, while the second was the enactment of a congressional bill to establish the rights of privacy. Attention is also given to national resource protection and national defense classified operations.

  13. Space Shuttle security policies and programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, E. L.

    The Space Shuttle vehicle consists of the orbiter, external tank, and two solid rocket boosters. In dealing with security two major protective categories are considered, taking into account resource protection and information protection. A review is provided of four basic programs which have to be satisfied. Aspects of science and technology transfer are discussed. The restrictions for the transfer of science and technology information are covered under various NASA Management Instructions (NMI's). There were two major events which influenced the protection of sensitive and private information on the Space Shuttle program. The first event was a manned space flight accident, while the second was the enactment of a congressional bill to establish the rights of privacy. Attention is also given to national resource protection and national defense classified operations.

  14. Report of the Space Shuttle Management Independent Review Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the NASA Administrator a team was formed to review the Space Shuttle Program and propose a new management system that could significantly reduce operating costs. Composed of a group of people with broad and extensive experience in spaceflight and related areas, the team received briefings from the NASA organizations and most of the supporting contractors involved in the Shuttle Program. In addition, a number of chief executives from the supporting contractors provided advice and suggestions. The team found that the present management system has functioned reasonably well despite its diffuse structure. The team also determined that the shuttle has become a mature and reliable system, and--in terms of a manned rocket-propelled space launch system--is about as safe as today's technology will provide. In addition, NASA has reduced shuttle operating costs by about 25 percent over the past 3 years. The program, however, remains in a quasi-development mode and yearly costs remain higher than required. Given the current NASA-contractor structure and incentives, it is difficult to establish cost reduction as a primary goal and implement changes to achieve efficiencies. As a result, the team sought to create a management structure and associated environment that enables and motivates the Program to further reduce operational costs. Accordingly, the review team concluded that the NASA Space Shuttle Program should (1) establish a clear set of program goals, placing a greater emphasis on cost-efficient operations and user-friendly payload integration; (2) redefine the management structure, separating development and operations and disengaging NASA from the daily operation of the space shuttle; and (3) provide the necessary environment and conditions within the program to pursue these goals.

  15. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  16. STS-71, Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frike, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance. STS-71 is the 100th United States manned space flight, the sixty-ninth Space Shuttle flight, the forty-fourth flight since the return-to-flight, the fourteenth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle Atlantis, and the first joint United States (U.S.)-Russian docking mission since 1975. In addition to the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-70; three SSMEs that were designated 2028, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated Bl-072. The RSRMs that were an integral part of the SRBs were designated 360L045A for the left SRB and 360W045B for the right SRB. The STS-71 mission was planned as a 1 0-day plus 1-day-extension mission plus 2 additional days for contingency operations and weather avoidance. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform on-orbit joint U.S.-Russian life sciences investigations, logistical resupply of the Mir Space Station, return of the United States astronaut flying on the Mir, the replacement of the Mir-18 crew with the two-cosmonaut Mir-19 crew, and the return of the Mir-18 crew to Earth. The secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Camera and the Shuttle Amateur Radio experiment-2 (SAREX-2).

  17. Space Shuttle inflatable training articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, construction, and testing of the Long Duration Exposure Facility inflatable and the space telescope training articles are discussed. While these articles are of similar nature, materials, and construction, they vary in size and present different problems with regards to size, shape, gross/net lift, and balance.

  18. STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  19. Probabilistic Modeling of Space Shuttle Debris Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huyse, Luc J.; Asce, M.; Waldhart, Chris J.; Riha, David S.; Larsen, Curtis E.; Gomez, Reynaldo J.; Stuart, Phillip C.

    2007-01-01

    On Feb 1, 2003, the Shuttle Columbia was lost during its return to Earth. As a result of the conclusion that debris impact caused the damage to the left wing of the Columbia Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) during ascent, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommended that an assessment be performed of the debris environment experienced by the SSV during ascent. A flight rationale based on probabilistic assessment is used for the SSV return-to-flight. The assessment entails identifying all potential debris sources, their probable geometric and aerodynamic characteristics, and their potential for impacting and damaging critical Shuttle components. A probabilistic analysis tool, based on the SwRI-developed NESSUS probabilistic analysis software, predicts the probability of impact and damage to the space shuttle wing leading edge and thermal protection system components. Among other parameters, the likelihood of unacceptable damage depends on the time of release (Mach number of the orbiter) and the divot mass as well as the impact velocity and impact angle. A typical result is visualized in the figures below. Probability of impact and damage, as well as the sensitivities thereof with respect to the distribution assumptions, can be computed and visualized at each point on the orbiter or summarized per wing panel or tile zone.

  20. Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune

  1. Understanding the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Osheroff, Doug

    2004-06-16

    On February 1, 2003, the NASA space shuttle Columbia broke apart during re-entry over East Texas at an altitude of 200,000 feet and a velocity of approximately 12,000 mph. All aboard perished. Prof. Osheroff was a member of the board that investigated the origins of this accident, both physical and organizational. In his talk he will describe how the board was able to determine with almost absolute certainty the physical cause of the accident. In addition, Prof. Osherhoff will discuss its organizational and cultural causes, which are rooted deep in the culture of the human spaceflight program. Why did NASA continue to fly the shuttle system despite the persistent failure of a vital sub-system that it should have known did indeed pose a safety risk on every flight? Finally, Prof. Osherhoff will touch on the future role humans are likely to play in the exploration of space.

  2. Evaluation of beryllium for space shuttle components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trapp, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Application of beryllium to specific full-scale space shuttle structural components and assemblies was studied. Material evaluations were conducted to check the mechanical properties of as-received material to gain design information on characteristics needed for the material in the space shuttle environment, and to obtain data needed for evaluating component and panel tests. Four beryllium structural assemblies were analyzed and designed. Selected components of these assemblies, representing areas of critical loading or design/process uncertainty, were designed and tested, and two panel assemblies were fabricated. Trends in cost and weight factors were determined by progressive estimation at key points of preliminary design, final design, and fabrication to aid in a cost/weight evaluation of the use of beryllium.

  3. Occupant safety in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, N. R.; Prichard, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of Space Shuttle missions, i.e., the inclusion of non-pilot payload specialists in addition to military test pilots, necessitates a greater attention to built in safety features than on previous spacecraft. Basic systems such as fire protection, anti-depressurization, toxicity control, and protection from radiation are handled in a manner similar to that of past missions, but some important deviations are noted, most importantly those pertaining to the provisions for on-orbit rescue. A Personnel Rescue System (PRS) is outlined, describing EVA operations whereby the pilots are able to don pressure suits and the crew can be transferred to another vehicle in balloon-like enclosures, which provide one hour's worth of life support and protection from the space environment. Also mentioned are provisions for the quick abort and reentry of the Shuttle Orbiter, as well as passive safety provisions for the Spacelab module.

  4. Space shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The system is described which is used to separate the solid rocket boosters from the space shuttle after they have expended most of their propellant and their thrust is near burnout. The dynamics of the separation are simulated in a computer program so that the separation system can be analyzed. The assumptions and ground rules used in analyzing this system are explained and the method of analysis is delineated. The capability of the separation system is presented together with data which may be used to aid in the design of the external tank and solid rocket booster interface. The results of a parameter study to determine the sensitivity of the separation to the initial state of the space shuttle are also presented.

  5. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  6. Space shuttle holddown post blast shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larracas, F. B.

    1991-01-01

    The original and subsequent designs of the Solid Rocket Booster/Holddown Post blast shield assemblies and their associated hardware are described. It presents the major problems encountered during their early use in the Space Shuttle Program, during the Return-to-Flight Modification Phase, and during their fabrication and validation testing phases. The actions taken to correct the problems are discussed, along with the various concepts now being considered to increase the useful life of the blast shield.

  7. Space shuttle/food system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This document establishes the Functional, physical and performance interface requirements are studied between the space shuttle orbiter and the galley water system, the orbiter and the galley electrical system, and the orbiter and the galley structural system. Control of the configuration and design of the applicable interfacing items is intended to maintain compatibility between co-functioning and physically mating items and to assure those performance criteria that are dependent upon the interfacing items.

  8. Hydrazine Gas Generator Program. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusak, L.; Marcy, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a flight gas generator for the space shuttle were investigated. Critical performance parameters and stability criteria were evaluated as well as a scaling laws that could be applied in designing the flight gas generator. A test program to provide the necessary design information was included. A structural design, including thermal and stress analysis, and two gas generators were fabricated based on the results. Conclusions are presented.

  9. Coordinate systems for the space shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    A minimal set of well defined coordinate systems necessary for the interchange of data within the space shuttle program is presented. The document format consists of four parts: (1) a list of the subscripts identifying the coordinate systems, (2) a glossary explaning the terms used within the coordinate system definitions, (3) figures defining, both graphically and verbally, each coordinate system, and (4) an appendix (published separately) showing the relationships (transformations) between similar systems.

  10. Thermal Stresses In Space-Shuttle Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1989-01-01

    Combined thermal deformations of wing-skin panel and TPS would not tear SIP layer. Report presents analysis of thermal stresses induced in skin panel, thermal-protection system (TPS), and strain-isolation pad (SIP) of Space Shuttle orbiter. Purpose of analysis to determine whether any part of above mentioned structures overstressed and overdeformed under reentry heating, assuming one TPS tile lost at end of reentry heating.

  11. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) vibration data without having to constantly replay analog tapes, the SSME Vibration Data Base was developed. This data base contains data that have been digitized at a high sample rate for the entire test duration. It provides quick and efficient recall capabilities for numerious computation and display routines. The data base components are described as well as some of the compution and display features.

  12. Monitoring tropical environments with Space Shuttle photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital photography from the Space Shuttle missions (1981-88) and earlier manned spaceflight programs (1962-1975) allows remote sensing time series to be constructed for observations of environmental change in selected portions of the global tropics. Particular topics and regions include deforestation, soil erosion, supersedimentation in streams, lacustrine, and estuarine environments, and desertification in the greater Amazon, tropical Africa and Madagascar, South and Southeast Asia, and the Indo-Pacific archipelagoes.

  13. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  14. An assessment of space shuttle flight software development processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.

  15. Space Shuttle Columbia hurtles down Runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- With drag chute deployed, the Space Shuttle Columbia hurtles down Runway 33 at KSC''';s Shuttle Landing Facility to conclude the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL- 1) mission. With main gear touchdown at 2:33:11 p.m. EDT, April 8, the STS-83 mission duration was 3 days, 23 hours, 12 minutes. The planned 16-day mission was cut short by a faulty fuel cell. This is only the third time in Shuttle program history that an orbiter was brought home early due to a mechanical problem. This was also the 36th KSC landing since the program began in 1981. Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. flew Columbia to a perfect landing with help from Pilot Susan L. Still. Other crew members are Payload Commander Janice E. Voss; Mission Specialists Michael L.Gernhardt and Donald A. Thomas; and Payload Specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. In spite of the abbreviated flight, the crew was able to perform MSL-1 experiments. The Spacelab-module-based experiments were used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station and to conduct combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing investigations.

  16. STS-42 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-42 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the fourteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-52 (LWT-45); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-048. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L020A for the left SRM and 360Q020B for the right SRM. The primary objective of the STS-42 mission was to complete the objectives of the first International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1). Secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR); Student Experiment 81-09 (Convection in Zero Gravity); Student Experiment 83-02 (Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media); the Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads carried on the GAS Beam Assembly.

  17. STS-75 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-75 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fiftieth flight since the return-to-flight, and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-76; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2029, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-078. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-53, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRMs were designated as 36OW53A for the left SRB, and 36OW053B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Tethered Satellite System-1 R (TSS-1R), and the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3). The secondary objectives were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and to meet the requirements of the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility and the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. Appendix A provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used thorughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  18. STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

  19. STS-35 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-35 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-35/LWT-28), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-038. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the planned operations of the Ultraviolet Astronomy (Astro-1) payload and the Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) payload in a 190-nmi. circular orbit which had an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tablular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter subsystem problem is cited in the applicable subsystem discussion.

  20. Space shuttle exhaust cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.

  1. Breaking in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    I like to look forward, but I am also a great student of history. I believe there are many lessons, both positive and negative, that we can learn by looking back. Quite often, we tend to forget some of those. I'd like to speak a little bit about the era in which I entered the astronaut corps. I joined NASA in kind of a weird way-in the time period when everybody going into space was a test pilot. I was attending the Air Force Test Pilot School, even though I'm a Navy guy. In that time period, they were going through and selecting astronauts from the test pilot class, and I put my hand up and said, "I'd like to join." It turned out that both NASA and the Department of Defense were selecting astronauts, and, somewhere in the selection process, I ended up having to make a choice. There were lots of folks on the NASA list, and there weren't many folks on the Department of Defense list, so I figured that was my best chance to fly. So I said, "Send me to DoD for something called the Manned Orbital Laboratory," or MOL for short.

  2. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains all the hearings of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger accident from 6 February to 25 February 1986. Among others, the testimony of NASA's acting administrator William R. Graham is included.

  3. Photographing Shuttle Thermal Tiles in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission's third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter's heat-shielding tiles located on the craft's underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. This particular photo was taken by astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, whose shadow is visible on the thermal protection tiles.

  4. Macro Level Simulation Model Of Space Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Space Shuttle Processing Simulation Model; 2) Knowledge Acquisition; 3) Simulation Input Analysis; 4) Model Applications in Current Shuttle Environment; and 5) Model Applications for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  5. Independent verification and validation for Space Shuttle flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Software was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Flight to determine the need to continue independent verification and validation (IV&V) for Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee found that the current IV&V process is necessary to maintain NASA's stringent safety and quality requirements for man-rated vehicles. Therefore, the Committee does not support NASA's plan to eliminate funding for the IV&V effort in fiscal year 1993. The Committee believes that the Space Shuttle software development process is not adequate without IV&V and that elimination of IV&V as currently practiced will adversely affect the overall quality and safety of the software, both now and in the future. Furthermore, the Committee was told that no organization within NASA has the expertise or the manpower to replace the current IV&V function in a timely fashion, nor will building this expertise elsewhere necessarily reduce cost. Thus, the Committee does not recommend moving IV&V functions to other organizations within NASA unless the current IV&V is maintained for as long as it takes to build comparable expertise in the replacing organization.

  6. Space Shuttle Tail Service Mast Concept Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uda, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Design studies and analyses were performed to describe the loads and dynamics of the space shuttle tail service masts (TSMs). Of particular interest are the motion and interaction of the umbilical carrier plate, lanyard system, vacuum jacketed hoses, latches, links, and masthead. A development test rig was designed and fabricated to obtain experimental data. The test program is designed to (1) verify the theoretical dynamics calculations, (2) prove the soundness of design concepts, and (3) elucidate problem areas (if any) in the design of mechanisms and structural components. Design, fabrication, and initiation of TSM development testing at Kennedy Space Center are described.

  7. Space Shuttle solid rocket motor exposure monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    During the processing of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), segments at the Kennedy Space Center, an odor was detected around the solid propellant. An Industrial Hygiene survey was conducted to determine the chemical identity of the SRB offgassing constituents. Air samples were collected inside a forward SRB segment and analyzed to determine chemical composition. Specific chemical analysis for suspected offgassing constituents of the propellant indicated ammonia to be present. A gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of the air samples detected numerous high molecular weight hydrocarbons.

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, R.; Wicklund, L.; Baughman, J.; Weary, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power units (APUs) provide hydraulic power for the Orbiter vehicle control surfaces (rudder/speed brake, body flap, and elevon actuation systems), main engine gimbaling during ascent, landing gear deployment and steering and braking during landing. Operation occurs during launch/ascent, in-space exercise, reentry/descent, and landing/rollout. Operational effectiveness of the APU is predicated on reliable, failure-free operation during each flight, mission life (reusability) and serviceability between flights (turnaround). Along with the accumulating flight data base, the status and results of efforts to achieve these long-run objectives is presented.

  9. Automation of Space Processing Applications Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosmer, W. E.; Neau, O. T.; Poe, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Program is examining the effect of weightlessness on key industrial materials processes, such as crystal growth, fine-grain casting of metals, and production of unique and ultra-pure glasses. Because of safety and in order to obtain optimum performance, some of these processes lend themselves to automation. Automation can increase the number of potential Space Shuttle flight opportunities and increase the overall productivity of the program. Five automated facility design concepts and overall payload combinations incorporating these facilities are presented.

  10. Phase C aerothermodynamic data base. [for space shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Summary listings of published documentation of SADSAC processed data arranged chronologically and by shuttle configuration are presented to provide an up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized in the course of the space shuttle program. The various tables or listings are designed to provide survey information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels. The various listings of the shuttle test data information, the list contents, and the purpose are described.

  11. Annual report to the NASA Administrator by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel on the space shuttle program. Part 2: Summary of information developed in the panel's fact-finding activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Safety management areas of concern include the space shuttle main engine, shuttle avionics, orbiter thermal protection system, the external tank program, and the solid rocket booster program. The ground test program and ground support equipment system were reviewed. Systems integration and technical 'conscience' were of major priorities for the investigating teams.

