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Sample records for administration task load

  1. An Analysis of Administrator Attitudes toward Tasks in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, Robin; Diamantes, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This study reports attitudes of current school administrators toward routine tasks in an attempt to offer insight into why the job may or may not be considered a wise career choice or even a desirable job. The research question for this study is: What makes the principal's position desirable and what makes this important leadership position less…

  2. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  3. Pupillary transient responses to within-task cognitive load variation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoe Kin; Epps, Julien

    2016-12-01

    Changes in physiological signals due to task evoked cognitive load have been reported extensively. However, pupil size based approaches for estimating cognitive load on a moment-to-moment basis are not as well understood as estimating cognitive load on a task-to-task basis, despite the appeal these approaches have for continuous load estimation. In particular, the pupillary transient response to instantaneous changes in induced load has not been experimentally quantified, and the within-task changes in pupil dilation have not been investigated in a manner that allows their consistency to be quantified with a view to biomedical system design. In this paper, a variation of the digit span task is developed which reliably induces rapid changes of cognitive load to generate task-evoked pupillary responses (TEPRs) associated with large, within-task load changes. Linear modelling and one-way ANOVA reveals that increasing the rate of cognitive loading, while keeping task demands constant, results in a steeper pupillary response. Instantaneous drops in cognitive load are shown to produce statistically significantly different transient pupillary responses relative to sustained load, and when characterised using an exponential decay response, the task-evoked pupillary response time constant is in the order of 1-5 s. Within-task test-retest analysis confirms the reliability of the moment-to-moment measurements. Based on these results, estimates of pupil diameter can be employed with considerably more confidence in moment-to-moment cognitive load estimation systems.

  4. Pupil Sizes Scale with Attentional Load and Task Experience in a Multiple Object Tracking Task

    PubMed Central

    Wahn, Basil; Ferris, Daniel P.; Hairston, W. David; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have related changes in attentional load to pupil size modulations. However, studies relating changes in attentional load and task experience on a finer scale to pupil size modulations are scarce. Here, we investigated how these changes affect pupil sizes. To manipulate attentional load, participants covertly tracked between zero and five objects among several randomly moving objects on a computer screen. To investigate effects of task experience, the experiment was conducted on three consecutive days. We found that pupil sizes increased with each increment in attentional load. Across days, we found systematic pupil size reductions. We compared the model fit for predicting pupil size modulations using attentional load, task experience, and task performance as predictors. We found that a model which included attentional load and task experience as predictors had the best model fit while adding performance as a predictor to this model reduced the overall model fit. Overall, results suggest that pupillometry provides a viable metric for precisely assessing attentional load and task experience in visuospatial tasks. PMID:27977762

  5. Task Force to Improve Timeliness of Senior Official Administrative Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    administrative support branch providing case management and logistical support; and a legal branch detailed from the Office of The Judge Advocate General...attorneys from the Administrative Law Division, Office of The Judge Advocate General, are embedded within the Investigations Branch. The attorneys... Administrative Investigations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  6. Predictive equations to estimate spinal loads in symmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, N; Plamondon, A; Shirazi-Adl, A; Larivière, C; Parnianpour, M

    2011-01-04

    Response surface methodology is used to establish robust and user-friendly predictive equations that relate responses of a complex detailed trunk finite element biomechanical model to its input variables during sagittal symmetric static lifting activities. Four input variables (thorax flexion angle, lumbar/pelvis ratio, load magnitude, and load position) and four model responses (L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and anterior-posterior shear forces) are considered. Full factorial design of experiments accounting for all combinations of input levels is employed. Quadratic predictive equations for the spinal loads at the L4-S1 disc mid-heights are obtained by regression analysis with adequate goodness-of-fit (R(2)>98%, p<0.05, and low root-mean-squared-error values compared with the range of predicted spine loads). Results indicate that intradiscal pressure values at the L4-L5 disc estimated based on the predictive equations are in close agreement with available in vivo data measured under similar loadings and postures. Combinations of input (posture and loading) variable levels that yield spine loads beyond the tolerance compression limit of 3400 N are identified using contour plots. Ergonomists and bioengineers, faced with the dilemma of using either complex but more accurate models on one hand or less accurate but simple models on the other hand, have thereby easy-to-use predictive equations that quantifies spinal loads and risk of injury under different occupational tasks of interest.

  7. Cue Utilization and Cognitive Load in Novel Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, Sue; Wiggins, Mark W.; Helton, William; O’Hare, David; Griffin, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether differences in cue utilization were associated with differences in performance during a novel, simulated rail control task, and whether these differences reflected a reduction in cognitive load. Two experiments were conducted, the first of which involved the completion of a 20-min rail control simulation that required participants to re-route trains that periodically required a diversion. Participants with a greater level of cue utilization recorded a consistently greater response latency, consistent with a strategy that maintained accuracy, but reduced the demands on cognitive resources. In the second experiment, participants completed the rail task, during which a concurrent, secondary task was introduced. The results revealed an interaction, whereby participants with lesser levels of cue utilization recorded an increase in response latency that exceeded the response latency recorded for participants with greater levels of cue utilization. The relative consistency of response latencies for participants with greater levels of cue utilization, across all blocks, despite the imposition of a secondary task, suggested that those participants with greater levels of cue utilization had adopted a strategy that was effectively minimizing the impact of additional sources of cognitive load on their performance. PMID:27064669

  8. Human Footprint Variation while Performing Load Bearing Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M.; Wagnild, Janelle; Wagler, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint’s maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females) walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations. PMID:25738496

  9. Immune networks: multi-tasking capabilities at medium load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, E.; Annibale, A.; Barra, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.; Tantari, D.

    2013-08-01

    Associative network models featuring multi-tasking properties have been introduced recently and studied in the low-load regime, where the number P of simultaneously retrievable patterns scales with the number N of nodes as P ˜ log N. In addition to their relevance in artificial intelligence, these models are increasingly important in immunology, where stored patterns represent strategies to fight pathogens and nodes represent lymphocyte clones. They allow us to understand the crucial ability of the immune system to respond simultaneously to multiple distinct antigen invasions. Here we develop further the statistical mechanical analysis of such systems, by studying the medium-load regime, P ˜ Nδ with δ ∈ (0, 1]. We derive three main results. First, we reveal the nontrivial architecture of these networks: they exhibit a high degree of modularity and clustering, which is linked to their retrieval abilities. Second, by solving the model we demonstrate for δ < 1 the existence of large regions in the phase diagram where the network can retrieve all stored patterns simultaneously. Finally, in the high-load regime δ = 1 we find that the system behaves as a spin-glass, suggesting that finite-connectivity frameworks are required to achieve effective retrieval.

  10. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  11. Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive…

  12. 75 FR 11893 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Task Force; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Task Force... transparent, collaborative, and participatory government. FDA has formed an internal Transparency Task Force..., the Task Force has held two public meetings, on June 24, 2009, and November 3, 2009, and established...

  13. Modulating irrelevant motion perception by varying attentional load in an unrelated task.

    PubMed

    Rees, G; Frith, C D; Lavie, N

    1997-11-28

    Lavie's theory of attention proposes that the processing load in a relevant task determines the extent to which irrelevant distractors are processed. This theory was tested by asking participants in a study to perform linguistic tasks of low or high load while ignoring irrelevant visual motion in the periphery of the display. Although task and distractor were unrelated, both functional imaging of motion-related activity in cortical area V5 and psychophysical measures of the motion aftereffect showed reduced motion processing during high load in the linguistic task. These findings fulfill the prediction that perception of irrelevant distractors depends on the relevant processing load.

  14. Sex differences in verbal working memory performance emerge at very high loads of common neuroimaging tasks.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E

    2017-04-01

    Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads. A key question not yet addressed at high loads concerns the effect of sex. Thoroughgoing investigation of high-load verbal WM is thus timely to test for potential hidden effects, and to provide behavioral context for effects of sex observed in WM-related brain structure and function. We tested 111 young adults, matched on genotype for the WM-associated COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism, on three classic WM tasks using verbal information. Each task was tested at four WM loads, including higher loads than those used in previous studies of sex differences. All tasks loaded on a single factor, enabling comparison of verbal WM ability at a construct level. Results indicated sex effects at high loads across tasks and within each task, such that males had higher accuracy, even among groups that were matched for performance at lower loads.

  15. [The examination of attentional load theory by Stroop-like task].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    Attentional-load theory (Lavie, 1995) states that task load determines whether task-irrelevant stimuli are processed semantically. In three experiments students were asked to perform a Stroop-like task. They named a centrally fixated target color, while ignoring the task-irrelevant stimulus, which was an incompatible, compatible or non-color word. When perceptual load (the number of target-like stimuli adjacent to the target) was increased, the Stroop-like effect was diminished, providing the evidence for early selection. However, when cognitive load (task demands for identical stimuli) was increased, the evidence for late selection was found. These results were inconsistent with the previous hypothesis that both kinds of task load similarly affect the attentional mechanism.

  16. National Task Bank. Tasks in Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Services, Administration, Money Payments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upjohn (W.E.) Inst. for Employment Research, Washington, DC.

    The National Task Bank of 547 tasks in the public welfare field was developed from tasks written by eight states and by the Social and Rehabilitation Service. This document describes the background and development of the bank and outlines the procedures used. The task bank illustrates 13 functional cagegories of data, people, and things for…

  17. Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.; Brown, H.; Karnik, A.; Du, R.

    2001-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work.

  18. Effects of Planning on Task Load, Knowledge, and Tool Preference: A Comparison of Two Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonestroo, Wilco J.; de Jong, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulated learners are expected to plan their own learning. Because planning is a complex task, it is not self-evident that all learners can perform this task successfully. In this study, we examined the effects of two planning support tools on the quality of created plans, planning behavior, task load, and acquired knowledge. Sixty-five…

  19. E-learning, dual-task, and cognitive load: The anatomy of a failed experiment.

    PubMed

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Rogers, Kem A

    2016-01-01

    The rising popularity of commercial anatomy e-learning tools has been sustained, in part, due to increased annual enrollment and a reduction in laboratory hours across educational institutions. While e-learning tools continue to gain popularity, the research methodologies used to investigate their impact on learning remain imprecise. As new user interfaces are introduced, it is critical to understand how functionality can influence the load placed on a student's memory resources, also known as cognitive load. To study cognitive load, a dual-task paradigm wherein a learner performs two tasks simultaneously is often used, however, its application within educational research remains uncommon. Using previous paradigms as a guide, a dual-task methodology was developed to assess the cognitive load imposed by two commercial anatomical e-learning tools. Results indicate that the standard dual-task paradigm, as described in the literature, is insensitive to the cognitive load disparities across e-learning tool interfaces. Confounding variables included automation of responses, task performance tradeoff, and poor understanding of primary task cognitive load requirements, leading to unreliable quantitative results. By modifying the secondary task from a basic visual response to a more cognitively demanding task, such as a modified Stroop test, the automation of secondary task responses can be reduced. Furthermore, by recording baseline measures for the primary task as well as the secondary task, it is possible for task performance tradeoff to be detected. Lastly, it is imperative that the cognitive load of the primary task be designed such that it does not overwhelm the individual's ability to learn new material.

  20. Quantification of baseline pupillary response and task-evoked pupillary response during constant and incremental task load.

    PubMed

    Mosaly, Prithima R; Mazur, Lukasz M; Marks, Lawrence

    2017-02-15

    The methods employed to quantify the baseline pupil size and task-evoked pupillary response (TEPR) may affect the overall study results. To test this hypothesis, the objective of this study was to assess variability in baseline pupil size and TEPR during two basic working memory tasks: constant load of 3-letters memorisation-recall (10 trials), and incremental load memorisation-recall (two trials of each load level), using two commonly used methods (1) change from trail/load specific baseline, (2) change from constant baseline. Results indicated that there was a significant shift in baseline between the trails for constant load, and between the load levels for incremental load. The TEPR was independent of shifts in baseline using method 1 only for constant load, and method 2 only for higher levels of incremental load condition. These important findings suggest that the assessment of both the baseline and methods to quantify TEPR are critical in ergonomics application, especially in studies with small number of trials per subject per condition. Practitioner Summary: Quantification of TEPR can be affected by shifts in baseline pupil size that are most likely affected by non-cognitive factors when other external factors are kept constant. Therefore, quantification methods employed to compute both baseline and TEPR are critical in understanding the information processing of humans in practical ergonomics settings.

  1. Cardiac data increase association between self-report and both expert ratings of task load and task performance in flight simulator tasks: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Paul; Karavidas, Maria; Lu, Shou-En; Vaschillo, Evgeny; Vaschillo, Bronya; Cheng, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Seven professional airplane pilots participated in a one-session test in a Boeing 737-800 simulator. Mental workload for 18 flight tasks was rated by experienced test pilots (hereinafter called "expert ratings") and by study participants' self-report on NASA's Task Load Index (TLX) scale. Pilot performance was rated by a check pilot. The standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN) significantly added 3.7% improvement over the TLX in distinguishing high from moderate-load tasks and 2.3% improvement in distinguishing high from combined moderate and low-load tasks. Minimum RRI in the task significantly discriminated high- from medium- and low-load tasks, but did not add significant predictive variance to the TLX. The low-frequency/high-frequency (LF:HF) RRI ratio based on spectral analysis of R-R intervals, and ventricular relaxation time were each negatively related to pilot performance ratings independently of TLX values, while minimum and average RRI were positively related, showing added contribution of these cardiac measures for predicting performance. Cardiac results were not affected by controlling either for respiration rate or motor activity assessed by accelerometry. The results suggest that cardiac assessment can be a useful addition to self-report measures for determining flight task mental workload and risk for performance decrements. Replication on a larger sample is needed to confirm and extend the results.

  2. The fate of task-irrelevant visual motion: perceptual load versus feature-based attention.

    PubMed

    Taya, Shuichiro; Adams, Wendy J; Graf, Erich W; Lavie, Nilli

    2009-11-18

    We tested contrasting predictions derived from perceptual load theory and from recent feature-based selection accounts. Observers viewed moving, colored stimuli and performed low or high load tasks associated with one stimulus feature, either color or motion. The resultant motion aftereffect (MAE) was used to evaluate attentional allocation. We found that task-irrelevant visual features received less attention than co-localized task-relevant features of the same objects. Moreover, when color and motion features were co-localized yet perceived to belong to two distinct surfaces, feature-based selection was further increased at the expense of object-based co-selection. Load theory predicts that the MAE for task-irrelevant motion would be reduced with a higher load color task. However, this was not seen for co-localized features; perceptual load only modulated the MAE for task-irrelevant motion when this was spatially separated from the attended color location. Our results suggest that perceptual load effects are mediated by spatial selection and do not generalize to the feature domain. Feature-based selection operates to suppress processing of task-irrelevant, co-localized features, irrespective of perceptual load.

  3. Cognitive task load in a naval ship control centre: from identification to prediction.

    PubMed

    Grootjen, M; Neerincx, M A; Veltman, J A

    Deployment of information and communication technology will lead to further automation of control centre tasks and an increasing amount of information to be processed. A method for establishing adequate levels of cognitive task load for the operators in such complex environments has been developed. It is based on a model distinguishing three load factors: time occupied, task-set switching, and level of information processing. Application of the method resulted in eight scenarios for eight extremes of task load (i.e. low and high values for each load factor). These scenarios were performed by 13 teams in a high-fidelity control centre simulator of the Royal Netherlands Navy. The results show that the method provides good prediction of the task load that will actually appear in the simulator. The model allowed identification of under- and overload situations showing negative effects on operator performance corresponding to controlled experiments in a less realistic task environment. Tools proposed to keep the operator at an optimum task load are (adaptive) task allocation and interface support.

  4. Stroop proactive control and task conflict are modulated by concurrent working memory load.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai; Davelaar, Eddy J; Usher, Marius

    2015-06-01

    Performance on the Stroop task reflects two types of conflict-informational (between the incongruent word and font color) and task (between the contextually relevant color-naming task and the irrelevant, but automatic, word-reading task). According to the dual mechanisms of control theory (DMC; Braver, 2012), variability in Stroop performance can result from variability in the deployment of a proactive task-demand control mechanism. Previous research has shown that when proactive control (PC) is diminished, both increased Stroop interference and a reversed Stroop facilitation (RF) are observed. Although the current DMC model accounts for the former effect, it does not predict the observed RF, which is considered to be behavioral evidence for task conflict in the Stroop task. Here we expanded the DMC model to account for Stroop RF. Assuming that a concurrent working memory (WM) task reduces PC, we predicted both increased interference and an RF. Nineteen participants performed a standard Stroop task combined with a concurrent n-back task, which was aimed at reducing available WM resources, and thus overloading PC. Although the results indicated common Stroop interference and facilitation in the low-load condition (zero-back), in the high-load condition (two-back), both increased Stroop interference and RF were observed, consistent with the model's prediction. These findings indicate that PC is modulated by concurrent WM load and serves as a common control mechanism for both informational and task Stroop conflicts.

  5. Baseline activity predicts working memory load of preceding task condition.

    PubMed

    Pyka, Martin; Hahn, Tim; Heider, Dominik; Krug, Axel; Sommer, Jens; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The conceptual notion of the so-called resting state of the brain has been recently challenged by studies indicating a continuing effect of cognitive processes on subsequent rest. In particular, activity in posterior parietal and medial prefrontal areas has been found to be modulated by preceding experimental conditions. In this study, we investigated which brain areas show working memory dependent patterns in subsequent baseline periods and how specific they are for the preceding experimental condition. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 94 subjects performed a letter-version of the n-back task with the conditions 0-back and 2-back followed by a low-level baseline in which subjects had to passively observe the letters appearing. In a univariate analysis, 2-back served as control condition while 0-back, baseline after 0-back and baseline after 2-back were modeled as regressors to test for activity changes between both baseline conditions. Additionally, we tested, using Gaussian process classifiers, the recognition of task condition from functional images acquired during baseline. Besides the expected activity changes in the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, we found differential activity in the thalamus, putamen, and postcentral gyrus that were affected by the preceding task. The multivariate analysis revealed that images of the subsequent baseline block contain task related patterns that yield a recognition rate of 70%. The results suggest that the influence of a cognitive task on subsequent baseline is strong and specific for some areas but not restricted to areas of the so-called default mode network.

  6. Knowledge-based load leveling and task allocation in human-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chignell, M. H.; Hancock, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional human-machine systems use task allocation policies which are based on the premise of a flexible human operator. This individual is most often required to compensate for and augment the capabilities of the machine. The development of artificial intelligence and improved technologies have allowed for a wider range of task allocation strategies. In response to these issues a Knowledge Based Adaptive Mechanism (KBAM) is proposed for assigning tasks to human and machine in real time, using a load leveling policy. This mechanism employs an online workload assessment and compensation system which is responsive to variations in load through an intelligent interface. This interface consists of a loading strategy reasoner which has access to information about the current status of the human-machine system as well as a database of admissible human/machine loading strategies. Difficulties standing in the way of successful implementation of the load leveling strategy are examined.

  7. Divergent Effects of Cognitive Load on Quiet Stance and Task-Linked Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Knight, Alec; Munn, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Performing a cognitive task while maintaining upright stance can lead to increased or reduced body sway depending on tasks and experimental conditions. Because greater sway is commonly taken to indicate loosened postural control, and vice versa, the precise impact of cognitive load on postural stability has remained unclear. In much of the large…

  8. Effects of Physical Impairment on Grenade Throwing and Weapon Loading Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    modeling for task- based impairment. 2. Synopsis Physical impairment of a Soldier during a mission will inevitably change the Soldier’s ability to...these tasks and the threshold at which they can no longer be successfully executed based solely on physical impairment. 13. Recommendation It...ARL-TR-7241 ● MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effects of Physical Impairment on Grenade Throwing and Weapon Loading Tasks

  9. Administrative Tasks and Skills Needed for Today's Office: The Employees' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Diane B.; Bentley, Jan; Richards, Kathleen; Krebs, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Educators need to know which skills and tasks administrative employers are using. The results of this study revealed that higher-level skills are used more by experienced than by entry-level employees. Experienced employees performed more computer tasks and embraced technology more readily. Neither group was required to have certificates or…

  10. Effects of Increasing Task Load on Memory Impairment in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Holland, Tony; Hall, Scott; Crayton, Lissa

    2005-01-01

    The effect of increasing the number of stimuli to be recalled was investigated to evaluate whether sensitivity for memory impairment was enhanced in adults with Down syndrome when using higher task load. Three levels of load were compared across three groups of adults: those with cognitive deterioration, no cognitive deterioration over age 40, and…

  11. A Framework for Load Balancing of Tensor Contraction Expressions via Dynamic Task Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Pai-Wei; Stock, Kevin; Rajbhandari, Samyam; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2013-11-17

    In this paper, we introduce the Dynamic Load-balanced Tensor Contractions (DLTC), a domain-specific library for efficient task parallel execution of tensor contraction expressions, a class of computation encountered in quantum chemistry and physics. Our framework decomposes each contraction into smaller unit of tasks, represented by an abstraction referred to as iterators. We exploit an extra level of parallelism by having tasks across independent contractions executed concurrently through a dynamic load balancing run- time. We demonstrate the improved performance, scalability, and flexibility for the computation of tensor contraction expressions on parallel computers using examples from coupled cluster methods.

  12. Task Analysis of Medical Technology Administration and Supervision as a Foundation to a Curriculum Ladder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becan-McBride, Kathleen Elizabeth

    The administrative and supervisory competencies that a medical technology student should acquire before graduation were investigated. Selected medical technology laboratory supervisors and administrative technologists in the Houston-Galveston, Texas area were surveyed to determine the tasks performed by the medical technology laboratory…

  13. Share or compete? Load-dependent recruitment of prefrontal cortex during dual-task performance

    PubMed Central

    Low, Kathy A.; Leaver, Echo E.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Dual-task performance requires flexible attention allocation to two or more streams of information. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is considered important for executive function and recent modeling work proposes that attention control may arise from selective activation and inhibition of different processing units within this region. Here we used a tone discrimination task and a visual letter memory task to examine whether this type of competition could be measurable using a neuroimaging technique, the event-related optical signal, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Left and right DLPFC structures were differentially affected by task priority and load, with the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) being preferentially recruited by the visual memory task, whereas the two tasks competed for recruitment, in a spatially segregated manner, in right MFG. The data provide support for a competition view of dual-task processing. PMID:19572909

  14. Characterization of memory load in an arithmetic task using non-linear analysis of EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Zarjam, Pega; Epps, Julien; Lovell, Nigel H; Chen, Fang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate non-linear analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to examine changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task with varying difficulty levels. EEG signals were recorded during an arithmetic task while the induced load was varying in seven levels from very easy to extremely difficult. The EEG signals were analyzed using three different non-linear/dynamic measures; namely: correlation dimension, Hurst exponent and approximate entropy. Experimental results show that the values of the measures extracted from the delta frequency band of signals acquired from the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain vary in accordance with the task difficulty level induced. The values of the correlation dimension increased as the task difficulty increased, showing a rise in complexity of the EEG signals, while the values of the Hurst exponent and approximate entropy decreased as task difficulty increased, indicating more regularity and predictability in the signals.

  15. The effect of working memory load on the SNARC effect: Maybe tasks have a word to say.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhijun; Chen, Yinghe; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Li, Yanjun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effect of working memory load on the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect under different number judgment tasks (parity judgment and magnitude comparison), using a novel dual task. Instead of exerting load over the whole block of number judgment trials, in this dual task, number judgment trials were inserted into each interstimulus interval of an n-back task, which served as the working memory load. We varied both load type (verbal and spatial) and amount (1-load, 2-load, and 3-load). The results indicated that the SNARC effect disappeared even under the 1-load condition for a parity judgment, regardless of the type of load. However, during the magnitude comparison task, the SNARC effect increased with increasing load amounts under spatial load conditions; under verbal load conditions, the SNARC effect decreased with increasing amounts of load, and disappeared during the 3-load task. The difference between the parity and magnitude tasks was not attributable to the interval stimuli or task switching. These findings confirm that different spatial-numerical associations for comparing numerical magnitudes and judgments of parity have different needs with respect to working memory resources.

  16. Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Environment Using Improved Weighted Round Robin Algorithm for Nonpreemptive Dependent Tasks.

    PubMed

    Devi, D Chitra; Uthariaraj, V Rhymend

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing uses the concepts of scheduling and load balancing to migrate tasks to underutilized VMs for effectively sharing the resources. The scheduling of the nonpreemptive tasks in the cloud computing environment is an irrecoverable restraint and hence it has to be assigned to the most appropriate VMs at the initial placement itself. Practically, the arrived jobs consist of multiple interdependent tasks and they may execute the independent tasks in multiple VMs or in the same VM's multiple cores. Also, the jobs arrive during the run time of the server in varying random intervals under various load conditions. The participating heterogeneous resources are managed by allocating the tasks to appropriate resources by static or dynamic scheduling to make the cloud computing more efficient and thus it improves the user satisfaction. Objective of this work is to introduce and evaluate the proposed scheduling and load balancing algorithm by considering the capabilities of each virtual machine (VM), the task length of each requested job, and the interdependency of multiple tasks. Performance of the proposed algorithm is studied by comparing with the existing methods.

  17. Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Environment Using Improved Weighted Round Robin Algorithm for Nonpreemptive Dependent Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Devi, D. Chitra; Uthariaraj, V. Rhymend

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing uses the concepts of scheduling and load balancing to migrate tasks to underutilized VMs for effectively sharing the resources. The scheduling of the nonpreemptive tasks in the cloud computing environment is an irrecoverable restraint and hence it has to be assigned to the most appropriate VMs at the initial placement itself. Practically, the arrived jobs consist of multiple interdependent tasks and they may execute the independent tasks in multiple VMs or in the same VM's multiple cores. Also, the jobs arrive during the run time of the server in varying random intervals under various load conditions. The participating heterogeneous resources are managed by allocating the tasks to appropriate resources by static or dynamic scheduling to make the cloud computing more efficient and thus it improves the user satisfaction. Objective of this work is to introduce and evaluate the proposed scheduling and load balancing algorithm by considering the capabilities of each virtual machine (VM), the task length of each requested job, and the interdependency of multiple tasks. Performance of the proposed algorithm is studied by comparing with the existing methods. PMID:26955656

  18. The Role of Cognitive Load in Intentional Forgetting Using the Think/No-Think Task.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; de Fockert, Jan W

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the role of cognitive control in intentional forgetting by manipulating working memory load during the think/no-think task. In two experiments, participants learned a series of cue-target word pairs and were asked to recall the target words associated with some cues or to avoid thinking about the target associated with other cues. In addition to this, participants also performed a modified version of the n-back task which required them to respond to the identity of a single target letter present in the currently presented cue word (n = 0 condition, low working memory load), and in either the previous cue word (n = 1 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 1) or the cue word presented two trials previously (n = 2 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 2). Participants' memory for the target words was subsequently tested using same and novel independent probes. In both experiments it was found that although participants were successful at forgetting on both the same and independent-probe tests in the low working memory load condition, they were only successful at forgetting on the same-probe test in the high working memory load condition. We argue that our findings suggest that the high load working memory task diverted attention from direct suppression and acted as an interference-based strategy. Thus, when cognitive resources are limited participants can switch between the strategies they use to prevent unwanted memories from coming to mind.