  12. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  13. STS-76 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-76 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-first flight since the return-to-flight, and the sixteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-77; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2019 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-079. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-46, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO46A for the left SRB, and 360TO46B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and transfer one U.S. Astronaut to the Mir. A single Spacehab module carried science equipment and hardware, Risk Mitigation Experiments (RME's), and Russian Logistics in support of the Phase 1 Program requirements. In addition, the European Space Agency (ESA) Biorack operations were performed. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  14. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  15. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  16. Simulated lightning test shuttle .03 scale model. [(space shuttle orbiter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lightning Attach Point tests were conducted for the space shuttle launch configuration (Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters). A series of 250 long spark tests (15 to 20 foot sparks) determined that the orbiter may be struck on the nose, windshield brow, tail and wingtips during launch but not on the main engine nozzles which have been shown to be vulnerable to lightning damage. The orbiter main engine and SRB exhaust plumes were simulated electrically with physical models coated with graded resistance paints. The tests showed that the exhaust plumes from the SRB provide additional protection for the main engine nozzles. However, the tests showed that the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS), which has also been shown to be vulnerable to lightning damage, may be struck during launch. Therefore further work is indicated in the areas of swept stroke studies on the model and on TPS panels. Further attach point testing is also indicated on the free-flying orbiter. Photographs of the test setup are shown.

  17. Space motion sickness during 24 flights of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Vanderploeg, James M.; Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the incidence and the severity of space motion sickness (SMS) during 24 flights of the Space Shuttle, using a standardized questionnaire administered to all crewmembers postflight. It was found that, for 85 crewmembers, the incidence of SMS during a first Shuttle flight was 67 percent, of which 30 percent were mild cases, 24 percent moderate, and 13 percent severe. Crewmembers with a second flight showed a reduction in SMS incidence, but the change was not significant compared with the first flight. It is suggested that variability in crewmember training and flight experience may explain some of the differences observed.

  18. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  19. From Lindbergh to Columbia - The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, A.

    1982-01-01

    An effort to gage the level of maturation of space transportation development signalled by the advent of the Shuttle is attempted. Analogy is drawn to the successful crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by Charles Lindbergh, an event which established the feasibility of routine air transport over long distances. A positive shift in public confidence is expected to arrive by recalling the favorable news coverage which resulted after two or three flights by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk in 1908. The evolution of modern airports is taken as an indication of the kind of growth in facilities which may shortly be required due to operational space transportation systems. The arrival of normal operations of humans-to-space and return in reuseable vehicles is seen as a benchmark for a time when certain global assessments of social and technical requirements for the continued existence and progress of human civilization on earth and into space must be made.

  20. Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi N.; MacDonald, Rod; Faszer, Clifford

    2004-01-01

    The crawler transporter (CT) is the world's largest tracked vehicle known, weighing 6 million pounds with a length of 131 feet and a width of 113 feet. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has two CTs that were designed and built for the Apollo program in the 1960's, maintained and retrofitted for use in the Space Shuttle program. As a key element of the Space Shuttle ground systems, the crawler transports the entire 12-million-pound stack comprising the orbiter, the mobile launch platform (MLP), the external tank (ET), and the solid rocket boosters (SRB) from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the launch pad. This rollout, constituting a 3.5-5.0-mile journey at a top speed of 0.9 miles-per-hour, requires over 8 hours to reach either Launch Complex 39A or B. This activity is only a prelude to the spectacle of sound and fury of the Space Shuttle launch to orbit in less than 10 minutes and traveling at orbital velocities of Mach 24. This paper summarizes preliminary results from the Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuation Study, encompassing test and engineering analysis of significant sound sources to measure and record full frequency spectrum and intensity of the various noise sources and to analyze the conditions of vibration. Additionally, data such as ventilation criteria, plus operational procedures were considered to provide a comprehensive noise suppression design for implementation. To date, sound attenuation study and results on Crawler 2 have shown significant noise reductions ranging from 5 to 24 dBA.

  1. STS-69 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-69 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-sixth flight since the return-to-flight, and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour(OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-72; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-074. The RSRMS, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL048A for the left SRB, and 36OW048B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirments of Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and SPARTAN-201. The secondary objectives were to perform the operation of the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/GAS Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) and the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Development Flight Test 02 (EDFT-02), the Biological Research in Canister (BRIC) payload, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) payload, the Space Tissue Loss, National Institute of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-CS) payload, and the Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  2. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  3. Communication systems of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter radio-frequency systems and data services include an S-band phase modulation (PM) transmitter/receiver, a Ku-band transmitter/receiver, two independent S-band FM transmitters, an S-band payload interrogator transmitter/receiver, and a Ku-band rendezvous radar. A computer system, special processors for interfacing between payloads and RF systems, and television and tape recording systems are also part of the orbiter communications and data systems. The supporting ground systems include the Ground Space Tracking and Data Network, the Mission Control Center, and the Payload Operations Control Center. Five radars track the Orbiter during its re-entry flight path, and domestic communication satellites are used to electronically tie NASA tracking systems together. The voice communications system has been configured for support of two separate voice conversations upward and downward simultaneously, and the station conferencing and monitoring arrangement allows interchange of the 370 voice terminals throughout the world. The Space Shuttle will undergo four flight tests, performing some 1100 experiments, after which it will be put into operation to haul satellites and other equipment into space for paying customers.

  4. STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-second flight since the return-to-flight, and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). STS-77 was also the last flight of OV-105 prior to the vehicle being placed in the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-78; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037, 2040, and 2038 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-080. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-47, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO47A for the left SRB, and 360TO47B for the right SRB. The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VII, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of Spacehab-4, the SPARTAN 207/inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE), and the Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the experiments of the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), Get-Away-Special (GAS), and GAS Bridge Assembly (GBA). The STS-77 mission was planned as a 9-day flight plus 1 day, plus 2 contingency days, which were available for

  5. Closeup view looking into the nozzle of the Space Shuttle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view looking into the nozzle of the Space Shuttle Main Engine number 2061 looking at the cooling tubes along the nozzle wall and up towards the Main Combustion Chamber and Injector Plate - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Thousands gather to watch a Space Shuttle Main Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 13,000 people fill the grounds at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center for the first-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. The test marked Stennis Space Center's 20th anniversary celebration of the first Space Shuttle mission.

  7. 2009 Space Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Boyer, Roger L.; Thigpen, Eric B.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of a Space Shuttle during flight has severe consequences, including loss of a significant national asset; loss of national confidence and pride; and, most importantly, loss of human life. The Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) is used to identify risk contributors and their significance; thus, assisting management in determining how to reduce risk. In 2006, an overview of the SPRA Iteration 2.1 was presented at PSAM 8 [1]. Like all successful PRAs, the SPRA is a living PRA and has undergone revisions since PSAM 8. The latest revision to the SPRA is Iteration 3. 1, and it will not be the last as the Shuttle program progresses and more is learned. This paper discusses the SPRA scope, overall methodology, and results, as well as provides risk insights. The scope, assumptions, uncertainties, and limitations of this assessment provide risk-informed perspective to aid management s decision-making process. In addition, this paper compares the Iteration 3.1 analysis and results to the Iteration 2.1 analysis and results presented at PSAM 8.

  8. A new era of space transportation. [Space Shuttle system utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    It is pointed out that founded on the experiences of Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo/Soyuz mission an era is entered which will be characterized by a displacement of the interface between the experimenter and his experiment from the control center on the ground to the laboratory in orbit. A new world has been opened by going into space. Economic applications are related to the achievement of an enormous efficiency in world communications at a much lower cost. However, programs of space exploration and usage are under severe economic constraints. A primary tool to lower the cost of programs is to be the Space Transportation System using the Space Shuttle. It is emphasized that the Shuttle system is an international enterprise. Attention is also given to the results of the Viking missions, the Landsat satellites, and applications of space technology for science and commerce.

  9. Langley's Space Shuttle Technology: A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champine, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography documents most of the major publications, research reports, journal articles, presentations, and contractor reports, which have been published since the inception of the Space Shuttle Technology Task Group at the NASA Langley Reseach Center on July 11, 1969. This research work was performed in house by the Center staff or under contract, monitored by the Center staff. The report is arranged according to method of publication: (1) NASA Formal Reports; (2) Contractor Reports; and (3) Articles and Conferences. Disciplines covered are in the areas of aerothermodynamics, structures, dynamics and aeroelasticity, environmental, and materials. The publications are listed without abstracts for quick reference and planning.

  10. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  11. Space Shuttle Orbiter Structures and Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, Adam L.; Estes, Lynda R.; Eilers, James A.; Logan, Jeffrey S.; Evernden, Brent A.; Decker, William S.; Hagen, Jeffrey D.; Davis, Robert E.; Broughton, James K.; Campbell, Carlisle C.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter has performed exceptionally well over its 30 years of flight experience. Among the many factors behind this success were robust, yet carefully monitored, structural and mechanical systems. From highlighting key aspects of the design to illustrating lessons learned from the operation of this complex system, this paper will attempt to educate the reader on why some subsystems operated flawlessly and why specific vulnerabilities were exposed in others. Specific areas to be covered will be the following: high level configuration overview, primary and secondary structure, mechanical systems ranging from landing gear to the docking system, and windows.

  12. Space shuttle SRM interim contract, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the solid rocket propellant for use with the space shuttle rocket engine are discussed. Design ramifications have created different web thicknesses and motor operating pressures which have necessitated small changes in the required propellant burning rate at 1,000 psia. However, the SRM burning rate remains well within the range demonstrated in the Poseidon and Minuteman first stage motors. Any change in propellant burning rate can be accomplished readily by a slight modification in the oxidizer particle size distribution. The ballistic and mechanical properties of the propellant remain unchanged from the baseline (Configuration 0).

  13. Space Shuttle Orbiter windshield bird impact analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Karen S.; Mccarty, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter's windshield employs three glass panes separated by air gaps. The brittleness of the glass offers much less birdstrike energy-absorption capability than the laminated polycarbonate windshields of more conventional aircraft; attention must accordingly be given to the risk of catastrophic bird impact, and to methods of strike prevention that address bird populations around landing sites rather than the modification of the window's design. Bird populations' direct reduction, as well as careful scheduling of Orbiter landing times, are suggested as viable alternatives. The question of birdstrike-resistant glass windshield design for hypersonic aerospacecraft is discussed.

  14. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  15. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  16. NASA management of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, F.

    1975-01-01

    The management system and management technology described have been developed to meet stringent cost and schedule constraints of the Space Shuttle Program. Management of resources available to this program requires control and motivation of a large number of efficient creative personnel trained in various technical specialties. This must be done while keeping track of numerous parallel, yet interdependent activities involving different functions, organizations, and products all moving together in accordance with intricate plans for budgets, schedules, performance, and interaction. Some techniques developed to identify problems at an early stage and seek immediate solutions are examined.

  17. Shuttle-launch triangular space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W. C. (Inventor); Berka, R. B. (Inventor); Kavanaugh, C. (Inventor); Nagy, K. (Inventor); Parish, R. C. (Inventor); Schliesing, J. A. (Inventor); Smith, P. D. (Inventor); Stebbins, F. J. (Inventor); Wesselski, C. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A triangular space station deployable in orbit is described. The framework is comprized of three trusses, formed of a pair of generally planar faces consistine of foldable struts. The struts expand and lock into rigid structural engagement forming a repetition of equilater triangles and nonfolding diagonal struts interconnecting the two faces. The struts are joined together by node fittings. The framework can be packaged into a size and configuration transportable by a space shuttle. When deployed, the framework provides a large work/construction area and ample planar surface area for solar panels and thermal radiators. A plurity of modules are secured to the framework and then joined by tunnels to make an interconnected modular display. Thruster units for the space station orientation and altitude maintenance are provided.

  18. Space Shuttle Environmental Effects: The First 5 Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Environmental effects associated with the first five Space Shuttle flights were monitored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Air Force (USAF). Results and interpretations from this effort were reported at the December 1982 joint NASA-USAF conference. The conference proceedings are presented in this document. Most of the monitoring activity was focused on the launch cloud, emphasizing surface effects on the biota and air quality, model prediction of surface concentrations of HCl gas and Al2O3 dust, and airborne measurements of cloud composition. In general, assessments and predictions made in the April 1978 Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Space Shuttle Program were verified. Fallout of acidic mist and dust within 3 mi to 5 mi of the launch pad was the only unexpected effect of the launch. Atomization of deluge water in the Shuttle exhaust is considered to be the most probable cause of this effect. Sonic booms were monitored for several landings at Edwards Air Force Base, California; results agreed well with model predictions.

  19. Young People's Perception of the Space Shuttle Disaster: Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Benina Berger; Gould, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    Examined responses of 97 students who witnessed space shuttle disaster on video at school. Asked them to rank three things that had affected them most. Only 8.9 percent of females ranked space shuttle first, and only 30.4 percent ranked it in top three. More males (88.9 percent) mentioned space shuttle, and 38.9 percent saw it as top concern.…

  20. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tree branches on the Space Coast frame Space Shuttle Discovery's liftoff from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  1. Photograph by KSC Kennedy Space Center Firing room during launch of Space Shuttle Discovery Hubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Photograph by KSC Kennedy Space Center Firing room during launch of Space Shuttle Discovery Hubble Space Telescope deployment Mission STS-31 (The Shuttle can be seen through window) (ref: KSC-90PC-626)

  2. Analysis of microgravity space experiments Space Shuttle programmatic safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terlep, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of microgravity space experiments space shuttle programmatic safety requirements and recommends the creation of a Safety Compliance Data Package (SCDP) Template for both flight and ground processes. These templates detail the programmatic requirements necessary to produce a complete SCDP. The templates were developed from various NASA centers' requirement documents, previously written guidelines on safety data packages, and from personal experiences. The templates are included in the back as part of this report.

  3. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  4. Mathematical models for space shuttle ground systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tory, E. G.

    1985-01-01

    Math models are a series of algorithms, comprised of algebraic equations and Boolean Logic. At Kennedy Space Center, math models for the Space Shuttle Systems are performed utilizing the Honeywell 66/80 digital computers, Modcomp II/45 Minicomputers and special purpose hardware simulators (MicroComputers). The Shuttle Ground Operations Simulator operating system provides the language formats, subroutines, queueing schemes, execution modes and support software to write, maintain and execute the models. The ground systems presented consist primarily of the Liquid Oxygen and Liquid Hydrogen Cryogenic Propellant Systems, as well as liquid oxygen External Tank Gaseous Oxygen Vent Hood/Arm and the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) High Bay Cells. The purpose of math modeling is to simulate the ground hardware systems and to provide an environment for testing in a benign mode. This capability allows the engineers to check out application software for loading and launching the vehicle, and to verify the Checkout, Control, & Monitor Subsystem within the Launch Processing System. It is also used to train operators and to predict system response and status in various configurations (normal operations, emergency and contingent operations), including untried configurations or those too dangerous to try under real conditions, i.e., failure modes.

  5. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  6. Space shuttle propellant constitutive law verification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Propellants Task (Task 2.0) on the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), a database of material properties was generated for the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) PBAN-based propellant. A parallel effort on the Propellants Task was the generation of an improved constitutive theory for the PBAN propellant suitable for use in a finite element analysis (FEA) of the RSRM. The outcome of an analysis with the improved constitutive theory would be more reliable prediction of structural margins of safety. The work described in this report was performed by Materials Laboratory personnel at Thiokol Corporation/Huntsville Division under NASA contract NAS8-39619, Mod. 3. The report documents the test procedures for the refinement and verification tests for the improved Space Shuttle RSRM propellant material model, and summarizes the resulting test data. TP-H1148 propellant obtained from mix E660411 (manufactured February 1989) which had experienced ambient igloo storage in Huntsville, Alabama since January 1990, was used for these tests.

  7. Research and technology. [in development of space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Summaries are presented of the research in the development of the space shuttle. Propulsion, materials, spacecraft and thermal control, payloads, instrumentation, data systems, and mission planning are included.

  8. Stennis Holds Last Planned Space Shuttle Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With 520 seconds of shake, rattle and roar on July 29, 2009 NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center marked the end of an era for testing the space shuttle main engines that have powered the nation's Space Shuttle Program for nearly three decades.

  9. STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as

  10. Shuttle Replica On The Way To Space Center Houston

    NASA Video Gallery

    Atop a barge, the space shuttle full-scale replica nears the completion of its eight-day journey from the Kennedy Space Center destined for permanent retention at Space Center Houston, near the NAS...

  11. Legacy of Operational Space Medicine During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniakm, P.; Gilmore, S.; Johnston, S.; Chandler, M.; Beven, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s Medical Science Division branches were involved in preparing astronauts for space flight during the 30 year period of the Space Shuttle Program. These branches included the Flight Medicine Clinic, Medical Operations and the Behavioral Health Program. The components of each facet of these support services were: the Flight Medicine Clinic s medical selection process and medical care; the Medical Operations equipment, training, procedures and emergency medical services; and the Behavioral Health and Performance operations. Each presenter will discuss the evolution of its operations, implementations, lessons learned and recommendations for future vehicles and short duration space missions.

  12. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  13. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust seem to fill the marsh near Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  14. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust and blazing light fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  15. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Framed by the foliage of the Canaveral National Sea Shore, Space Shuttle Discovery soars through bright blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National agency for Space Development (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  16. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery clears Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 as it lifts off on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  17. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of gallons of water released as part of the sound suppression system at the launch pad create clouds of steam and exhaust as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  18. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  19. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- It'''s tail bathed in light, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into space on mission STS-98. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  20. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Against a curtain of blue sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery spews clouds of exhaust as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on the 9-day mission STS-95. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  1. Educational Planning for Utilization of Space Shuttle (ED-PLUSS). Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Harry A.; Christensen, David L.

    Possible educational uses of the proposed space-shuttle program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are outlined. Potential users of information developed by the project are identified and their characteristics analyzed. Other space-education programs operated by NASA are detailed. Proposals for a methodology for expanding…

  2. 48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and the parties related entities to encourage participation in space exploration, use, and investment... for space shuttle services. 1852.228-72 Section 1852.228-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and the parties related entities to encourage participation in space exploration, use, and investment... for space shuttle services. 1852.228-72 Section 1852.228-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participation in space exploration, use, and investment. The purpose of this clause is to extend this cross... for space shuttle services. 1852.228-72 Section 1852.228-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  5. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Twin columns of flame spew from the solid rocket boosters lifting Space Shuttle Endeavour out of the smoke and steam and into the night sky. Liftoff occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. The Shuttle and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  6. Lightning protection design external tank /Space Shuttle/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A.; Mumme, E.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of lightning striking the Space Shuttle during liftoff is considered and the lightning protection system designed by the Martin Marietta Corporation for the external tank (ET) portion of the Shuttle is discussed. The protection system is based on diverting and/or directing a lightning strike to an area of the spacecraft which can sustain the strike. The ET lightning protection theory and some test analyses of the system's design are reviewed including studies of conductivity and thermal/stress properties in materials, belly band feasibility, and burn-through plug grounding and puncture voltage. The ET lightning protection system design is shown to be comprised of the following: (1) a lightning rod on the forward most point of the ET, (2) a continually grounded, one inch wide conductive strip applied circumferentially at station 371 (belly band), (3) a three inch wide conductive belly band applied over the TPS (i.e. the insulating surface of the ET) and grounded to a structure with eight conductive plugs at station 536, and (4) a two inch thick TPS between the belly bands which are located over the weld lands.

  7. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

    1994-01-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  8. The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattinger, I.

    1972-01-01

    The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind is discussed. The space shuttle mission profile is presented and the capabilities of the spacecraft to perform various maneuvers and operations are described. The cost effectiveness of the space shuttle operation is analyzed. The effects upon technological superiority and national economics are examined. Line drawings and artist concepts of space shuttle configurations are included to clarify the discussion.

  9. Space Vehicle Powerdown Philosophies Derived from the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsey, Mark; Bailey, Brad

    2011-01-01

    In spaceflight, electrical power is a vital but limited resource. Almost every spacecraft system, from avionics to life support systems, relies on electrical power. Since power can be limited by the generation system s performance, available consumables, solar array shading, or heat rejection capability, vehicle power management is a critical consideration in spacecraft design, mission planning, and real-time operations. The purpose of this paper is to capture the powerdown philosophies used during the Space Shuttle Program. This paper will discuss how electrical equipment is managed real-time to adjust the overall vehicle power level to ensure that systems and consumables will support changing mission objectives, as well as how electrical equipment is managed following system anomalies. We will focus on the power related impacts of anomalies in the generation systems, air and liquid cooling systems, and significant environmental events such as a fire, decrease in cabin pressure, or micrometeoroid debris strike. Additionally, considerations for executing powerdowns by crew action or by ground commands from Mission Control will be presented. General lessons learned from nearly 30 years of Space Shuttle powerdowns will be discussed, including an in depth case-study of STS-117. During this International Space Station (ISS) assembly mission, a failure of computers controlling the ISS guidance, navigation, and control system required that the Space Shuttle s maneuvering system be used to maintain attitude control. A powerdown was performed to save power generation consumables, thus extending the docked mission duration and allowing more time to resolve the issue.

  10. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Trailing a column of flame-bright smoke, Space Shuttle Atlantis clears the lightning rod on Launch Pad 39A as it climbs into the early evening sky. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  11. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis leaps up from the flames and smoke behind it as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A into the early evening sky. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  12. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  13. Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Hand-Held Photography: Space Transportation System (STS) 41-6 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowakowski, Barbara S.; Palmer, Wesley F.

    1985-01-01

    This document catalogs Space Shuttle hand-held Earth observations photography which was collected on the Space Transportation System (STS) 41-G mission of October 1984. The catalog includes the following data for each of 2480 frames: geographical name, feature description, latitude and longitude, percentage of cloud cover, look direction and tilt, lens focal length, exposure evaluation, stereopairs, and orbit number. The catalog is a product of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project, Solar System Exploration Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  14. New works in space. [Space Shuttle based manufacturing and services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Goods and services that may be furnished by the Space Shuttle are described. A single multibeam antenna array capable of supplying satellite communication for 256 U.S. cities, a disaster warning network, and a TV link to remote areas is discussed. Attention is also given to such materials processing programs as crystal growth (for example, production of mercuric iodide crystals for gamma-ray detectors), eutectic growth of solid-solution crystals such as mercury-cadmium-telluride, manufacture of uniform latex spheres for medical applications, and development of small glass spheres for fusion power applications. In addition to the Space Telescope, a meter-class telescope on the Shuttle and a wide-field survey instrument are under study.

  15. Optimal guidance for the space shuttle transition.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A guidance method for the space shuttle's transition from hypersonic entry to subsonic cruising flight is presented. The method evolves from a numerical trajectory optimization technique in which kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations. This allows the open end-time problem to be transformed to one of fixed terminal energy. In its ultimate form, 'E-Guidance' obtains energy balance (including dynamic-pressure-rate damping) and path length control by angle-of-attack modulation and cross-range control by roll angle modulation. The guidance functions also form the basis for a pilot display of instantaneous maneuver limits and destination. Numerical results illustrate the E-Guidance concept and the optimal trajectories on which it is based.

  16. Optimal guidance for the space shuttle transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A guidance method for the space shuttle's transition from hypersonic entry to subsonic cruising flight is presented. The method evolves from a numerical trajectory optimization technique in which kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations. This allows the open end-time problem to be transformed to one of fixed terminal energy. In its ultimate form, E-Guidance obtains energy balance (including dynamic-pressure-rate damping) and path length control by angle-of-attack modulation and cross-range control by roll angle modulation. The guidance functions also form the basis for a pilot display of instantaneous maneuver limits and destination. Numerical results illustrate the E-Guidance concept and the optimal trajectories on which it is based.

  17. Optimal guidance for the space shuttle transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A guidance method for the space shuttle's transition from hypersonic entry to subsonic cruising flight is presented. The method evolves from a numerical trajectory optimization technique in which kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations. This allows the open end-time problem to be transformed to one of fixed terminal energy. In its ultimate form, E-Guidance obtains energy balance (including dynamic-pressure-rate damping) and path length control by angle-of-attack modulation and cross-range control by roll angle modulation. The guidance functions also form the basis for a pilot display of instantaneous maneuver limits and destination. Numerical results illustrate the E-Guidance concept and the optimal trajectories on which it is based.

  18. Space Shuttle Program: STS-1 Medical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The necessity for developing medical standards addressing individual classes of Shuttle crew positions is discussed. For the U.S. manned program the conclusion of the Apollo era heralded the end of water recovery operations and the introduction of land-based medical operations. This procedural change marked a significant departure from the accepted postflight medical recovery and evaluation techniques. All phases of the missions required careful re-evaluation, identification of potential impact on preexisting medical operational techniques, and development of new methodologies which were carefully evaluated and tested under simulated conditions. Significant coordination was required between the different teams involved in medical operations. Additional dimensions were added to the concepts of medical operations, by the introduction of different toxic substances utilized by the Space Transportation Systems especially during ground operations.

  19. Notch sensitivity of space shuttle tile materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the notch sensitivity of the thermal protection tile for the space shuttle. Two types of RSI tile were studied: LI-900 and LI-2200. Three point bend specimens were cut from discarded tiles in the in-plane (ip) and through-the-thickness (ttt) directions. They were tested with or without a sharp notch. The LI-900 (ip and ttt) specimens were not very notch sensitive, but the LI-2200 (ip and ttt) specimens were. The LI-2200 material showed about a 35 percent reduction in strength due to the presence of the notch. This reduction in strength should be considered in the design of mechanically fastened tile concepts.

  20. Recent Space Shuttle crew compartment design improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    1986-01-01

    Significant design changes to the Space Shuttle waste management system (WMS) and its related personal hygiene support provisions (PHSP) have been made recently to improve overall operational performance and human factors interfaces. The WMS design improvements involve increased urinal flow, individual urinals, and provisions for manually compacting feces and cleanup materials to ensure adequate mission capacity. The basic arrangement and stowage of the PHSP used during waste management operations were extensively changed to better serve habitability concerns and operations needs, and to improve the hygiene of WMS operations. This paper describes these changes and the design, development, and flight test evaluation. In addition, provisions for an eighth crewmember and a new four-tier sleep station are described.

  1. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster dewatering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    After the launch of the Space Shuttle, the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are jettisoned into the ocean where they float in a spar (vertical) mode. It is cost effective to recover the SRB's. A remote controlled submersible vehicle has been developed to aid in their recovery. The vehicle is launched from a support ship, maneuvered to the SRB, then taken to depth and guided into the rocket nozzle. It then dewaters the SRB, using compressed air from the ship, and seals the nozzle. When dewatered, the SRB floats in a log (horizontal) mode and can be towed to port for reuse. The design of the remote controlled vehicle and its propulsion system is presented.

  2. Space Shuttle food galley design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C.; Fischer, R.; Cooper, B.

    1974-01-01

    A food galley has been designed for the crew compartment of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter. The rationale for the definition of this design was based upon assignment of priorities to each functional element of the total food system. Principle priority categories were assigned in the following order: food quality, nutrition, food packaging, menu acceptance, meal preparation efficiency, total system weight, total system volume, and total power requirements. Hence, the galley was designed using an 'inside-out' approach which first considered the food and related biological functions and subsequently proceeded 'outward' from the food to encompass supporting hardware. The resulting galley is an optimal design incorporating appropriate priorities for trade-offs between biological and engineering constraints. This design approach is offered as a model for the design of life support systems.

  3. Heat pipe applications for the space shuttle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawil, M.; Alario, J.; Prager, R.; Bullock, R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of six specific applications for heat pipe (HP) devices on the space shuttle. These applications were chosen from 27 concepts formulated as part of a study to evaluate the potential benefits associated with HP use. The formulation process is briefly described along with the applications which evolved. The bulk of the discussion deals with the 'top' six - namely, HP radiators for waste heat rejection, an HP augmented cold rail, an HP circuit for electronic equipment cooling, modular heat sink for control of remote packages, an HP temperature control for compartments, and air-cooled equipment racks. The philosophy, physical design details, and performance data are presented for each concept along with a comparison with the baseline design where applicable.

  4. Space Shuttle STS-1 SRB damage investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevins, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The physical damage incurred by the solid rocket boosters during reentry on the initial space shuttle flight raised the question of whether the hardware, as designed, would yield the low cost per flight desired. The damage was quantified, the cause determined and specific design changes recommended which would preclude recurrence. Flight data, postflight analyses, and laboratory hardware examinations were used. The resultant findings pointed to two principal causes: failure of the aft skirt thermal curtain at the onset of reentry aerodynamic heating, and overloading of the aft shirt stiffening rings during water impact. Design changes were recommended on both the thermal curtain and the aft skirt structural members to prevent similar damage on future missions.

  5. Energy management during the space shuttle transition.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An approach to calculating optimal, gliding flight paths of the type associated with the space shuttle's transition from entry to cruising flight is presented. Kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations, reducing the dimension and complexity of the problem. The capability for treating integral and terminal penalties (as well as Mach number effects) is retained in the numerical optimization; hence, stability and control boundaries can be observed as trajectories to the desired final energy, flight path angle, and range are determined. Numerical results show that the 'jump' to the 'front-side of the L/D curve' need not be made until the end of the transition and that the dynamic model provides a conservative range estimate. Alternatives for real-time trajectory control are discussed.

  6. Energy management during the space shuttle transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An approach to calculating optimal, gliding flight paths of the type associated with the space shuttle's transition from entry to cruising flight is presented. Kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations, reducing the dimension and complexity of the problem. The capability for treating integral and terminal penalties (as well as Mach number effects) is retained in the numerical optimization; hence, stability and control boundaries can be observed as trajectories to the desired final energy, flight path angle, and range are determined. Numerical results show that the jump to the front-side of the L/D curve need not be made until the end of the transition and that the dynamic model provides a conservative range estimate. Alternatives for real time trajectory control are discussed.

  7. Tracking techniques for space shuttle rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The space shuttle rendezvous radar has a requirement to track cooperative and non-cooperative targets. For this reason the Lunar Module (LM) Rendezvous Radar was modified to incorporate the capability of tracking a non-cooperative target. The modifications are discussed. All modifications except those relating to frequency diversity were completed, and system tests were performed to confirm proper performance in the non-cooperative mode. Frequency diversity was added to the radar and to the special test equipment, and then system tests were performed. This last set of tests included re-running the tests of the non-cooperative mode without frequency diversity, followed by tests with frequency diversity and tests of operation in the original cooperative mode.

  8. Radar error statistics for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Radar error statistics of C-band and S-band that are recommended for use with the groundtracking programs to process space shuttle tracking data are presented. The statistics are divided into two parts: bias error statistics, using the subscript B, and high frequency error statistics, using the subscript q. Bias errors may be slowly varying to constant. High frequency random errors (noise) are rapidly varying and may or may not be correlated from sample to sample. Bias errors were mainly due to hardware defects and to errors in correction for atmospheric refraction effects. High frequency noise was mainly due to hardware and due to atmospheric scintillation. Three types of atmospheric scintillation were identified: horizontal, vertical, and line of sight. This was the first time that horizontal and line of sight scintillations were identified.

  9. Space shuttle entry and landing navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Crawford, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    A navigation system for the entry phase of a Space Shuttle mission which is an aided-inertial system which uses a Kalman filter to mix IMU data with data derived from external navigation aids is evaluated. A drag pseudo-measurement used during radio blackout is treated as an additional external aid. A comprehensive truth model with 101 states is formulated and used to generate detailed error budgets at several significant time points -- end-of-blackout, start of final approach, over runway threshold, and touchdown. Sensitivity curves illustrating the effect of variations in the size of individual error sources on navigation accuracy are presented. The sensitivity of the navigation system performance to filter modifications is analyzed. The projected overall performance is shown in the form of time histories of position and velocity error components. The detailed results are summarized and interpreted, and suggestions are made concerning possible software improvements.

  10. Methods of assessing structural integrity for space shuttle vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Stuckenberg, F. H.

    1971-01-01

    A detailed description and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are given which have application to space shuttle vehicles. Appropriate NDE design data is presented in twelve specifications in an appendix. Recommendations for NDE development work for the space shuttle program are presented.

  11. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  12. Space Shuttle Main Engine modal test correlation and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stec, Robert C.; Gupta, Viney K.; Chaney, Lisa; Haworth, John M.

    1993-04-01

    A cost-effective software testbed under development is described for updating and validating Finite-Element Models (FEMs) to certify large-scale Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) STARDYNE and NASTRAN FEMs against modal test data. The long-term objectives of the testbed are to provide timely support and certification of SSME components using modal testing: certify large-scale structures such as the SSME using modal survey tests, update FEMs for model validation against test frequencies and mode shapes, verify the load factors for design loads assumed to determine structural integrity, demonstrate the Rocketdyne software testbed based on state-of-the art methods - optimization, static/dynamic reduction, sparse Lanczos solvers and iterative perturbation algorithms, and to identify future enhancements and applications for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Rocketdyne testbed "FEMOPT" developed for Space Station and SSME model certification.

  13. Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program: Changes in Shuttle Post Challenger and Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrell, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the legacy of successes in the space shuttle program particularly with regards to the changes in the culture of NASA's organization after the Challenger and Columbia accidents and some of the changes to the shuttles that were made manifest as a result of the accidents..

  14. Study of space shuttle environmental control and life support problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibble, K. P.; Riley, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Four problem areas were treated: (1) cargo module environmental control and life support systems; (2) space shuttle/space station interfaces; (3) thermal control considerations for payloads; and (4) feasibility of improving system reusability.

  15. Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts. Volume 2, Part 2: Concept Analysis and Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final report of a Phase A Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts by the Lockheed Missiles & Space Company (LMSC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The eleven-month study, which began on 30 June 1970, is to examine the stage-and-one-half and other Space Shuttle configurations and to establish feasibility, performance, cost, and schedules for the selected concepts. This final report consists of four volumes as follows: Volume I - Executive Summary, Volume II - Concept Analysis and Definition, Volume III - Program Planning, and Volume IV - Data Cost Data. This document is Volume II, Concept Analysis and Definition.