  19. Effects of height and load weight on shoulder muscle work during overhead lifting task.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Desmoulins, L; Allard, P; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-01-01

    Few musculoskeletal models are available to assess shoulder deeper muscle demand during overhead lifting tasks. Our objective was to implement a musculoskeletal model to assess the effect of lifting height and load on shoulder muscle work. A musculoskeletal model scaled from 15 male subjects was used to calculate shoulder muscle work during six lifting tasks. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12 and 18 kg) were lifted by the subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. After optimisation of the maximal isometric force of the model's muscles, the bio-fidelity of the model was improved by 19%. The latter was able to reproduce the subjects' lifting movements. Mechanical work of the rotator cuff muscles, upper trapezius and anterior deltoid was increased with lifting load and height augmentation. In conclusion, the use of a musculoskeletal model validated by electromyography enabled to evaluate the muscle demand of deep muscles during lifting tasks.

  20. Assessment of workload using NASA Task Load Index in perianesthesia nursing.

    PubMed

    Young, Gloria; Zavelina, Lyubov; Hooper, Vallire

    2008-04-01

    According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), as many as 44,000 to 98,000 people in the United States die in hospitals every year due to medical errors. Multiple physiological and psychological factors can impact the health care provider's attention span, making medical errors more likely. Some of these factors include increased workload, fatigue, cognitive overload, ineffective interpersonal communications, and faulty information processing. Postanesthesia nurses, responsible for providing care to unstable patients emerging from anesthesia with multiple life-threatening conditions, must make critical decisions on a minute-by-minute basis. The current ASPAN Patient Classification/Recommended Staffing Guidelines does not adequately take into account varying care requirements among the patients. If a tool could be found that effectively evaluated staff's workload, ongoing assessment would be enhanced and resources better used. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), a multifaceted tool for evaluating perceptual (subjective) workload, has seen extensive applications and is widely regarded as the strongest tool available for reporting perceptions of workload. This article will survey various uses of the NASA-TLX and consider the potential uses for this tool in perianesthesia nursing.

  1. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended.

  2. Effects of Task Load, Task Speed and Cognitive Complexity on Satisfaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Review of research and opinion. Pittsburgh: Psychological Service of Pittsburgh, 1957. Hoppock, R. Job satisfaction. New York: Harper & Rowe...37. Maslow, A. H. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review , 1943, 50, 370-396. Mehrabian, A. and West, S. Emotional impact of a task... Psychology of men at work. Annual Review of Psychology , 1968, 1_9, 467-496. iA.V r -• r.«\\ 7* r-’.*.*>’• T-*T :?^^T^v:,•:•:•:• Sv:Si-yvvs-::..;.:ft

  3. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    No. DODIG-2015-141 J U LY 2 , 2 0 1 5 Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration Mission Our...r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e DODIG-2015-141 (Project No. D2014-D000RA-0116.000) │ i Results in Brief Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs...to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our objective was to determine whether Naval Facilities

  4. Dynamic cortical networks of verbal and spatial working memory: effects of memory load and task practice.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, L K; Smith, M E; Gevins, A

    1998-01-01

    Working memory (WM), the ability to briefly retain and manipulate information in mind, is central to intelligent behavior. Here we take advantage of the high temporal resolution of electrophysiological measures to obtain a millisecond timescale view of the activity induced in distributed cortical networks by tasks that impose significant WM demands. We examined how these networks are affected by the type and amount of information to be remembered, and by the amount of task practice. Evoked potentials (EPs) were obtained from eight subjects performing spatial and verbal versions of a visual n-back WM task (n = 1, 2, 3) on each of three testing days. In well-trained subjects, WM tasks elicited transient responses reflecting different subcomponents of task processing, including transient (lasting 0.02-0.3 s) task-sensitive and load-sensitive EPs, as well as sustained responses (lasting 1-1.5 s), including the prestimulus Contingent Negative Variation (CNV), and post-stimulus frontal and parietal Slow Waves. The transient responses, with the exception of the P300, differed between the verbal and spatial task versions, and between trials with different response requirements. The P300 and the Slow Waves were not affected by task version but were affected by increased WM load. These results suggest that WM emerges from the formation of a dynamic cortical network linking task-specific processes with non-specific, capacity-limited, higher-order attentional processes. Practice effects on the EPs suggested that practice led to the development of a more effective cognitive strategy for dealing with lower-order aspects of task processing, but did not diminish demands made on higher order processes. Thus a simple WM task is shown to be composed of numerous elementary subsecond neural processes whose characteristics vary with type and amount of information being remembered, and amount of practice.

  5. Effect of load carriage on performance of an explosive, anaerobic military task.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Alison K Laing; Billing, Daniel C

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the effects of load carriage on performance of an explosive, anaerobic military task. A task-specific assessment requiring five 30-m timed sprints was developed to address this question. Seventeen soldiers (female = 5, male = 12) volunteered to undergo the test under two experimental conditions: unloaded (combat uniform and boots) and loaded (unloaded plus 21.6 kg fighting load, comprising webbing, weapon, helmet, and combat body armor). When loaded, there was a significant increase in the mean 30-m sprint time compared to unloaded (8.2 +/- 1.4 seconds vs. 6.2 +/- 0.8 seconds; p < 0.01). Of the total increase in mean sprint time, 51.7% occurred within the first 5 m. Female sprint times were affected to a larger extent than male (36% vs. 29%, respectively) as a result of the increased load. Fighting load significantly affected soldier mobility when conducting explosive, anaerobic military tasks, particularly among females, and specific physical conditioning should be considered to minimize this effect.

  6. The Relationship between Task-Induced Involvement Load and Learning New Words from Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein; Hu, Hsueh-chao Marcella

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between task-induced involvement load and ESL learners' inferencing and learning word meanings from context. Thirty-two ESL learners were randomly assigned to one of three groups, with each group receiving a different version of a text that was assumed to differ from one another in terms of the degree of…

  7. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in a Bimanual Load-Lifting Task in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Marianne; Schmitz, Christina; Centelles, Laurie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Postural control is a fundamental component of action in which deficits have been shown to contribute to motor difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in children with DCD in a bimanual load-lifting task. Method: Sixteen children…

  8. Administrative Task Force on the Four Day Work Week. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles.

    The Administrative Task Force on a 4-day work week at California State University in Los Angeles was charged with the following responsibilities: (1) To make an indepth study of the "literature" of experience of other universities, a survey of staff, faculty, and students if required, and other activities that will result in setting up a…

  9. New Congressional Climate Change Task Force Calls on President to Use Administrative Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    Spurred by U.S. congressional inaction on climate change and by President Barack Obama's comments on the topic in his 21 January inaugural address, several Democratic members of Congress announced at a Capitol Hill briefing the formation of a bicameral task force on climate change. In addition, they have called on the president to use his administrative authority to deal with the issue.

  10. Stroop-like effects in a new-code learning task: A cognitive load theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Hazan-Liran, Batel; Miller, Paul

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether and how learning is biased by competing task-irrelevant information that creates extraneous cognitive load, we assessed the efficiency of university students with a learning paradigm in two experiments. The paradigm asked participants to learn associations between eight words and eight digits. We manipulated congruity of the digits' ink colour with the words' semantics. In Experiment 1 word stimuli were colour words (e.g., blue, yellow) and in Experiment 2 colour-related word concepts (e.g., sky, banana). Marked benefits and costs on learning due to variation in extraneous cognitive load originating from processing task-irrelevant information were evident. Implications for cognitive load theory and schooling are discussed.

  11. Intake of green tea inhibited increase of salivary chromogranin A after mental task stress loads

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Green tea has become renowned for its health benefits. In this study, we investigated the anti-stress effect of two kinds of green tea against a mental stress task load. Methods Warm water, ordinary green tea (Sagara), and shaded white tea, which contains more amino acid components than Sagara, were used as test samples in a randomized cross-over design study. Eighteen students (nine male and nine female) participated in three experimental trials on different days at intervals of seven days. Saliva was collected before beverage intake and after performing the mental stress load tasks. Concentration of chromogranin A (CgA) in the saliva was used as an index of autonomic nervous system activity. Results CgA level increased after the mental tasks, but intake of green tea inhibited this increase; the anti-stress effect was even greater after consumption of shaded white tea. Intake of shaded white tea also lowered Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score on the Profile of Mood States (POMS); subjects in this condition tended to perform more calculations in the arithmetic task than those in the warm water treatment condition. Conclusions Salivary CgA concentration levels increased after mental stress load tasks, but ingestion of green tea inhibited this increase. This anti-stress effect was larger after the consumption of shaded white tea than after Sagara. Shaded white tea intake also lowered TMD score (POMS) and tended to improve performance on an arithmetic task compared to warm water, suggesting that shaded white tea might also improve mood during and after mental stress load. PMID:25034805

  12. Increasing Working Memory Load Reduces Processing of Cross-Modal Task-Irrelevant Stimuli Even after Controlling for Task Difficulty and Executive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sharon S.; Tusch, Erich S.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2016-01-01

    The classic account of the load theory (LT) of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC) and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM) load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual) and task-irrelevant modality (auditory). Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models. PMID:27536226

  13. Increasing Working Memory Load Reduces Processing of Cross-Modal Task-Irrelevant Stimuli Even after Controlling for Task Difficulty and Executive Capacity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sharon S; Tusch, Erich S; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2016-01-01

    The classic account of the load theory (LT) of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC) and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM) load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual) and task-irrelevant modality (auditory). Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models.

  14. Analysis of postural load during tasks related to milking cows-a case study.

    PubMed

    Groborz, Anna; Tokarski, Tomasz; Roman-Liu, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse postural load during tasks related to milking cows of 2 farmers on 2 different farms (one with a manual milk transport system, the other with a fully automated milk transport system) as a case study. The participants were full-time farmers, they were both healthy and experienced in their job. The Ovako Working Posture Analyzing System (OWAS) was used to evaluate postural load and postural risk. Postural load was medium for the farmer on the farm with a manual milk transport system and high for the farmer working on the farm with a fully automated milk transport system. Thus, it can be concluded that a higher level of farm mechanization not always mean that the farmer's postural load is lower, but limitation of OWAS should be considered.

  15. Beyond perception: testing for implicit conceptual traces in high-load tasks.

    PubMed

    Ruz, María; Fuentes, Luis J

    2009-09-01

    The present commentary addresses the main results obtained in the Butler and Klein [Butler, B. C., & Klein, R. (2009). Inattentional blindness for ignored words: Comparison of explicit and implicit memory tasks. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 811-819.] study and discusses them in relation to the Perceptual Load Theory of Lavie [Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 451-68.]. The authors claim that the use of implicit indexes of conceptual distractor processing in high-load situations would be an important addition to the load literature, which would benefit the research field regardless of their positive or negative findings.

  16. 78 FR 9928 - Food and Drug Administration Drug Shortages Task Force and Strategic Plan; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Drug Shortages Task Force and Strategic Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: To assist the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) in drafting a strategic...

  17. Strength capabilities and load requirements while performing torquing tasks in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poliner, Jeffrey; Wilmington, Robert P.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    A generic examination of the loads produced by individuals performing maximal efforts with a torquing tool in zero gravity, to determine operator strength when performing torquing tasks; quantify the loads placed on foot restraints while performing these tasks; and examine effects of orientation and direction of tool rotation on strength effectiveness was conducted. The experiment was conducted aboard NASA's KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft, using two force plates attached to a test stand, one with a foot restraint. Subjects used a wrench to apply maximum torques to various fittings, in different positions, in clockwise and counterclockwise directions. It was seen that these subjects could produce approximately 400 to 750 N of force, depending on the orientation of the tool and the direction of effort. The most force could be produced when pushing the tool upwards. A force effectiveness ratio (FER) defined as an indication of how much of the subjects' total effort actually went into performing the desired task. Values of FER ranged from 0.55 to 0.90, with the greatest FER occurring with UP and DOWN efforts, and the lowest with AWAY and LEFT efforts. Designers can use these results to set specifications for craft structures; tools can be developed based on the known strength of the tool users; and tasks can be developed to not exceed the crewmembers' capabilities.

  18. Shoulder muscle loading and task performance for overhead work on ladders versus Mobile Elevated Work Platforms.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Denis; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2014-11-01

    A high incidence of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) has been reported in the construction sector. The use of ladders in the workplace has long been identified as a significant risk that can lead to workplace accidents. However, it is unclear if platform types have an effect on the physical risk factors for MSDs in overhead work. The aim of this study is to perform a pilot study on the effects of hand activity on both shoulder muscle loading and task performance while working on ladders versus Mobile Elevated Working Platforms (MEWPs). It is hypothesised that work on ladders would result in greater muscle loading demands, increased levels of discomfort, and reduced performance due to the restrictions on postures that could be adopted. A field study (n = 19) of experienced electricians on a construction site found that workers spent approximately 28% of their working time on ladders versus 6% on MEWPs. However, the durations of individual tasks were higher on MEWPs (153 s) than on ladders (73 s). Additionally, maximum levels of perceived discomfort (on a VAS 0-100) were reported for the shoulders (27), neck (23), and lower regions of the body (22). A simulated study (n = 12) found that task performance and discomfort were not significantly different between platform types (ladder vs. MEWP) when completing either of three tasks: cabling, assembly and drilling. However, platform and task had significant effects (p < 0.05) on median electromyographic (EMG) activity of the anterior deltoid and upper trapezius. EMG amplitudes were higher for the deltoid than the upper trapezius. For the deltoid, the peak amplitudes were, on average, higher for ladder work over MEWP work for the hand intensive cabling (32 vs. 27% Maximal Voluntary Exertion (MVE)) and the assembly task (19 vs. 6% MVE). Conversely, for drilling, the peak EMG amplitudes were marginally lower for ladder compared to the MEWP (3.9 vs. 5.1% MVE). The general implication was that working on the MEWP

  19. Effects of automation and task load on task switching during human supervision of multiple semi-autonomous robots in a dynamic environment.

    PubMed

    Squire, P N; Parasuraman, R

    2010-08-01

    The present study assessed the impact of task load and level of automation (LOA) on task switching in participants supervising a team of four or eight semi-autonomous robots in a simulated 'capture the flag' game. Participants were faster to perform the same task than when they chose to switch between different task actions. They also took longer to switch between different tasks when supervising the robots at a high compared to a low LOA. Task load, as manipulated by the number of robots to be supervised, did not influence switch costs. The results suggest that the design of future unmanned vehicle (UV) systems should take into account not simply how many UVs an operator can supervise, but also the impact of LOA and task operations on task switching during supervision of multiple UVs. The findings of this study are relevant for the ergonomics practice of UV systems. This research extends the cognitive theory of task switching to inform the design of UV systems and results show that switching between UVs is an important factor to consider.

  20. Effect of working memory load on electrophysiological markers of visuospatial orienting in a spatial cueing task simulating a traffic situation.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Alexandra Y; Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen M M; Ruiter, Robert A C; Smulders, Fren T Y

    2016-02-01

    Visuospatial attentional orienting has typically been studied in abstract tasks with low ecological validity. However, real-life tasks such as driving require allocation of working memory (WM) resources to several subtasks over and above orienting in a complex sensory environment. The aims of this study were twofold: firstly, to establish whether electrophysiological signatures of attentional orienting commonly observed under simplified task conditions generalize to a more naturalistic task situation with realistic-looking stimuli, and, secondly, to assess how these signatures are affected by increased WM load under such conditions. Sixteen healthy participants performed a dual task consisting of a spatial cueing paradigm and a concurrent verbal memory task that simulated aspects of an actual traffic situation. Behaviorally, we observed a load-induced detriment of sensitivity to targets. In the EEG, we replicated orienting-related alpha lateralization, the lateralized ERPs ADAN, EDAN, and LDAP, and the P1-N1 attention effect. When WM load was high (i.e., WM resources were reduced), lateralization of oscillatory activity in the lower alpha band was delayed. In the ERPs, we found that ADAN was also delayed, while EDAN was absent. Later ERP correlates were unaffected by load. Our results show that the findings in highly controlled artificial tasks can be generalized to spatial orienting in ecologically more valid tasks, and further suggest that the initiation of spatial orienting is delayed when WM demands of an unrelated secondary task are high.

  1. Foot kinematics and loading of professional athletes in American football-specific tasks.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick O; Kent, Richard W; Dierks, Tracy A; Lievers, W Brent; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Crandall, Jeff R

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe stance foot and ankle kinematics and the associated ground reaction forces at the upper end of human performance in professional football players during commonly performed football-specific tasks. Nine participants were recruited from the spring training squad of a professional football team. In a motion analysis laboratory setting, participants performed three activities used at the NFL Scouting Combine to assess player speed and agility: the 3-cone drill, the shuttle run, and the standing high jump. The talocrural and first metatarsophalangial joint dorsiflexion, subtalar joint inversion, and the ground reaction forces were determined for the load bearing portions of each activity. We documented load-bearing foot and ankle kinematics of elite football players performing competition-simulating activities, and confirmed our hypothesis that the talocrural, subtalar, and metatarsophalangeal joint ranges of motion for the activities studied approached or exceeded reported physiological limits.

  2. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  3. High-intensity tasks with external load in military applications: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Hornsby, Jared H; Kelleran, Kyle J

    2014-09-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the limited investigations examining the impact of external load (EL) on performance of high-intensity tasks under load (HITL), EL training intervention effects on HITL performance, and injuries from EL training. Repetitive lifting tasks and initiation of locomotion, such as rapidly moving from a prone position to sprinting appear to be more hindered by EL than maximal sprinting velocity and may explain why training with EL does not improve obstacle course or prolonged (200-300 yard shuttle) drills. EL training appears to offer very little if any benefit for HITL in lesser trained populations. This contrast results of multiple studies incorporating ≥ 3 weeks of prolonged hypergravity interventions (wearing EL during daily activities) in elite anaerobic athletes, indicating EL training stimulus is likely only beneficial to well-trained soldiers. Women and lesser trained individuals appear to be more susceptible to increased injury with EL training. A significant limitation concerning current HITL knowledge is the lack of studies incorporating trained soldiers. Future investigations concerning the effects of HITL on marksmanship, repetitive lifting biomechanics, efficacy of hypergravity training for military personnel, and kinematics of sprinting from tactical positions with various EL displacements and technique training are warranted.

  4. A Study of Self and Task Performance in Childcare Centres as Perceived by Caregivers under Local Administrative Organisations in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhulpat, Cheerapan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the opinions toward self and task performance in childcare centres as perceived by caregivers under the jurisdiction of the Local Administrative Organization. The four areas evaluated were caregiver characteristics, task performance, objectives of caregiving and educating young children and problems and…

  5. Nucleotide Analog Prodrug, Tenofovir Disoproxil, Enhances Lymphoid Cell Loading Following Oral Administration in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Gasselin, Lucie; Van Rompay, Koen K.A.; Vela, Jennifer E.; Henne, Ilana N.; Lee, William A.; Rhodes, Gerry R.; Ray, Adrian S.

    2009-01-01

    The antiviral drug tenofovir (TFV) is orally administered as the fumarate salt of its disoproxil prodrug (TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF)). TFV is a di-anion at physiological pH and, as a result, has poor lipid membrane permeability. Administration of the lipophilic and cell permeable prodrug, TFV disoproxil, enhances the oral absorption of TFV. In order to determine if oral administration of TDF also increases distribution to sites of viral infection, the plasma and circulating lymphoid cell pharmacokinetics of TFV and its phosphorylated metabolites were assessed following a single oral TDF or subcutaneous TFV administration at doses yielding equivalent plasma exposures to TFV in macaques. Despite TFV disoproxil’s lack of plasma stability and undetectable levels in the first plasma samples taken, oral administration of TDF resulted in 7.9-fold higher peripheral blood mononuclear cell exposures to the active metabolite, TFV-diphosphate. The apparent plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) of TFV was also longer following oral TDF relative to subcutaneous TFV administration (median t1/2 of 15.3 and 3.9 h, respectively), suggesting broader distribution to cells and tissues outside of the central plasma compartment. In conclusion, the disoproxil pro-moiety not only enhances the oral absorption of TFV but also tissue and lymphoid cell loading. These results illustrate that administration of even a fleeting prodrug can increase target tissue loading and gives valuable insight for future prodrug development. PMID:19545170

  6. Pattern Classification of Instantaneous Cognitive Task-load Through GMM Clustering, Laplacian Eigenmap and Ensemble SVMs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Wang, Rubin

    2016-05-03

    The identification of the temporal variations in human operator cognitive task-load (CTL) is crucial for preventing possible accidents in human-machine collaborative systems. Recent literature has shown that the change of discrete CTL level during human-machine system operations can be objectively recognized using neurophysiological data and supervised learning technique. The objective of this work is to design subject-specific multi-class CTL classifier to reveal the complex unknown relationship between the operator's task performance and neurophysiological features by combining target class labeling, physiological feature reduction and selection, and ensemble classification techniques. The psychophysiological data acquisition experiments were performed under multiple human-machine process control tasks. Four or five target classes of CTL were determined by using a Gaussian mixture model and three human performance variables. By using Laplacian eigenmap, a few salient EEG features were extracted, which and heart rate were used as the input features of the CTL classifier. Then multiple support vector machines were aggregated via majority voting to create an ensemble classifier for recognizing the CTL classes. Finally the obtained CTL classification results were compared with those of several existing methods. The results showed that the proposed methods are capable of deriving a reasonable number of target classes and low-dimensional optimal EEG features for individual human operator subjects.

  7. Effects of transdermally administered nicotine on aspects of attention, task load, and mood in women and men.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, Michael; Wittberger, Susanne

    2004-07-01

    This double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine nicotine effects on diverse types of attentional performance, task load, and mood considering sex effects as suggested by animal studies. Twelve smokers, 12 deprived smokers and 12 nonsmokers (6 females, 6 males in each group) were investigated. Participants were treated either by 5 mg/16 h nicotine patches (Nicorette) or placebo. Effects of treatment were examined by a computerized attention-test battery; mood was assessed by the Berliner-Alltagssprachliches-Stimmungs-Inventar and task load by the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). Results showed that nicotine significantly increased the number of hits and decreased reaction time (RT) in the vigilance task. In the selective attention task combined with irrelevant speech as background noise, nicotine enhanced rate of hits. Although it was indicated that nicotine leads to a generally higher accuracy in attention tasks, response time of visual search was prolonged, contradicting a universal facilitation by nicotine. Participants experienced mental demand and temporal demand lower and rated alertness higher when in the nicotine condition. These effects were independent of smoking status, indicating "true" nicotine effects. Females took significant advantage of nicotine in the vigilance task, reaching the performance level of males, accompanied by a higher rated alertness. Results indicate task- and sex-dependent nicotine effects.

  8. Changes in Plantar Loading Based on Shoe Type and Sex During a Jump-Landing Task

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, Justin C.; Russell, Mary E.; Butler, Robert J.; Nunley, James A.; Queen, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Metatarsal stress fractures are common in cleated-sport athletes. Previous authors have shown that plantar loading varies with footwear, sex, and the athletic task. Objective: To examine the effects of shoe type and sex on plantar loading in the medial midfoot (MMF), lateral midfoot (LMF), medial forefoot (MFF), middle forefoot (MidFF), and lateral forefoot (LFF) during a jump-landing task. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven recreational athletes (14 men, 13 women) with no history of lower extremity injury in the last 6 months and no history of foot or ankle surgery. Main Outcome Measure(s): The athletes completed 7 jumping trials while wearing bladed-cleat, turf-cleat, and running shoes. Maximum force, contact area, contact time, and the force-time integral were analyzed in each foot region. We calculated 2 × 3 analyses of variance (α = .05) to identify shoe-condition and sex differences. Results: We found no shoe × sex interactions, but the MMF, LMF, MFF, and LFF force-time integrals were greater in men (P < .03). The MMF maximum force was less with the bladed-cleat shoes (P = .02). Total foot and MidFF maximum force was less with the running shoes (P < .01). The MFF and LFF maximum forces were different among all shoe conditions (P < .01). Total foot contact area was less in the bladed-cleat shoes (P = .01). The MMF contact area was greatest in the running shoes (P < .01). The LFF contact area was less in the running shoes (P = .03). The MFF and LFF force-time integrals were greater with the bladed-cleat shoes (P < .01). The MidFF force-time integral was less in the running shoes (P < .01). Conclusions: Independent of shoe, men and women loaded the foot differently during a jump landing. The bladed cleat increased forefoot loading, which may increase the risk for forefoot injury. The type of shoe should be considered when choosing footwear for athletes returning to activity after metatarsal

  9. NASA Task Load Index (TLX). Volume 1.0; Computerized Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1986-01-01

    This booklet and the accompanying diskette contain the materials necessary to collect subjective workload assessments with the NASA Task Load Index on IBM PC compatible microcomputers. This procedure for collecting workload ratings was developed by the Human Performance Group at NASA Ames Research Center during a three year research effort that involved more than 40 laboratory, simulation, and inflight experiments Although the technique is still undergoing evaluation, this package is being distributed to allow other researchers to use it in their own experiments Comments or suggestions about the procedure would be greatly appreciated This package is intended to fill a "nuts and bolts" function of describing the procedure. A bibliography provides background information about previous empirical findings and the logic that supports the procedure.

  10. NASA Task Load Index (TLX). Volume 1.0; Paper and Pencil Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the materials necessary to collect subjective workload assessments with the NASA Task Load Index. This procedure for collecting workload ratings was developed by the Human Performance Group at NASA Ames Research Center during a three year research effort that involved more than 40 laboratory. simulation. and inflight experiments. Although the technique is still undergoing evaluation. this booklet is being distributed to allow other researchers to use it in their own experiments. Comments or suggestions about the procedure would be greatly appreciated. This package is intended to fill a "nuts and bolts" function of describing the procedure. A bibliography provides background information about previous empirical findings and the logic that supports the procedure.