  16. Institutional environmental impact statement (space shuttle development and operations) amendment no. 1. [space shuttle operations at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Data are presented to support the environmental impact statement on space shuttle actions at Kennedy Space Center. Studies indicate that land use to accommodate space shuttle operations may have the most significant impact. The impacts on air, water and noise quality are predicted to be less on the on-site environment. Considerations of operating modes indicate that long and short term land use will not affect wildlife productivity. The potential for adverse environmental impact is small and such impacts will be local, short in duration, controllable, and environmentally acceptable.

  17. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Executive summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of a space shuttle payload planning group session are presented. The purpose of the workshop is: (1) to provide guidance for the design and development of the space shuttle and the spacelab and (2) to plan a space science and applications program for the 1980 time period. Individual groups were organized to cover the various space sciences, applications, technologies, and life sciences. Summaries of the reports submitted by the working groups are provided.

  18. Space Shuttle Upgrades Advanced Hydraulic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three Auxiliary Power Units (APU) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter each provide 145 hp shaft power to a hydraulic pump which outputs 3000 psi hydraulic fluid to 41 hydraulic actuators. A hydrazine fuel powered APU utilized throughout the Shuttle program has undergone many improvements, but concerns remain with flight safety, operational cost, critical failure modes, and hydrazine related hazards. The advanced hydraulic power system (AHPS), also known as the electric APU, is being evaluated as an upgrade to replace the hydrazine APU. The AHPS replaces the high-speed turbine and hydrazine fuel supply system with a battery power supply and electric motor/pump that converts 300 volt electrical power to 3000 psi hydraulic power. AHPS upgrade benefits include elimination of toxic hydrazine propellant to improve flight safety, reduction in hazardous ground processing operations, and improved reliability. Development of this upgrade provides many interesting challenges and includes development of four hardware elements that comprise the AHPS system: Battery - The battery provides a high voltage supply of power using lithium ion cells. This is a large battery that must provide 28 kilowatt hours of energy over 99 minutes of operation at 300 volts with a peak power of 130 kilowatts for three seconds. High Voltage Power Distribution and Control (PD&C) - The PD&C distributes electric power from the battery to the EHDU. This 300 volt system includes wiring and components necessary to distribute power and provide fault current protection. Electro-Hydraulic Drive Unit (EHDU) - The EHDU converts electric input power to hydraulic output power. The EHDU must provide over 90 kilowatts of stable, output hydraulic power at 3000 psi with high efficiency and rapid response time. Cooling System - The cooling system provides thermal control of the Orbiter hydraulic fluid and EHDU electronic components. Symposium presentation will provide an overview of the AHPS upgrade, descriptions of the four

  19. Space Shuttle Orbiter Drag Chute Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development history and technical highlights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Drag Chute Program. Data and references are given on the design, development, and testing of the system, plus several interesting operational issues and solutions. The last Shuttle flight was completed in 2011 and all the Orbiters have now become museum pieces. Before all the data from system development and the 86 Orbiter Drag Chute (ODC) operational landings is lost or forgotten, it may be useful to summarize it here and to identify data sources for future reference. Much has been written about various aspects of the program, and this summary has attempted to cite many such references to make available more detailed information. The ODC program was a high-visibility NASA program that afforded the opportunity to thoroughly engineer and test the chute system, far beyond so many of today s tight-budget programs. So the ODC program was extremely informative--it provided a wide scope of information including protective door jettison issues and solutions, wind tunnel data and analyses on chute stability and drag behind a huge and rather blunt forebody, component and system reuse, and chute cleaning methods. Technology and data created have aided several current and past parachute programs, and will continue to do so in the future. The original Orbiter preliminary design included a drag parachute-- it was deleted early to save weight. But after the 1987 Challenger accident and during the program redefinition phase that followed, Astronaut John Young presented a strong case for enhancing landing safety by adding nosegear steering, brake improvements, and reviving the drag chute.

  20. Space Shuttle Day-of-Launch Trajectory Design Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    A top priority of any launch vehicle is to insert as much mass into the desired orbit as possible. This requirement must be traded against vehicle capability in terms of dynamic control, thermal constraints, and structural margins. The vehicle is certified to specific structural limits which will yield certain performance characteristics of mass to orbit. Some limits cannot be certified generically and must be checked with each mission design. The most sensitive limits require an assessment on the day-of-launch. To further minimize vehicle loads while maximizing vehicle performance, a day-of-launch trajectory can be designed. This design is optimized according to that day s wind and atmospheric conditions, which increase the probability of launch. The day-of-launch trajectory design and verification process is critical to the vehicle s safety. The Day-Of-Launch I-Load Update (DOLILU) is the process by which the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle Program tailors the vehicle steering commands to fit that day s environmental conditions and then rigorously verifies the integrated vehicle trajectory s loads, controls, and performance. This process has been successfully used for almost twenty years and shares many of the same elements with other launch vehicles that execute a day-of-launch trajectory design or day-of-launch trajectory verification. Weather balloon data is gathered at the launch site and transmitted to the Johnson Space Center s Mission Control. The vehicle s first stage trajectory is then adjusted to the measured wind and atmosphere data. The resultant trajectory must satisfy loads and controls constraints. Additionally, these assessments statistically protect for non-observed dispersions. One such dispersion is the change in the wind from the last measured balloon to launch time. This process is started in the hours before launch and is repeated several times as the launch count proceeds. Should the trajectory design

  1. Payload retention fittings for space shuttle payload ground handling mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassisi, V.

    1983-01-01

    New ground fittings for Space Shuttle payload handling were designed, built, and tested by Government and contractor personnel at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, from May 1981 through November 1982. Design evolution of the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload retention fittings, which contained a load-sensitive split bushing in a pillow-block housing, created an incompatibility between the interfacing ground and airborne equipment. New fittings were designed and successfully used beginning with the fifth Space Shuttle flight, STS-5. An active hydraulic spring system containing a gas accumulator in the hydraulic system provided the load relief required to protect the Orbiter bushing from damage.

  2. Space Shuttle Program Manifest Process & Flight Opportunities for Small Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swalin, Richard M.; Sweet, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program has, since the early flights, exerted great effort to maximize the cargo complement for each individual mission. Historically, because of the capabilities of the Space Shuttle, there have almost always been opportunities to fly what are termed secondary payloads on every mission. However, with the challenges associated with assembling the International Space Station, accommodations for secondary payloads are significantly limited. In an attempt to deal with this situation, the Space Shuttle Program has developed techniques that will identify and utilize flight opportunities, as well as policies that may create opportunities.

  3. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  4. Toward large space systems. [Space Construction Base development from shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daros, C. J.; Freitag, R. F.; Kline, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The design of the Space Transportation System, consisting of the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and upper stages, provides experience for the development of more advanced space systems. The next stage will involve space stations in low earth orbit with limited self-sufficiency, characterized by closed ecological environments, space-generated power, and perhaps the first use of space materials. The third phase would include manned geosynchronous space-station activity and a return to lunar operations. Easier access to space will encourage the use of more complex, maintenance-requiring satellites than those currently used. More advanced space systems could perform a wide range of public services such as electronic mail, personal and police communication, disaster control, earthquake detection/prediction, water availability indication, vehicle speed control, and burglar alarm/intrusion detection. Certain products, including integrated-circuit chips and some enzymes, can be processed to a higher degree of purity in space and might eventually be manufactured there. Hardware including dishes, booms, and planar surfaces necessary for advanced space systems and their development are discussed.

  5. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, < 16 days and routinely had 4 to 6 crewmembers for a total of 135 flights. Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and

  6. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  7. An Engineering Look at Space Shuttle and ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation, in Spanish, is an overview of NASA's Space Shuttle operations and preparations for serving the International Space Station. There is information and or views of the shuttle's design, the propulsion system, the external tanks, the foam insulation, the reusable solid rocket motors, the vehicle assembly building (VAB), the mobile launcher platform being moved from the VAB to the launch pad. There is a presentation of some of the current issues with the space shuttle: cracks in the LH2 flow lines, corrosion and pitting, the thermal protection system, and inspection of the thermal protection system while in orbit. The shuttle system has served for more than 20 years, it is still a challenge to re-certify the vehicles for flight. Materials and material science remain as chief concerns for the shuttle,

  8. 14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  9. 14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  10. 14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  11. 14 CFR § 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.101 - Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for flight of a non-U.S... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle... non-U.S. government reimbursable payload on the Space Shuttle. To be eligible for flight on the...

  13. President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    From the roof of the Launch Control Center, U.S. President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton track the plume and successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-95. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on the mission.

  14. The Chinese student space shuttle get-way-special program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen

    1989-01-01

    The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.

  15. The first Chinese student space shuttle getaway special program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen

    1988-01-01

    The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.

  16. Development of control systems for space shuttle vehicles, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, C. R.; Chase, T. W.; Kiziloz, B. M.; Skelley, E. D.; Stein, G.; Ward, M. D.; Skelton, G. B.; Yore, E. E.; Rupert, J. G.; Phelps, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    Control of winged two-stage space shuttle vehicles was investigated. Control requirements were determined and systems capable of meeting these requirements were synthesized. Control requirements unique to shuttles were identified. It is shown that these requirements can be satisfied by conventional control logics. Linear gain schedule controllers predominate. Actuator saturations require nonlinear compensation in some of the control systems.

  17. Space Shuttle payload accommodation and trends in customer demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, Daniel L.; Wilson, James R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review payload demands for Shuttle resources and services in the pre-Space Station Freedom time frame. Requests for flight in both the Orbiter cargo bay and middeck will be considered. Factors limiting more efficient use of the Shuttle will also be discussed.

  18. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 1: GPS aided navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matchett, G. A.; Vogel, M. A.; Macdonald, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical studies related to space shuttle navigation are presented. Studies related to the addition of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System user equipment to the shuttle avionics suite are presented. The GPS studies center about navigation accuracy covariance analyses for both developmental and operational phases of GPS, as well as for various orbiter mission phases.

  19. Mission Possible: BioMedical Experiments on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, E.; Kreutzberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research, both applied and basic, was conducted on every Shuttle mission from 1981 to 2011. The Space Shuttle Program enabled NASA investigators and researchers from around the world to address fundamental issues concerning living and working effectively in space. Operationally focused occupational health investigations and tests were given priority by the Shuttle crew and Shuttle Program management for the resolution of acute health issues caused by the rigors of spaceflight. The challenges of research on the Shuttle included: limited up and return mass, limited power, limited crew time, and requirements for containment of hazards. The sheer capacity of the Shuttle for crew and equipment was unsurpassed by any other launch and entry vehicle and the Shuttle Program provided more opportunity for human research than any program before or since. To take advantage of this opportunity, life sciences research programs learned how to: streamline the complicated process of integrating experiments aboard the Shuttle, design experiments and hardware within operational constraints, and integrate requirements between different experiments and with operational countermeasures. We learned how to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and developed a hardware certification process with the flexibility to allow for design changes between flights. We learned the importance of end-to-end testing for experiment hardware with humans-in-the-loop. Most importantly, we learned that the Shuttle Program provided an excellent platform for conducting human research and for developing the systems that are now used to optimize research on the International Space Station. This presentation will include a review of the types of experiments and medical tests flown on the Shuttle and the processes that were used to manifest and conduct the experiments. Learning Objective: This paper provides a description of the challenges related to launching and implementing biomedical

  20. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour rockets off Launch Pad 39B in a perfect, on-time launch. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST on mission STS-97. Endeavour and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  1. Space Shuttle GN and C Development History and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimpfer, Douglas; Hattis, Phil; Ruppert, John; Gavert, Don

    2011-01-01

    Completion of the final Space Shuttle flight marks the end of a significant era in Human Spaceflight. Developed in the 1970 s, first launched in 1981, the Space Shuttle embodies many significant engineering achievements. One of these is the development and operation of the first extensive fly-by-wire human space transportation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) System. Development of the Space Shuttle GN&C represented first time inclusions of modern techniques for electronics, software, algorithms, systems and management in a complex system. Numerous technical design trades and lessons learned continue to drive current vehicle development. For example, the Space Shuttle GN&C system incorporated redundant systems, complex algorithms and flight software rigorously verified through integrated vehicle simulations and avionics integration testing techniques. Over the past thirty years, the Shuttle GN&C continued to go through a series of upgrades to improve safety, performance and to enable the complex flight operations required for assembly of the international space station. Upgrades to the GN&C ranged from the addition of nose wheel steering to modifications that extend capabilities to control of the large flexible configurations while being docked to the Space Station. This paper provides a history of the development and evolution of the Space Shuttle GN&C system. Emphasis is placed on key architecture decisions, design trades and the lessons learned for future complex space transportation system developments. Finally, some of the interesting flight operations experience is provided to inform future developers of flight experiences.

  2. Space Shuttle ET Friction Stir Weld Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Jack M.

    2003-01-01

    NASA and Lockheed-Martin approached the FSW machine vendor community with a specification for longitudinal barrel production FSW weld machines and a shorter travel process development machine in June of 2000. This specification was based on three years of FSW process development on the Space Shuttle External Tank alloys, AL2 195-T8M4 and AL22 19-T87. The primary motivations for changing the ET longitudinal welds from the existing variable polarity Plasma Arc plasma weld process included: (1) Significantly reduced weld defect rates and related reduction in cycle time and uncertainty; (2) Many fewer process variables to control (5 vs. 17); (3) Fewer manufacturing steps; (4) Lower residual stresses and distortion; (5) Improved weld strengths, particularly at cryogenic temperatures; (6) Fewer hazards to production personnel. General Tool was the successful bidder. The equipment is at this writing installed and welding flight hardware. This paper is a means of sharing with the rest of the FSW community the unique features developed to assure NASA/L-M of successful production welds.

  3. Space shuttle prototype check valve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Contaminant-resistant seal designs and a dynamically stable prototype check valve for the orbital maneuvering and reaction control helium pressurization systems of the space shuttle were developed. Polymer and carbide seal models were designed and tested. Perfluoroelastomers compatible with N2O4 and N2H4 types were evaluated and compared with Teflon in flat and captive seal models. Low load sealing and contamination resistance tests demonstrated cutter seal superiority over polymer seals. Ceramic and carbide materials were evaluated for N2O4 service using exposure to RFNA as a worst case screen; chemically vapor deposited tungsten carbide was shown to be impervious to the acid after 6 months immersion. A unique carbide shell poppet/cutter seat check valve was designed and tested to demonstrate low cracking pressure ( 2.0 psid), dynamic stability under all test bench flow conditions, contamination resistance (0.001 inch CRES wires cut with 1.5 pound seat load) and long life of 100,000 cycles (leakage 1.0 scc/hr helium from 0.1 to 400 psig).

  4. Space shuttle propulsion estimation development verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of extended Kalman filtering to estimating the Space Shuttle Propulsion performance, i.e., specific impulse, from flight data in a post-flight processing computer program is detailed. The flight data used include inertial platform acceleration, SRB head pressure, SSME chamber pressure and flow rates, and ground based radar tracking data. The key feature in this application is the model used for the SRB's, which is a nominal or reference quasi-static internal ballistics model normalized to the propellant burn depth. Dynamic states of mass overboard and propellant burn depth are included in the filter model to account for real-time deviations from the reference model used. Aerodynamic, plume, wind and main engine uncertainties are also included for an integrated system model. Assuming uncertainty within the propulsion system model and attempts to estimate its deviations represent a new application of parameter estimation for rocket powered vehicles. Illustrations from the results of applying this estimation approach to several missions show good quality propulsion estimates.

  5. Seismic excitation by the space shuttle Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    SEISMIC stations in southern California recorded the atmospheric shock waves generated by the space shuttle Columbia on its return to the Edwards Air Force base on 13 August 1989 (Fig. 1). In addition to the shock wave, the broad-band IRIS-TERRAscope station at Pasadena recorded a distinct pulse with a period of ???2-3 seconds, which arrived 12.5 seconds before the shock wave (Fig. 2). This pulse was also recorded at the University of Southern California, near downtown Los Angeles, where it arrived 3 seconds after the shock wave. The origin of this pulse could not be readily identified. We show here that it was a seismic P wave excited by the motion of high-rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles, which were hit by the shock wave. The proximity of the natural period of the high-rise buildings to that of the Los Angeles basin enabled efficient energy transfer from shock wave to seismic wave.

  6. Space Shuttle Orbiter Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Approach and Landing Test Program consisted of a series of steps leading to the demonstration of the capability of the Space Shuttle orbiter to safely approach and land under conditions similar to those planned for the final phases of an orbital flight. The tests were conducted with the orbiter mounted on top of a specially modified carrier aircraft. The first step provided airworthiness and performance verification of the carrier aircraft after modification. The second step consisted of three taxi tests and five flight tests with an inert unmanned orbiter. The third step consisted of three mated tests with an active manned orbiter. The fourth step consisted of five flights in which the orbiter was separated from the carrier aircraft. For the final two flights, the orbiter tail cone was replaced by dummy engines to simulate the actual orbital configuration. Landing gear braking and steering tests were accomplished during rollouts following the free flight landings. Ferry testing was integrated into the Approach and Landing Test Program to the extent possible. In addition, four ferry test flights were conducted with the orbiter mated to the carrier aircraft in the ferry configuration after the free-flight tests were completed.

  7. Space shuttle heat pipe thermal control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    Heat pipe (HP) thermal control systems designed for possible space shuttle applications were built and tested under this program. They are: (1) a HP augmented cold rail, (2) a HP/phase change material (PCM) modular heat sink and (3) a HP radiating panel for compartment temperature control. The HP augmented cold rail is similar to a standard two-passage fluid cold rail except that it contains an integral, centrally located HP throughout its length. The central HP core helps to increase the local power density capability by spreading concentrated heat inputs over the entire rail. The HP/PCM modular heat sink system consists of a diode HP connected in series to a standard HP that has a PCM canister attached to its mid-section. It is designed to connect a heat source to a structural heat sink during normal operation, and to automatically decouple from it and sink to the PCM whenever structural temperatures are too high. The HP radiating panel is designed to conductively couple the panel feeder HPs directly to a fluid line that serves as a source of waste heat. It is a simple strap-on type of system that requires no internal or external line modifications to distribute the heat to a large radiating area.

  8. Neutron measurements onboard the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Keith, J E; Cleghorn, T F

    2001-06-01

    The radiation environment inside a shielded volume is highly complex, consisting of both charged and neutral particles. Since the inception of human space flights, the charged particle component has received virtually all of the attention. There is however, a significant production of secondary neutrons, particularly from the aluminum structure in low earth orbiting spacecrafts. The interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and solar energetic particles with the earth's atmosphere produce a non-isotropic distribution of albedo neutrons. Inside any reasonable habitable module, the average radiation quality factor of neutrons is about 4-5 times larger than the corresponding average quality factor of charged particles. The measurement of neutrons and their energy spectra is a difficult problem due the intense sources of charged particles. This paper reviews the results of Shuttle flight experiments (made during both solar maximum and solar minimum) to measure the contribution of neutrons to the dose equivalent, as well as theoretical calculations to estimate the appropriate range of neutron energies that contribute most to the dose equivalent.

  9. Space shuttle SRM interim contract, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Essential studies and analyses required to integrate the SRM into the booster and overall space shuttle system. Emphasis was placed on the case, nozzle, insulation, and propellant components with resulting performance, weight, and structural load characteristics being generated. Effort conducted during the time period of this contract included studies, analyses, planning, and preliminary design activities. Technical requirements identified in the SRM Project Request for Proposal No. 8-1-4-94-98401 and Thiokol's proposed SRM design (designated Configuration 0) established the basis for this effort. The requirements were evaluated jointly with MSFC and altered where necessary to incorporate new information that evolved after issuance of the RFP and during the course of this interim contract. Revised water impact loads and load distributions were provided based on additional model test data and analytical effort conducted by NASA subsequent to the RFP release. Launch pad peaking loads into the SRM aft skirt were provided which also represented a change from RFP requirements. A modified SRM/External Tank (ET) attachment configuration with new structural load data was supplied by NASA, and direction was received to include a 2 percent inert weight contingency.

  10. Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis, using the 2-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that can cause loss of bearing preload. These tests established life and reliability data for both shuttle flight and ground operation. Test data were used to estimate the failure rate and reliability as a function of the number of shuttle missions flown. The Weibull analysis of the test data for the four actuators on one shuttle, each with a 2-bearing shaft assembly, established a reliability level of 96.9 percent for a life of 12 missions. A probabilistic system analysis for four shuttles, each of which has four actuators, predicts a single bearing failure in one actuator of one shuttle after 22 missions (a total of 88 missions for a 4-shuttle fleet). This prediction is comparable with actual shuttle flight history in which a single actuator bearing was found to have failed by wear at 20 missions.

  11. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like 10,000 fireworks going off at once, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  12. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Atlantis blasts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-98, it lights up the nearby water. Billows of smoke and steam fill Launch Pad 39A. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1 p.m. EST.

  13. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  14. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-98, clouds of smoke and steam appear to surround it. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1 p.m. EST.

  15. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Clouds of smoke and steam roll out from the launch pad as Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  16. Space LOX vent system. [for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    This is the final report summarizing the work completed under contract NAS8-26972. Concept selection, design, fabricating and testing of a prototype compact heat exchanger thermodynamic vent system are discussed. The system is designed to operate in a 2.7m (9 foot) spherical liquid oxygen tank with a heating rate of 32.2 - 35.2 watts (110-120 Btu/hr) and to control pressure to 310 + or - 13.8 kN/sq m (45 + or - 2.0 psia.) the design mission is of 2,590 ks (30 days) duration on board a space shuttle orbiter.

  17. Space vehicle acoustics prediction improvement for payloads. [space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dandridge, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The modal analysis method was extensively modified for the prediction of space vehicle noise reduction in the shuttle payload enclosure, and this program was adapted to the IBM 360 computer. The predicted noise reduction levels for two test cases were compared with experimental results to determine the validity of the analytical model for predicting space vehicle payload noise environments in the 10 Hz one-third octave band regime. The prediction approach for the two test cases generally gave reasonable magnitudes and trends when compared with the measured noise reduction spectra. The discrepancies in the predictions could be corrected primarily by improved modeling of the vehicle structural walls and of the enclosed acoustic space to obtain a more accurate assessment of normal modes. Techniques for improving and expandng the noise prediction for a payload environment are also suggested.

  18. Recovery of Space Shuttle Columbia and Return to Flight of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolphi, Michael U.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has come a long way in our journey to reduce the risks of operating the Spse Shuttle system. The External Tank bipod Thermal Protection System has been redesigned to eliminate the proximate cause of the Columbia accident. In all areas, we have applied the collective knowledge and capabilities of our Nation to comply with the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations and to raise the bar beyond that. We have taken prudent technical action on potential threats to review and verify the material condition of all critical areas where failure could result in catastrophic loss of the crew and vehicle. We are satisfied that critical systems and elements should operate as intended-safely and reliably. While we will never eliminate all the risks from our human space flight programs, we have eliminated those we can and reduced, controlled, and/or mitigated others. The remaining identified risks will be evaluated for acceptance. Our risk reduction approach has its roots in the system safety engineering hierarchy for hazard abatement long employed in aerospace systems engineering. The components of the hierarchy are, in order of precedence, to: design/redesign; eliminate the hazard/risk; reduce the hazard/risk; and control the hazard/risk and/or mitigate the consequence of the remaining hazard/risk through warning devices, special procedures/capabilities, and/or training. This proven approach to risk reduction has been applied to potential hazards and risks in all critical areas of the Space Shuttle and has guided us through the technical challenges, failures, and successes present in return to flight endeavors. This approach provides the structured deliberation process required to verify and form the foundation for accepting any residual risk across the entire Space Shuttle Program by NASA leadership.

  19. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  20. Space shuttle main engine definition (phase B). Volume 2: Avionics. [for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The advent of the space shuttle engine with its requirements for high specific impulse, long life, and low cost have dictated a combustion cycle and a closed loop control system to allow the engine components to run close to operating limits. These performance requirements, combined with the necessity for low operational costs, have placed new demands on rocket engine control, system checkout, and diagnosis technology. Based on considerations of precision environment, and compatibility with vehicle interface commands, an electronic control, makes available many functions that logically provide the information required for engine system checkout and diagnosis.

  1. Operational Use of GPS Navigation for Space Shuttle Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Propst, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The STS-118 flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was the first shuttle mission flown with three Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in place of the three legacy Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) units. This marked the conclusion of a 15 year effort involving procurement, missionization, integration, and flight testing of a GPS receiver and a parallel effort to formulate and implement shuttle computer software changes to support GPS. The use of GPS data from a single receiver in parallel with TACAN during entry was successfully demonstrated by the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis during four shuttle missions in 2006 and 2007. This provided the confidence needed before flying the first all GPS, no TACAN flight with Endeavour. A significant number of lessons were learned concerning the integration of a software intensive navigation unit into a legacy avionics system. These lessons have been taken into consideration during vehicle design by other flight programs, including the vehicle that will replace the Space Shuttle, Orion.

  2. Implementing the space shuttle data processing system with the space generic open avionics architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the application of the Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) to the Space Shuttle Data Processing System (DPS) architecture design. This application has been performed to validate the SGOAA, and its potential use in flight critical systems. The paper summarizes key elements of the Space Shuttle avionics architecture, data processing system requirements and software architecture as currently implemented. It then summarizes the SGOAA architecture and describes a tailoring of the SGOAA to the Space Shuttle. The SGOAA consists of a generic system architecture for the entities in spacecraft avionics, a generic processing external and internal hardware architecture, a six class model of interfaces and functional subsystem architectures for data services and operations control capabilities. It has been proposed as an avionics architecture standard with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group, and is being considered by the Society of Aeronautic Engineers (SAE) as an SAE Avionics Standard. This architecture was developed for the Flight Data Systems Division of JSC by the Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company, Houston, Texas.

  3. Space shuttle phase B study plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hello, B.

    1971-01-01

    Phase B emphasis was directed toward development of data which would facilitate selection of the booster concept, and main propulsion system for the orbiter. A shuttle system is also defined which will form the baseline for Phase C program activities.

  4. Space transportation system shuttle turnabout analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The progress made and the problems encountered by the various program elements of the shuttle program in achieving the 160 hour ground turnaround goal are presented and evaluated. Task assessment time is measured against the program allocation time.

  5. Shuttle considerations for the design of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebuck, J. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Shuttle related considerations (constraints and guidelines) are compiled for use by designers of a potential class of large space structures which are transported to orbit and, deployed, fabricated or assembled in space using the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Considerations of all phases of shuttle operations from launch to ground turnaround operations are presented. Design of large space structures includes design of special construction fixtures and support equipment, special stowage cradles or pallets, special checkout maintenance, and monitoring equipment, and planning for packaging into the orbiter of all additional provisions and supplies chargeable to payload. Checklists of design issues, Shuttle capabilities constraints and guidelines, as well as general explanatory material and references to source documents are included.

  6. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.

  7. Direct Visualization of Shock Waves in Supersonic Space Shuttle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, J. M.; Rieckhoff, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct observation of shock boundaries is rare. This Technical Memorandum describes direct observation of shock waves produced by the space shuttle vehicle during STS-114 and STS-110 in imagery provided by NASA s tracking cameras.

  8. Space shuttle recommendations based on aircraft maintenance experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spears, J. M.; Fox, C. L.

    1972-01-01

    Space shuttle design recommendations based on aircraft maintenance experience are developed. The recommendations are specifically applied to the landing gear system, nondestructive inspection techniques, hydraulic system design, materials and processes, and program support.

  9. A Tribute to the Space Shuttle Columbia and Seven

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jill L.

    2004-02-01

    The journal Microbial Ecology will be publishing a special issue dedicated to microbes in outer space. This tribute will be included in the issue, in memory of the shuttle crew who gave their lives earlier this year.

  10. FSW Implementation on the Space Shuttle's External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, David; Smelser, Jerry W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, friction stir welding on the external tank of the Space Shuttle. The topics include: 1) Friction Stir Welding Process; 2) Implementation Status; and 3) Summary.

  11. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Joins Propulsion Park Display

    NASA Video Gallery

    A crane lifts a space shuttle solid rocket booster into its final position in the “propulsion park” outside Building 4205, the Propulsion Research & Development Laboratory at the Marshall Cente...

  12. STS-135 Crew Tribute to the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-135 crew provided a recorded message as a tribute to Atlantis, the entire Space Shuttle Program and team. In the message, Ferguson spoke about the U.S. flag displayed behind them that was f...

  13. Research study on antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auselmi, J. A.; Weinberg, L. W.; Yurczyk, R. F.; Nelson, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A research project to investigate antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle vehicle was conducted. System from the Concorde, Boeing 747, Boeing 737, and Lockheed L-1011 were investigated. The characteristics of the Boeing 737 system which caused it to be selected are described. Other subjects which were investigated are: (1) trade studies of brake control concepts, (2) redundancy requirements trade study, (3) laboratory evaluation of antiskid systems, and (4) space shuttle hardware criteria.

  14. Investigation of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. W.; Eide, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been made of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles using a point mass trajectory optimization program known as POST. This study determined the minimum time gap between immediate and once-around safe return to the launch site from a baseline due-East launch trajectory for an alternate space shuttle concept which experiences an instantaneous loss of 25 percent of the total main engine thrust.

  15. Mechanics, impact loads and EMG on the space shuttle treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, William G.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of astronauts to egress the Shuttle, particularly during emergency conditions, is likely to be reduced following physiological adaptation in space. It is well established that effective application of exercise counter measures requires the exercise to be applied specifically. The problem is that objective scientific evidence is not available to validate the Space Shuttle treadmill with respect to in its role in diminishing the deleterious effects of a prolonged exposure to the microgravity environment.

  16. Interaction of the space shuttle control system with pogo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, A. S.; Davis, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The asymmetric configuration of the space shuttle results in coupled pitch and axial vibration modes. This coupling results in interaction between the pogo and control systems. A detailed model of representative space shuttle structure, feedline, control, and engine systems revealed the coupled system may be unstable even though the pogo and control systems are stable individually. A method is developed for predicting the coupled system stability in terms of the stability of the separate systems.

  17. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.; Willett, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constrants for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing.

  18. Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

  19. Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Zaretsky, Erin V.

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis, using the 2-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that can cause loss of bearing preload. These tests established life and reliability data for both shuttle flight and ground operation. Test data were used to estimate the failure rate and reliability as a function of the number of shuttle missions flown. The Weibull analysis of the test data for a 2-bearing shaft assembly in each body flap actuator established a reliability level of 99.6 percent for a life of 12 missions. A probabilistic system analysis for four shuttles, each of which has four actuators, predicts a single bearing failure in one actuator of one shuttle after 22 missions (a total of 88 missions for a 4-shuttle fleet). This prediction is comparable with actual shuttle flight history in which a single actuator bearing was found to have failed by wear at 20 missions.

  20. Replication of Space-Shuttle Computers in FPGAs and ASICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the replication of the functionality of the onboard space-shuttle general-purpose computers (GPCs) in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The purpose of the replication effort is to enable utilization of proven space-shuttle flight software and software-development facilities to the extent possible during development of software for flight computers for a new generation of launch vehicles derived from the space shuttles. The replication involves specifying the instruction set of the central processing unit and the input/output processor (IOP) of the space-shuttle GPC in a hardware description language (HDL). The HDL is synthesized to form a "core" processor in an FPGA or, less preferably, in an ASIC. The core processor can be used to create a flight-control card to be inserted into a new avionics computer. The IOP of the GPC as implemented in the core processor could be designed to support data-bus protocols other than that of a multiplexer interface adapter (MIA) used in the space shuttle. Hence, a computer containing the core processor could be tailored to communicate via the space-shuttle GPC bus and/or one or more other buses.

  1. STS-98 Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis is revealed after rollback of the Rotating Service Structure. Extended to the side of Atlantis is the orbiter access arm, with the White Room at its end. The White Room is an environmentally controlled area that provides entry for the crew into Atlantis'''s cockpit. Above the yellow-orange external tank is the Gaseous Oxygen Vent Arm, with the '''beanie cap''' vent hood raised. Before cryogenic loading, the hood will be lowered into position over the external tank vent louvers to vent gaseous oxygen vapors away from the Shuttle. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program.

  2. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Systems Operation Overview and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benefield, Philip A.; Kan, Kenneth C.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a large thrust class, reusable, staged combustion cycle rocket engine employing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. A cluster of three SSMEs is used on every space shuttle mission to propel the space shuttle orbiter vehicle into low earth orbit. Development of the SSME began in the early 70's and the first flight of the space shuttle occurred in 1981. Today, the SSME has accrued over one million seconds of ground test and flight operational time, launching 129 space shuttle missions. The systems operation of the SSME was developed and evolved to support the specific requirements of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP). This paper provides a systems operation overview of the SSME, including: engine cycle, propellant flowpaths, and major components; control system; operations during pre-start, start, mainstage, and shutdown phases; launch commit criteria (LCCs) and operational redlines. Furthermore, this paper will discuss how changes to the SSME over its history have impacted systems operations.

  3. Closeup View of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2044 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up View of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2044 mounted in a SSME Engine Handler in the SSME processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view shows SSME 2044 with its expansion nozzle removed and an Engine Leak-Test Plug is set in the throat of the Main Combustion Chamber in the approximate center of the image, the insulated, High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump sits below that and the Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Discharge Duct sits towards the top of the engine assembly in this view. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. On the wings of a dream: The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Described are the organization and some of the interests and missions of NASA, the Space Transportation System, the Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise, astronaut training and clothing, being launched into space, living and working in weightlessness, extravehicular activity, and the return from space to Earth. The various aspects of living in space are treated in considerable detail. This includes how the astronauts prepare food, how they eat and drink, how they sleep, exercise, change clothes and handle personal hygiene when in space.