  11. Quantum Dot-Loaded Liposomes to Evaluate the Behavior of Drug Carriers after Oral Administration.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Kohei; Fujimoto, Shiho; Fujii, Fumihiko; Tozuka, Yuichi; Jin, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    We have developed submicron-sized liposomes modified with a mucoadhesive polymer to enhance peptide drug absorption after oral administration. Liposomal behavior in the gastrointestinal tract is a critical factor for effective peptide drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to prepare quantum dot- (QD-) loaded submicron-sized liposomes and examine liposomal behavior in the body after oral administration using in vivo fluorescence imaging. Two types of CdSe/CdZnS QDs with different surface properties were used: hydrophobic (unmodified) QDs and hydrophilic QDs with glutathione (GSH) surface modifications. QD- and GSH-QD-loaded liposomes were prepared by a thin film hydration method. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that QDs were embedded in the liposomal lipid bilayer. Conversely, GSH-QDs were present in the inner aqueous phase. Some of the GSH-QDs were electrostatically associated with the lipid membrane of stearylamine-bearing cationic liposomes. QD-loaded liposomes were detected in Caco-2 cells after exposure to the liposomes, and these liposomes were not toxic to the Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the in vivo bioadhesion and intestinal penetration of orally administered QD-loaded liposomes by observing the intestinal segment using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  12. Quantum Dot-Loaded Liposomes to Evaluate the Behavior of Drug Carriers after Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Kohei; Fujimoto, Shiho; Fujii, Fumihiko; Tozuka, Yuichi; Jin, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    We have developed submicron-sized liposomes modified with a mucoadhesive polymer to enhance peptide drug absorption after oral administration. Liposomal behavior in the gastrointestinal tract is a critical factor for effective peptide drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to prepare quantum dot- (QD-) loaded submicron-sized liposomes and examine liposomal behavior in the body after oral administration using in vivo fluorescence imaging. Two types of CdSe/CdZnS QDs with different surface properties were used: hydrophobic (unmodified) QDs and hydrophilic QDs with glutathione (GSH) surface modifications. QD- and GSH-QD-loaded liposomes were prepared by a thin film hydration method. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that QDs were embedded in the liposomal lipid bilayer. Conversely, GSH-QDs were present in the inner aqueous phase. Some of the GSH-QDs were electrostatically associated with the lipid membrane of stearylamine-bearing cationic liposomes. QD-loaded liposomes were detected in Caco-2 cells after exposure to the liposomes, and these liposomes were not toxic to the Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the in vivo bioadhesion and intestinal penetration of orally administered QD-loaded liposomes by observing the intestinal segment using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:26555997

  13. The impact of working memory load on task execution and online plan adjustment during multitasking in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna S; Trawley, Steven L; Brown, Louise A; Stephens, Amanda N; Logie, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of working memory load on online plan adjustment during a test of multitasking in young, nonexpert, adult participants. Multitasking was assessed using the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET). Participants were asked to memorize either good or poor plans for performing multiple errands and were assessed both on task completion and on the extent to which they modified their plans during EVET performance. EVET was performed twice, with and without a secondary task loading a component of working memory. In Experiment 1, articulatory suppression was used to load the phonological loop. In Experiment 2, oral random generation was used to load executive functions. In Experiment 3, spatial working memory was loaded with an auditory spatial localization task. EVET performance for both good- and poor-planning groups was disrupted by random generation and sound localization, but not by articulatory suppression. Additionally, people given a poor plan were able to overcome this initial disadvantage by modifying their plans online. It was concluded that, in addition to executive functions, multiple errands performance draws heavily on spatial, but not verbal, working memory resources but can be successfully completed on the basis of modifying plans online, despite a secondary task load.

  14. The roles of sensory function and cognitive load in age differences in inhibition: Evidence from the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huamao; Gao, Yue; Mao, Xiaofei

    2017-02-01

    To explore the roles of visual function and cognitive load in aging of inhibition, the present study adopted a 2 (visual perceptual stress: noise, nonnoise) × 2 (cognitive load: low, high) × 2 (age: young, old) mixed design. The Stroop task was adopted to measure inhibition. The task presentation was masked with Gaussian noise according to the visual function of each individual in order to match visual perceptual stress between age groups. The results indicated that age differences in the Stroop effect were influenced by visual function and cognitive load. When the cognitive load was low, older adults exhibited a larger Stroop effect than did younger adults in the nonnoise condition, and this age difference disappeared when the visual noise of the 2 age groups was matched. Conversely, in the high cognitive load condition, we observed significant age differences in the Stroop effect in both the nonnoise and noise conditions. The additional cognitive load made the age differences in the Stroop task reappear even when visual perceptual stress was equivalent. These results demonstrate that visual function plays an important role in the aging of inhibition and its role is moderated by cognitive load. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Influence of snow shovel shaft configuration on lumbosacral biomechanics during a load-lifting task.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Robertson, D Gordon E

    2014-03-01

    Lower-back injury from snow shovelling may be related to excessive joint loading. Bent-shaft snow shovels are commonly available for purchase; however, their influence on lower back-joint loading is currently not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare L5/S1 extension angular impulses between a bent-shaft and a standard straight-shaft snow shovel. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. Each completed a simulated snow-lifting task in a biomechanics laboratory with each shovel design. A standard motion analysis procedure was used to determine L5/S1 angular impulses during each trial, as well as peak L5/S1 extension moments and peak upper body flexion angle. Paired-samples t-tests (α = 0.05) were used to compare variables between shovel designs. Correlation was used to determine the relationship between peak flexion and peak moments. Results of this study show that the bent-shaft snow shovel reduced L5/S1 extension angular impulses by 16.5% (p = 0.022), decreased peak moments by 11.8% (p = 0.044), and peak flexion by 13.0% (p = 0.002) compared to the straight-shaft shovel. Peak L5/S1 extension moment magnitude was correlated with peak upper body flexion angle (r = 0.70). Based on these results, it is concluded that the bent-shaft snow shovel can likely reduce lower-back joint loading during snow shovelling, and thus may have a role in snow shovelling injury prevention.

  16. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 13. Administrative QPCB Task Sort for Medical/Dental Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 13 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties in medical/dental administration. (BT)

  17. An equation to predict maximum acceptable loads for repetitive tasks based on duty cycle: evaluation with lifting and lowering tasks.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Jim R

    2012-01-01

    Recently, an equation was developed to predict maximal acceptable effort (MAE) for repetitive tasks based on the product of task frequency and effort duration (ie. duty cycle). This equation has been shown to closely match data from psychophysical studies of the upper extremities. In the current paper, the applicability of this equation was tested on lifting and lowering data from Snook and Ciriello (1991) and was found to fit closely, even at very low duty cycles.

  18. Reduced mental capacity and behavior of a rider of a bicycle simulator under alcohol stress or under dual task load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soede, M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a bicycle simulator with alcohol administration and a binary choice task in separate sessions, intending to reduce the subject's mental capacity. Before and after such sessions a visual evoked response measurement was done. The subject's performance was analyzed with describing function techniques. The results indicate that the alcohol affects the course-following task as well as the balancing task. The binary choice task is more specifically influencing the course-following task. The dual task shows a more pronounced effect on the recovery of the evoked response. The alcohol is delaying the recovery curve of the evoked response. A tentative explanation can be given which agrees with the performance data.

  19. The Influence of Working Memory Load on Expectancy-Based Strategic Processes in the Stroop-Priming Task

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Álvarez, Dolores; Noguera, Carmen; Carmona, Encarna; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a differential availability of cognitive control resources as a result of varying working memory (WM) load could affect the capacity for expectancy-based strategic actions. Participants performed a Stroop-priming task in which a prime word (GREEN or RED) was followed by a colored target (red vs. green) that participants had to identify. The prime was incongruent or congruent with the target color on 80 and 20% of the trials, respectively, and participants were informed about the differential proportion of congruent vs. incongruent trials. This task was interleaved with a WM task, such that the prime word was preceded by a sequence of either a same digit repeated five times (low load) or five different random digits (high load), which should be retained by participants. After two, three, or four Stroop trials, they had to decide whether or not a probe digit was a part of the memory set. The key finding was a significant interaction between prime-target congruency and WM load: Whereas a strategy-dependent (reversed Stroop) effect was found under low WM load, a standard Stroop interference effect was observed under high WM load. These findings demonstrate that the availability of WM is crucial for implementing expectancy-based strategic actions. PMID:28203218

  20. The Influence of Working Memory Load on Expectancy-Based Strategic Processes in the Stroop-Priming Task.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Álvarez, Dolores; Noguera, Carmen; Carmona, Encarna; de Fockert, Jan W

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a differential availability of cognitive control resources as a result of varying working memory (WM) load could affect the capacity for expectancy-based strategic actions. Participants performed a Stroop-priming task in which a prime word (GREEN or RED) was followed by a colored target (red vs. green) that participants had to identify. The prime was incongruent or congruent with the target color on 80 and 20% of the trials, respectively, and participants were informed about the differential proportion of congruent vs. incongruent trials. This task was interleaved with a WM task, such that the prime word was preceded by a sequence of either a same digit repeated five times (low load) or five different random digits (high load), which should be retained by participants. After two, three, or four Stroop trials, they had to decide whether or not a probe digit was a part of the memory set. The key finding was a significant interaction between prime-target congruency and WM load: Whereas a strategy-dependent (reversed Stroop) effect was found under low WM load, a standard Stroop interference effect was observed under high WM load. These findings demonstrate that the availability of WM is crucial for implementing expectancy-based strategic actions.

  1. Physicochemical characterization of lycopene-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier formulations for topical administration.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Riangjanapatee, Pornthida

    2015-01-30

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are interesting delivery systems for enhancing the penetration of an active substance through the skin after topical administration. In the present study, lycopene was loaded into NLC, composed of Eumulgin(®) SG, orange wax and rice bran oil, using high pressure homogenization (HPH). Photon correlation spectroscopy analysis showed that the lycopene-loaded NLC had a size of 150-160nm with a relatively small size distribution (PdI<0.15). The entrapment efficiency of lycopene was found to be 100±0% for all formulations. An in vitro release study of lycopene showed a biphasic release profile: a relatively fast release during the first 6h followed by a sustained release during the next 18h. An in vitro occlusion test showed that the occlusive properties of NLC increased with increasing lycopene loading. A free radical scavenging activity test of the NLC loaded with 50mg% lycopene showed a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value of 36.6±0.4μM Trolox/mg NLC which is higher than that of the NLC base (26.6±0.1μM Trolox/mg NLC). The concentration of 50% antioxidant activity (IC50) of the lycopene-loaded NLC was 14.1±0.6mg/mL, and lower than that of the formulation without lycopene (17.7±0.4mg/mL). The particle size, size distribution, and zeta potential of lycopene-loaded NLC stored at different temperatures of 4, 30, 40°C for 120 days did not change in time, demonstrating an excellent colloidal stability of the systems. Chemical stability data indicated that the utilization of NLC increased the stability of lycopene and it was found that the degradation of lycopene was retarded when stored at low temperatures. In conclusion, NLC are attractive systems for the cutaneous delivery of lycopene.

  2. Differences in plantar loading between flat and normal feet during different athletic tasks.

    PubMed

    Queen, Robin M; Mall, Nathan A; Nunley, James A; Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if foot type (flat or normal) resulted in loading differences during four sport-specific tasks (cross-cut, side-cut, shuttle run, and landing from a simulated lay-up). Twenty-two healthy subjects (12 normal feet and 10 flat feet) completed five trials in each condition, while in-shoe pressure data was collected at 50 Hz. Contact area, maximum force, and the force time integral were analyzed under the entire foot and in eight-foot regions. Foot type was determined by examining navicular height, arch angle, rearfoot angle, and a clinical score. A series of independent sample t-tests were used to determine statistical differences (alpha<0.05). During the cross-cut, flat feet demonstrated an increase in medial midfoot contact area. During the side-cut, flat feet demonstrated an increase in contact area, force time integral and maximum force in both the medial and lateral midfoot. During the shuttle run, flat feet demonstrated an increase in force time integral in the lateral midfoot and increases in maximum force in both the medial and lateral midfoot. During the landing task, flat feet demonstrated an increase in maximum force in the medial midfoot. However, flat feet demonstrate a decrease in middle forefoot maximum force. All results were statistically significant (p<0.05). Therefore, individuals with a normal foot could be at a lower risk for medial and lateral midfoot injuries such as metatarsal stress fractures, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual's risk for metatarsal stress fractures.

  3. Brain oscillatory 4-30 Hz responses during a visual n-back memory task with varying memory load.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Mirka; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Krause, Christina M

    2007-03-23

    Brain oscillatory responses of 4-30 Hz EEG frequencies elicited during the performance of a visual n-back task were examined in 36 adult volunteers. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) responses were examined separately for targets and non-targets in four different memory load conditions (0-, 1-, 2- and 3-back). The presentation of all stimuli in all memory load conditions elicited long-lasting theta frequency (approximately 4-6 Hz) ERS responses which were of greater magnitude for the target stimuli as compared to the non-target stimuli. Alpha frequency range (approximately 8-12 Hz) ERD responses were observed in all memory load conditions for both targets and non-targets. The duration of these alpha ERD responses increased with increasing memory load and reaction time. In all memory load conditions, early appearing beta rhythm (approximately 14-30 Hz) ERD responses were elicited, and with increasing memory load, these beta ERD responses became longer in duration. Additionally, beta ERS responses were observed in the 0- and 1-back memory load conditions. The current results reveal a complex interplay between brain oscillations at different frequencies during a cognitive task performance.

  4. Individual differences in working memory capacity determine the effects of oculomotor task load on concurrent word recall performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Kwon, Gusang; Lee, Aekyoung; Ghajar, Jamshid; Suh, Minah

    2011-07-05

    In this study, the interaction between individual differences in working memory capacity, which were assessed by the Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT), and the effects of oculomotor task load on word recall performance are examined in a dual-task experiment. We hypothesized that varying levels of oculomotor task load should result in different demands on cognitive resources. The verbal working memory task used in this study involved a brief exposure to seven words to be remembered, followed by a 30-second delay during which the subject carried out an oculomotor task. Then, memory performance was assessed by having the subjects recall as many words as possible. Forty healthy normal subjects with no vision-related problems carried out four separate dual-tasks over four consecutive days of participation, wherein word recall performances were tested under unpredictable random SPEM (smooth pursuit eye movement), predictive SPEM, fixation, and eyes-closed conditions. The word recall performance of subjects with low K-CVLT scores was significantly enhanced under predictive SPEM conditions as opposed to the fixation and eyes-closed conditions, but performance was reduced under the random SPEM condition, thus reflecting an inverted-U relationship between the oculomotor task load and word recall performance. Subjects with high K-CVLT scores evidenced steady word recall performances, regardless of the type of oculomotor task performed. The concurrent oculomotor performance measured by velocity error did not differ significantly among the K-CVLT groups. However, the high-scoring subjects evidenced smaller phase errors under predictive SPEM conditions than did the low-scoring subjects; this suggests that different resource allocation strategies may be adopted, depending on individuals' working memory capacity.

  5. Selection of Learning Tasks Based on Performance and Cognitive Load Scores as a Way To Optimize the Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salden, Ron J. C. M.; Paas, Fred; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    To attain highly efficient instructional conditions, it is important to adapt instruction to the individual trainee. This so-called personalization of training by dynamic/automatic task selection is the focus of this paper. Recently, cognitive load measures have been proposed as a useful addition to conventional performance measures like speed and…

  6. Identification of ergonomics interventions used to reduce musculoskeletal loading for building installation tasks.

    PubMed

    Albers, Jim; Estill, Cherie; MacDonald, Leslie

    2005-07-01

    Skilled workers in the mechanical and electrical installation (M/EI) building and construction trades experience high rates of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The M/EI trades involve installing piping; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), and electrical systems in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. In the absence of an ergonomics standard in the United States, some building and construction contractors, including M/EI sector contractors, have implemented various ergonomics interventions on their worksites on a voluntary basis. However, no data were available to determine the type of voluntary control measures being implemented, the task-specific hazards for which control measures needed to be developed or refined, and perceived barriers to improving hazard control. As part of a larger effort to obtain this data, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) organized a stakeholder meeting to gather information regarding ergonomics interventions or "best practices" by M/EI contractors and tradespeople. The attendees included 39 industry representatives, 17 construction ergonomics researchers from government and academia, and four ergonomics consultants with experience in the construction industry. Participants spent more than 50% of time meeting in small trade-specific breakout sessions. According to the participants, tasks common to the three trades included (1) drill holes and shoot fasteners; (2) place and install systems, and (3) lift and carry materials and equipment. Engineering interventions described in the stakeholder meeting included tools, equipment, and engineered building materials; administrative controls largely consisted of training and education programs and modifications of work and management practice. Most participants believed that there were significant limits to the impact individual contractors and tradespeople could have in leading ergonomics improvement in the

  7. Putting Patients First by Reducing Administrative Tasks in Health Care: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Shari M; Rockwern, Brooke; Koltov, Michelle; McLean, Robert

    2017-03-28

    This American College of Physicians (ACP) position paper, initiated and written by ACP's Medical Practice and Quality Committee and approved by the Board of Regents on 21 January 2017, reports policy recommendations to address the issue of administrative tasks to mitigate or eliminate their adverse effects on physicians, their patients, and the health care system as a whole. The paper outlines a cohesive framework for analyzing administrative tasks through several lenses to better understand any given task that a clinician and his or her staff may be required to perform. In addition, a scoping literature review and environmental scan were done to assess the effects on physician time, practice and system cost, and patient care due to the increase in administrative tasks. The findings from the scoping review, in addition to the framework, provide the backbone of detailed policy recommendations from the ACP to external stakeholders (such as payers, governmental oversight organizations, and vendors) regarding how any given administrative requirement, regulation, or program should be assessed, then potentially revised or removed entirely.

  8. Comparable Cerebral Oxygenation Patterns in Younger and Older Adults during Dual-Task Walking with Increasing Load

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Sarah A.; Dupuy, Olivier; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA) and older (OA) adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty) while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS) study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back). Changes in accuracy (%) as well as oxygenated (HbO) and deoxygenated (HbR) hemoglobin were examined. For the HbO and HbR measures, eight regions of interest (ROIs) were assessed: the anterior and posterior dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC (aDLPFC, pDLPFC, aVLPFC, pVLPFC) in each hemisphere. Nineteen YA (M = 21.83 years) and 14 OA (M = 66.85 years) walked at a self-selected pace while performing auditory 1-back and 2-back tasks. Walking alone (single motor: SM) and performing the cognitive tasks alone (single cognitive: SC) were compared to dual-task walking (DT = SM + SC). In the behavioural data, participants were more accurate in the lowest level of load (1-back) compared to the highest (2-back; p < 0.001). YA were more accurate than OA overall (p = 0.009), and particularly in the 2-back task (p = 0.048). In the fNIRS data, both younger and older adults had task effects (SM < DT) in specific ROIs for ΔHbO (three YA, one OA) and ΔHbR (seven YA, eight OA). After controlling for walk speed differences, direct comparisons between YA and OA did not reveal significant age differences, but did reveal a difficulty effect in HbO in the left aDLPFC (p = 0.028) and significant task effects (SM < DT) in HbR for six of the eight ROIs. Findings suggest that YA and OA respond similarly to manipulations of cognitive load when walking on a treadmill at a self-selected pace. PMID

  9. Marksmanship deficits caused by an exhaustive whole-body lifting task with and without torso-borne loads.

    PubMed

    Frykman, Peter N; Merullo, Donna J; Banderet, Louis E; Gregorczyk, Karen; Hasselquist, Leif

    2012-07-01

    Studies of exhaustive exercise on marksmanship are inconclusive and have not measured trigger pull latencies (LAT) nor considered impact of added torso loads. This study examined the impact of exhaustive whole-body exercise and torso loading on accuracy, precision, and latency during a marksmanship test. Twelve men lifted a 20.5-kg box on to a 1.55-m high shelf until they could not maintain a 12 lifts·min⁻¹ pace. Within 25 seconds of ending the lifting task, the subjects started a 10-minute rifle marksmanship test (8 shots·min⁻¹). During lifting and shooting, the subjects wore 2 different loads: NOLOAD = boots, uniform, and helmet (5.9 kg) and LOAD = a torso-borne load (29.9 kg) + NOLOAD. With the LOAD, the subjects were only able to work for 69% as long, perform 31% as many lifts, or do 38% as much total work compared with the NOLOAD condition. Despite performing less total external work during LOAD, the heart rate (HR) was more than 25% higher than NOLOAD. Measures of accuracy and precision improved and stabilized after minute 3. Overall, LAT increased (p < 0.025) for LOAD (mean ± SE, 2,522 ± 81 milliseconds), compared with NOLOAD (2,240 ± 121). During 0-4 minutes, LAT for LOAD was 14% greater than for NOLOAD (p < 0.05); from 4 to 10 minutes, LAT did not differ. Exhaustive whole-body exercise transiently degraded accuracy regardless of load. In the LOAD condition, LAT was immediately increased and sustained for 10 minutes; in the NOLOAD condition, LAT increased gradually. Although load did not decrease accuracy, it increased the time to engage targets, which can impact fighting effectiveness and survivability.

  10. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight... Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.76 Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight... Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.76 Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight... Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.76 Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and...

  13. Notes From the Field: Secondary Task Precision for Cognitive Load Estimation During Virtual Reality Surgical Simulation Training.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sebastian R; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Mads S; Andersen, Steven A W

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive load (CL) theory suggests that working memory can be overloaded in complex learning tasks such as surgical technical skills training, which can impair learning. Valid and feasible methods for estimating the CL in specific learning contexts are necessary before the efficacy of CL-lowering instructional interventions can be established. This study aims to explore secondary task precision for the estimation of CL in virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation and also investigate the effects of CL-modifying factors such as simulator-integrated tutoring and repeated practice. Twenty-four participants were randomized for visual assistance by a simulator-integrated tutor function during the first 5 of 12 repeated mastoidectomy procedures on a VR temporal bone simulator. Secondary task precision was found to be significantly lower during simulation compared with nonsimulation baseline, p < .001. Contrary to expectations, simulator-integrated tutoring and repeated practice did not have an impact on secondary task precision. This finding suggests that even though considerable changes in CL are reflected in secondary task precision, it lacks sensitivity. In contrast, secondary task reaction time could be more sensitive, but requires substantial postprocessing of data. Therefore, future studies on the effect of CL modifying interventions should weigh the pros and cons of the various secondary task measurements.

  14. Effects of memory load on event-related patterns of 40-Hz EEG during cognitive and motor tasks.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, V; Ray, W J

    1998-05-01

    The present study describes a phasic event-related synchronization (ERS) in the gamma band (36-44 Hz) induced by the onset of probe visual stimuli. The experiment consisted of two experimental tasks with high and low memory-load in which a geometrical figure (S1) was held in memory for comparison with a subsequent stimulus (S2). In each task a Go-NoGo paradigm was used with a Same-Different discrimination task. The aim of the study was to examine the influence on 40-Hz ERS of stimulus type ('Same-Different') and of response (Go-NoGo) task as moderated by activation or effort level (high/low memory-load). The investigation was carried out in 27 women. The EEG was recorded from FP1, FP2, F3, F4, P3, P4, O1 and O2 scalp sites referenced to linked earlobes. As a manipulation check for activation level, we recorded heart rate (HR) during the S1-S2 period. A main peak of activity was found around 160 ms with a maximum at occipital sites. The amplitude of this peak was higher in the high memory-load as compared to the low memory-load condition. This difference was manifested mainly at F3 and O2 scalp sites. A larger 40-Hz peak at F3 was also found in the Go compared to the NoGo condition. No 40-Hz ERS differences between Same and Different trials were observed. The HR was found sensitive to the stimulus type showing a greater HR deceleration response to S2 for Same trials, as compared to Different ones. In parallel with 40-Hz ERS response, the HR deceleration was more pronounced for the high memory-load as compared to the low memory-load condition. The results indicate that the 40-Hz ERS is dependent upon both memory-load and motor responding. The influence of memory load on cognitive (Same-Different) and motor response (Go-NoGo) variables is discussed.

  15. Memory load effect in auditory-verbal short-term memory task: EEG fractal and spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Stokić, Miodrag; Milovanović, Dragan; Ljubisavljević, Miloš R; Nenadović, Vanja; Čukić, Milena

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to quantify changes in complexity of EEG using fractal dimension (FD) alongside linear methods of spectral power, event-related spectral perturbations, coherence, and source localization of EEG generators for theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-23 Hz) frequency bands due to a memory load effect in an auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) task for words. We examined 20 healthy individuals using the Sternberg's paradigm with increasing memory load (three, five, and seven words). The stimuli were four-letter words. Artifact-free 5-s EEG segments during retention period were analyzed. The most significant finding was the increase in FD with the increase in memory load in temporal regions T3 and T4, and in parietal region Pz, while decrease in FD with increase in memory load was registered in frontal midline region Fz. Results point to increase in frontal midline (Fz) theta spectral power, decrease in alpha spectral power in parietal region-Pz, and increase in beta spectral power in T3 and T4 region with increase in memory load. Decrease in theta coherence within right hemisphere due to memory load was obtained. Alpha coherence increased in posterior regions with anterior decrease. Beta coherence increased in fronto-temporal regions. Source localization delineated theta activity increase in frontal midline region, alpha decrease in superior parietal region, and beta increase in superior temporal gyrus with increase in memory load. In conclusion, FD as a nonlinear measure may serve as a sensitive index for quantifying dynamical changes in EEG signals during AVSTM tasks.