  5. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Endeavour rockets off Launch Pad 39B, spewing clouds of smoke and steam, a majestic heron soars over the nearby water and Endeavour'''s reflection. Liftoff occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. The Shuttle and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  6. Space Shuttle Orbiter waste collection system conceptual study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbate, M.

    1985-01-01

    The analyses and studies conducted to develop a recommended design concept for a new fecal collection system that can be retrofited into the space shuttle vehicle to replace the existing troublesome system which has had limited success in use are summarized. The concept selected is a cartridge compactor fecal collection subsystem which utilizes an airflow collection mode combined with a mechanical compaction and vacuum drying mode that satisfies the shuttle requirements with respect to size, weight, interfaces, and crew comments. A follow-on development program is recommended which is to result in flight test hardware retrofitable on a shuttle vehicle. This permits NASA to evaluate the system which has space station applicablity before committing production funds for the shuttle fleet and space station development.

  7. Hydrogen leak detection in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G

    1992-01-01

    This study focuses on a helium gas jet flowing into room air. Measurements of helium concentration and velocity in the jet-air mixture are reported. The objective is to learn about jet characteristics so that dynamically similar hydrogen leaks may be located in the Space Shuttle. The hazardous gas detection system (HGDS) in the mobile launch pad uses mass spectrometers to monitor the shuttle environment for leaks. The mass spectrometers are fed by long sample tubes which draw gas from the payload bay, mid body, aft engine compartment and external tank. The overall purpose of this study is to improve the HGDS especially in its potential for locating hydrogen leaks. A rapid-response leak detection experiment was designed, built, and tested, following on the work done in this program last summer. The apparatus included a Perkin Elmer MGA-1200 mass spectrometer and air velocity transducer, both monitored by a Macintosh IIFX computer using LabVIEW software. A jet of helium flowing into the lab air simulated a gas leak. Steady helium or hydrogen-nitrogen jets were logged for concentration and velocity, and the power spectral density of each was computed. Last year, large eddies and vortices were visually seen with Schlieren imaging, and they were detected in the time plots of the various instruments. The response time of the MGA-1200 was found in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 sec. Pulsed concentration waves were clearly detected at 25 cycles per sec by spectral analysis of MGA data. No peaks were detected in the power spectrum, so in the present study, 10 Hz bandwidth-averaged power levels were examined at regular frequency intervals. The practical consequences of last year's study are as follows: sampling frequency should be increased above the present rate of 1 sample per second so that transients could be observed and analyzed with frequency response methods. Many more experiments and conditions were observed in this second summer, including the effects of orifice diameter

  8. Methods and Techniques for Risk Prediction of Space Shuttle Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Chad R.; Pugh, Rich; Safie, Fayssal

    1998-01-01

    Since the Space Shuttle Accident in 1986, NASA has been trying to incorporate probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in decisions concerning the Space Shuttle and other NASA projects. One major study NASA is currently conducting is in the PRA area in establishing an overall risk model for the Space Shuttle System. The model is intended to provide a tool to predict the Shuttle risk and to perform sensitivity analyses and trade studies including evaluation of upgrades. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and its prime contractors including Pratt and Whitney (P&W) are part of the NASA team conducting the PRA study. MSFC responsibility involves modeling the External Tank (ET), the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). A major challenge that faced the PRA team is modeling the shuttle upgrades. This mainly includes the P&W High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) and the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various methods and techniques used for predicting the risk of the P&W redesigned HPFTP and HPOTP.

  9. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 5: Space shuttle powered explicit guidance. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    An optimum powered explicit guidance algorithm capable of handling all space shuttle exoatospheric maneuvers is presented. The theoretical and practical basis for the currently baselined space shuttle powered flight guidance equations and logic is documented. Detailed flow diagrams for implementing the steering computations for all shuttle phases, including powered return to launch site (RTLS) abort, are also presented. Derivation of the powered RTLS algorithm is provided, as well as detailed flow diagrams for implementing the option. The flow diagrams and equations are compatible with the current powered flight documentation.

  10. Exploiting operational vehicles for in-flight research - Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Paul F.; Breckenridge, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    Five Orbiter Experiments in which NASA's Langley Research Center has had significant involvement are described. These experiments are the Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing experiment, the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer experiment, the High Resolution Accelerometer Package experiment, the Orbital Acceleration Research experiment, and the Space Station structural characterization experiment. The Shuttle Entry Air Data System is also described.

  11. Fatigue loads spectra derivation for the Space Shuttle: Second cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortasse, Raphael

    1994-09-01

    Some of the environments and loads experienced by the Space Shuttle or future reusable space vehicles are unique, while others are similar to those encountered by commercial and/or military aircraft. Prior to the Space Transportation System (STS) flights, fatigue loads spectra were generated for the Space Shuttle based on anticipated environments and assumptions that were shown not to be applicable to the actual flight environments the vehicle experienced. This resulted in the need to generate a new cycle of fatigue loads spectra, which was based on measured flight data as well as mission profiles, reflecting the various types of service and operations the vehicle and payloads experienced.

  12. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-13) launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Jasper, G.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-13 launch time on April 6, 1984, at Kennedy Space Center Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final meteorological tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-13 vehicle ascent was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to shuttle task agreement No. 561-81-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  13. High temperature heat pipe experiments aboard the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. ); Secary, C.J. )

    1993-01-10

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most space nuclear power systems, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation. Three SST/potassium heat pipes are being designed, fabricated, and ground tested. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will fly aboard the space shuttle in 1995. Three wick structures will be tested: homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap. Ground tests are described that simulate the space shuttle environment in every way except gravity field.

  14. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 1: Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The space astronomy missions to be accomplished by the space shuttle are discussed. The principal instrument is the Large Space Telescope optimized for the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, but usable also in the infrared. Two infrared telescopes are also proposed and their characteristics are described. Other instruments considered for the astronomical observations are: (1) a very wide angle ultraviolet camera, (2) a grazing incidence telescope, (3) Explorer-class free flyers to measure the cosmic microwave background, and (4) rocket-class instruments which can fly frequently on a variety of missions. The stability requirements of the space shuttle for accomplishing the astronomy mission are defined.

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-11-01

    For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both

  16. Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both

  17. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  18. Space operations center: Shuttle interaction study extension, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) is conceived as a permanent facility in low Earth orbit incorporating capabilities for space systems construction; space vehicle assembly, launching, recovery and servicing; and the servicing of co-orbiting satellites. The Shuttle Transportation System is an integral element of the SOC concept. It will transport the various elements of the SOC into space and support the assembly operation. Subsequently, it will regularly service the SOC with crew rotations, crew supplies, construction materials, construction equipment and components, space vehicle elements, and propellants and spare parts. The implications to the SOC as a consequence of the Shuttle supporting operations are analyzed. Programmatic influences associated with propellant deliveries, spacecraft servicing, and total shuttle flight operations are addressed.

  19. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for space shuttle and ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  20. Meals in orbit. [Space Shuttle food service planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Space foods which will be available to the Space Shuttle crew are discussed in view of the research and development of proper nutrition in space that began with the pastelike tube meals of the Mercury and Gemini astronauts. The variety of food types proposed for the Space Shuttle crew which include thermostabilized, intermediate moisture, rehydratable, irradiated, freeze-dried and natural forms are shown to be a result of the successive improvements in the Apollo, Skylab and Apollo Soyuz test project flights. The Space Shuttle crew will also benefit from an increase of caloric content (3,000 cal./day), the convenience of a real oven and a comfortable dining and kitchen area.

  1. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for Space Shuttle and ISS.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  2. Space Shuttle 2 advanced space transportation system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adinaro, James N.; Benefield, Philip A.; Johnson, Shelby D.; Knight, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the best configuration from all candidate configurations, it was necessary first to calculate minimum system weights and performance. To optimize the design, it is necessary to vary configuration-specific variables such as total system weight, thrust-to-weight ratios, burn durations, total thrust available, and mass fraction for the system. Optimizing each of these variables at the same time is technically unfeasible and not necessarily mathematically possible. However, discrete sets of data can be generated which will eliminate many candidate configurations. From the most promising remaining designs, a final configuration can be selected. Included are the three most important designs considered: one which closely approximates the design criteria set forth in a Marshall Space Flight Center study of the Shuttle 2; the configuration used in the initial proposal; and the final configuration. A listing by cell of the formulas used to generate the aforementioned data is included for reference.

  3. Space Shuttle ascent guidance, navigation, and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, R. L.; Long, A. D.; Cockrell, B. F.; Thibodeau, J. R., III; Brand, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The factors leading to the particular design of the Shuttle guidance, navigation and control software are discussed. The derivation of explicit guidance equations satisfying a wide range of different maneuver constraints and steering equations that create attitude steering errors from the guidance solutions is presented, as are navigation equations, and equations for identifying faulty instruments from sets of redundant instrument measurements.

  4. Rendezvous and Proximity Operations of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Space Shuttle rendezvous missions present unique challenges that were not fully recognized when the Shuttle was designed. Rendezvous targets could be passive (i.e., no lights or transponders), and not designed to facilitate Shuttle rendezvous, proximity operations, and retrieval. Shuttle reaction control system jet plume impingement on target spacecraft presented induced dynamics, structural loading, and contamination concerns. These issues, along with limited reaction control system propellant in the Shuttle nose, drove a change from the legacy Gemini/Apollo coelliptic profile to a stable orbit profile, and the development of new proximity operations techniques. Multiple scientific and on-orbit servicing missions, and crew exchange, assembly and replenishment flights to Mir and to the International Space Station drove further profile and piloting technique changes. These changes included new proximity operations, relative navigation sensors, and new computer generated piloting cues. However, the Shuttle's baseline rendezvous navigation system has not required modification to place the Shuttle at the proximity operations initiation point for all rendezvous missions flown.

  5. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 5: Auxiliary shuttle risk analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Volume 5 is Appendix C, Auxiliary Shuttle Risk Analyses, and contains the following reports: Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Space Shuttle Phase 1 - Space Shuttle Catastrophic Failure Frequency Final Report; Risk Analysis Applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine - Demonstration Project for the Main Combustion Chamber Risk Assessment; An Investigation of the Risk Implications of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Chamber Pressure Excursions; Safety of the Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter - Quantitative Analysis and Organizational Factors; Space Shuttle Main Propulsion Pressurization System Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Final Report; and Space Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment Proof-of-Concept Study - Auxiliary Power Unit and Hydraulic Power Unit Analysis Report.

  6. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program planning acquisition functions for the development of the solid propellant rocket engine for the space shuttle booster is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) program management, (2) contracts administration, (3) systems engineering, (4) configuration management, and (5) maintenance engineering. The plans for manufacturing, testing, and operations support are included.

  7. Voice control of the space shuttle video system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Dotson, R. S.; Brown, J. W.; Lewis, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A pilot voice control system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to test and evaluate the feasibility of controlling the shuttle TV cameras and monitors by voice commands utilizes a commercially available discrete word speech recognizer which can be trained to the individual utterances of each operator. Successful ground tests were conducted using a simulated full-scale space shuttle manipulator. The test configuration involved the berthing, maneuvering and deploying a simulated science payload in the shuttle bay. The handling task typically required 15 to 20 minutes and 60 to 80 commands to 4 TV cameras and 2 TV monitors. The best test runs show 96 to 100 percent voice recognition accuracy.

  8. Assessment of possible environmental effects of space shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicerone, R. J.; Stedman, D. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Dingle, A. N.; Cellarius, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The potential of shuttle operations to contribute to atmospheric pollution is investigated. Presented in this interim report are results of the study to date on rocket exhaust inventory, exhaust interactions, dispersion of the ground cloud, detection and measurement of hydrochloric acid and aluminum oxide, environmental effects of hydrochloric acid and aluminum oxide, stratospheric effects of shuttle effluents, and mesospheric and ionospheric effects of orbiter reentry. The results indicate space shuttle operation will not result in adverse environmental effects if appropriate launch constraints are met.

  9. Space Shuttle Hot Cabin Emergency Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, P.; Effenhauser, R. K.; McCluskey, R.; Gillis, D. B.; Hamilton, D.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Human thermal tolerance, countermeasures, and thermal model data were reviewed and compared to existing shuttle ECS failure temperature and humidity profiles for each failure mode. Increases in core temperature associated with cognitive impairment was identified, as was metabolic heat generation of crewmembers, temperature monitoring, and communication capabilities after partial power-down and other limiting factors. Orbiter landing strategies and a hydration and salt replacement protocol were developed to put wheels on deck in each failure mode prior to development of significant cognitive impairment or collapse of crewmembers. Thermal tradeoffs for use of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), Liquid Cooling Garment, integrated G-suit and Quick Don Mask were examined. candidate solutions involved trade-offs or conflicts with cabin oxygen partial pressure limits, system power-downs to limit heat generation, risks of alternate and emergency landing sites or compromise of Mode V-VIII scenarios. Results: Rehydration and minimized cabin workloads are required in all failure modes. Temperature/humidity profiles increase rapidly in two failure modes, and deorbit is recommended without the ACES, ICU and g-suit. This latter configuration limits several shuttle approach and landing escape modes and requires communication modifications. Additional data requirements were identified and engineering simulations were recommended to develop more current shuttle temperature and humidity profiles. Discussion: After failure of the shuttle ECS, there is insufficient cooling capacity of the ACES to protect crewmembers from rising cabin temperature and humidity. The LCG is inadequate for cabin temperatures above 76 F. Current shuttle future life policy makes it unlikely that major engineering upgrades necessary to address this problem will occur.

  10. Rendezvous and Proximity Operations of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Space Shuttle rendezous missions presented unique challenges that were not fully recognized when the Shuttle was designed. Rendezvous targets could be passive (i.e., no lights or transponders), and not designed to facilitate Shuttle rendezvous, proximity operations and retrieval. Shuttle reaction control system jet plume impingement on target spacecraft presented induced dynamics, structural loading and contamination concerns. These issues, along with limited forward reaction control system propellant, drove a change from the Gemimi/Apollo coelliptic profile heritage to a stable orbit profile, and the development of new proximity operations techniques. Multiple scientific and on-orbit servicing missions and crew exchange, assembly and replinishment flights to Mir and to the International Space Station drove further profile and piloting technique changes, including new relative navigation sensors and new computer generated piloting cues.

  11. Feasibility of hydromagnetic wave measurements on space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using a hydromagnetic wave sensor on the space shuttles was investigated. It was found that although existing sensors are inadequate in terms of resolution, dynamic range, and frequency range, they can be modified to make the necessary measurements. It is shown that since the sensor cannot be mounted on the shuttle itself because of high levels of magnetic noise, a free subsatellite that can be positioned and stabilized may be used for locating the hydromagnetic wave sensor. Other results show that studies of long period waves would require either an array of sensors in shuttle orbit or a long-term mapping of the crustal anomalies, and that effective wave studies would require at least two variably spaced sensors in shuttle orbit and one ground station.

  12. Space Shuttle processing - A case study in artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollikarimi, Cindy; Gargan, Robert; Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    A scheduling system incorporating AI is described and applied to the automated processing of the Space Shuttle. The unique problem of addressing the temporal, resource, and orbiter-configuration requirements of shuttle processing is described with comparisons to traditional project management for manufacturing processes. The present scheduling system is developed to handle the late inputs and complex programs that characterize shuttle processing by incorporating fixed preemptive scheduling, constraint-based simulated annealing, and the characteristics of an 'anytime' algorithm. The Space-Shuttle processing environment is modeled with 500 activities broken down into 4000 subtasks and with 1600 temporal constraints, 8000 resource constraints, and 3900 state requirements. The algorithm is shown to scale to very large problems and maintain anytime characteristics suggesting that an automated scheduling process is achievable and potentially cost-effective.

  13. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  14. STS-98 Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- This closeup reveals Space Shuttle Atlantis after rollback of the Rotating Service Structure. Extended to the side of Atlantis is the orbiter access arm, with the White Room at its end. The White Room provides entry for the crew into Atlantis'''s cockpit. Below Atlantis, on either side of the tail, are the tail service masts. They support the fluid, gas and electrical requirements of the orbiter'''s liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen aft T-0 umbilicals. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program.

  15. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.

    1982-01-01

    The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

  16. Official portrait space shuttle mission 41-D crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Official portrait of the space shuttle mission 41-D crew. Seated are (left to right): Richard M. (Mike) Mullane and Steven A. Hawley, mission specialists; Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., crew commander; Michael L. Coats, pilot. Standing are Charles D. Walker, pilot and Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist. Behind them is a model of the early sailing vessel Discovery and a model of the shuttle Discovery.