  16. The Effects of Direction of Exertion, Path, and Load Placement in Nursing Cart Pushing and Pulling Tasks: An Electromyographical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huei Chu; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Lee, Yung Hui; Chen, Su Huang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of direction of exertion (DOE) (pushing, pulling), path (walking in a straight line, turning left, walking uphill), and load placement (LP) (the 18 blocks were indicated by X, Y and Z axis; there were 3 levels on the X axis, 2 levels on the Y axis, and 3 levels on the Z axis) on muscle activity and ratings of perceived exertion in nursing cart pushing and pulling tasks. Ten participants who were female students and not experienced nurses were recruited to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 108 experimental trials in the study, consisting of 2 directions of exertion (push and pull), 3 paths, and 18 load placements (indicated by X, Y and Z axes). A 23kg load was placed into one load placement. The dependent variables were electromyographic (EMG) data of four muscles collected bilaterally as follows: Left (L) and right (R) trapezius (TR), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor digitorum (ED), and erector spinae (ES) and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Split-split-plot ANOVA was conducted to analyze significant differences between DOE, path, and LP in the EMG and RPE data. Pulling cart tasks produced a significantly higher activation of the muscles (RTR:54.4%, LTR:50.3%, LFDS:57.0%, LED:63.4%, RES:40.7%, LES:36.7%) than pushing cart tasks (RTR:42.4%, LTR:35.1%, LFDS:32.3%, LED:55.1%, RES:33.3%, LES:32.1%). A significantly greater perceived exertion was found in pulling cart tasks than pushing cart tasks. Significantly higher activation of all muscles and perceived exertion were observed for walking uphill than walking in a straight line and turning left. Significantly lower muscle activity of all muscles and subject ratings were observed for the central position on the X axis, the bottom position on the Y axis, and the posterior position on the Z axis. These findings suggest that nursing staff should adopt forward pushing when moving a nursing cart, instead of backward

  17. Determining Exercise Strength Requirements for Astronaut Critical Mission Tasks: Reaching Under G-Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The critical mission tasks assessments effort seeks to determine the physical performance requirements that astronauts must meet in order to safely and successfully accomplish lunar exploration missions. These assessments will determine astronaut preflight strength, fitness, and flexibility requirements, and the extent to which exercise and other countermeasures must prevent the physical deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The purpose is to determine the flexibility and strength that crewmembers must possess in order to reach Crew Exploration Vehicle controls during maneuvers that result in sustained acceleration levels ranging from 3.7G to 7.8G. An industry standard multibody dynamics application was used to create human models representing a 5th percentile female, a 50th percentile male, and a 95th percentile male. The additional mass of a space suit sleeve was added to the reaching arm to account for the influence of the suit mass on the reaching effort. The human model was merged with computer models of a pilot seat and control panel for the Crew Exploration Vehicle. Three dimensional paths were created that guided the human models hand from a starting position alongside its thigh to three control targets: a joystick, a keyboard, and an overhead switch panel. The reaching motion to each target was repeated under four vehicle acceleration conditions: nominal ascent (3.7G), two ascent aborts (5.5G and 7.8G) and lunar reentry (4.6G). Elbow and shoulder joint angular excursions were analyzed to assess range of motion requirements. Mean and peak elbow and shoulder joint torques were determined and converted to equivalent resistive exercise loads to assess strength requirements. Angular excursions for the 50th and 95th percentile male models remained within joint range of motion limits. For the 5th percentile female, both the elbow and the shoulder exceeded range of motion limits during the overhead reach. Elbow joint torques ranged from 10 N

  18. Effects of stress, corticosterone, and epinephrine administration on learning in place and response tasks.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Renee N; Jackson, Gloria R; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Gold, Paul E

    2009-12-14

    These experiments examined the effects of prior stress, corticosterone, or epinephrine on learning in mazes that can be solved efficiently using either place or response strategies. In a repeated stress condition, rats received restraint stress for 6h/day for 21 days, ending 24h before food-motivated maze training. In two single stress conditions, rats received a 1-h episode of restraint stress ending 30 min or 24h prior to training. Single stress ending 30 min prior to training resulted in a significant interaction of stress and learning on the two tasks, with significant enhancement of learning in the response task and non-significant impairment in the place task. Neither acute nor chronic stress significantly altered learning in either task when the stress ended 24h before training. Thus, the anterograde effects of stress on maze learning ended within a single day. Two stress-related hormones, corticosterone and epinephrine, were tested for effects on learning parallel to those of acute stress. When administered 30 min prior to training, a corticosterone dose (40 mg/kg) that enhanced memory on a spontaneous alternation task did not significantly enhance or impair learning in either task. Two doses of epinephrine that modulate memory in other settings were used to test the effects of epinephrine on learning. Pre-training injections of 0.03 mg/kg epinephrine impaired place learning, while 0.1mg/kg epinephrine impaired response learning. The epinephrine results mimicked those seen with acute stress on the place task, but were opposite those seen after acute stress on the response task. Thus, corticosterone does not appear to be a major factor mediating the effects of acute stress on place and response learning and epinephrine is, at most, a partial contributor to these effects.

  19. Measuring cognitive load during simulation-based psychomotor skills training: sensitivity of secondary-task performance and subjective ratings.

    PubMed

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance (signal detection rate, SDR and recognition reaction time, RRT) as measures of CL. In phase 1 of the study, novice learners and expert surgeons attempted a visual-monitoring task under two conditions: single-task (monitoring a virtual patient's heart-rate) and dual-task (tying surgical knots on a bench-top simulator while monitoring the virtual patient's heart-rate). Novices demonstrated higher mental effort and inferior secondary-task performance on the dual-task compared to experts (RRT 1.76 vs. 0.73, p = 0.012; SDR 0.27 vs. 0.97, p < 0.001; SRME 7.75 vs. 2.80, p < 0.001). Similarly, secondary task performance deteriorated from baseline to dual-task among novices (RRT 0.63 vs. 1.76 s, p < 0.006 and SDR 1.00 vs. 0.27, p < 0.001), but not experts (RRT 0.63 vs. 0.73 s, p = 0.124 and SDR 1.00 vs. 0.97, p = 0.178). In phase 2, novices practiced surgical knot-tying on the bench top simulator during consecutive dual-task trials. A significant increase in SDR (F(9,63) = 6.63, p < 0.001, f = 0.97) and decrease in SRME (F(9,63) = 9.39, p < 0.001, f = 1.04) was observed during simulation training, while RRT did not change significantly (F(9,63) = 1.18, p < 0.32, f = 0.41). The results suggest subjective ratings and dual-task performance can be used to track changes in CL among novices, particularly in early phases of simulation-based skills training. The implications for measuring CL in simulation instructional design research are discussed.

  20. Longitudinal load and cascading failure risk assessment (CASE): Bonneville Power Administration`s 230/500-kV Longview-Olympia transmission line. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorp, M.

    1998-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) Cascading Failure Risk Assessment (CASE) methodology was used to determine extreme event, unbalanced loads on Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 230/500-kV, single circuit, Longview-Olympia transmission line and to identify the cascading potential of the line under five different loading conditions. More specifically, BPA wanted to evaluate the cascading potential of the Type 2L, Type 2A1, and Type 238M tangent structures which comprise a significant portion of the line. While other cascading assessment methods primarily focus on the magnitude of the unbalanced loads acting on the first structure from the initiating event, EPRI`s CASE method incorporates the dynamic response and damping characteristics of the transmission line to determine the unbalanced longitudinal loads at any structure away from the initiating failure event. The CASE application constituted an investigation into the nature of the extreme loads that are expected to occur on the 230/500-kV Longview-Olympia transmission line during a cascading failure and the corresponding dynamic response. The goals of the investigation were: to quantify unbalanced longitudinal loads acting on structures adjacent to the broken insulator, shield wire, or conductor failure as well as down-line structures; and to assess the cascading potential of the Longview-Olympia transmission line by considering the energy dissipation at successive spans and supports. The results of the CASE method showed that BPA`s longitudinal loading criteria for the Type 2L, 2A1, and 238 M lattice towers satisfy BPA`s containment failure design philosophy with the addition of fiber optic cable. BPA`s longitudinal loading criteria applied simultaneously with extreme ice or wind does not provide adequate strength to prevent a cascade of less than ten towers.

  1. CancellationTools: All-in-one software for administration and analysis of cancellation tasks.

    PubMed

    Dalmaijer, Edwin S; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Cornelissen, Tim H W; Husain, Masud

    2015-12-01

    In a cancellation task, a participant is required to search for and cross out ("cancel") targets, which are usually embedded among distractor stimuli. The number of cancelled targets and their location can be used to diagnose the neglect syndrome after stroke. In addition, the organization of search provides a potentially useful way to measure executive control over multitarget search. Although many useful cancellation measures have been introduced, most fail to make their way into research studies and clinical practice due to the practical difficulty of acquiring such parameters from traditional pen-and-paper measures. Here we present new, open-source software that is freely available to all. It allows researchers and clinicians to flexibly administer computerized cancellation tasks using stimuli of their choice, and to directly analyze the data in a convenient manner. The automated analysis suite provides output that includes almost all of the currently existing measures, as well as several new ones introduced here. All tasks can be performed using either a computer mouse or a touchscreen as an input device, and an online version of the task runtime is available for tablet devices. A summary of the results is produced in a single A4-sized PDF document, including high quality data visualizations. For research purposes, batch analysis of large datasets is possible. In sum, CancellationTools allows users to employ a flexible, computerized cancellation task, which provides extensive benefits and ease of use.

  2. Task-load-dependent activation of dopaminergic midbrain areas in the absence of reward.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Carsten N; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Stoppel, Christian M; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Noesselt, Toemme

    2011-03-30

    Dopamine release in cortical and subcortical structures plays a central role in reward-related neural processes. Within this context, dopaminergic inputs are commonly assumed to play an activating role, facilitating behavioral and cognitive operations necessary to obtain a prospective reward. Here, we provide evidence from human fMRI that this activating role can also be mediated by task-demand-related processes and thus extends beyond situations that only entail extrinsic motivating factors. Using a visual discrimination task in which varying levels of task demands were precued, we found enhanced hemodynamic activity in the substantia nigra (SN) for high task demands in the absence of reward or similar extrinsic motivating factors. This observation thus indicates that the SN can also be activated in an endogenous fashion. In parallel to its role in reward-related processes, reward-independent activation likely serves to recruit the processing resources needed to meet enhanced task demands. Simultaneously, activity in a wide network of cortical and subcortical control regions was enhanced in response to high task demands, whereas areas of the default-mode network were deactivated more strongly. The present observations suggest that the SN represents a core node within a broader neural network that adjusts the amount of available neural and behavioral resources to changing situational opportunities and task requirements, which is often driven by extrinsic factors but can also be controlled endogenously.

  3. Chitosan-clodronate nanoparticles loaded in poloxamer gel for intra-articular administration.

    PubMed

    Russo, E; Gaglianone, N; Baldassari, S; Parodi, B; Croce, I; Bassi, A M; Vernazza, S; Caviglioli, G

    2016-07-01

    This work was based on the study of an intra-articular delivery system constituted by a poloxamer gel vehiculating clodronate in chitosan nanoparticles. This system has been conceived to obtain a specific and controlled release of clodronate in the joints to reduce the arthritis rheumatoid degenerative effect. Clodronate (CLO) is a first-generation bisphosphonate with anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting the cytokine and NO secretion from macrophages, therefore causing apoptosis in these cells. This is related to its ability to be metabolized by cells and converted into a cytotoxic intermediate as a non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP. Chitosan (CHI) was used to develop nanosystems, by ionotropic gelation induced by clodronate itself. A fractional factorial experimental design allowed us to obtain nanoparticles, the diameter of which ranged from 200 to 300nm. Glutaraldehyde was used to increase nanoparticle stability and modify the drug release profile. The zeta potential value of crosslinked nanopaparticles was 21.0mV±1.3, while drug loading was 31.0%±5.4 w/w; nanoparticle yield was 18.2%±1.8 w/w, the encapsulation efficiency was 48.8%±9.9 w/w. Nanoparticles were homogenously loaded in a poloxamer sol, and the drug delivery system is produced in-situ after local administration, when sol become gel at physiological temperature. The properties of poloxamer gels containing CHI-CLO nanoparticles, such as viscosity, gelation temperature and drug release properties, were evaluated. In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of these nanoparticles on a human monocytic cell line (THP1). The results showed that this drug delivery system is more efficient, with respect to the free drug, to counteract the inflammatory process characteristic of several degenerative diseases.

  4. Job Tasks Performed by Career Preparation System Administrators in One Midwestern State: Implications for Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderMolen, Julia; Zinzer, Richard

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to prepare new leaders in Career and Technical Education due to retirements and because the job demands have changed over the years. In order to verify the curriculum for leadership development programs, a study was conducted to measure the importance and frequency of job tasks performed by Career Preparation System administrators…

  5. Cognitive load reduces visual identity negative priming by disabling the retrieval of task-inappropriate prime information: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Henning; Stahl, Jutta

    2010-05-12

    The present event-related potentials (ERP) study investigated the mechanisms by which cognitive load reduces the negative priming (NP) effect in a letter flanker task. On each trial, participants (N=20) first encoded a set of one to five digits, then responded to two successive flanker displays (prime, probe), and finally recalled a certain digit from the set. The flanker NP effect (i.e., increased probe RT when the prime distractor repeated as the probe target) was significant under low (1-2 items) but not high cognitive load (4-5 items). NP in the low-load condition was accompanied by left-anterior P2/N2 amplitude modulation which was also observed for prime-probe target repetitions and hence may reflect the processing of prime-probe similarity. Under high load, the P2/N2 effect was absent. It is suggested that cognitive load interferes with a retrieval-based mechanism in NP. Findings support episodic-retrieval explanations of visual identity-based NP.

  6. Effects of domain-specific exercise load on speed and accuracy of a domain-specific perceptual-cognitive task.

    PubMed

    Schapschröer, M; Baker, J; Schorer, J

    2016-08-01

    In the context of perceptual-cognitive expertise it is important to know whether physiological loads influence perceptual-cognitive performance. This study examined whether a handball specific physical exercise load influenced participants' speed and accuracy in a flicker task. At rest and during a specific interval exercise of 86.5-90% HRmax, 35 participants (experts: n=8, advanced: n=13, novices, n=14) performed a handball specific flicker task with two types of patterns (structured and unstructured). For reaction time, results revealed moderate effect sizes for group, with experts reacting faster than advanced and advanced reacting faster than novices, and for structure, with structured videos being performed faster than unstructured ones. A significant interaction for structure×group was also found, with experts and advanced players faster for structured videos, and novices faster for unstructured videos. For accuracy, significant main effects were found for structure with structured videos solved more accurately. A significant interaction for structure×group was revealed, with experts and advanced more accurate for structured scenes and novices more accurate for unstructured scenes. A significant interaction was also found for condition×structure; at rest, unstructured and structured scenes were performed with the same accuracy while under physical exercise, structured scenes were solved more accurately. No other interactions were found. These results were somewhat surprising given previous work in this area, although the impact of a specific physical exercise on a specific perceptual-cognitive task may be different from those tested generally.

  7. Curcumin loaded NLC induces histone hypoacetylation in the CNS after intraperitoneal administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Frasca, Giuseppina; Musumeci, Teresa; Rizza, Luisa; Puglisi, Giovanni; Bonina, Francesco; Chiechio, Santina

    2012-06-01

    The natural p300-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor, curcumin (CUR), has been widely investigated for its potential therapeutic effect as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Notwithstanding this interesting pharmacological profile, CUR shows some drawbacks, such as poor absorption and a very fast metabolism and elimination, that limit its clinical use. Aim of the present study was to formulate CUR loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC-CUR) in order to improve the bioavailability and stability of this compound after systemic administration with increased effects in the central nervous system (CNS). NLC-CUR were prepared and characterized on their physicochemical properties by PCS and DSC analyses. Thus, NLC-CUR were systemically injected and the effects in the CNS were compared with a CUR control formulation containing 0.05% DMSO (DMSO-CUR). Our results demonstrate that CUR is able to decrease histone acetylation in the CNS when included in NLCs. Western blot analysis shows that intraperitoneal injection of NLC-CUR (100mg/kg) in mice induces a marked hypoacetylation of histone 4 (H4) at lysine 12 (K12) in the spinal cord compared with control group. Notably, DMSO-CUR (100mg/kg) did not change the H4K12 acetylation level in the CNS. Our study suggests a novel approach to ameliorate the pharmacokinetics of CUR that allows a better permeation in the CNS.

  8. Effects of Age and Task Load on Drivers’ Response Accuracy and Reaction Time When Responding to Traffic Lights

    PubMed Central

    Salvia, Emilie; Petit, Claire; Champely, Stéphane; Chomette, René; Di Rienzo, Franck; Collet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Due to population aging, elderly drivers represent an increasing proportion of car drivers. Yet, how aging alters sensorimotor functions and impacts driving safety remains poorly understood. This paper aimed at assessing to which extent elderly drivers are sensitive to various task loads and how this affects the reaction time (RT) in a driving context. Old and middle-aged people completed RT tasks which reproduced cognitive demands encountered while driving. Participants had to detect and respond to traffic lights or traffic light arrows as quickly as possible, under three experimental conditions of incremental difficulty. In both groups, we hypothesized that decision-making would be impacted by the number of cues to be processed. The first test was a simple measure of RT. The second and third tests were choice RT tasks requiring the processing of 3 and 5 cues, respectively. Responses were collected within a 2 s time-window. Otherwise, the trial was considered a no-response. In both groups, the data revealed that RT, error rate (incorrect answers), and no-response rate increased along with task difficulty. However, the middle-aged group outperformed the elderly group. The RT difference between the two groups increased drastically along with task difficulty. In the third test, the rate of no-response suggested that elderly drivers needed more than 2 s to process complex information and respond accurately. Both prolonged RT and increased no-response rate, especially for difficult tasks, might attest an impairment of cognitive abilities in relation to aging. Accordingly, casual driving conditions for young drivers may be particularly complex and stressful for elderly people who should thus be informed about the effects of normal aging upon driving. PMID:27462266

  9. The Beneficial Effects of Additional Task Load, Positive Affect, and Instruction on the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2006-01-01

    The attentional blink reflects the impaired ability to identify the 2nd of 2 targets presented in close succession--a phenomenon that is generally thought to reflect a fundamental cognitive limitation. However, the fundamental nature of this impairment has recently been called into question by the counterintuitive finding that task-irrelevant…

  10. Rhesus monkeys employ a procedural strategy to reduce working memory load in a self-ordered spatial search task.

    PubMed

    Taffe, Michael A; Taffe, William J

    2011-09-21

    Several nonhuman primate species have been reported to employ a distance-minimizing, traveling salesman-like, strategy during foraging as well as in experimental spatial search tasks involving lesser amounts of locomotion. Spatial sequencing may optimize performance by reducing reference or episodic memory loads, locomotor costs, competition or other demands. A computerized self-ordered spatial search (SOSS) memory task has been adapted from a human neuropsychological testing battery (CANTAB, Cambridge Cognition, Ltd) for use in monkeys. Accurate completion of a trial requires sequential responses to colored boxes in two or more spatial locations without repetition of a previous location. Marmosets have been reported to employ a circling pattern of search, suggesting spontaneous adoption of a strategy to reduce working memory load. In this study the SOSS performance of rhesus monkeys was assessed to determine if the use of a distance-minimizing search path enhances accuracy. A novel strategy score, independent of the trial difficulty and arrangement of boxes, has been devised. Analysis of the performance of 21 monkeys trained on SOSS over 2 years shows that a distance-minimizing search strategy is associated with improved accuracy. This effect is observed within individuals as they improve over many cumulative sessions of training on the task and across individuals at any given level of training. Erroneous trials were associated with a failure to deploy the strategy. It is concluded that the effect of utilizing the strategy on this locomotion-free, laboratory task is to enhance accuracy by reducing demands on spatial working memory resources.

  11. Effect of time span and task load on pilot mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1986-01-01

    Two sets of simulations designed to examine how a pilot's mental workload is affected by continuous manual-control activity versus discrete mental tasks that included the length of time between receiving an assignment and executing it are described. The first experiment evaluated two types of measures: objective performance indicators and subjective ratings. Subjective ratings for the two missions were different, but the objective performance measures were similar. In the second experiments, workload levels were increased and a second performance measure was taken. Mental workload had no influence on either performance-based workload measure. Subjective ratings discriminated among the scenarios and correlated with performance measures for high-workload flights. The number of mental tasks performed did not influence error rates, although high manual workloads did increase errors.

  12. Increased Memory Load during Task Completion when Procedures Are Presented on Mobile Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Keena S.; Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to compare procedure-based task performance using three common mobile screen sizes: ultra mobile personal computer (7 in./17.8 cm), personal data assistant (3.5 in./8.9 cm), and SmartPhone (2.8 in./7.1 cm). Subjects used these three screen sizes to view and execute a computer maintenance procedure.…

  13. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  14. Design of an Adaptive Human-Machine System Based on Dynamical Pattern Recognition of Cognitive Task-Load.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Wang, Rubin

    2017-01-01

    This paper developed a cognitive task-load (CTL) classification algorithm and allocation strategy to sustain the optimal operator CTL levels over time in safety-critical human-machine integrated systems. An adaptive human-machine system is designed based on a non-linear dynamic CTL classifier, which maps a set of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) related features to a few CTL classes. The least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as dynamic pattern classifier. A series of electrophysiological and performance data acquisition experiments were performed on seven volunteer participants under a simulated process control task environment. The participant-specific dynamic LSSVM model is constructed to classify the instantaneous CTL into five classes at each time instant. The initial feature set, comprising 56 EEG and ECG related features, is reduced to a set of 12 salient features (including 11 EEG-related features) by using the locality preserving projection (LPP) technique. An overall correct classification rate of about 80% is achieved for the 5-class CTL classification problem. Then the predicted CTL is used to adaptively allocate the number of process control tasks between operator and computer-based controller. Simulation results showed that the overall performance of the human-machine system can be improved by using the adaptive automation strategy proposed.

  15. Design of an Adaptive Human-Machine System Based on Dynamical Pattern Recognition of Cognitive Task-Load

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Wang, Rubin

    2017-01-01

    This paper developed a cognitive task-load (CTL) classification algorithm and allocation strategy to sustain the optimal operator CTL levels over time in safety-critical human-machine integrated systems. An adaptive human-machine system is designed based on a non-linear dynamic CTL classifier, which maps a set of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) related features to a few CTL classes. The least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as dynamic pattern classifier. A series of electrophysiological and performance data acquisition experiments were performed on seven volunteer participants under a simulated process control task environment. The participant-specific dynamic LSSVM model is constructed to classify the instantaneous CTL into five classes at each time instant. The initial feature set, comprising 56 EEG and ECG related features, is reduced to a set of 12 salient features (including 11 EEG-related features) by using the locality preserving projection (LPP) technique. An overall correct classification rate of about 80% is achieved for the 5-class CTL classification problem. Then the predicted CTL is used to adaptively allocate the number of process control tasks between operator and computer-based controller. Simulation results showed that the overall performance of the human-machine system can be improved by using the adaptive automation strategy proposed. PMID:28367110

  16. Effect of time span and task load on pilot mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two sets of experiments were run to examine how the mental workload of a pilot might be measured. The effects of continuous manual control activity versus discrete assigned mental tasks (including the length of time between receiving an assignment and executing it) were examined. The first experiment evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of measuring mental workload with an objective perforamance (altitude deviations) and five subjective ratings (activity level, complexity, difficulty, stress, and workload). The second set of experiments built upon the first set by increasing workload intensities and adding another performance measure: airspeed deviation. The results are discussed for both low and high experience pilots.

  17. A unique form of light-load training improves steadiness and performance on some functional tasks in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Koyama, Y; Enoka, R M; Suzuki, S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning Movement Load (BML) training is a unique form of light-load training that comprises a lengthening-shortening sequence of muscle actions about multiple degrees of freedom. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of BML training at improving the performance of old adults on four functional tasks and to identify some of the neuromuscular adaptations that contributed to these gains. Healthy old adults (67.5 ± 5.23 years) were randomly assigned to either a BML training group (n = 17) or a control group (n = 7). The training group exercised with a 30% of the one repetition-maximum (1-RM) load and performed five to seven sets of 15 repetitions, three times per week for 8 weeks. BML training increased maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force significantly for the knee extensors (31.6%), but not the elbow flexors (9.8%), and improved the steadiness of isometric contractions (10%, 30%, and 65% MVC forces). Training-associated changes in times for ascending and descending stairs and one-legged balance, but not the chair rise, were predicted by changes in selected combinations of MVC force and steadiness. The attributes of BML training that enabled it to elicit functionally meaningful adaptations in the neuromuscular system of older adults should be explored with more mechanistic studies.

  18. Conflict monitoring and adjustment in the task-switching paradigm under different memory load conditions: an ERP/sLORETA analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuqin; Wang, Yan; Ding, Xiaoqian; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2015-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to examine electrophysiological and behavioral changes caused by different memory loads in a task-switching paradigm. A total of 31 healthy individuals were subjected to a task, in which the stimulus-response reversal paradigm was combined with the task-switching paradigm. The event-related potentials were recorded and the N2 component, an index of conflict processing, was measured. In addition, the neural sources of N2 were further analyzed by standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. The event-related potential results showed that high memory load triggered a higher N2 mean amplitude. Moreover, the standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography data showed that high memory load caused an increase in current densities at the anterior cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the task-switching paradigm. In summary, our findings provide electrophysiological evidence to interpret possible influences of memory loads on conflict monitoring and modulation during the task switching. These results imply that the working memory load overrules the influence of task-switching performance on the intensification of cognitive control.

  19. Task 3 Milestone Report, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) LOX Loading Facility Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, V. L.

    1975-01-01

    Transient thermodynamic analyses have been made for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) LOX loading system proposed for the space shuttle. The primary objective of these analyses is to predict the sensitivity of system performance to operating procedures, flow rate, temperature, and quality at the orbiter (ORB)/ground service equipment (GSE) interface. A further objective is to establish required system chill-down times. These analyses also include the prediction of transient thermodynamic conditions for the facility vent line, shuttle main engine (SSME) feed line entrance, ORB/ET interface, and the ET entrance (tank bottom).

  20. Brain slow potential and ERP changes associated with operator load in a visual tracking task.

    PubMed

    McCallum, W C; Cooper, R; Pocock, P V

    1988-05-01

    Brain electrophysiological changes occurring during the course of a visual tracking task were recorded from 24 normal subjects under varying conditions of workload. Recordings were made with directly coupled amplifiers from 4 scalp midline locations and of vertical and horizontal EOG. The task was to track with a joystick a moving letter on a video monitor screen. Various decisions and button pressing responses were required from the subject during the course of each tracking trial, the total duration of a trial being 28 sec. Trial difficulty was varied by requiring identification of 'targets' or 'non-targets' based on a pre-learned 1-, 3- or 6-letter set of possible targets, by varying speed and distance travelled by the letter and by the introduction of movement perturbation. Sustained negative slow potential (SP) shifts were associated with the introduction and course of each trial. These had 2 phases: an early phase related to memorization and rehearsal and a later stage associated with the tracking itself. Increasing tracking difficulty resulted in an increased negative DC shift during the tracking stage. Increased memory set size caused a reduction in the negative shift during the preparatory, memorization phase. The experimental manipulations of difficulty also resulted in a number of changes in the amplitude and/or latency of ERP components associated with the various points of decision or response.

  1. FDA review of viral load test kits. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    1996-03-01

    Viral load testing, which quantifies the amount of HIV in the blood plasma of infected individuals, may dramatically shorten the time necessary to test drugs prior to approval and marketing. Two manufacturers have applied for approval of their test kits. Hoffman-LaRoche (Roche Molecular Systems) developed a test kit called quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (quantitative PCR). Chiron Corporation's product is called branched chain DNA, or bDNA. Both tests give similar results. Viral load is an indicator of the effectiveness of drug therapy, and high viral load is an indicator of disease progression and clinical decline.

  2. Career changes among physical educators: searching for new goals or escaping a heavy task load?

    PubMed

    Bizet, Ivan; Laurencelle, Louis; Lemoyne, Jean; Larouche, Richard; Trudeau, François

    2010-06-01

    Physical educators experience several occupational constraints and a high risk of physical injury associated with a high attrition rate. Our investigation aimed at identifying the principal career reorientation factors among physical educators and reasons for their career changes. This research used semistructured interviews (n = 53) that were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. While younger teachers frequently invoked job precariousness, the more experienced teachers and those who made a transition toward other teaching functions put more emphasis on teaching problems, work conditions, and physical context. Those who transferred toward administrative duties insisted on their desire for a new challenge. Our study indicates that career reorientation is most often associated with job precariousness and the pursuit of new challenges, respectively, for younger and older physical educators.