  17. Desiccant humidity control system. [for space shuttle cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, P. J.; Kester, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    A water vapor and carbon dioxide sorbent material (designated HS-C) was developed for potential application to the space shuttle and tested at full scale. Capacities of two percent for carbon dioxide and four percent for water vapor were achieved using space shuttle cabin adsorption conditions and a space vacuum for desorption. Performance testing shows that water vapor can be controlled by varying the air process flow, while maintaining the ability to remove carbon dioxide. A 2000 hour life test was successfully completed, as were tests for sensitivity to cleaning solvent vapors, vibration resistance, and flammability. A system design for the space shuttle shows a 200 pound weight advantage over competitive systems and an even larger advantage for longer missions.

  18. The Leonid Meteors and Space Shuttle Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, James F.; Hebert, Thomas T.

    The November 1999 Leonid meteor shower was videotaped with a low light level camera from the grounds of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Additionally, observations of the Leonids were recorded both digitally with the Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) and with a low light level camera at the JSC Observatory near Cloudcroft, New Mexico. The tapes were analyzed using a computer-automated meteor analysis system developed at JSC. These results were used to form estimates of the Leonid mass-distribution. These estimates were compared to a Leonid mass distribution model used by NASA in risk assessment calculations associated with Space Shuttle missions. The observed data agrees favorably with the NASA model in the 0.002 to 0.02 milligram range (based upon the LMT observations) and in the 0.02 to 0.2 gram range (based upon the low light level camera observations). This comparison supports the continued use of this model.

  19. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Reliability and Analysis Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Walter E.; Rogers, James H.; Biggs, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a large thrust class, reusable, staged combustion cycle rocket engine employing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. A cluster of three SSMEs is used on every space shuttle mission to propel the space shuttle orbiter vehicle into low earth orbit. Development of the SSME began in the early 70 s and the first flight of the space shuttle occurred in 1981. Today, the SSME has accrued over one million seconds of ground test and flight operational time, launching 129 space shuttle missions. Given that the SSME is used to launch a manned vehicle, its reliability must be commensurate for the task. At the same time, the SSME is a high performance, high power density engine which traditionally does not lend itself towards high reliability. Furthermore, throughout its history, the SSME operational envelope has been explored and expanded leading to several major test failures. Hence, assessing the reliability of the SSME throughout its history has been a challenging undertaking. This paper provides a review and discussion of SSME reliability assessment techniques and results over its history. Basic reliability drivers such as engine design, test program, major failures, redesigns and upgrades will also be discussed.

  20. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  1. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

    2004-01-01

    Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

  2. Aeromedical Lessons from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation. The contents include: 1) Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT); 2) Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO); 3) Mishap Investigation Team (MIT); 4) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mishap Response Plan; 5) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP); and 6) STS-107 Crew Surgeon.

  3. Simulation of random wind fluctuations. [space shuttle ascent control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlmutter, M.

    1974-01-01

    A technique was developed for the simulation of random wind fluctuations for use in computer studies of the space shuttle ascent control. The simulated wind fluctuations were generated using the techniques of control theory that have statistical characteristics similar to the characteristics obtained from wind data at Kennedy Space Center.

  4. Space Shuttle Main Engine: Thirty Years of Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jue, F. H.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is the first reusable, liquid booster engine designed for human space flight. This paper chronicles the 30-year history and achievements of the SSME from authority to proceed up to the latest flight configuration - the Block 2 SSME.

  5. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Lightweight Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Dean; Runkle, Roy E.

    1995-01-01

    The cancellation of the Advanced Solid Rocket Booster Project and the earth-to-orbit payload requirements for the Space Station dictated that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) look at performance enhancements from all Space Transportation System (STS) elements (Orbiter Project, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project, External Tank Project, Solid Rocket Motor Project, & Solid Rocket Booster Project). The manifest for launching of Space Station components indicated that an additional 12-13000 pound lift capability was required on 10 missions and 15-20,000 pound additional lift capability is required on two missions. Trade studies conducted by all STS elements indicate that by deleting the parachute Recovery System (and associated hardware) from the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBS) and going to a lightweight External Tank (ET) the 20,000 pound additional lift capability can be realized for the two missions. The deletion of the parachute Recovery System means the loss of four SRBs and this option is two expensive (loss of reusable hardware) to be used on the other 10 Space Station missions. Accordingly, each STS element looked at potential methods of weight savings, increased performance, etc. As the SRB and ET projects are non-propulsive (i.e. does not have launch thrust elements) their only contribution to overall payload enhancement can be achieved by the saving of weight while maintaining adequate safety factors and margins. The enhancement factor for the SRB project is 1:10. That is for each 10 pounds saved on the two SRBS; approximately 1 additional pound of payload in the orbiter bay can be placed into orbit. The SRB project decided early that the SRB recovery system was a prime candidate for weight reduction as it was designed in the early 1970s and weight optimization had never been a primary criteria.

  6. Closeup view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) installed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) installed in position number one on the Orbiter Discovery. A ground-support mobile platform is in place below the engine to assist in technicians with the installation of the engine. This Photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Sen. John C. Stennis celebrates a successful Space Shuttle Main Engine test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Sen. John C. Stennis dances a jig on top of the Test Control Center at Stennis Space Center following the successful test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine in 1978. A staunch supporter of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the senior senator from DeKalb, Miss., supported the establishment of the space center in Hancock County and spoke personally with local residents who would relocate their homes to accommodate Mississippi's entry into the space age. Stennis Space Center was named for Sen. Stennis by Executive Order of President Ronald Reagan on May 20, 1988.

  8. Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss segments - P6, P3/P4, S1/P1, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper.

  9. Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls back to Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As the early morning light casts a glow over the landscape, Space Shuttle Atlantis moves slowly along the crawlerway for the 3.4- mile trek to Launch Pad 39A (upper left). The Shuttle has been in the VAB undergoing tests on the solid rocket booster cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA's SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis, causing return of the Shuttle to the VAB a week ago. Launch of Atlantis on STS-98 has been rescheduled to Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  10. Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls back to Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Photographed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, Space Shuttle Atlantis creeps along the crawlerway for the 3.4-mile trek to Launch Pad 39A (upper left). In the background is the Atlantic Ocean; on either side is water from the Banana Creek (left) and Banana River (right). The Shuttle has been in the VAB undergoing tests on the solid rocket booster cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA's SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis, causing return of the Shuttle to the VAB a week ago. Launch of Atlantis on STS-98 has been rescheduled to Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  11. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Mcruer, D. T.; Johnston, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews issues, data, and analyses relevant to the longitudinal flying qualities of the Space Shuttle in approach and landing. The manual control of attitude and path are first examined theoretically to demonstrate the unconventional nature of the Shuttle's augmented pitch and path response characteristics. The time domain pitch rate transient response criterion used for design of the Shuttle flight control system is examined in context with data from recent flying qualities experiments and operational aircraft. Questions arising from this examination are addressed through comparisons with MIL-F-8785C and other proposed flying qualities criteria which indicate potential longitudinal flying qualities problems. However, it is shown that these criteria, based largely on data from conventional aircraft, may be inappropriate for assessing the Shuttle.

  12. STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery Performs Back Flip For Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. Discovery was over Switzerland, about 600 feet from the ISS, when Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft as it performed a back flip to allow photography of its heat shield. Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 Commander, guided the shuttle through the flip. The photographs were analyzed by engineers on the ground to evaluate the condition of Discovery's heat shield. The crew safely returned to Earth on August 9, 2005. The mission historically marked the Return to Flight after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003.

  13. Space Shuttle Communications Coverage Analysis for Thermal Tile Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, Quin D.; Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Boster, John P.; Chavez, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle ultra-high frequency Space-to-Space Communication System has to provide adequate communication coverage for astronauts who are performing thermal tile inspection and repair on the underside of the space shuttle orbiter (SSO). Careful planning and quantitative assessment are necessary to ensure successful system operations and mission safety in this work environment. This study assesses communication systems performance for astronauts who are working in the underside, non-line-of-sight shadow region on the space shuttle. All of the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) transmitting antennas are blocked by the SSO structure. To ensure communication coverage at planned inspection worksites, the signal strength and link margin between the SSO/ISS antennas and the extravehicular activity astronauts, whose line-of-sight is blocked by vehicle structure, was analyzed. Investigations were performed using rigorous computational electromagnetic modeling techniques. Signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the signal propagation paths between transmitting and receiving antennas. Radio frequency (RF) coverage was determined for thermal tile inspection and repair missions using the results of this computation. Analysis results from this paper are important in formulating the limits on reliable communication range and RF coverage at planned underside inspection and repair worksites.

  14. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel Cell for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, William C., III; Vasquez, Arturo; Lazaroff, Scott M.; Downey, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a PEM fuel cell powerplant (PFCP) for use in the Space Shuttle offers multiple benefits to NASA. A PFCP with a longer design life than is delivered currently from the alkaline fuel will reduce Space Shuttle Program maintenance costs. A PFCP compatible with zero-gravity can be adapted for future NASA transportation and exploration programs. Also, the commercial PEM fuel cell industry ensures a competitive environment for select powerplant components. Conceptual designs of the Space Shuttle PFCP have resulted in identification of key technical areas requiring resolution prior to development of a flight system. Those technical areas include characterization of PEM fuel cell stack durability under operational conditions and water management both within and external to the stack. Resolution of the above issues is necessary to adequately control development, production, and maintenance costs for a PFCP.

  15. Dynamic characterization and analysis of space shuttle SRM solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufferd, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of the space shuttle solid rocket moter (TP-H1148) propellant were characterized and the expected limits of propellant variability were established. Dynamic shear modulus tests conducted on six production batches of TP-H1148 at various static and dynamic strain levels over the temperature range from 40 F to 90 F. A heat conduction analysis and dynamic response analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) were also conducted. The dynamic test results show significant dependence on static and dynamic strain levels and considerable batch-to-batch and within-batch variability. However, the results of the SRM dynamic response analyses clearly demonstrate that the stiffness of the propellant has no consequential on the overall SRM dynamic response. Only the mass of the propellant needs to be considered in the dynamic analysis of the space shuttle SRM.

  16. Advanced Microbial Check Valve development. [for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.; Sauer, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a flight qualified assembly that provides bacteriologically safe drinking water for the Space Shuttle. The 1-lb unit is basically a canister packed with an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through it. It is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of disinfection is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was developed to disinfect the fuel cell water and to prevent back contamination of stored potable water on the Space Shuttle. This paper reports its potential for space applications beyond the basic Shuttle mission. Data are presented that indicate the MCV is suitable for use in advanced systems that NASA has under development for the reclamation of humidity condensate, wash water and human urine.

  17. Kennedy Space Center, Space Shuttle Processing, and International Space Station Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    Topics include: International Space Station assembly sequence; Electrical power substation; Thermal control substation; Guidance, navigation and control; Command data and handling; Robotics; Human and robotic integration; Additional modes of re-supply; NASA and International partner control centers; Space Shuttle ground operations.

  18. NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  19. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  20. Space Shuttle Damper System for Ground Wind Load Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, G. D.; Holt, J. R.; Chang, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    An active damper system which was originally developed for a 5.5% Saturn IB/Skylab Ground Winds Model was modified and used for similar purposes in a Space Shuttle model. A second damper system which was originally used in a 3% Saturn V/Dry Workshop model was also modified and made compatible with the Space Shuttle model to serve as a back-up system. Included in this final report are descriptions of the modified damper systems and the associated control and instrumentation.

  1. Space salvage - A report on Shuttle mission STS 51-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauck, F. H.; Gardner, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The success of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) in the rendezvous and capture of the Westar and Palapa satellites was largely attributable to the availability and fidelity of numerous simulators, which facilitated real time development and verification of satellite rescue procedures and hardware. This complex Space Shuttle mission, STS 51-A, was developed and executed in only 8 months; by contrast, the Solar Maximum repair mission was developed over a period of three years. Attention is presently given to Orbiter sensors, satellite night stationkeeping, satellite stabilization tasks, MMU tasks, and preparatory simulations.

  2. Condition monitoring helps make the Space Shuttle Main Engine reusable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacroix, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high-performance liquid-propellant rocket engine being developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle. The SSME has been designed for long life, rapid postflight maintenance, and a fast vehicle turnaround cycle of 160 hours. To meet the unique reusability requirements, the SSME considers maintainability and condition monitoring much as airlines do today. The condition monitoring capabilities designed into this engine are discussed with major emphasis on internal inspection and techniques which ensure the reusability of the SSME.

  3. Space Shuttle Orbiter logistics - Managing in a dynamic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renfroe, Michael B.; Bradshaw, Kimberly

    1990-01-01

    The importance and methods of monitoring logistics vital signs, logistics data sources and acquisition, and converting data into useful management information are presented. With the launch and landing site for the Shuttle Orbiter project at the Kennedy Space Center now totally responsible for its own supportability posture, it is imperative that logistics resource requirements and management be continually monitored and reassessed. Detailed graphs and data concerning various aspects of logistics activities including objectives, inventory operating levels, customer environment, and data sources are provided. Finally, some lessons learned from the Shuttle Orbiter project and logistics options which should be considered by other space programs are discussed.

  4. Structural Continuum Modeling of Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeve, Brian; Ayala, Sam; Purlee, T. Eric; Shaw, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation reporting on work in modeling the foam insulation of the Space Shuttle External Tank. An analytical understanding of foam mechanics is required to design against structural failure. The Space Shuttle External Tank is covered primarily with closed cell foam to: Prevent ice, Protect structure from ascent aerodynamic and engine plume heating, and Delay break-up during re-entry. It is important that the foam does not shed unacceptable debris during ascent environment. Therefore a modeling of the foam insulation was undertaken.

  5. Flight accommodations using a special structure. [space shuttle payloads support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noblitt, B. G.; Mcannally, R.

    1982-01-01

    A special payload carrier structure has been developed in order to provide Space Shuttle flight accommodations for an exceptionally heavy instrument package requiring no subsystems support. This Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) will support the OSTA-2 payload for a materials processing mission. The modular design of the MPESS offers a payload support capability at multiple locations within the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The MPESS is also scheduled for use with earth observation instruments to be carried by the OSTA-3 mission in late 1984.

  6. Attached shuttle payload carriers: Versatile and affordable access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The shuttle has been primarily designed to be a versatile vehicle for placing a variety of scientific and technological equipment in space including very large payloads; however, since many large payloads do not fill the shuttle bay, the space and weight margins remaining after the major payloads are accommodated often can be made available to small payloads. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has designed standardized mounting structures and other support systems, collectively called attached shuttle payload (ASP) carriers, to make this additional space available to researchers at a relatively modest cost. Other carrier systems for ASP's are operated by other NASA centers. A major feature of the ASP carriers is their ease of use in the world of the Space Shuttle. ASP carriers attempt to minimized the payload interaction with Space Transportation System (STS) operations whenever possible. Where this is not possible, the STS services used are not extensive. As a result, the interfaces between the carriers and the STS are simplified. With this near autonomy, the requirements for supporting documentation are considerably lessened and payload costs correspondingly reduced. The ASP carrier systems and their capabilities are discussed in detail. The range of available capabilities assures that an experimenter can select the simplest, most cost-effective carrier that is compatible with his or her experimental objectives. Examples of payloads which use ASP basic hardware in nonstandard ways are also described.

  7. Behavioral Health and Performance Operations During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Holland, A.; Moomaw, R.; Sipes, W.; Vander Ark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioral health support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioral health assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions

  8. Proposal to Accomplish Phase B Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, Lawrence M.; Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    This proposal has been prepared in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Request for Proposal No. 10-8423, dated February 20, 1970, and Amendments No.1, 2, 3, & 4 thereto. It is firm for a period of not less than one hundred twenty (120) days from March 30, 1970. The executed certifications requested in Enclosures 5 and 6 of the Request for Proposal are appended at the end of this proposal. Grumman Aerospace Corporation, along with its associates -- the General Electric Company, Eastern Airlines, the Northrop Corporation, and the Aerojet-General Corporation -- are pleased to submit this proposal. This study must prove that technical challenges can be met at a cost commensurate with realistic national funding levels at an early date, (perferably prior to the late 1977 initial operating capability (IOC) indicated in the Statement of Work). We have assembled a team of extremely competent associates. Together, we are fully qualified to study all facets of the proposed Phase B study, and to develop and build the product. We believe we have already made a promising start toward defining the concept of the space shuttle system.

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation for the Space Shuttle's Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Winfree, William P.; Prosser, William H.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Cramer, K. Elliot

    2005-01-01

    The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia highlighted concerns about the integrity of the Shuttle's thermal protection system, which includes Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) on the leading edge. This led NASA to investigate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for certifying the integrity of the Shuttle's wing leading edge. That investigation was performed simultaneously with a large study conducted to understand the impact damage caused by errant debris. Among the many advanced NDE methods investigated for applicability to the RCC material, advanced digital radiography, high resolution computed tomography, thermography, ultrasound, acoustic emission and eddy current systems have demonstrated the maturity and success for application to the Shuttle RCC panels. For the purposes of evaluating the RCC panels while they are installed on the orbiters, thermographic detection incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) and eddy current array scanning systems demonstrated the ability to measure the RCC panels from one side only and to detect several flaw types of concern. These systems were field tested at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and at several locations where impact testing was being conducted. Another advanced method that NASA has been investigating is an automated acoustic based detection system. Such a system would be based in part on methods developed over the years for acoustic emission testing. Impact sensing has been demonstrated through numerous impact tests on both reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) leading edge materials as well as Shuttle tile materials on representative aluminum wing structures. A variety of impact materials and conditions have been evaluated including foam, ice, and ablator materials at ascent velocities as well as simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts. These tests have successfully demonstrated the capability to detect and localize impact events on Shuttle's wing structures. A first generation impact sensing

  10. Vehicle glow measurements on the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    From the combined data set of glow observations on shuttle flight STS-3, STS-4, STS-5, STS-8, STS-9, 41-E, and 41-G some of the properties of the shuttle glow are discussed. Comparison of the STS-3 and STS-5 (240 and 305 km altitude, respectively) photographs shows that the intensity of the glow is about a factor of 3.5 brighter on the low-altitude (STS-3) flight. In an experiment to observe the dependence of the intensity on the ram angle, the angle of incidence between the spacecraft surface normal and the velocity vector, the Orbiter was purposely rotated about the x axis on the STS-5 mission. For a relatively large angle between the velocity vector and the surface normal there is an appreciable glow, provided the surface is not shadowed by some other spacecraft structure. As the angle becomes less the glow intensifies. Material samples were also exposed in the ram direction during nightside orbits and the glow surrounding the samples was photographed.

  11. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 1: Space shuttle rescue capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle rescue capability is analyzed as a part of the advanced mission safety study. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission evaluation, (2) shuttle configurations and performance, (3) performance of shuttle-launched tug system, (4) multiple pass grazing reentry from lunar orbit, (5) ground launched ascent and rendezvous time, (6) cost estimates, and (7) parallel-burn space shuttle configuration.

  12. Aerospace News: Space Shuttle Commemoration. Volume 2, No. 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The complex space shuttle design was comprised of four components: the external tank, two solid rocket boosters (SRB), and the orbiter vehicle. Six orbiters were used during the life of the program. In order of introduction into the fleet, they were: Enterprise (a test vehicle), Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. The space shuttle had the unique ability to launch into orbit, perform on-orbit tasks, return to earth and land on a runway. It was an orbiting laboratory, International Space Station crew delivery and supply replenisher, satellite launcher and payload delivery vehicle, all in one. Except for the external tank, all components of the space shuttle were designed to be reusable for many flights. ATK s reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM) were designed to be flown, recovered, and the metal components reused 20 times. Following each space shuttle launch, the SRBs would parachute into the ocean and be recovered by the Liberty Star and Freedom Star recovery ships. The recovered boosters would then be received at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Hangar AF facility for disassembly and engineering post-flight evaluation. At Hangar AF, the RSRM field joints were demated and the segments prepared to be returned to Utah by railcar. The segments were then shipped to ATK s facilities in Clearfield for additional evaluation prior to washout, disassembly and refurbishment. Later the refurbished metal components would be transported to ATK s Promontory facilities to begin a new cycle. ATK s RSRMs were manufactured in Promontory, Utah. During the Space Shuttle Program, ATK supported NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center whose responsibility was for all propulsion elements on the program, including the main engines and solid rocket motors. On launch day for the space shuttle, ATK s Launch Site Operations employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provided lead engineering support for ground operations and NASA s chief engineer. It was ATK s responsibility

  13. Assessment of Atmospheric Winds Aloft during NASA Space Shuttle Program Day-of-Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Leach, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Natural Environments Branch at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Marshall Space Flight Center monitors the winds aloft at Kennedy Space Center in support of the Space Shuttle Program day of launch operations. High resolution wind profiles are derived from radar tracked Jimsphere balloons, which are launched at predetermined times preceding the launch, for evaluation. The spatial (shear) and temporal (persistence) wind characteristics are assessed against a design wind database to ensure wind change does not violate wind change criteria. Evaluations of wind profies are reported to personnel at Johnson Space Center.

  14. Space Shuttle Upgrade Liquid Oxygen Tank Thermal Stratification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunc, Gokturk; Wagner, Howard; Bayazitoglu, Yildiz

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, NASA initiated a study of a liquid oxygen and ethanol orbital maneuvering and reaction control system for space shuttle upgrades as well as other reusable launch vehicle applications. The pressure-fed system uses sub-cooled liquid oxygen at 2413.2 KPa (350 psia) stored passively using insulation. Thermal stratification builds up while the space shuttle is docked at the international space station. The venting from the space shuttle's liquid oxygen tank is not desired during this 96-hr time period. Once the shuttle undocks from the space station there could be a pressure collapse in the liquid oxygen tank caused by fluid mixing due to the thruster fU"ings . The thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise in the tank were examined by a computational fluid dynamic model. Since the heat transfer from the pressurant gas to the liquid will result in a decrease in tank pressure the final pressure after the 96 hours will be significantly less when the tank is pressurized with ambient temperature helium. Therefore, using helium at ambient temperature to pressurize the tank is preferred to pressurizing the tank with helium at the liquid oxygen temperature. The higher helium temperature will also result in less mass of helium to pressurize the tank.

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation Redesign Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Carroll, Paul; Head, Kenneth; Fasheh, John; Stuart, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation redesign was required to prevent the reoccurance of the STS-111 High Pressure Speed Sensor In-Flight Anomaly. The STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly Failure Investigation Team's initial redesign of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Pump End Ball Bearing Liquid Air Insulation failed the certification test by producing Liquid Air. The certification test failure indicated not only the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Liquid Air Insulation, but all other Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation. This paper will document the original Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly investigation, the heritage Space Shuttle Main Engine Insulation certification testing faults, the techniques and instrumentation used to accurately test the Liquid Air Insulation systems on the Stennis Space Center SSME test stand, the analysis techniques used to identify the Liquid Air Insulation problem areas and the analytical verification of the redesign before entering certification testing, Trade study down selected to three potential design solutions, the results of the development testing which down selected the final Liquid Air Redesign are also documented within this paper.

  16. Legacy of Environmental Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over the last 30 years and represents the longest and largest U.S. human spaceflight program. Risks to crewmembers were included in the research areas of nutrition, microbiology, toxicology, radiation, and sleep quality. To better understand the Shuttle environment, Crew Health Care System was developed. As part of this system, the Environmental Health Subsystem was developed to monitor the atmosphere for gaseous contaminants and microbial contamination levels and to monitor water quality and radiation. This program expended a great deal of effort in studying and mitigating risks related to contaminations due to food, water, air, surfaces, crewmembers, and payloads including those with animals. As the Shuttle had limited stowage space and food selection, the development of nutritional requirements for crewmembers was imperative. As the Shuttle was a reusable vehicle, microbial contamination was of great concern. The development of monitoring instruments that could withstand the space environment took several years and many variations to come up with a suitable instrument. Research with space radiation provided an improved understanding of the various sources of ionizing radiation and the development of monitoring instrumentation for space weather and the human exposure within the orbiter's cabin. Space toxicology matured to include the management of offgassing products that could pollute the crewmembers air quality. The Shuttle Program implemented a 5-level toxicity rating system and developed new monitoring instrumentation to detect toxic compounds. The environment of space caused circadian desynchrony, sleep deficiency, and fatigue leading to much research and major emphasis on countermeasures. Outcomes of the research in these areas were countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. Learning Objectives: This symposium will provide an overview of the

  17. NDE of simulated Space Shuttle tile disbonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlberg, L.; Tittmann, B. R.; Elsley, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    A technique which involves the use of ultrasonic Lamb waves for assaying the structural integrity of adhesive bonds between layered materials on thin metal plates, particularly with regard to the Shuttle TPS, is presented. The Lamb waves are generated by a pulse impact, resulting in surface waves propagating radially at 2.4 mm/microsec. Trials were performed with the sound waves applied to samples, of aluminum similar to the Orbiter external skin, which were coated with Teflon and a RTV silicone screed. The goal was to detect localized debonded areas or potentially debonded areas, which, during reentry, could result in blistering of the aluminum skin. The ultrasonic probes are described, noting the usage of broadband ultrasonic harmonics and a minicomputer processor. The testing system was found to accurately identify weakened bonds by the ratio of high and low frequency component areas of the received signal of the Lamb waves sent across the surface.

  18. Space Shuttle stability and control test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a completely automatic flight test program to test different aspects of the Shuttle flight capability during reentries is described. Data from each flight to date has been employed to devise a sequence of maneuvers which will be keyboard-punched into the Orbiter control system by the astronauts during entry phases of flight. Details of the interaction and cooperation of the Orbiter elevons and bodyflap to provide the vehicle with latitudinal and longitudinal directional control and trim are outlined. Uncertainties predicted for the control of the Orbiter during wind tunnel testing prior to actual flights have been adjusted to actual flight data, leading to the identification of actual flight regimes which need further investigation. Maneuvers scheduled for flights 5-9 are reviewed.

  19. Lightning Protection System for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The suitability and cost effectiveness of using a lightning mast for the shuttle service and access tower (SSAT) similar to the type used for the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mobile launcher (ML) was evaluated. Topics covered include: (1) ASTP launch damage to mast, mast supports, grounded overhead wires, and the instrumentation system; (2) modifications required to permit reusing the ASTP mast on the SSAT; (3) comparative costing factors per launch over a 10 year period in repetitive maintenance and refurbishment of the existing and modified masts, mast supports, grounded overhead wires, and ground instrumentation required to sustain mechanical and electrical integrity of the masts; (4) effects of blast testing samples of the ASTP ML type mast (corrosion and electrical flashover); (5) comparison of damages from ASTP launch and from blast testing.

  20. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  1. Closeup view of the top of Space Shuttle Main Engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the top of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2057 mounted in a SSME Engine Handler in the Vertical Processing area of the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent components in this view is the large Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (LPOTP) Discharge Duct wrapping itself around the right side of the engine assembly. The smaller tube to the left of LPOTP Discharge Duct is the High-Pressure Oxidizer Duct used to supply the turbine of the LPOTP. The other major feature in this view is the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump at the top of the engine assembly. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features of the engine assembly in this view are the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump Discharge Duct looping around the right side and underneath the assembly, the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump located on the lower left portion of the assembly, the Engine Controller and Main Fuel Valve Hydraulic Actuator located on the upper portion of the assembly and the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Discharge Duct at the top of the engine assembly in this view. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features of the engine assembly in this view are the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump Discharge Duct looping diagonally across the top of the assembly and connecting to the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump, the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (LPOTP) located center right of the assembly and the LPOTP Discharge Duct looping around from the pump to the underside of the engine assembly in this view. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Closeup view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view is the Expansion Nozzle . The rings that loop around the nozzle, vertically in this view, add structural stability to the nozzle walls and are referred to Hatbands. The ring on the left most edge of the nozzle is the Coolant Inlet Manifold. The tubes that branch off and connect to the manifold are Coolant Transfer Ducts and the tubes that terminate with a visible opening at the manifold are Drain Lines. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features of the engine assembly in this view are the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Discharge Duct looping around the right side of the engine assembly then turning in and connecting to the High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump. The sphere in the approximate center of the assembly is the POGO System Accumulator, the Engine Controller is located on the bottom and slightly left of the center of the Engine Assembly in this view. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) mounted on an SSME engine handler, taken in the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view is the Expansion Nozzle . The rings that loop around the nozzle, vertically in this view, add structural stability to the nozzle walls and are referred to Hatbands. The ring on the left most edge of the nozzle is the Coolant Inlet Manifold. The tubes that branch off and connect to the manifold are Coolant Transfer Ducts and the tubes that terminate with a visible opening at the manifold are Drain Lines. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Extreme Meteorological Parameters During Space Shuttle Pad Exposure Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Overbey, B. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    During the 113 missions of the Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle fleet has been exposed to the elements on the launch pad for a total of 4195 days. This paper provides a summary of the historical record of the meteorological extremes encountered by the Space Shuttle fleet during the pad exposure period. Parameters included are temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, sea level pressure and precipitation. All the data presented are archived by the Marshall Space Flight Center Environments Group, and were obtained from a combination of surface observations and meteorological towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Data are provided from the first launch of the STS in 1981 through the launch of STS-107 in 2003.

  8. Acoustic Emission Detection of Impact Damage on Space Shuttle Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Gorman, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia as a result of impact damage from foam debris during ascent has led NASA to investigate the feasibility of on-board impact detection technologies. AE sensing has been utilized to monitor a wide variety of impact conditions on Space Shuttle components ranging from insulating foam and ablator materials, and ice at ascent velocities to simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts. Impact testing has been performed on both reinforced carbon composite leading edge materials as well as Shuttle tile materials on representative aluminum wing structures. Results of these impact tests will be presented with a focus on the acoustic emission sensor responses to these impact conditions. These tests have demonstrated the potential of employing an on-board Shuttle impact detection system. We will describe the present plans for implementation of an initial, very low frequency acoustic impact sensing system using pre-existing flight qualified hardware. The details of an accompanying flight measurement system to assess the Shuttle s acoustic background noise environment as a function of frequency will be described. The background noise assessment is being performed to optimize the frequency range of sensing for a planned future upgrade to the initial impact sensing system.

  9. The Shuttle and its importance to space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Pool, S.; Rambaut, P.

    1980-01-01

    The physiological effects of space flights on humans are reviewed, and the opportunities offered by frequent and repetitive Space Shuttle flights for space medical research are discussed. The most significant changes encountered in the vestibular, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and hematopoietic systems during and after past space missions are indicated, and the time courses of the physiological shifts associated with space acclimatization and readaptation to a 1-g environment are summarized. Effects directly attributable to the absence of gravity, including postural changes and fluid shifts, are considered, and additional contributing factors to physiological changes imposed by the spacecraft operational environment are pointed out. Differences between the Space Shuttle missions and all previous missions in the areas of reentry profiles and varied crew composition are discussed, and results of experiments on the relative acceleration tolerances of men and women of different ages and the usefulness of the anti-g suit are presented. Directions for future research in space medicine available with the Shuttle are examined, with particular emphasis on the neurovestibular system cardiopulmonary dynamics, calcium metabolism, the erythropoietic system and the effects of space radiation.

  10. Microencapsulation of Drugs in the Microgravity Environment of the United States Space Shuttle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Space Shuttle. The microcapsules in space (MIS) equipment will replace two space shuttle middeck storage lockers. Design changes have been...Mission STS-53 pending final safety certification by NASA. STS-53 is scheduled for launch on October 15, 1992. RA 2; Microencapsulation ; Controlled-release; Space Shuttle; Antibiotics; Drug development.

  11. Technical support for guidance, navigation and control space shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A review of the guidance, navigation and control projects in support of the space shuttle program was conducted. The subjects considered include the following: (1) functional and performance requirements, (2) mission requirements, (3) operating systems software definition, (4) orbit navigation using various sensors, (5) fault detection, isolation and recovery, and (6) passive rendezvous sensors requirements definition.

  12. The Flight of the Space Shuttle "Discovery" (STS-119)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, "Discovery" launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the…

  13. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  14. Onboard experiment data support facility, task 1 report. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design and specifications are developed for an onboard experiment data support facility (OEDSF) to provide end to end processing of data from various payloads on board space shuttles. Classical data processing requirements are defined and modeled. Onboard processing requirements are analyzed. Specifications are included for an onboard processor.

  15. Flashbulb Memory Revisited: Children Recall the Space Shuttle Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leubecker, Amye Warren; Springfield, Michael R.

    Addressing theoretical and methodological issues, the present study assessed the content, accuracy, and consistency of school-aged children's memories of a potentially emotional, historic event: the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986. A total of 345 children in kindergarten through eighth grade were tested. To examine…

  16. The Space Shuttle Columbia Preservation Project - The Debris Loan Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Scott; Comer, Jim; Marder, Arnold; Deacon, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a process for loan of Columbia debris to qualified researchers and technical educators to: (1) Aid in advanced spacecraft design and flight safety development (2) Advance the study of hypersonic re-entry to enhance ground safety. (3) Train and instruct accident investigators and (4) Establish an enduring legacy for Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  18. Design and Development of the Space Shuttle Tail Service Masts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dandage, S. R.; Herman, N. A.; Godfrey, S. E.; Uda, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The successful launch of a space shuttle vehicle depends on the proper operation of two tail service masts (TSMs). Reliable TSM operation is assured through a comprehensive design, development, and testing program. The results of the concept verification test (CVT) and the resulting impact on prototype TSM design are presented. The design criteria are outlined, and the proposed prototype TSM tests are described.

  19. Space shuttle guidance, navigation and control design equations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. J.

    1971-01-01

    Revised documentation is presented pertaining to the computation requirements for guidance, navigation, and control of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle. Separate sections cover the following areas; (1) reference documents, (2) GN and C system description, (3) GN and C software functional requirements, and (4) coordinate systems and transformations.

  20. Space shuttle flight readiness firing dress rehearsal for STS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riles, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The static firing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine in preparation for the launch of the Enterprise Orbiter is discussed. The following were also tested: structures and mechanics; thermal design integration; propulsion and power; avionics and software; guidance, navigation, and control; mechanical systems; communications and tracking; and integrated ground systems.