  3. Tremor modulations across periods with and without voluntary motion and limb load task demands using movement quantification.

    PubMed

    Faria, Paula; Patrício, Miguel; Philipiak, Gregor; Caramelo, Francisco; Januário, Cristina; Freire, António; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying different types of tremor and the altered functional connectivity of the involved areas is a timely goal in clinical neuroscience. If successful, this quest may open new perspectives on how to achieve tremor modulation, which is notably relevant, in Parkinson's disease (PD). Tremor can be characterized by simple parameters such as frequency and amplitude. It is therefore prone to be objectively targeted by neuromodulation and quantitatively investigated using multimodal techniques, such as, accelerometry, EMG and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Embarking on the latter challenge requires an a priori knowledge of how effective functional connectivity is altered in PD tremor. This works aims to ascertain which postural and voluntary movement tasks with distinct types of physical load are suitable for designing efficient fMRI protocols, by performing an accelerometry analysis to measure spontaneous and imposed tremor modulation on cohorts of PD patients, essential tremor patients and a group of voluntary healthy controls.

  4. High Working Memory Load Impairs Language Processing during a Simulated Piloting Task: An ERP and Pupillometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Causse, Mickaël; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Fabre, Eve F.

    2016-01-01

    Given the important amount of visual and auditory linguistic information that pilots have to process, operating an aircraft generates a high working-memory load (WML). In this context, the ability to focus attention on relevant information and to remain responsive to concurrent stimuli might be altered. Consequently, understanding the effects of WML on the processing of both linguistic targets and distractors is of particular interest in the study of pilot performance. In the present work, participants performed a simplified piloting task in which they had to follow one of three colored aircraft, according to specific written instructions (i.e., the written word for the color corresponding to the color of one of the aircraft) and to ignore either congruent or incongruent concurrent auditory distractors (i.e., a spoken name of color). The WML was manipulated with an n-back sub-task. Participants were instructed to apply the current written instruction in the low WML condition, and the 2-back written instruction in the high WML condition. Electrophysiological results revealed a major effect of WML at behavioral (i.e., decline of piloting performance), electrophysiological, and autonomic levels (i.e., greater pupil diameter). Increased WML consumed resources that could not be allocated to the processing of the linguistic stimuli, as indexed by lower P300/P600 amplitudes. Also, significantly, lower P600 responses were measured in incongruent vs. congruent trials in the low WML condition, showing a higher difficulty reorienting attention toward the written instruction, but this effect was canceled in the high WML condition. This suppression of interference in the high load condition is in line with the engagement/distraction trade-off model. We propose that P300/P600 components could be reliable indicators of WML and that they allow an estimation of its impact on the processing of linguistic stimuli. PMID:27252639

  5. High Working Memory Load Impairs Language Processing during a Simulated Piloting Task: An ERP and Pupillometry Study.

    PubMed

    Causse, Mickaël; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Fabre, Eve F

    2016-01-01

    Given the important amount of visual and auditory linguistic information that pilots have to process, operating an aircraft generates a high working-memory load (WML). In this context, the ability to focus attention on relevant information and to remain responsive to concurrent stimuli might be altered. Consequently, understanding the effects of WML on the processing of both linguistic targets and distractors is of particular interest in the study of pilot performance. In the present work, participants performed a simplified piloting task in which they had to follow one of three colored aircraft, according to specific written instructions (i.e., the written word for the color corresponding to the color of one of the aircraft) and to ignore either congruent or incongruent concurrent auditory distractors (i.e., a spoken name of color). The WML was manipulated with an n-back sub-task. Participants were instructed to apply the current written instruction in the low WML condition, and the 2-back written instruction in the high WML condition. Electrophysiological results revealed a major effect of WML at behavioral (i.e., decline of piloting performance), electrophysiological, and autonomic levels (i.e., greater pupil diameter). Increased WML consumed resources that could not be allocated to the processing of the linguistic stimuli, as indexed by lower P300/P600 amplitudes. Also, significantly, lower P600 responses were measured in incongruent vs. congruent trials in the low WML condition, showing a higher difficulty reorienting attention toward the written instruction, but this effect was canceled in the high WML condition. This suppression of interference in the high load condition is in line with the engagement/distraction trade-off model. We propose that P300/P600 components could be reliable indicators of WML and that they allow an estimation of its impact on the processing of linguistic stimuli.

  6. Comparison of the Working Memory Load in N-Back and Working Memory Span Tasks by Means of EEG Frequency Band Power and P300 Amplitude.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Christian; Soutschek, Alexander; Schubert, Torsten; Gerjets, Peter

    2017-01-01

    According to theoretical accounts, both, N-back and complex span tasks mainly require working memory (WM) processing. In contrast, simple span tasks conceptually mainly require WM storage. Thus, conceptually, an N-back task and a complex span task share more commonalities as compared to a simple span task. In the current study, we compared an N-back task, a complex operation span task (Ospan), and a simple digit span task (Dspan) by means of typical WM load-related measures of the Electroencephalogram (EEG) like the parietal alpha and beta frequency band power, the frontal theta frequency band power, and the P300 amplitude, to examine whether these tasks would show commonalities or differences in WM processing-load. We expected that increasing WM-load would generally lead to a decreased alpha and beta frequency band power, an increased theta frequency band power, and a decreased P300 amplitude. Yet, based on the conceptual considerations, we hypothesized that the outcomes of these measures would be more comparable between the N-back and the Ospan as compared to the Dspan. Our hypotheses were partly confirmed. The N-back and the Ospan showed timely more prolonged alpha frequency band power effects as compared to the Dspan. This might indicate higher demands on WM processing in the former two tasks. The theta frequency band power and the P300 amplitude were most pronounced in the N-back task as compared to both span tasks. This might indicate specific demands on cognitive control in the N-back task. Additionally, we observed that behavioral performance measures correlated with changes in EEG alpha power of the N-back and the Ospan, yet not of the Dspan. Taken together, the hypothesized conceptual commonalities between the N-back task and the Ospan (and, for the Dspan, differences) were only partly confirmed by the electrophysiological WM load-related measures, indicating a potential need for reconsidering the theoretical accounts on WM tasks and the value of a closer

  7. Comparison of the Working Memory Load in N-Back and Working Memory Span Tasks by Means of EEG Frequency Band Power and P300 Amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Scharinger, Christian; Soutschek, Alexander; Schubert, Torsten; Gerjets, Peter

    2017-01-01

    According to theoretical accounts, both, N-back and complex span tasks mainly require working memory (WM) processing. In contrast, simple span tasks conceptually mainly require WM storage. Thus, conceptually, an N-back task and a complex span task share more commonalities as compared to a simple span task. In the current study, we compared an N-back task, a complex operation span task (Ospan), and a simple digit span task (Dspan) by means of typical WM load-related measures of the Electroencephalogram (EEG) like the parietal alpha and beta frequency band power, the frontal theta frequency band power, and the P300 amplitude, to examine whether these tasks would show commonalities or differences in WM processing-load. We expected that increasing WM-load would generally lead to a decreased alpha and beta frequency band power, an increased theta frequency band power, and a decreased P300 amplitude. Yet, based on the conceptual considerations, we hypothesized that the outcomes of these measures would be more comparable between the N-back and the Ospan as compared to the Dspan. Our hypotheses were partly confirmed. The N-back and the Ospan showed timely more prolonged alpha frequency band power effects as compared to the Dspan. This might indicate higher demands on WM processing in the former two tasks. The theta frequency band power and the P300 amplitude were most pronounced in the N-back task as compared to both span tasks. This might indicate specific demands on cognitive control in the N-back task. Additionally, we observed that behavioral performance measures correlated with changes in EEG alpha power of the N-back and the Ospan, yet not of the Dspan. Taken together, the hypothesized conceptual commonalities between the N-back task and the Ospan (and, for the Dspan, differences) were only partly confirmed by the electrophysiological WM load-related measures, indicating a potential need for reconsidering the theoretical accounts on WM tasks and the value of a closer

  8. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  9. The effects of instruction and hand dominance on grip-to-load force coordination in manipulation tasks.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Uygur, Mehmet; Getchell, Nancy; Hall, Susan J; Jaric, Slobodan

    2011-10-31

    The force applied upon a vertically oriented hand-held object could be decomposed into two orthogonal and highly coordinated components: the grip force (GF; the component perpendicular to the hand-object contact area that provides friction) and the load force (LF; the parallel component that can move the object or support the body). The aim of this study was to investigate the underexplored effects of task instruction and hand dominance on GF-LF coordination. Sixteen right-handed subjects performed bimanual manipulation against a horizontally oriented instrumented device under different sets of instructions. The tasks involved exertion of ramp-and-hold or oscillation patterns of LF performed symmetrically with two hands, while the instructions regarding individual actions were either similar (pull with both hands) or dissimilar (pull with one hand and hold with another). The results revealed that the instruction "to pull" leads to higher indices of GF-LF coordination than the instruction "to hold", as evidenced by a lower GF-LF ratio, higher GF-LF coupling, and higher GF modulation. The only effect of hand dominance was a moderate time lag of GF relative to LF changes observed in the non-dominant hand. We conclude that the instructions could play an important role in GF-LF coordination and, therefore, they should be taken into account when exploring or routinely testing hand function. Additionally, the results suggest that the neural control of GF of the non-dominant hand could involve some feedback mechanisms.

  10. Brain targeting effect of camptothecin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in rat after intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Martins, Susana M; Sarmento, Bruno; Nunes, Cláudia; Lúcio, Marlene; Reis, Salette; Ferreira, Domingos C

    2013-11-01

    This study intended to investigate the ability of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to deliver camptothecin into the brain parenchyma after crossing the blood-brain barrier. For that purpose, camptothecin-loaded SLN with mean size below 200 nm, low polydispersity index (<0.25), negative surface charge (-20 mV), and high camptothecin association efficiency (>94%) were produced. Synchrotron small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) analysis indicates that SLN maintain their physical stability in contact with DMPC membrane, whereas SLN change the lamellar structure of DMPC into a cubic phase, which is associated with efficient release of the incorporated drugs. Cytotoxicity studies against glioma and macrophage human cell lines revealed that camptothecin-loaded SLN induced cell death with the lowest maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values, revealing higher antitumour activity of camptothecin-loaded SLN against gliomas. Furthermore, in vivo biodistribution studies of intravenous camptothecin-loaded SLN performed in rats proved the positive role of SLN on the brain targeting since significant higher brain accumulation of camptothecin was observed, compared to non-encapsulated drug. Pharmacokinetic studies further demonstrated lower deposition of camptothecin in peripheral organs, when encapsulated into SLN, with consequent decrease in potential side toxicological effects. These results confirmed the potential of camptothecin-loaded SLN for antitumour brain treatments.

  11. Development of action representation during adolescence as assessed from anticipatory control in a bimanual load-lifting task.

    PubMed

    Barlaam, F; Fortin, C; Vaugoyeau, M; Schmitz, C; Assaiante, C

    2012-09-27

    The aim of this study was to explore, during adolescence, alterations in the use of a sensori-motor representation as unveiled by the measurement of anticipatory postural control in a bimanual load-lifting task. We hypothesised that adolescence constitutes a period of refinement of anticipatory postural control due to on-going updates of the body schema and sensori-motor representations. The anticipatory postural control was assessed using a bimanual load-lifting paradigm in which subjects stabilise their left postural forearm, which is supporting an object, while they use their right hand to lift up the object. Kinematics and electromyographic data were recorded in two groups of adolescents (11-13 and 14-16 years of age) and a group of adults. Age and gender effects were tested. During voluntary unloading, the postural forearm stabilisation in adolescents was still different from the adult one, suggesting that further improvement of the postural forearm stabilisation must take place after the age of 16. No differences occur in the two adolescent groups. Moreover, girls presented a better stabilisation of the postural forearm than boys, indicating an earlier refinement of anticipatory postural control. The decrease of activity over postural flexors, which ensure postural stabilisation, appeared later in adolescents with respect to adults. Delayed timing adjustments and increased variability could reflect intense developmental processes underlain by an intense period of CNS maturation during adolescence. We discuss the role of brain maturation in the refinement of sensori-motor representations and the update of body schema.

  12. Observing prioritization effects on cognition and gait: The effect of increased cognitive load on cognitively healthy older adults' dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Linda M; Brown, Laura J E; Khadra, H; Astell, Arlene J

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of attention-prioritization on cognitively healthy older adults' gait and cognitive dual task (DT) performance have shown DT cost in gait outcomes but inconsistent effects on cognitive performance, which may reflect task difficulty (the cognitive load). This study aimed to identify whether changing the cognitive load during a walking and counting DT improved the challenge/sensitivity of the cognitive task to observe prioritization effects on concurrent gait and cognitive performance outcomes. Seventy-two cognitively healthy older adults (Mean=73years) walked 15m, counted backwards in 3s and 7s as single tasks (ST), and concurrently walked and counted backwards as DTs. Attention-prioritization was examined in Prioritizing Walking (PW) and Prioritizing Counting (PC) DT conditions. Dual-task performance costs (DTC) were calculated for number of correct cognitive responses (CCR) in the counting tasks, and step-time variability and velocity in the gait task. All DT conditions showed a benefit (DTB) for cognitive outcomes with trade-off cost to gait. In the Serial 3s task, the cognitive DTBs increased in PC over the PW condition (p<0.05), with a greater cost to walking velocity (p<0.05). DT effects were more pronounced in the Serial 7s with a lower cognitive DTB when PC than when PW, (p<0.05) with no trade-off increase in cost to gait outcomes (p<0.05). The findings suggest that increased cognitive load during a gait and cognitive DT produces more pronounced gait measures of attention-prioritization in cognitively healthy older adults. A cognitive load effect was also observed in the cognitive outcomes, with unexpected results.

  13. Dexamethasone loaded nanoparticles exert protective effects against Cisplatin-induced hearing loss by systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Lin, Xin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2016-04-21

    Ototoxicity is one of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. As a common treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, systemic administration of steroids was demonstrated ineffective against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) in published studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated in polyethyleneglycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss following systemic administration. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using emulsion and evaporation technique as previously reported. DEX or DEX-NPs was administered intraperitoneally to guinea pigs 1h before cisplatin administration. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were measured at four frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24kHz) 1 day before and three days after cisplatin injection. Cochlear morphology was examined to evaluate inner ear injury induced by cisplatin exposure. A single dose of DEX-NPs 1h before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea, which was equivalent to the effect of multidose (3 days) DEX injection. In contrast, no significant protective effect was observed by single dose injection of DEX. The results of histological examination of the cochleae were consistent with the functional measurements. In conclusion, a single dose DEX-NPs significantly attenuated cisplatin ototoxicity in guinea pigs after systemic administration at both histological and functional levels indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of these nanoparticles for enhancing the delivery of DEX in acute sensorineural hearing loss.

  14. Effect of mental task load on fronto-central theta activity in a deep saturation dive to 450 msw.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, J; Lorenz, B; Heineke, M

    1992-07-01

    The increase of theta activity (4-7 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during deep diving is commonly attributed to pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the high pressure neurologic syndrome. The aim of this study was to clarify whether more precise cognitive aspects of the condition may be described in which theta activity occurs during a deep dive. Among 4 divers who were repeatedly examined during the GUSI 14 dive to 450 msw, 3 divers exhibited a pronounced correlation between short-term memory load, as varied by the memory set size of Sternberg's memory search task (MST), and the size of a distinct peak in the theta band of the EEG-power spectrum. The power of this peak was greatest in the fronto-central electrode position (Fz), increased dramatically during MST-performance at pressure, and failed to subside fully 1 day before surfacing. Despite the close dependency of observed theta activity on cognitive demands, no consistent correlation with performance measures (mean reaction time and errors) was found. In one diver, theta waves of similar morphology appeared in the resting EEG and increased significantly during the dive. We suggest two alternative explanations for the positive interaction of memory load and hyperbaric exposure on Fz-theta: a) Both factors induce a state of increased mental effort or selectivity of attention, known to be accompanied by frontal theta activity from normobaric studies. b) Pressure abnormally facilitates or patterns rhythmical excitations underlying theta activity that would occur naturally to a lesser extent during certain mental activities, learning, or repetitive short-term memory operations.

  15. Working Memory Moderates the Association Between Smoking Urge and Smoking Lapse Behavior After Alcohol Administration in a Laboratory Analogue Task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lapses after smoking cessation often occur in the context of alcohol use, possibly because alcohol increases urge to smoke. Poor working memory, or alcohol-induced decrements in working memory, may influence this relationship by making it more difficult for an individual to resist smoking in the face of smoking urges. Methods: Participants (n = 41) completed measures of working memory and urge to smoke before and after alcohol administration (placebo, 0.4g/kg, and 0.8g/kg, within subjects) and then participated in a laboratory analogue task in which smoking abstinence was monetarily incentivized. Results: Working memory moderated the relationship between smoking urge and latency to smoke: for those with relatively poorer working memory, urge to smoke was more strongly and negatively associated with latency to smoke (i.e., higher urges were associated with shorter latency). Conclusions: Those with weak working memory may need additional forms of treatment to help them withstand smoking urges. PMID:25481913

  16. Estimation of lumbar spinal loading and trunk muscle forces during asymmetric lifting tasks: application of whole-body musculoskeletal modelling in OpenSim.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Zhang, Yanxin

    2016-06-03

    Large spinal compressive force combined with axial torsional shear force during asymmetric lifting tasks is highly associated with lower back injury (LBI). The aim of this study was to estimate lumbar spinal loading and muscle forces during symmetric lifting (SL) and asymmetric lifting (AL) tasks using a whole-body musculoskeletal modelling approach. Thirteen healthy males lifted loads of 7 and 12 kg under two lifting conditions (SL and AL). Kinematic data and ground reaction force data were collected and then processed by a whole-body musculoskeletal model. The results show AL produced a significantly higher peak lateral shear force as well as greater peak force of psoas major, quadratus lumborum, multifidus, iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum, longissimus thoracis pars lumborum and external oblique than SL. The greater lateral shear forces combined with higher muscle force and asymmetrical muscle contractions may have the biomechanical mechanism responsible for the increased risk of LBI during AL. Practitioner Summary: Estimating lumbar spinal loading and muscle forces during free-dynamic asymmetric lifting tasks with a whole-body musculoskeletal modelling in OpenSim is the core value of this research. The results show that certain muscle groups are fundamentally responsible for asymmetric movement, thereby producing high lumbar spinal loading and muscle forces, which may increase risks of LBI during asymmetric lifting tasks.

  17. Do Cheaters Never Prosper? The Impact of Examples, Expertise, and Cognitive Load on Cryptomnesia and Inadvertent Self-Plagiarism of Creative Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Gayle T.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the presence of examples may lead to cryptomnesia, or inadvertent plagiarism, on creative tasks. Various experiential and environmental attributes may magnify this finding. For instance, novices, with limited knowledge, may be more prone to inadvertently plagiarize examples, and increases in cognitive load may result…

  18. Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2014-07-01

    The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks.

  19. Dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded PLLA nanoparticles: influence of neutron irradiation and preliminary in vivo administration by the TMT technique.

    PubMed

    Hamoudeh, Misara; Fessi, Hatem; Mehier, Henri; Faraj, Achraf Al; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2008-02-04

    neutron irradiation, yielding an absorbed dose of 450kGy, can be a terminal method for nanoparticles sterilisation. Thereafter, in a preliminary in vivo experiment, superparamagnetic non radioactive nanoparticles loaded with Re(2)(CO)(10) and oleic-acid coated magnetite have been successfully injected into a mice animal model via targeted multi therapy (TMT) technique which would be our selected administration method for future in vivo studies. In conclusion, although some induced neutron irradiation damage to nanoparticles occurs, dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded PLLA nanoparticles retain their chemical identity and remain almost as re-dispersible and injectable nanoparticles by the TMT technique. These nanoparticles represent a novel interesting candidate for local intra-tumoral radiotherapy.

  20. Tetanus toxoid-loaded layer-by-layer nanoassemblies for efficient systemic, mucosal, and cellular immunostimulatory response following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Jain, Sanyog

    2015-10-01

    The present study reports the tetanus toxoid (TT)-loaded layer-by-layer nanoassemblies (layersomes) with enhanced protection, permeation, and presentation for comprehensive oral immunization. The stable and lyophilized TT-loaded layersomes were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by alternate layer-by-layer coating of an electrolyte. The developed system was assessed for in vitro stability of antigen and formulation, cellular uptake, ex vivo intestinal uptake, and immunostimulatory response using a suitable experimental protocol. Layersomes improved the stability in simulated biological media as well as protected the integrity/conformation and native 3D structure of TT as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The cell culture studies demonstrated a 3.8-fold higher permeation of layersomes in Caco-2 cells and an 8.5-fold higher uptake by antigen-presenting cells (RAW 264.7). The TT-loaded layersomes elicited a complete immunostimulatory profile consisting of higher systemic (serum IgG titer), mucosal (sIgA titer), and cellular (interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels) immune response after peroral administration in mice. The modified TT inhibition assay further confirmed the elicitation of complete protective levels of anti-TT antibody (>0.1 IU/mL) by layersomes. In conclusion, the proposed strategy is expected to contribute significantly in the field of stable liposome technology for mass immunization through the oral route.

  1. The Effects of Task Involvement Load on L2 Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shufen; Willson, Victor; Eslami, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analytic study provides a systematic statistical synthesis of the effects of output tasks on second or foreign incidental vocabulary learning. A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Five mediator variables were examined: design quality, types of output task, time on task, genres of text, and text-target word ratios.…

  2. An electromyographic and kinematic comparison between an extendable conveyor system and an articulating belt conveyor used for truck loading and unloading tasks.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Nagavarapu, Shasank; Allread, W Gary

    2017-01-01

    Many retail distribution centers (DCs) manually load and unload boxes into or out of trailers and shipping containers. This study investigated whether an articulating belt conveyor with a height adjustable platform, positioned at the end of an extendable conveyor, significantly reduces shoulder and back muscle loading and the spine kinematics associated with these tasks. Electromyographic and kinematic data were collected from eight volunteer employees as trailers at a shoe DC were unloaded and from nine volunteer employees as trailers at an apparel DC were loaded. Participants in this repeated measures study handled boxes with a conventional powered extendable conveyor system and with the articulating belt conveyor positioned at the end of the extendable conveyor. Bilaterally the normalized activation levels of the erector spinae and anterior deltoid muscles were reduced when loading and unloading boxes with the articulating belt conveyor. Spine movement speeds were also reduced with the articulating conveyor.

  3. Ketoprofen-loaded pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsion stabilized by pullulan: Selective antiglioma formulation for intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luana M; Cervi, Verônica F; Gehrcke, Mailine; da Silveira, Elita F; Azambuja, Juliana H; Braganhol, Elizandra; Sari, Marcel H M; Zborowski, Vanessa A; Nogueira, Cristina W; Cruz, Letícia

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to prepare pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsions containing ketoprofen using pullulan as a polymeric stabilizer, and to evaluate antitumor activity against in vitro glioma cells. Formulations were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and different concentrations of pullulan were tested. Nanoemulsions presented adequate droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, pH, ketoprofen content and encapsulation efficiency. Nanoemulsions were able to delay the photodegradation profile of ketoprofen under UVC radiation, regardless of the concentration of pullulan. In vitro release study indicates that nanoemulsions were able to release approximately 95.0% of ketoprofen in 5h. Free ketoprofen and formulations were considered hemocompatible at 1 μg/mL, in a hemolysis study, for intravenous administration. In addition, a formulation containing the highest concentration of pullulan was tested against C6 cell line and demonstrated significant activity, and did not reduce fibroblasts viability. Thus, pullulan can be considered an interesting excipient to prepare nanostructured systems and nanoemulsion formulations can be considered promising alternatives for the treatment of glioma.

  4. Processing Demands Impact 3-Year-Olds’ Performance in a Spontaneous-Response Task: New Evidence for the Processing-Load Account of Early False-Belief Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rose M.; Roby, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Prior to age four, children succeed in non-elicited-response false-belief tasks but fail elicited-response false-belief tasks. To explain this discrepancy, the processing-load account argues that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in infancy, as indicated by early success on non-elicited-response tasks, but that children’s ability to demonstrate this capacity depends on the processing demands of the task and children’s processing skills. When processing demands exceed young children’s processing abilities, such as in standard elicited-response tasks, children fail despite their capacity to represent beliefs. Support for this account comes from recent evidence that reducing processing demands improves young children’s performance: when demands are sufficiently reduced, 2.5-year-olds succeed in elicited-response tasks. Here we sought complementary evidence for the processing-load account by examining whether increasing processing demands impeded children’s performance in a non-elicited-response task. 3-year-olds were tested in a preferential-looking task in which they heard a change-of-location false-belief story accompanied by a picture book; across children, we manipulated the amount of linguistic ambiguity in the story. The final page of the book showed two images: one that was consistent with the main character’s false belief and one that was consistent with reality. When the story was relatively unambiguous, children looked reliably longer at the false-belief-consistent image, successfully demonstrating their false-belief understanding. When the story was ambiguous, however, this undermined children’s performance: looking times to the belief-consistent image were correlated with verbal ability, and only children with verbal skills in the upper quartile of the sample demonstrated a significant preference for the belief-consistent image. These results support the processing-load account by demonstrating that regardless of whether a task

  5. Is it me or is it you? Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of oxytocin administration on self-other integration during joint task performance.

    PubMed

    Ruissen, Margit I; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with promoting various social behaviors in humans including cooperation and trust. Surprisingly little, however, is known about the possible role of oxytocin in processes required for social interactive behavior such as joint task performance. The current study investigated whether intranasal administration of oxytocin leads to increased self-other integration using a social Simon task. A placebo-controlled double-blind between-subjects design was used. Behavioral and EEG measures were obtained from 63 healthy male volunteers who either received 24 intranasal units (IU) oxytocin or a placebo while they performed the social Simon task in an individual and a joint/social context. The behavioral results demonstrated an enhanced Simon effect in the social context after oxytocin administration. At the electrophysiological level, the stimulus-locked N2 component, reflecting response conflict, was increased in the social compared to the individual context for Go trials, but only after oxytocin administration. The P3 component, reflecting response inhibition, was increased for social compared to individual contexts, irrespective of condition. Both the behavioral and N2 findings suggest that oxytocin enhances self-other integration. While more inhibition is needed in the social context, this process seems less sensitive to changes in self-other integration. To conclude, the current study is the first to show oxytocin-induced modulations of processes that play a central role in joint task performance and thus importantly adds to our understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the diverse social effects of oxytocin.

  6. Evaluation in vitro and in vivo of curcumin-loaded mPEG-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuwei; Zhang, Baomei; Chu, Lianjun; Tong, Henry Hy; Liu, Weidong; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare and characterize curcumin-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA)/D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) mixed micelles (CUR-MPP-TPGS-MMs), analyze the influence of formulation on enhancing the solubility of curcumin in water, and evaluate the improvement of intestinal absorption after oral administration. CUR-MPP-TPGS-MMs were prepared using the thin film diffusion method and optimized with the uniform design. The optimal CUR-MPP-TPGS-MMs were provided with high drug-loading (16.1%), small size (46.0 nm) and spherical shape. Low critical micelle concentration (CMC) and superior dilution stability showed that CUR-MPP-TPGS-MMs could keep integrity during the dilution of gastrointestinal fluid. In vitro drug release study indicated a sustained release of curcumin from CUR-MPP-TPGS-MMs in simulated gastrointestinal solution. The absorption mechanism of passive diffusion was obtained by measuring in situ intestinal absorption of CUR-MPP-TPGS-MMs in rats, and the best absorption segment was found to be the duodenum. The pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats at the dose of 75 mg/kg by intragastric administration. The Cmax and mean retention time (MRT0-24) for CUR-MPP-TPGS-MMs were both increased, and the relative bioavailability of micelle formulation to curcumin suspension was 927.3%. These results suggested that mPEG-PLA/TPGS mixed micelle system (MPP-TPGS-MMs) showed great potential in improving oral bioavailability of curcumin.

  7. JT9D engine diagnostics. Task 2: Feasibility study of measuring in-service flight loads. [747 aircraft performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafka, P. G.; Skibo, M. A.; White, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring JT9D propulsion system flight inertia loads on a 747 airplane is studied. Flight loads background is discussed including the current status of 747/JT9D loads knowledge. An instrumentation and test plan is formulated for an airline-owned in-service airplane and the Boeing-owned RA001 test airplane. Technical and cost comparisons are made between these two options. An overall technical feasibility evaluation is made and a cost summary presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in regard to using existing inertia loads data versus conducting a flight test to measure inertia loads.

  8. Results of the second Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on crack closure measurement and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    A second experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the crack opening load in fatigue crack growth tests has been completed by the ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. Fourteen laboratories participated in the testing of aluminum alloy compact tension specimens. Opening-load measurements were made at three crack lengths during constant Delta K, constant stress ratio tests by most of the participants. Four participants made opening-load measurements during threshold tests. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimens compliance behavior, where the displacement/strain was measured either at the crack mouth or the mid-height back face location. The Round Robin data were analyzed for opening load using two non-subjective analysis methods: the compliance offset and the correlation coefficient methods. The scatter in the opening load results was significantly reduced when some of the results were excluded from the analysis population based on an accept/reject criterion for raw data quality. The compliance offset and correlation coefficient opening load analysis methods produced similar results for data populations that had been screened to eliminate poor quality data.

  9. Tissue distribution of borneol-modified ganciclovir-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in mice after intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jungang; Zou, Meijuan; Gao, Ping; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Gang

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this research was to prepare borneol-modified and non-borneol ganciclovir-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to study whether borneol could enhance the transport of ganciclovir (GCV) incorporated in SLN to the brain in mice after their intravenous administration. Ganciclovir injection (GCV-inj) was selected as a control. The SLNs were prepared using a modified microemulsion method. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in kunming mice after intravenous administration of GCV-inj, GCV solid lipid nanoparticles without borneol (GCV-SLN), and three types of GCV solid lipid nanoparticles containing different ratios of borneol (GCVb-SLN). It was found that, in plasma, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0 ∼ t) for GCVb-SLN and GCV-SLN was greater than that for the GCV-inj. In the brain, the AUC 0 ∼ t of GCVb-SLN was significantly increased compared with that of a GCV-inj and GCV-SLN. In the other mouse tissues, the peak concentration of GCV achieved was always lower after the injection of any of the four types of SLN than after the commercial injection. These results indicate that GCV-SLN modified with borneol enhances the transport of ganciclovir to the brain. Therefore, SLN modified with borneol is a potential delivery system for transporting drugs to the central nervous system (CNS).

  10. In vivo photodynamic activity of photosensitizer-loaded nanoparticles: formulation properties, administration parameters and biological issues involved in PDT outcome.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Angelica; Eid, Michael; Fanchaouy, Mohammed; Gurny, Robert; Delie, Florence

    2008-05-01

    Encapsulation of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PS) into polymeric nanoparticles (NP) has proven to be an effective alternative to organic solvents for their formulation. As NP size controls NP passage through endothelial barriers, it is a key parameter for achieving passive targeting of cancer tissues and choroidal neovascularization, secondary to age-related macular degeneration, the main applications of photodynamic therapy. In the present study, a hydrophobic PS, the meso-tetra(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin, was encapsulated into biodegradable NP made of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 via an emulsification-diffusion technique. NP batches having mean diameters of 117, 285, and 593 nm were obtained with narrow size distribution. Using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the developing chick embryo, it was demonstrated that the increase in the NP size decreased photodynamic activity in vivo. The activity of PS-loaded NP was not influenced by the volume of injection and was kept intact at least 6h after NP reconstitution. Investigation of NP circulation after IV administration by fluorescence measurements revealed that 117 nm NP reached Tmax earlier than larger NP. Confocal imaging of CAM vessels demonstrated PS uptake by endothelial cells after NP administration. It was concluded that NP size controls the photodynamic activity of the encapsulated PS.

  11. The impact of secondary-task type on the sensitivity of reaction-time based measurement of cognitive load for novices learning surgical skills using simulation.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Haji, Faizal; Shewaga, Rob; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the measurement of cognitive load (CL) in simulation-based education has grown in recent years. In this paper we present two pilot experiments comparing the sensitivity of two reaction time based secondary task measures of CL. The results suggest that simple reaction time measures are sensitive enough to detect changes in CL experienced by novice learners in the initial stages of simulation-based surgical skills training.

  12. Design and evaluation of polymer coated carvedilol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles to improve the oral bioavailability: a novel strategy to avoid intraduodenal administration.

    PubMed

    Venishetty, Vinay Kumar; Chede, Raghavendra; Komuravelli, Rojarani; Adepu, Laxminarayana; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Diwan, Prakash V

    2012-06-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles are most promising delivery systems for the enhancement of bioavailability of highly lipophilic drugs those prone to the first pass metabolism. But burst release of drug from solid lipid nanoparticles in acidic environment such as gastric milieu precludes its usage as oral delivery system. Studies on SLN revealed intraduodenal administration as an alternative route for SLN administration. But clinically it is an inappropriate route for repeated administration of drugs to patients. Hence, we prepared N-carboxymethyl chitosan (MCC) coated carvedilol loaded SLN to protect the rapid release of carvedilol in acidic environment. Positively charged carvedilol loaded SLN were developed using monoglyceride as lipid and soya lecithin and poloxamer 188 as surfactants and stearylamine as charge modifier. These SLN were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, crystallinity and stability studies. Further these SLN were coated with N-carboxymethyl chitosan and confirmed by change in zetapotential and X-ray Photon Spectroscopic analysis. Effect of polymer coating on drug release profiles were studied simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Effect of polymer coating on oral bioavailability of carvedilol loaded SLN were studied in rats after oral administration. MCC coated SLN improved the bioavailability of carvedilol compared uncoated SLN after oral administration. Insignificant difference in bioavailability was observed compared to intraduodenal administration of SLN. Hence, MCC coated SLN is a novel strategy to avoid intrduodenal administration.

  13. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  14. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gilmore Load Cell Machine: Load Cell Calibrations to 2.22 x 10(exp 7) Newtons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Designed in 1964 and erected in 1966, the mission of the Gilmore Load Cell Machine was to provide highly accurate calibrations for large capacity load cells in support of NASA's Apollo Program. Still in use today, the Gilmore Machine is a national treasure with no equal.

  15. Load-dependent brain activation assessed by time-domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy during a working memory task with graded levels of difficulty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molteni, Erika; Contini, Davide; Caffini, Matteo; Baselli, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Cerutti, Sergio; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated frontal brain activation during a mixed attentional/working memory task with graded levels of difficulty in a group of 19 healthy subjects, by means of time-domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Brain activation was assessed, and load-related oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin changes were studied. Generalized linear model (GLM) was applied to the data to explore the metabolic processes occurring during the mental effort and, possibly, their involvement in short-term memorization. GLM was applied to the data twice: for modeling the task as a whole and for specifically investigating brain activation at each cognitive load. This twofold employment of GLM allowed (1) the extraction and isolation of different information from the same signals, obtained through the modeling of different cognitive categories (sustained attention and working memory), and (2) the evaluation of model fitness, by inspection and comparison of residuals (i.e., unmodeled part of the signal) obtained in the two different cases. Results attest to the presence of a persistent attentional-related metabolic activity, superimposed to a task-related mnemonic contribution. Some hemispherical differences have also been highlighted frontally: deoxy-hemoglobin changes manifested a strong right lateralization, whereas modifications in oxy- and total hemoglobin showed a medial localization. The present work successfully explored the capability of fNIRS to detect the two neurophysiological categories under investigation and distinguish their activation patterns.

  16. Effects of force load, muscle fatigue and extremely low frequency magnetic stimulation on EEG signals during side arm lateral raise task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liu; Hao, Dongmei; Rong, Yao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Song; Chen, Fei; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-04-04

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue and extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic stimulation on electroencephalography (EEG) signal features during side arm lateral raise task. EEG signals were recorded by a BIOSEMI Active Two system with Pin-Type active-electrodes from 18 healthy subjects when they performed the right arm side lateral raise task (90 degrees away from the body) with three different loads (0kg, 1kg and 3 kg; their order was randomized among the subjects) on the forearm. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10s recording for each load was regarded as non-fatigue status and the last 10s before the subject was exhausted as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was performed on each subject except that ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject's deltoid muscle during the five-minute resting period. EEG features from C3 and C4 electrodes including the power of alpha, beta and gamma and sample entropy were analyzed and compared between different loads, non-fatigue/fatigue status, and with/without ELF magnetic stimulation. The key results were associated with the change of the power of alpha band. From both C3-EEG and C4-EEG, with 1kg and 3kg force loads, the power of alpha band was significantly smaller than that from 0kg for both non-fatigue and fatigue periods (all p<0.05). However, no significant difference of the power in alpha between 1 kg and 3kg was observed (p>0.05 for all the force loads except C4-EEG with ELF simulation). The power of alpha band at fatigue status was significantly increased for both C3-EEG and C4-EEG when compared with the non-fatigue status (p<0.01 for all the force loads except 3kg force from C4-EEG). With magnetic stimulation, the powers of alpha from C3-EEG and C4-EEG were significantly decreased than without stimulation (all p<0

  17. The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children.

  18. [Effect of intracoronary and intravenous administration of tirofiban loading dose in patients underwent percutaneous coronary interventions because of acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Turkmen, S; Fettser, D V; Kagliian, K É; Serchelik, A; Arystanova, A Zh; Tekin, K; Balli, M; Batyraliev, T A; Samko, A N; Sidorenko, B A

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this multicenter retrospective study was assessment of effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose in troponin positive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We analyzed multicenter data base of patients subjected to percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) because of ST-elevation or non-ST elevation ACS from October 2010 to October 2011. Patients who received loading doses of aspirin (300 mg) and clopidogrel (600 mg) before PCI and tirofiban (10 mg/kg bolus with subsequent infusion 0.15 mg/kg/min for 24 h) were selected for the study (n=133, 89 with intravenous and 44 - intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose). We assessed hospital mortality, myocardial reinfarctions (reMI), necessity of target vessel revascularization (TVR) and pronounced bleedings. There were no significant differences in mortality, reMI, and TVR between two groups. However major adverse cardiac events was significantly less in patients who received intracoronary tirofiban (6.8 vs. 21.3% in i.v. group; p=0.046). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in intracoronary compared with i.v. group (3.84+/-0.96 vs. 4.55+/-1.11 days; p=0.001). Rates of bleedings did not differ significantly between groups. Thus compared with i.v. intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose allows lower rate of major adverse cardiac events as well as to shorten length of hospital stay of patients with ACS.

  19. An analysis of the loads applied to a heavy Space Station rack during translation and rotation tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-02-01

    To prepare for Space Station Alpha's on-orbit assembly, maintenance, and resupply, NASA requires information about the crew members' ability to move heavy masses on orbit. Ease of movement in microgravity and orbiter stay time constraints may change the Space Station equipment and outfitting design requirements. Therefore, the time and effort required to perform a particular task and how and where the forces and torque should be applied become critical in evaluating the design effort. Thus, the three main objectives of this investigation were to: (1) quantify variables such as force and torque as they relate to heavy mass handling techniques; (2) predict the time required to perform heavy mass handling tasks; and (3) note any differences between males and females in their ability to manipulate a heavy mass.

  20. An analysis of the loads applied to a heavy Space Station rack during translation and rotation tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    To prepare for Space Station Alpha's on-orbit assembly, maintenance, and resupply, NASA requires information about the crew members' ability to move heavy masses on orbit. Ease of movement in microgravity and orbiter stay time constraints may change the Space Station equipment and outfitting design requirements. Therefore, the time and effort required to perform a particular task and how and where the forces and torque should be applied become critical in evaluating the design effort. Thus, the three main objectives of this investigation were to: (1) quantify variables such as force and torque as they relate to heavy mass handling techniques; (2) predict the time required to perform heavy mass handling tasks; and (3) note any differences between males and females in their ability to manipulate a heavy mass.

  1. Task IV: Groundshock-Induced Hydrogeologic Response: Volume 2. Hydrologic Response of Deep Based Systems to Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Miscellaneous Paper GL-94-49 0 September 1994 US Army Corps of Engineers AD-A285 745 Waterways Experiment Illilllii lI Station Task IV: Groundshock...Hydraulic fracturing. 1. Kim, Kwang Jin, 1949- II. United States. Army. Corps of Engineers . Ill. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. IV... Geotechnical Laboratory (U.S.) V. United States. Air Force. Ballistic Missile Office. VI. Title. VII. Title: Groundshock-induced hydrogeologic response. Vill

  2. Systemic administration of the neurotensin NTS₁-receptor agonist PD149163 improves performance on a memory task in naturally deficient male brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Ashley A; Matazel, Katelin S; Esser, Melissa K; Feifel, David; Prus, Adam J

    2014-12-01

    Agonists for the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor consistently exhibit antipsychotic effects in animal models without producing catalepsy, suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may be a novel class of drugs to treat schizophrenia. Moreover, studies utilizing NTS₁ agonists have reported improvements in some aspects of cognitive functioning, including prepulse inhibition and learning procedures, which suggest an ability of NTS₁-receptor agonists to diminish neurocognitive deficits. The present study sought to assess both baseline delay-induced memory performance and the effects of NTS₁-receptor activation on learning and memory consolidation in male Long-Evans and Brown Norway rats using a delayed nonmatch-to-position task radial arm-maze task. In the absence of drugs, Brown Norway rats displayed a significant increase in spatial memory errors following 3-, 7-, and 24-hr delay, whereas Long-Evans rats exhibited an increase in spatial memory errors following only a 7-, and 24-hr delay. With Brown Norway rats, administration of PD149163 before or after an information trial significantly reduced errors during a retention trial after a 24 hr delay. Administration of the NTS(1/2)-receptor antagonist SR142948 prior to the information trial did not affect retention-trial errors. These data are consistent with previous findings that Brown Norway rats have natural cognitive deficits and that they may be useful for assessing putative antipsychotic drugs for cognitive efficacy. Moreover, the results of this study support previous findings suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may improve some aspects of cognitive functioning.

  3. Chronic cocaine administration induces long-term impairment in the drive to obtain natural reinforcers in high- but not low-demanding tasks.

    PubMed

    Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Gal, Ram; Zangen, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Repeated drug exposure induces short- and long-term neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitries that are normally involved in the regulation of motivation. Hence, repeated drug exposure has been suggested to also affect the drive to acquire natural reinforcers. Here, we tested how chronic exposure of rats to cocaine, as well as a subsequent withdrawal period, affects acquisition of natural reinforcers in high- and low-demanding tasks (HD and LD tasks, respectively). We chronically administered cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg once daily, or saline in control) for 30 days, followed by a 30-day withdrawal period. We tested the effect of this treatment on the acquisition of two natural appetitive reinforcers, namely self-administering a 10% sucrose solution and mounting a receptive female, under LD and HD conditions. During the cocaine exposure period, behavioral testing took place 18 hours after cocaine injection, namely after the acute pharmacologic effect of the drug dissipated. We show that chronic i.p. cocaine exposure decreased procurement of both reinforcers in HD but not in LD tasks. The effect was observed throughout the administration period with partial recovery after withdrawal. Taken together, we present empirical evidence that chronic exposure to a constant dose of cocaine is sufficient to reduce natural reinforcement, and that this decrease can outlast drug exposure. Importantly, such effects are observed only when high demands are opposing the consumption of the natural reinforcer.

  4. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  5. Implicit learning of sequential bias in a guessing task: failure to demonstrate effects of dopamine administration and paranormal belief.

    PubMed

    Palmer, John; Mohr, Christine; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Previous research suggests that implicit sequence learning (ISL) is superior for believers in the paranormal and individuals with increased cerebral dopamine. Thirty-five healthy participants performed feedback-guided anticipations of four arrow directions. A 100-trial random sequence preceded two 100-trial biased sequences in which visual targets (arrows) on trial t tended to be displaced 90 degrees clockwise (CW) or counter-clockwise (CCW) from those on t - 1. ISL was defined as a positive change during the course of the biased run in the difference between pro-bias and counter-bias responses. It was hypothesized that this difference would be greater for believers in the paranormal than for skeptics, for those who received dopamine than for those who received placebo, and for believers who received dopamine than for the other groups. None of the hypotheses were supported by the data. It is suggested that a simple binary guessing task with a focus on prediction accuracy during early trials should be considered for future explorations.

  6. MOTIVATIONAL EFFECTS OF INTRAORALLY-INFUSED ETHANOL IN RAT PUPS IN AN OPERANT SELF-ADMINISTRATION TASK

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Truxell, Eric; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E

    2008-01-01

    Motivational effects of self-administered ethanol have rarely been studied in preweanling rats due primarily to the lack of age-appropriate operant tasks. The present experiments assessed the hedonic effects of intraoral ethanol in infant rats self-administered by activating a touch sensor. On postnatal day (PD) 13 pups were pre-exposed to the drug's pharmacological and/or sensory effects. Operant sessions were conducted during PDs 14-16 (Experiments 1 and 2). Paired animals were placed in chambers equipped with a touch-sensitive disk and received an intraoral infusion of ethanol (3 or 5% v/v, 5 uls) after each sensor contact. Yoked controls were equated for number and distribution of ethanol infusions but had no control over the contingency between operant behavior and intraoral infusion. In Experiment 2, training trials were preceded by a non-reinforced phase. Paired pups performed fewer operant responses than controls and decreased their operant responses across sessions. These results suggest that intraoral self-administered ethanol has an aversive hedonic value in two-week old rats. Operant behavior seems to have been associated with aversive orosensory effects derived from intraoral ethanol infusion. PMID:17854847

  7. Prompt administration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus hyperimmunoglobulin in patients diagnosed with CCHF and viral load monitorization by reverse transcriptase-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kubar, Ayhan; Haciomeroglu, Mustafa; Ozkul, Aykut; Bagriacik, Umit; Akinci, Esragul; Sener, Kenan; Bodur, Hurrem

    2011-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, causes a severe disease in humans with high mortality rates. In Turkey, the number of patients with CCHF has increased since 2002. Here, we aimed to treat CCHF patients with CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin. We prepared a CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin product from 22 individuals who survived CCHF infection. A total of 26 CCHF patients were enrolled into this study. For CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin administration, a Kubar Unit (KU) was defined. As a standard therapeutic approach, 400 KU of hyperimmunoglobulin were given to each patient as a single dose before viral load was detected. We used one-step real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR to monitor the viral load of CCHF patients. According to the one-step real-time PCR results, 15 patients with a viral load of 10(8) copies/mL or more were defined as high risk. In this high-risk group, the survival rate was found to be 86.6% (13/15) and 2 patients died despite CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin administration. CCHF is a very serious and highly fatal infection, particularly for patients in the defined high-risk group. Prompt administration of CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin might be a very promising new treatment approach, especially for high-risk individuals.

  8. Men perform comparably to women in a perspective taking task after administration of intranasal oxytocin but not after placebo

    PubMed Central

    Theodoridou, Angeliki; Rowe, Angela C.; Mohr, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is thought to play an important role in human interpersonal information processing and behavior. By inference, OT should facilitate empathic responding, i.e., the ability to feel for others and to take their perspective. In two independent double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects studies, we assessed the effect of intranasally administered OT on affective empathy and perspective taking, whilst also examining potential sex differences (e.g., women being more empathic than men). In study 1, we provided 96 participants (48 men) with an empathy scenario and recorded self-reports of empathic reactions to the scenario, while in study 2, a sample of 120 individuals (60 men) performed a computerized implicit perspective taking task. Whilst results from Study 1 showed no influence of OT on affective empathy, we found in Study 2 that OT exerted an effect on perspective taking ability in men. More specifically, men responded faster than women in the placebo group but they responded as slowly as women in the OT group. We conjecture that men in the OT group adopted a social perspective taking strategy, such as did women in both groups, but not men in the placebo group. On the basis of results across both studies, we suggest that self-report measures (such as used in Study 1) might be less sensitive to OT effects than more implicit measures of empathy such as that used in Study 2. If these assumptions are confirmed, one could infer that OT effects on empathic responses are more pronounced in men than women, and that any such effect is best studied using more implicit measures of empathy rather than explicit self-report measures. PMID:23754995

  9. The influence of task presentation and information load on the adaptation effect in stutterers and normal speakers.

    PubMed

    Kroll, R M; Hood, S B

    1976-06-01

    Fourteen stutterers and 14 normal speakers read two passages differing in information value under two different conditions. Condition I provided subjects with a priori knowledge regarding the experimental limits and requirements. Condition II withheld such knowledge. Results indicate that adaptation curves for both stutterers and normal speakers were influenced by the information value of the reading passage. Less adaptation was observed with the high information than with the low information passage. The task presentation variable differentiated stutterers from normal speakers. When a priori instructions were provided to stutterers, the adaptation curve assumed a smooth, decelerating course. When a priori instructions were withheld, the curve deviated from the expected course. For normal speakers, identical adaptation trends were observed whether or not a priori instructions were provided. Stuttering adaptation is a function of both linguistic and situational variables; normal nonfluency adaptation is primarily a function of linguistic variables. Theoretical, experimental, and clinical implications are offered.

  10. Oral administration of the 5-HT6 receptor antagonists SB-357134 and SB-399885 improves memory formation in an autoshaping learning task.

    PubMed

    Perez-García, Georgina; Meneses, Alfredo

    2005-07-01

    In this work we aimed to re-examine the 5-HT6 receptor role, by testing the selective antagonists SB-357134 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) and SB-399885 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) during memory consolidation of conditioned responses (CR%), in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Bioavailability, half-life and minimum effective dose to induce inappetence for SB-357134 were 65%, 3.4 h, and 30 mg/kg p.o., and for SB-399885 were 52%, 2.2 h, and 50 mg/kg p.o., respectively. Oral acute and chronic administration of either SB-357134 or SB-399885 improved memory consolidation compared to control groups. Acute administration of SB-357134, at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, produced a CR% inverted-U curve, eliciting the latter dose a 7-fold increase relative to saline group. Acute injection of SB-399885 produced significant CR% increments, being 1 mg/kg the most effective dose. Repeated administration (7 days) of either SB-357134 (10 mg/kg) or SB-399885 (1 mg/kg) elicited the most significant CR% increments. Moreover, modeling the potential therapeutic benefits of 5-HT6 receptor blockade, acute or repeated administration of SB-399885, at 10 mg/kg reversed memory deficits produced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, and SB-357134 (3 and 10 mg/kg) prevented amnesia and even improved performance. These data support the notion that endogenously 5-HT acting, via 5-HT6 receptor, improves memory consolidation.

  11. In vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor during acute SIV infection leads to significant increases in viral load during chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Albrecht, Christina; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz; Mayne, Ann E; Dunbar, Paul; Russo, Robert; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Tara; Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A

    2014-03-01

    The studies reported herein are the first to document the effect of the in vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor for defining the potential role of NK cells during acute SIV infection of a group of 15 rhesus macaques (RM). An additional group of 16 MHC/KIR typed RM was included as controls. The previously optimized in vivo dose regimen (20 mg/kg daily for 35 days) led to a marked depletion of each of the major NK cell subsets both in the blood and gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT) during acute infection. While such depletion had no detectable effects on plasma viral loads during acute infection, there was a significant sustained increase in plasma viral loads during chronic infection. While the potential mechanisms that lead to such increased plasma viral loads during chronic infection remain unclear, several correlates were documented. Thus, during acute infection, the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor besides depleting all NK cell subsets also decreased some CD8⁺ T cells and inhibited the mobilization of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the blood and their localization to the GIT. Of interest is the finding that the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor during acute infection also resulted in the sustained maintenance during chronic infection of a high number of naïve and central memory CD4⁺ T cells, increases in B cells in the blood, but decreases in the frequencies and function of NKG2a⁺ NK cells within the GIT and blood, respectively. These data identify a unique role for JAK3 inhibitor sensitive cells, that includes NK cells during acute infection that in concert lead to high viral loads in SIV infected RM during chronic infection without affecting detectable changes in antiviral humoral/cellular responses. Identifying the precise mechanisms by which JAK3 sensitive cells exert their influence is critical with important implications for vaccine design against lentiviruses.

  12. Disruption of Performance in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task Induced by Administration of NMDA Receptor Antagonists: Relevance to Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Nurith; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients suffer from cognitive impairments that are not satisfactorily treated by currently available medications. Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia encompasses deficits in several cognitive modalities that can be differentially responsive to different medications and are likely to be mediated by different neurobiological substrates. Translational animal models of cognitive deficits with relevance to schizophrenia are critical for gaining insights into the mechanisms underlying these impairments and developing more effective treatments. The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a cognitive task used in rodents that allows simultaneous assessment of several cognitive modalities, including attention, response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists disrupts multiple 5-CSRTT performance measures in a way that mirrors various cognitive deficits exhibited by schizophrenia patients. Some of these disruptions are partially attenuated by antipsychotic medications that exhibit partial effectiveness on cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, suggesting that the model has predictive validity. Examination of the effects of pharmacological manipulations on 5-CSRTT performance disruptions induced by NMDA antagonists have implicated a range of brain regions, neurotransmitter systems, and specific receptor subtypes in schizophrenia-like impairment of different cognitive modalities. Thus, disruption of 5-CSRTT performance by NMDA antagonists represents a valuable tool for exploring the neurobiological bases of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:20488434

  13. The in vivo fate of nanoparticles and nanoparticle-loaded microcapsules after oral administration in mice: Evaluation of their potential for colon-specific delivery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiming; Fuchs, Adrian V; Boase, Nathan R B; Rolfe, Barbara E; Coombes, Allan G A; Thurecht, Kristofer J

    2015-08-01

    Anti-cancer drug loaded-nanoparticles (NPs) or encapsulation of NPs in colon-targeted delivery systems shows potential for increasing the local drug concentration in the colon leading to improved treatment of colorectal cancer. To investigate the potential of the NP-based strategies for colon-specific delivery, two formulations, free Eudragit® NPs and enteric-coated NP-loaded chitosan-hypromellose microcapsules (MCs) were fluorescently-labelled and their tissue distribution in mice after oral administration was monitored by multispectral small animal imaging. The free NPs showed a shorter transit time throughout the mouse digestive tract than the MCs, with extensive excretion of NPs in faeces at 5h. Conversely, the MCs showed complete NP release in the lower region of the mouse small intestine at 8h post-administration. Overall, the encapsulation of NPs in MCs resulted in a higher colonic NP intensity from 8h to 24h post-administration compared to the free NPs, due to a NP 'guarding' effect of MCs during their transit along mouse gastrointestinal tract which decreased NP excretion in faeces. These imaging data revealed that this widely-utilised colon-targeting MC formulation lacked site-precision for releasing its NP load in the colon, but the increased residence time of the NPs in the lower gastrointestinal tract suggests that it is still useful for localised release of chemotherapeutics, compared to NP administration alone. In addition, both formulations resided in the stomach of mice at considerable concentrations over 24h. Thus, adhesion of NP- or MC-based oral delivery systems to gastric mucosa may be problematic for colon-specific delivery of the cargo to the colon and should be carefully investigated for a full evaluation of particulate delivery systems.

  14. Goal equivalent manifold analysis of task performance in non-specific LBP and healthy subjects during repetitive trunk movement: Effect of load, velocity, symmetry.

    PubMed

    Chehrehrazi, Mahshid; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Mokhtarinia, Hamid Reza; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Maroufi, Nader; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Motor abundance allows reliability of motor performance despite its variability. The nature of this variability provides important information on the flexibility of control strategies. This feature of control may be affected by low back pain (LPB) and trunk flexion/extension conditions. Goal equivalent manifold (GEM) analysis was used to quantify the ability to exploit motor abundance during repeated trunk flexion/extension in healthy individuals and people with chronic non-specific LBP (CNSLBP). Kinematic data were collected from 22 healthy volunteers and 22 CNSLBP patients during metronomically timed, repeated trunk flexion/extension in three conditions of symmetry, velocity, and loading; each at two levels. A goal function for the task was defined as maintaining a constant movement time at each cycle. Given the GEM, flexibility index and performance index were calculated respectively as amounts of goal-equivalent variability and the ratio of goal-equivalent to non-goal-equivalent variability. CNSLBP group was as similar as healthy individuals in both flexibility index (p=0.41) and performance index (p=0.24). Performance index was higher in asymmetric (p<0.001), high velocity (p<0.001), and loaded (p=0.006) conditions. Performance and flexibility in using motor abundance were influenced by repeated trunk flexion/extension conditions. However, these measures were not significantly affected by CNSLBP.

  15. Combined administration of oseltamivir and hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41) dramatically decreases the viral load in lungs of senescence-accelerated mice during influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ohgitani, Eriko; Kita, Masakazu; Mazda, Osam; Imanishi, Jiro

    2014-02-01

    To enhance the effect of anti-influenza-virus agent treatment, the effect of combined administration of oseltamivir phosphate and hochu-ekki-to (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, HET) on early viral clearance was examined. Senescence-accelerated mice were given HET in drinking water for 2 weeks, followed by intranasal infection with influenza A virus strain PR8. After 4 hours of infection, oseltamivir was administered orally for 5 days. The viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving combined treatment were dramatically lower when compared with the viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving oseltamivir alone. HET significantly increased the induction of IL-1β and TNF-α in the lungs of PR8-infected mice and stimulated alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. From these results, we conclude that these functions may be responsible the increased effect on viral load reduction. Here, we show that the combined administration of oseltamivir and HET is very useful for influenza treatment in senescence-accelerated mice.

  16. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight lost or damaged-solely related; fringe benefits; casualties and insurance; joint facility, and other... SEPARATION OF COMMON OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS...

  17. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  18. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  19. Two Different Approaches for Oral Administration of Voriconazole Loaded Formulations: Electrospun Fibers versus β-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Siafaka, Panoraia I.; Üstündağ Okur, Neslihan; Mone, Mariza; Giannakopoulou, Spyridoula; Er, Sevda; Pavlidou, Eleni; Karavas, Evangelos; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a comparison between two different preparation methods for the improvement of dissolution rate of an antifungal agent is presented. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun fibers and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes, which were produced via an electrospinning process and an inclusion complexation method, respectively, were addressed for the treatment of fungal infections. Voriconazole (VRCZ) drug was selected as a model drug. PCL nanofibers were characterized on the basis of morphology while phase solubility studies for β-CDs complexes were performed. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of VRCZ were loaded to PCL fibers and β-CD inclusions to study the in vitro release profile as well as in vitro antifungal activity. The results clearly indicated that all formulations showed an improved VRCZ solubility and can inhibit fungi proliferation. PMID:26927072

  20. Preparation, optimization, and in vitro simulated inhalation delivery of carvedilol nanoparticles loaded on a coarse carrier intended for pulmonary administration

    PubMed Central

    Abdelbary, Aly A; Al-mahallawi, Abdulaziz M; Abdelrahim, Mohamed E; Ali, Ahmed MA

    2015-01-01

    Carvedilol (CAR) is a potent antihypertensive drug but has poor oral bioavailability (24%). A nanosuspension suitable for pulmonary delivery to enhance bioavailability and bypass first-pass metabolism of CAR could be advantageous. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to prepare CAR nanosuspensions and to use artificial neural networks associated with genetic algorithm to model and optimize the formulations. The optimized nanosuspension was lyophilized to obtain dry powder suitable for inhalation. However, respirable particles must have a diameter of 1–5 µm in order to deposit in the lungs. Hence, mannitol was used during lyophilization for cryoprotection and to act as a coarse carrier for nanoparticles in order to deliver them into their desired destination. The bottom-up technique was adopted for nanosuspension formulation using Pluronic stabilizers (F127, F68, and P123) combined with sodium deoxycholate at 1:1 weight ratio, at three levels with two drug loads and two aqueous to organic phase volume ratios. The drug crystallinity was studied using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry. The in vitro emitted doses of CAR were evaluated using a dry powder inhaler sampling apparatus and the aerodynamic characteristics were evaluated using an Andersen MKII cascade impactor. The artificial neural networks results showed that Pluronic F127 was the optimum stabilizer based on the desired particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. Results of differential scanning calorimetry combined with powder X-ray diffractometry showed that CAR crystallinity was observed in the lyophilized nanosuspension. The aerodynamic characteristics of the optimized lyophilized nanosuspension demonstrated significantly higher percentage of total emitted dose (89.70%) and smaller mass median aerodynamic diameter (2.80 µm) compared with coarse drug powder (73.60% and 4.20 µm, respectively). In summary, the above strategy confirmed the applicability of

  1. Intra-articular Administration of Chitosan Thermosensitive In Situ Hydrogels Combined With Diclofenac Sodium-Loaded Alginate Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Xiaoxue; Yang, Rong; Qin, Jiayi; Li, Wenyan; Luan, Kun; Wu, Zhenghong; Song, Li

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to prepare fine intra-articular-administrated chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels combined with alginate microspheres and to investigate the possibility of those hydrogels as a drug delivery system for promoting the anti-inflammation effect. Diclofenac sodium containing alginate microspheres was prepared by a modified emulsification and/or gelation method and then dispersed into injectable thermosensitive hydrogels, consisting of chitosan and β-glycerophosphate. The final combined hydrogels were evaluated in terms of their morphology properties, rheological properties, in vitro drug release, and in vivo biocompatibility and pharmacodynamics behaviors. The optimized formulation exhibited sol-gel transition at 31.72 ± 0.42°C and quickly turned into gel within 5 min, with sustained drug release characteristics followed Ritger-Peppas equation, which could prolong the in vitro drug release to 5 days. In addition, the anti-inflammation efficacy of the combined hydrogels in rabbits with experimental rheumatoid arthritis was higher than that of drug solution and pure chitosan hydrogels. Those results demonstrated that these combined hydrogels could become a potential drug delivery system for improving the therapeutic effect of diclofenac sodium and suggested an important technology platform for intra-articular administration.

  2. Divalent toxoids loaded stable chitosan-glucomannan nanoassemblies for efficient systemic, mucosal and cellular immunostimulatory response following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Harde, Harshad; Siddhapura, Krupa; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Jain, Sanyog

    2015-06-20

    The present study reports dual tetanus and diphtheria toxoids loaded stable chitosan-glucomannan nanoassemblies (sCh-GM-NAs) formulated using tandem ionic gelation technique for oral mucosal immunization. The stable, lyophilized sCh-GM-NAs exhibited ~152 nm particle size and ~85% EE of both the toxoids. The lyophilized sCh-GM-NAs displayed excellent stability in biomimetic media and preserved chemical, conformation and biological stability of encapsulated toxoids. The higher intracellular APCs uptake of sCh-GM-NAs was concentration and time dependent which may be attributed to the receptor mediated endocytosis via mannose and glucose receptor. The higher Caco-2 uptake of sCh-GM-NAs was further confirmed by ex vivo intestinal uptake studies. The in vivo evaluation revealed that sCh-GM-NAs posed significantly (p<0.001) higher humoral, mucosal and cellular immune response than other counterparts by eliciting complete protective levels of anti-TT and anti-DT (~0.1 IU/mL) antibodies. Importantly, commercial 'Dual antigen' vaccine administered through oral or intramuscular route was unable to elicit all type of immune response. Conclusively, sCh-GM-NAs could be considered as promising vaccine adjuvant for oral mucosal immunization.

  3. Electric load monitoring to support a shared energy savings procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.

    1992-06-01

    Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy savings resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.

  4. Electric load monitoring to support a shared energy savings procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.

    1992-06-01

    Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number_sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy savings resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.

  5. Efficacy of liposomal bismuth-ethanedithiol-loaded tobramycin after intratracheal administration in rats with pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Alhariri, Moayad; Omri, Abdelwahab

    2013-01-01

    We sought to investigate alterations in quorum-sensing signal molecule N-acyl homoserine lactone secretion and in the release of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors, as well as the in vivo antimicrobial activity of bismuth-ethanedithiol incorporated into a liposome-loaded tobramycin formulation (LipoBiEDT-TOB) administered to rats chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. The quorum-sensing signal molecule N-acyl homoserine lactone was monitored by using a biosensor organism. P. aeruginosa virulence factors were assessed spectrophotometrically. An agar beads model of chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in rats was used to evaluate the efficacy of the liposomal formulation in the reduction of bacterial count. The levels of active tobramycin in the lungs and the kidneys were evaluated by microbiological assay. LipoBiEDT-TOB was effective in disrupting both quorum-sensing signal molecules N-3-oxo-dodeccanoylhomoserine lactone and N-butanoylhomoserine lactone, as well as significantly (P < 0.05) reducing lipase, chitinase, and protease production. At 24 h after 3 treatments, the CFU counts in lungs of animals treated with LipoBiEDT-TOB were of 3 log(10) CFU/lung, comparated to 7.4 and 4.7 log(10) CFU/lung, respectively, in untreated lungs and in lungs treated with free antibiotic. The antibiotic concentration after the last dose of LipoBiEDT-TOB was 25.1 μg/lung, while no tobramycin was detected in the kidneys. As for the free antibiotic, we found 6.5 μg/kidney but could not detect any tobramycin in the lungs. Taken together, LipoBiEDT-TOB reduced the production of quorum-sensing molecules and virulence factors and could highly improve the management of chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis patients.

  6. Feasibility studies of concomitant administration of optimized formulation of probiotic-loaded Vancomycin hydrochloride pellets for colon delivery.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Shinde, Amol S

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this study was to develop Vancomycin HCl pellets loaded with Saccharomyces boulardii (S.b.) for pH-dependent system and CODES™ for augmenting the efficacy of Vancomycin HCl in the treatment of colitis. Pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization. In the pH-dependent system, the pellets were coated with Eudragit FS 30D. These pellets exhibited spherical form and a uniform surface coating. The CODES™ system consisted of three components: core containing mannitol, drug and probiotic, an inner acid-soluble coating layer, and an outer layer of enteric coating material. Statistical factorial design was used to optimize both formulations. Scanning electron micrographs of coated pellets revealed uniform coating. In vitro drug release of these coated pellets was studied sequentially in various buffers with (2%) and without rat cecal content for a period of 12 h. From the optimized pH-dependent formulation, F6 (20% w/w coating level and 15% w/v concentration of polymer), higher amount of probiotic was released in earlier time phase (first 5 h) as compared to the CODES™ and so R5 [containing acid-soluble inner coating layer (15% w/w coating level and 12% w/v concentration of Eudragit E100), and an outer layer of enteric coating material (12% w/w coating level and 10% w/v concentration of Eudragit L100)] was considered as the best formulation after confirming in vivo X-ray studies conducted on rabbits, suggesting that Vancomycin HCl and S.b. may be co-administered as pellets [CODES™] to enhance the effectiveness of Vancomycin HCl in the treatment of colitis without its associated side effects, which can only be confirmed after clinical trials.

  7. Dihydroartemisinin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (DHA-NLC): evaluation of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after intravenous administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Qiao, Hua; Liu, Jianping; Dong, Haijun; Shen, Chenlin; Ni, Jingman; Shi, Yanbin; Xu, Ying

    2010-09-01

    A simple and rapid LC-MS/MS method was established for the determination of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in plasma and tissues of rats. Sample preparation was achieved by liquid-liquid extraction with aether and analysis was performed on LC-MS/MS in positive ion mode using electrospray ionization (ESI) as an interface. Target compounds were quantified in a single ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. DHA was monitored at m/z 267.1 and the internal standard finasteride at m/z 305.2. Chromatography was carried out using a Synergi fusion RP 80 column with a mixture of ethanol and 0.1% formic acid mixture (75:25) as the mobile phase. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after intravenous administration of DHA in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) and in solution were then compared. The mean residence times (MRT) of the DHA-NLC was much longer than that of the DHA solution. In the tested organs, the AUC values of the DHA-NLC were higher than that of the DHA solution in liver, spleen, lung, brain and muscle, and lower than the DHA solution in heart and kidney. DHA-NLC prepared in this study is a promising sustained-release and drug-targeting system for antitumor drugs. It may also allow a reduction in dosage and a decrease in systemic toxicity.

  8. The topical administration of rhEGF-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (rhEGF-NLC) improves healing in a porcine full-thickness excisional wound model.

    PubMed

    Gainza, Garazi; Bonafonte, Diego Celdran; Moreno, Beatriz; Aguirre, José Javier; Gutierrez, Francisco Borja; Villullas, Silvia; Pedraz, José Luis; Igartua, Manoli; Hernandez, Rosa Maria

    2015-01-10

    The development of an effective treatment able to reduce the healing time of chronic wounds is a major health care need. In this regard, our research group has recently demonstrated the in vivo effectiveness of the topical administration of rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles in healing-impaired db/db mice. Here we report the effectiveness of rhEGF-NLC (rhEGF loaded nanostructured lipid carriers) in a more relevant preclinical model of wound healing, the porcine full-thickness excisional wound model. The rhEGF-NLC showed a particle size of around 335nm, negative surface charge (-27mV) and a high encapsulation efficiency of 94%. rhEGF plasma levels were almost undetectable, suggesting that no systemic absorption occurred, which may minimise potential side effects and improve treatment safety. In vivo healing experiments carried out in large white pigs demonstrated that 20μg of rhEGF-NLC topically administered twice a week increased the wound closure and percentage of healed wounds by day 25, compared with the same number of intralesional administrations of 75μg free rhEGF and empty NLC. Moreover, rhEGF-NLC improved the wound healing quality expressed in terms of number of arranged microvasculature, fibroblast migration and proliferation, collagen deposition and evolution of the inflammatory response. Overall, these findings demonstrated that topically administered rhEGF-NLC may generate de novo intact skin after full thickness injury in a porcine model, thereby confirming their potential clinical application for the treatment of chronic wounds.

  9. Effects of Mental Load and Fatigue on Steady-State Evoked Potential Based Brain Computer Interface Tasks: A Comparison of Periodic Flickering and Motion-Reversal Based Visual Attention.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Wang, Jing; Li, Min; Han, Chengcheng; Jia, Yaguang

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) based paradigm is a conventional BCI method with the advantages of high information transfer rate, high tolerance to artifacts and the robust performance across users. But the occurrence of mental load and fatigue when users stare at flickering stimuli is a critical problem in implementation of SSVEP-based BCIs. Based on electroencephalography (EEG) power indices α, θ, θ + α, ratio index θ/α and response properties of amplitude and SNR, this study quantitatively evaluated the mental load and fatigue in both of conventional flickering and the novel motion-reversal visual attention tasks. Results over nine subjects revealed significant mental load alleviation in motion-reversal task rather than flickering task. The interaction between factors of "stimulation type" and "fatigue level" also illustrated the motion-reversal stimulation as a superior anti-fatigue solution for long-term BCI operation. Taken together, our work provided an objective method favorable for the design of more practically applicable steady-state evoked potential based BCIs.

  10. Effects of Mental Load and Fatigue on Steady-State Evoked Potential Based Brain Computer Interface Tasks: A Comparison of Periodic Flickering and Motion-Reversal Based Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Wang, Jing; Li, Min; Han, Chengcheng; Jia, Yaguang

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) based paradigm is a conventional BCI method with the advantages of high information transfer rate, high tolerance to artifacts and the robust performance across users. But the occurrence of mental load and fatigue when users stare at flickering stimuli is a critical problem in implementation of SSVEP-based BCIs. Based on electroencephalography (EEG) power indices α, θ, θ + α, ratio index θ/α and response properties of amplitude and SNR, this study quantitatively evaluated the mental load and fatigue in both of conventional flickering and the novel motion-reversal visual attention tasks. Results over nine subjects revealed significant mental load alleviation in motion-reversal task rather than flickering task. The interaction between factors of “stimulation type” and “fatigue level” also illustrated the motion-reversal stimulation as a superior anti-fatigue solution for long-term BCI operation. Taken together, our work provided an objective method favorable for the design of more practically applicable steady-state evoked potential based BCIs. PMID:27658216

  11. A touch screen based Stop Signal Response Task in rhesus monkeys for studying impulsivity associated with chronic cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijing; Heitz, Richard P; Bradberry, Charles W

    2009-02-15

    Among a range of cognitive deficits, human cocaine addicts display increased impulsivity and decreased performance monitoring. In order to establish an animal model that can be used to study the underlying neurobiology of these deficits associated with addiction, we have developed a touch screen based Stop Signal Response Task for rhesus monkeys. This task is essentially identical to the clinically used Stop Signal Task employed for diagnostic and research purposes. In this task, impulsivity is reflected in the amount of time needed to inhibit a response after it has been initiated, the Stop Signal Response Time (SSRT). Performance monitoring is reflected by the slowing of response times following Stop trials (Post-Stop Slowing, PSS). Herein we report on the task structure, the staged methods for training animals to perform the task, and a comparison of performance values for control and cocaine experienced animals. Relative to controls, monkeys that had self-administered cocaine, followed by 18 months abstinence, displayed increased impulsivity (increased SSRT values), and decreased performance monitoring (decreased PSS values). Our results are consistent with human data, and thereby establish an ideal animal model for studying the etiology and underlying neurobiology of cocaine-induced impulse control and performance monitoring deficits.

  12. A comparison of the stimulus effects of codeine in rhesus monkeys under the contingencies of a two lever discrimination task and a cross self-administration paradigm: tests of generalization to pentazocine, buprenorphine, tilidine, and different doses of codeine.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, F

    1988-01-01

    The stimulus effects of codeine were assessed in three monkeys trained to perform first under the contingencies of a cross self-administration paradigm and then under a two lever discrimination task. Codeine-trained monkeys generalized to pentazocine, buprenorphine, and codeine under both procedures in doses different from the training dose. Codeine-trained monkeys did not generalize to tilidine. These results indicate that monkeys do not behave in a qualitatively different way when presented with the study drugs under both contingencies. However, there were marked quantitative differences between the generalization effects of doses of pentazocine, buprenorphine, and codeine to doses other than that used in training between the two paradigms. Much higher doses of codeine and pentazocine, but not of buprenorphine, were necessary for inducing generalization effects in the two lever task than in the cross self-administration procedure. The possible reasons for these quantitative differences are discussed. It is concluded that the cross self-administration procedure is more sensitive for the assessment of opioid-like stimulus properties of drugs than the two lever discrimination task.

  13. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paas, Fred; Sweller, John

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ameliorated by changes in long-term memory associated with…

  14. Results of the Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the opening load in fatigue crack growth tests was conducted on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. The Round Robin evaluated the current level of consistency of opening load measurements among laboratories and to identify causes for observed inconsistency. Eleven laboratories participated in the testing of compact and middle-crack specimens. Opening-load measurements were made for crack growth at two stress-intensity factor levels, three crack lengths, and following an overload. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimen compliance data. When all of the results reported (from all participants, all measurement methods, and all data analysis methods) for a given test condition were pooled, the range of opening loads was very large--typically spanning the lower half of the fatigue loading cycle. Part of the large scatter in the reported opening-load results was ascribed to consistent differences in results produced by the various methods used to measure specimen compliance and to evaluate the opening load from the compliance data. Another significant portion of the scatter was ascribed to lab-to-lab differences in producing the compliance data when using nominally the same method of measurement.

  15. Task Difficulty Differentially Affects Two Measures of Processing Load: The Pupil Response during Sentence Processing and Delayed Cued Recall of the Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Festen, Joost M.; Kramer, Kramera

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the influence of masking level (29% or 71% sentence perception) and test modality on the processing load during language perception as reflected by the pupil response. In addition, the authors administered a delayed cued stimulus recall test to examine whether processing load affected the encoding of…

  16. Biopharmaceutical profile of hydrogels containing pranoprofen-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for skin administration: In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Helen; Souto, Eliana B; Guevara, Bessy; Bellowa, Lyda Halbaut; Garduño, Maria Luisa; Garcia, María Luisa; Calpena, Ana C

    2016-03-30

    Pranoprofen (PF)-loaded nanoparticles (PF-F1NPs and PF-F2NPs) have been formulated into blank hydrogels (HG_PF-F1NPs and HG_PF-F1NPs) or into hydrogels composed of 3% azone (HG_PF-F1NPs-Azone and HG_PF-F2NPs-Azone), as innovative strategy to improve the biopharmaceutical profile of the selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Pranoprofen, PF) for topical application. The purpose of this approach has been to increase the contact of PF with the skin, improve its retention in deeper layers, thus enhancing its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The physicochemical characterization of the developed hydrogels showed a non-Newtonian behaviour, typical of semi-solid formulations for skin administration, with sustained release profile. The results obtained from ex vivo skin human permeation and in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy studies suggest that topical application of HG_PF-F2NPs has been more effective in the treatment of oedema on the skin' surface in comparison to other hydrogels. No signs of skin irritancy have been detected for all the semi-solid formulations containing 0% or 3% azone.

  17. Effect of liquid-to-solid lipid ratio on characterizations of flurbiprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for transdermal administration.

    PubMed

    Song, Aihua; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Han, Fei

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of liquid-to-solid lipid ratio on properties of flurbiprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), and to clarify the superiority of NLCs over SLNs for transdermal administration. Particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro occlusion factor, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, in vitro percutaneous permeation profile, and stability of SLNs and NLCs were compared. Particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro occlusion factor, and in vitro percutaneous permeation amount of the developed NLCs were all <200 nm, < -20 mV, >78%, >35, and >240 μg/cm(2), respectively, however, for SLNs were 280 nm, -29.11 mV, 63.2%, 32.54, and 225.9 μg/cm(2), respectively. After 3 months storage at 4 °C and 25 °C, almost no significant differences between the evaluated parameters of NLCs were observed. However, for SLNs, particle size was increased to higher than 300 nm (4 °C and 25 °C), drug encapsulation efficiency was decreased to 51.2 (25 °C), in vitro occlusion factor was also decreased to lower than 25 (4 °C and 25 °C), and the cumulative amount was decreased to 148.9 μg/cm(2) (25 °C) and 184.4 μg/cm(2) (4 °C), respectively. And DSC and XRD studies indicated that not only the crystalline peaks of the encapsulated flurbiprofen disappeared but also obvious difference between samples and bulk Compritol® ATO 888 was seen. It could be concluded that liquid-to-solid lipid ratio has significant impact on the properties of SLNs and NLCs, and NLCs showed better stability than SLNs. Therefore, NLCs might be a better option than SLNs for transdermal administration.

  18. Measurement of functional task difficulty during motor learning: What level of difficulty corresponds to the optimal challenge point?

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between task difficulty and learning benefit was examined, as was the measurability of task difficulty. Participants were required to learn a postural control task on an unstable surface at one of four different task difficulty levels. Results from the retention test showed an inverted-U relationship between task difficulty during acquisition and motor learning. The second-highest level of task difficulty was the most effective for motor learning, while learning was delayed at the most and least difficult levels. Additionally, the results indicate that salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) are useful indices of task difficulty. Our findings suggested that instructors may be able to adjust task difficulty based on salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the NASA-TLX to enhance learning.

  19. Combining principles of Cognitive Load Theory and diagnostic error analysis for designing job aids: Effects on motivation and diagnostic performance in a process control task.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Annette; Grauel, Britta; Burkolter, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Two studies are presented in which the design of a procedural aid and the impact of an additional decision aid for process control were assessed. In Study 1, a procedural aid was developed that avoids imposing unnecessary extraneous cognitive load on novices when controlling a complex technical system. This newly designed procedural aid positively affected germane load, attention, satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition and diagnostic speed for novel faults. In Study 2, the effect of a decision aid for use before the procedural aid was investigated, which was developed based on an analysis of diagnostic errors committed in Study 1. Results showed that novices were able to diagnose both novel faults and practised faults, and were even faster at diagnosing novel faults. This research contributes to the question of how to optimally support novices in dealing with technical faults in process control.

  20. Vehicle Ancillary Load Reduction Project Close-Out Report: An Overview of the Task and a Compilation of the Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.; Farrington, R.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of fuel used for climate control in U.S. vehicles reduces the fuel economy of more than 200 million light-duty conventional vehicles and thus affects U.S. energy security. Researchers at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimated that the United States consumes about 7 billion gallons of fuel per year for air-conditioning (A/C) light-duty vehicles. Using a variety of tools, NREL researchers developed innovative techniques and technologies to reduce the amount of fuel needed for these vehicles' ancillary loads. For example, they found that the A/C cooling capacity of 5.7 kW in a Cadillac STS could be reduced by 30% while maintaining a cooldown performance of 30 minutes. A simulation showed that reducing the A/C load by 30% decreased A/C fuel consumption by 26%. Other simulations supported the great potential for improving fuel economy by using new technologies and techniques developed to reduce ancillary loads.

  1. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  2. A novel strategy for the treatment of chronic wounds based on the topical administration of rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles: In vitro bioactivity and in vivo effectiveness in healing-impaired db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Gainza, Garazi; Pastor, Marta; Aguirre, José Javier; Villullas, Silvia; Pedraz, José Luis; Hernandez, Rosa Maria; Igartua, Manoli

    2014-07-10

    Lipid nanoparticles are currently receiving increasing interest because they permit the topical administration of proteins, such as recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF), in a sustained and effective manner. Because chronic wounds have become a major healthcare burden, the topical administration of rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles, namely solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carries (NLC), appears to be an interesting and suitable strategy for the treatment of chronic wounds. Both rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles were prepared through the emulsification-ultrasonication method; however, the NLC-rhEGF preparation did not require the use of any organic solvents. The characterisation of the nanoparticles (NP) revealed that the encapsulation efficiency (EE) of NLC-rhEGF was significantly greater than obtained with SLN-rhEGF. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that gamma sterilisation is a suitable process for the final sterilisation because no loss in activity was observed after the sterilisation process. In addition, the proliferation assays revealed that the bioactivity of the nanoformulations was even higher than that of free rhEGF. Finally, the effectiveness of the rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles was assayed in a full-thickness wound model in db/db mice. The data demonstrated that four topical administrations of SLN-rhEGF and NLC-rhEGF significantly improved healing in terms of wound closure, restoration of the inflammatory process, and re-epithelisation grade. In addition, the data did not reveal any differences in the in vivo effectiveness between the different rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles. Overall, these findings demonstrate the promising potential of rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles, particularly NLC-rhEGF, for the promotion of faster and more effective healing and suggest their future application for the treatment of chronic wounds.

  3. Estimating the cost of mental loading in a bimodal divided-attention task: Combining reaction time, heart-rate variability and signal-detection theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Patricia A.; Kantowitz, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple approaches are necessary for understanding and measuring workload. In particular, physiological systems identifiable by employing cardiac measures are related to cognitive systems. One issue of debate in measuring cardiac output is the grain of analysis used in recording and summarizing data. Various experiments are reviewed, the majority of which were directed at supporting or contradicting Lacey's intake-rejection hypothesis. Two of the experiments observed heart rate in operational environments and found virtually no changes associated with mental load. The major problems facing researchers using heart rate variability, or sinus arrhthmia, as a dependent measure have been associated with valid and sensitive scoring and preventing contamination of observed results by influences unrelated to cognition. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability offers two useful procedures: analysis from the time domain and analysis from the frequency domain. Most recently, data have been collected in a divided attention experiment, the performance measures and cardiac measures of which are detailed.

  4. Task analysis: a detailed example of stepping up from JSA

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.W.; Paramore, B.A.; Buys, J.R.

    1984-10-01

    This paper discusses a pilot task analysis of operations in a proposed facility for the cutting and packaging of radioactively contaminated gloveboxes, for long-term storage or burial. The objective was to demonstrate how task analysis may be used as a tool for planning and risk management. Two specific products were generated - preliminary operating procedures and training requirements. The task data base, procedures list and training requirements developed were intended as first order categorizations. The analysis was limited to tasks that will be performed within the boundaries of the operational facility and the associated load-out area. The analysis documents tasks to be performed by D and D (Decontamination and Decommissioning) Workers. However, the analysis included all tasks identified as an integral part of glovebox processing within the facility. Thus tasks involving Radiation Protection Technicians (RPTs) are included. Based on hazard assessments, it is planned that at least two RPTs will be assigned full-time to the facility, so they may be considered part of its crew. Similarly, supervisory/administrative tasks are included where they were determined to be directly part of process sequences, such as obtaining appropriate certification. 11 tables.

  5. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-26

    dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task...dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task with...approximate entropies, wavelet-based complexity measures, correlation dimension, Hurst exponent ) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to evaluate changes

  6. Operation Compatibility: A Neglected Contribution to Dual-Task Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannebakker, Merel M.; Band, Guido P. H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in parallel. In 2 psychological refractory period…

  7. Effects of Noise and Task Loading on a Communication Task

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Biers, Ph 0. Chairman, Thesis Committee Donald J. Polzella , Ph.D. Thesis Committee Member Thomas J. Moore, Ph.D. Thesis Committee Member CONCURRENCE... Polzella , Dr Tom Moore and Dr Don Thomas. I owe much to Tim Anderson who helped me initiate the research and who got support from key AAMRL/BBA

  8. Load Induced Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005d`) was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus—a phenomenon of load induced blindness. PMID:18823196

  9. Metronomic paclitaxel-loaded mPEG-PLA nanoparticles show enhanced anti-tumor efficacy compared to maximum tolerated dose administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Tan; Yang, Lian-juan; Mo, Xiao-hui; Wang, Xiu-li; Jun, Gu

    2014-11-01

    Low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy with cytotoxic agents, aimed at disrupting tumor endothelial cells, is an alternative method to maximum tolerated dose chemotherapy targeting proliferating tumor cells in clinical practice. However, even in the LDM schedule, cytotoxic agents still exhibit serious side effects due to non-distribution and high accumulated doses in the body. Nanocarriers can maximize the efficacy of the encapsulated drug by adjusting the pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution pattern, and minimize excessive toxic side effects. In the present study, we prepared polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated stealth nanoparticles containing paclitaxel (PTX-NP) in order to evaluate their accumulation in tumor and their anti-tumor activity following LDM administration. PTX-NPs were prepared by a modified emulsification/solvent diffusion method with methoxy PEG-poly(lactide). The in vitro viability, migration, and tube formation of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells, in addition to thrombospondin-1 positive expression and microvessel density in vivo, confirmed the anti-angiogenic activity of PTX-NP. The cellular uptake and retention study, in addition to pharmacokinetics in Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrated sustained circulation of PTX-NP. The in vivo tumor accumulation of PTX-NP was monitored using the Xenogen IVIS 200 non-invasive optical imaging system. The anti-tumor activity of LDM PTX-NP was studied in B16 melanoma cancer-bearing mice in vivo. In conclusion, PTX-NP improved tumor accumulation and anti-tumor efficacy following LDM administration.

  10. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  11. Task breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlich, Jane

    1990-01-01

    The topics concerning the Center for Space Construction (CSC) space construction breakdown structure are presented in viewgraph form. It is concluded that four components describe a task -- effecting, information gathering, analysis, and regulation; uncertainties effect the relative amount of information gathering and analysis that occurs; and that task timing requirements drive the 'location in time' of cognition.

  12. Increased antiparkinson efficacy of the combined administration of VEGF- and GDNF-loaded nanospheres in a partial lesion model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Herrán, Enara; Requejo, Catalina; Ruiz-Ortega, Jose Angel; Aristieta, Asier; Igartua, Manoli; Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Ugedo, Luisa; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Lafuente, Jose Vicente; Hernández, Rosa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Current research efforts are focused on the application of growth factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as neuroregenerative approaches that will prevent the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson’s disease. Continuing a previous work published by our research group, and with the aim to overcome different limitations related to growth factor administration, VEGF and GDNF were encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres (NS). This strategy facilitates the combined administration of the VEGF and GDNF into the brain of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) partially lesioned rats, resulting in a continuous and simultaneous drug release. The NS particle size was about 200 nm and the simultaneous addition of VEGF NS and GDNF NS resulted in significant protection of the PC-12 cell line against 6-OHDA in vitro. Once the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) NS were implanted into the striatum of 6-OHDA partially lesioned rats, the amphetamine rotation behavior test was carried out over 10 weeks, in order to check for in vivo efficacy. The results showed that VEGF NS and GDNF NS significantly decreased the number of amphetamine-induced rotations at the end of the study. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemical analysis in the striatum and the external substantia nigra confirmed a significant enhancement of neurons in the VEGF NS and GDNF NS treatment group. The synergistic effect of VEGF NS and GDNF NS allows for a reduction of the dose by half, and may be a valuable neurogenerative/neuroreparative approach for treating Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24920904

  13. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  14. Quantification of rutin in rat's brain by UHPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS after intranasal administration of rutin loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Rizwan; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Alam, Md Aftab; Samim, Mohd; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2016-01-01

    Rutin (RT), an antioxidant drug, has been utilized to treat cerebral ischemia hence a sensitive quantification method for estimation of RT in brain homogenate is necessary to develop. This study aims to prepare RT loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles (RT-CS-NPs) develop and validate ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-synapt mass spectrometric method Synapt Mass Spectrometry (Synapt MS) (UHPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) for quantification of RT in brain homogenate from Wistar rat. The process of chromatographic separation was carried out on Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ with the components of separation in detail as; column: BEH C-18 with dimension as 2.1 mm×100 mm and particle size 1.7 µm, mobile phase: acetonitrile (85 % v/v/v): 2 mM ammonium formate (15 % v/v/v): formic acid (0.1 % v/v/v) and flow rate: 0.25 mL/min. Liquid-liquid extraction method (LLE), in mixture, i.e. ethyl acetate:acetonitrile, was considered to optimize the recovery of analyte from the brain homogenate of Wistar rat. Over a total run time of 5 minutes, the elution time for RT and internal standard (IS), i.e. Tolbutamide, observed was 2.67 and 2.82 min respectively whereas the transition observed for RT and IS was at m/z 611.1023/303.1071 and 271.1263/155.1073, respectively. Results, regarding various processes and parameters studied for RT as summarized, established a linear dynamic range over a concentration range of 1.00 ng/mL - 1000.0 ng/mL with r2; 0.9991±0.0010. Accuracy for intra and inter-assay in terms of % CV revealed a range of 0.45- 2.11 whereas lower limit of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) observed was 0.09 ng/mL and 0.142 ng/mL, respectively. The analyte stability as well as method specificity and accuracy, i.e. recovery > 86 %, supports the idea for application of current developed method in order to quantify and evaluate the RT-loaded-CS-NPs for RT determination in brain homogenate after intranasal drug delivery. PMID:28096783

  15. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal findings We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels. Conclusion/Significance IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission. PMID:26991326

  16. Transferrin receptor antibody-modified α-cobrotoxin-loaded nanoparticles enable drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier by intranasal administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Xiangyi; Li, Wuchao; Sun, Haozhen; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Fanzhu

    2013-11-01

    A novel drug carrier for brain delivery, maleimide-poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactide) (maleimide-PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with mouse-anti-rat monoclonal antibody OX26 (OX26-NPs), was developed and its brain delivery property was evaluated. The diblock copolymers of maleimide-PEG-PLA were synthesized and applied to α-cobrotoxin (αCT)-loaded NPs which were characterized by transmission electron micrograph imaging, Fourier-transform IR, and X-ray diffraction. The NPs encapsulating αCT had a round and vesicle-like shape with a mean diameter around 100 nm, and the OX26 had covalently conjugated to the surface of NPs. MTT studies in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) revealed a moderate decrease in the cell viability of αCT, when incorporated in OX26-NPs compared to free αCT in solution. A higher affinity of the OX26-αCT-NPs to the BMEC was shown in comparison to αCT-NPs. Then, OX26-αCT-NPs were intranasally (i.n.) administered to rats, and αCT in the periaqueductal gray was monitored for up to 480 min using microdialysis technique in free-moving rats, with i.n. αCT-NPs, i.n. OX26-αCT-NPs, intramuscular injection (i.m.) αCT-NPs, and i.m. OX26-αCT-NPs. The brain transport results showed that the corresponding absolute bioavailability ( F abs) of i.n. OX26-αCT-NPs were about 125 and 155 % with i.n. αCT-NPs and i.m. OX26-αCT-NPs, respectively, and it was found that both the C max and AUC of the four groups were as follows: i.n. OX26-αCT-NPs > i.n. αCT-NPs > i.m. OX26-αCT-NPs > i.m. αCT-NPs, while αCT solution, as control groups, could hardly enter the brain. These results indicated that OX26-NPs are promising carriers for peptide brain delivery.

  17. Load induced blindness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-10-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect on the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the periphery, using a direct measure of awareness (present/absent reports). Detection sensitivity (d') was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus--a phenomenon of load induced blindness.

  18. The Role of Mental Load in Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Moreno, Elisa; Conchillo, Angela; Recarte, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether the mental load of a cognitive task prevents the processing of visual stimuli, that is, whether the mental load produces inattentional blindness, and at what point in the cognitive-task processing more interference is produced. An arithmetic task with two levels of mental load was used in a…

  19. Task coordination between and within sensory modalities: effects on distraction.

    PubMed

    Brand-D'Abrescia, Muriele; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-04-01

    Load theory predictions for the effects of task coordination between and within sensory modalities (vision and hearing or vision only) on the level of distraction were tested. Response competition effects in a visual flanker task when it was coordinated with an auditory discrimination task (between-modality conditions) or a visual discrimination task (within-modality conditions) were compared with single-task conditions. In the between-modality conditions, response competition effects were greater in the two- (vs. single-) task conditions irrespective of the level of discrimination task difficulty. In the within-modality conditions, response competition effects were greater in the two-task (vs. single-task) conditions only when these involved a more difficult visual discrimination task. The results provided support for the load theory prediction that executive control load leads to greater distractor interference while highlighting the effects of task modality.

  20. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  1. The Administration of Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifford C.

    1978-01-01

    Among all the tasks of the admissions officer in developing a successful marketing program, the hardest may be that of convincing other college administrators of the importance of admissions to the institution's survival. Discussed are long-range planning, budgeting, staff selection and training, and implementing a plan. (Author/LBH)

  2. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  3. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  4. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  5. Dilution: A Theoretical Burden or Just Load? A Reply to Tsal and Benoni (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavie, Nilli; Torralbo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Load theory of attention proposes that distractor processing is reduced in tasks with high perceptual load that exhaust attentional capacity within task-relevant processing. In contrast, tasks of low perceptual load leave spare capacity that spills over, resulting in the perception of task-irrelevant, potentially distracting stimuli. Tsal and…

  6. 76 FR 11307 - Small Business Information Security Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Information Security Task Force AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Small Business Information Security Task Force Meeting. DATES: 1 p.m., Wednesday, January 12, 2011... meeting minutes for the third meeting of the Small Business Information Security Task Force. Chairman,...

  7. 75 FR 77934 - Small Business Information Security Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Information Security Task Force AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Small Business Information Security Task Force Meeting. DATES: 1 p.m., Wednesday, November 10, 2010... meeting minutes for the second meeting of the Small Business Information Security Task Force....

  8. 76 FR 81009 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task...

  9. 78 FR 49595 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task...

  10. 77 FR 10797 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA has withdrawn a task assigned to the Aviation Rulemaking...

  11. 76 FR 21936 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task...

  12. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  13. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  14. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  15. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  16. 14 CFR 25.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.301 Loads. (a) Strength requirements are... equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must...

  17. Load Theory of Selective Attention and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavie, Nilli; Hirst, Aleksandra; de Fockert, Jan W.; Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    A load theory of attention in which distractor rejection depends on the level and type of load involved in current processing was tested. A series of experiments demonstrates that whereas high perceptual load reduces distractor interference, working memory load or dual-task coordination load increases distractor interference. These findings…

  18. Local load shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Thorne, D.K. )

    1988-08-01

    Equipment overloads in an underground transmission network are caused by unscheduled outages. Repairs or replacements of damaged cables and/or transformers in urban areas are inherently difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, for overloads greatly in excess of short-time ratings, speed of load shedding is of paramount importance. Under such conditions, the system operator is faced with: recognizing the problem, determining the course of action and shedding the correct amount of load at the right locations. These tasks are difficult to perform, particularly under pressure of time. Reliance on pre-specified load shedding lists is not satisfactory since the load shedding lists do not necessarily match the amounts and locations of the required loads to be shed. Clearly, there has been a need for a local load shedding scheme, which in the first order of importance, would relieve the overloaded equipment within the time limits imposed by the equipment short-time ratings and in the second order of importance, would ''minimize'' the amount of load to be curtailed. This paper describes an approach which meets the dual objective, providing a practical solution to a difficult engineering/operating problem.

  19. A Comprehensive Study of the Programs, Governance and Administration of Regional Education Service Agencies (RESAs). The Report of the RESA Task Force in Response to West Virginia Senate Bill 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In June 2006, the State Superintendent of Schools, Dr. Steven Paine, convened the Task Force comprised of county superintendents, RESA executive directors, county school boards, county and RESA specialists in staff development, finance, and technology, staff from West Virginia Senate and House Education Committees, the State Auditor's Office, and…

  20. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 12. Dental QPCB Task Sort for Dental Patient Care, Prosthetics, Laboratory, and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 12 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties in dentistry. (BT)

  1. Preparing College Administrators: Fact and Fancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalcup, Robert J.; Wilson, Jerry L.

    The universality of administrative functions and tasks is sufficiently established to make special preparation programs for any one group of higher education administrators unjustifiable. This thesis is based on research undertaken to determine if significant differences existed in the functions or tasks performed by presidents, vice-presidents of…

  2. The role of perceptual load in inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Cartwright-Finch, Ula; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-03-01

    Perceptual load theory offers a resolution to the long-standing early vs. late selection debate over whether task-irrelevant stimuli are perceived, suggesting that irrelevant perception depends upon the perceptual load of task-relevant processing. However, previous evidence for this theory has relied on RTs and neuroimaging. Here we tested the effects of load on conscious perception using the "inattentional blindness" paradigm. As predicted by load theory, awareness of a task-irrelevant stimulus was significantly reduced by higher perceptual load (with increased numbers of search items, or a harder discrimination vs. detection task). These results demonstrate that conscious perception of task-irrelevant stimuli critically depends upon the level of task-relevant perceptual load rather than intentions or expectations, thus enhancing the resolution to the early vs. late selection debate offered by the perceptual load theory.

  3. Interactions Between Modality of Working Memory Load and Perceptual Load in Distractor Processing.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Olid, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated interactions between working memory load and perceptual load. The load theory (Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004 ) claims that perceptual load decreases distractor interference, whereas working memory load increases interference. However, recent studies showed that effects of working memory might depend on the relationship between modalities of working memory and task stimuli. Here, we examined whether the relationship between working memory load and perceptual load would remain the same across modalities. The results of Experiment 1 showed that verbal working memory load did not affect a compatibility effect for low perceptual load, whereas it increased the compatibility effect for high perceptual load. In Experiment 2, the compatibility effect remained the same regardless of visual working memory load. These results suggest that the effects of working memory load and perceptual load depend on the relationship between the modalities of working memory and stimuli.

  4. Concurrent working memory load can facilitate selective attention: evidence for specialized load.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M

    2007-10-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not. Working memory load was paired with a same/different matching task that required focusing on targets while ignoring distractors. When working memory items shared the same limited-capacity processing mechanisms with targets in the matching task, distractor interference increased. However, when working memory items shared processing with distractors in the matching task, distractor interference decreased, facilitating target selection. A specialized load account is proposed to describe the dissociable effects of working memory load on selective processing depending on whether the load overlaps with targets or with distractors.

  5. Harnessing the Wandering Mind: The Role of Perceptual Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual load is a key determinant of distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli (e.g., Lavie, N. (2005). "Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load." "Trends in Cognitive Sciences," 9, 75-82). Here we establish the role of perceptual load in determining an internal form of distraction by task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs or…

  6. Selective Impairment of Auditory Selective Attention under Concurrent Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent cognitive load impairs selective attention. For visual stimuli, it has been shown that this impairment can be selective: Distraction was specifically increased when the stimulus material used in the cognitive load task matches that of the selective attention task. Here, we report four experiments that…

  7. Concurrent Memory Load Can Make RSVP Search More Efficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Gomez de Liano, Beatriz; Botella, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effect of increased memory load on selective attention has been demonstrated in many situations. However, in search tasks over time using RSVP methods, it is not clear how memory load affects attentional processes; no effects as well as beneficial and detrimental effects of memory load have been found in these types of tasks. The…

  8. Developmental Trajectories in Primary Schoolchildren Using n-Back Task

    PubMed Central

    López-Vicente, Mónica; Forns, Joan; Suades-González, Elisabet; Esnaola, Mikel; García-Esteban, Raquel; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Júlvez, Jordi; Burgaleta, Miguel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychological instruments to assess cognitive trajectories during childhood in epidemiological studies are needed. This would improve neurodevelopment characterization in order to identify its potential determinants. We aimed to study whether repeated measures of n-back, a working memory task, detect developmental trajectories in schoolchildren during a 1-year follow-up. Methods: We administered the n-back task to 2897 healthy children aged 7–11 years old from 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). The task consisted of 2 levels of complexity or loads (2- and 3-back) and 2 different stimuli (numbers and words). Participants performed the task four times from January 2012 to March 2013. To study the trajectories during the follow-up, we performed linear mixed-effects models including school, individual and age as random effects. Results: We observed improvements related to age in n-back outcomes d′, HRT and accuracy, as well as reduced cognitive growth at older ages in d′ and HRT. Greater improvements in performance were observed at younger ages, in 2-back, in verbal rather than numerical stimuli and in girls compared to boys. Boys responded faster at baseline, while girls showed increased growth in 2-back numbers. Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder) symptoms (15% of boys and 6% of girls) had a lower working memory at baseline, but they showed similar cognitive growth trajectories in numbers variants of the task, as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. However, the age-related improvement in response speed was not observed in children with ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Changes in n-back outcomes reflected developmental trajectories in 1-year follow-up. The present results suggest that the repeated administration of this task can be used to study the factors that may alter the cognitive development during childhood. PMID:27242625

  9. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  10. 77 FR 27538 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-Continuing a Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--Continuing a Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of continuing a task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory...

  11. 77 FR 71471 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force meeting....

  12. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  13. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  14. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  15. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  16. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  17. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  18. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  19. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  20. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  1. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  2. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  3. 30 CFR 57.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended loads. 57.16009 Section 57.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 57.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  4. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  5. 30 CFR 56.16009 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.16009 Section 56.16009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Handling § 56.16009 Suspended loads. Persons shall stay clear of suspended loads....

  6. 14 CFR 25.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seawing loads. 25.537 Section 25.537 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1589 - Loading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loading information. 27.1589 Section 27.1589 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Manual and Approved Manual Material § 27.1589 Loading information. There must be loading instructions...

  12. 14 CFR 27.341 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gust loads. 27.341 Section 27.341 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.341 Gust loads. The...

  13. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Enhancement and suppression in the visual field under perceptual load.

    PubMed

    Parks, Nathan A; Beck, Diane M; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The perceptual load theory of attention proposes that the degree to which visual distractors are processed is a function of the attentional demands of a task-greater demands increase filtering of irrelevant distractors. The spatial configuration of such filtering is unknown. Here, we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in conjunction with time-domain event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the distribution of load-induced distractor suppression and task-relevant enhancement in the visual field. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while subjects performed a foveal go/no-go task that varied in perceptual load. Load-dependent distractor suppression was assessed by presenting a contrast reversing ring at one of three eccentricities (2, 6, or 11°) during performance of the go/no-go task. Rings contrast reversed at 8.3 Hz, allowing load-dependent changes in distractor processing to be tracked in the frequency-domain. ERPs were calculated to the onset of stimuli in the load task to examine load-dependent modulation of task-relevant processing. Results showed that the amplitude of the distractor SSVEP (8.3 Hz) was attenuated under high perceptual load (relative to low load) at the most proximal (2°) eccentricity but not at more eccentric locations (6 or 11°). Task-relevant ERPs revealed a significant increase in N1 amplitude under high load. These results are consistent with a center-surround configuration of load-induced enhancement and suppression in the visual field.

  15. Object-Based Attention Overrides Perceptual Load to Modulate Visual Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to ignore task-irrelevant information and overcome distraction is central to our ability to efficiently carry out a number of tasks. One factor shown to strongly influence distraction is the perceptual load of the task being performed; as the perceptual load of task-relevant information processing increases, the likelihood that…

  16. Multi-Task Project to Provide Research Support for Human Research and Engineering Goals Identified by the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Jefferson City, MO Phone:573-681-5126 E-mail: rooneyi(a>lincolnu.edu Principle Investigators for contract’s 5 Task Areas: Task I : James Rooney...identified Tasks all structured within a single contract. This contract contained Five Task areas: Task I was an administrative task; Task II-V were...Manager’s Overview of the Report (Task I ) 3. Summary Final Budget Invoice and Budget unspent balance 4. Technical Reports of the Research Tasks (II - V

  17. 75 FR 70764 - Small Business Information Security Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Information Security Task Force AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Small Business Information Security Task Force Meeting. DATES: 1 p.m., Wednesday, October 13,...

  18. Microbial Load Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  19. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development.

  20. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  1. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  2. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  3. Agricultural Production: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the agricultural production program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for agricultural production. Tasks are divided into 10 duty areas: orienting the student to agricultural production,…

  4. Dental Aide: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newport News Public Schools, VA.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the dental aide program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for dental aide. For each task, applicable information pertaining to performance and enabling objectives, criterion-referenced…

  5. "Task" as Research Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  6. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  7. The impact of physical and mental tasks on pilot mental workoad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1986-01-01

    Seven instrument-rated pilots with a wide range of backgrounds and experience levels flew four different scenarios on a fixed-base simulator. The Baseline scenario was the simplest of the four and had few mental and physical tasks. An activity scenario had many physical but few mental tasks. The Planning scenario had few physical and many mental taks. A Combined scenario had high mental and physical task loads. The magnitude of each pilot's altitude and airspeed deviations was measured, subjective workload ratings were recorded, and the degree of pilot compliance with assigned memory/planning tasks was noted. Mental and physical performance was a strong function of the manual activity level, but not influenced by the mental task load. High manual task loads resulted in a large percentage of mental errors even under low mental task loads. Although all the pilots gave similar subjective ratings when the manual task load was high, subjective ratings showed greater individual differences with high mental task loads. Altitude or airspeed deviations and subjective ratings were most correlated when the total task load was very high. Although airspeed deviations, altitude deviations, and subjective workload ratings were similar for both low experience and high experience pilots, at very high total task loads, mental performance was much lower for the low experience pilots.

  8. The Role of Perceptual Load in Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright-Finch, Ula; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-01-01

    Perceptual load theory offers a resolution to the long-standing early vs. late selection debate over whether task-irrelevant stimuli are perceived, suggesting that irrelevant perception depends upon the perceptual load of task-relevant processing. However, previous evidence for this theory has relied on RTs and neuroimaging. Here we tested the…

  9. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  10. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  11. Vocabulary Acquisition in Learning English as a Second Language: Examining the Involvement Load Hypothesis and Language Anxiety with Taiwanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on Taiwanese students' English vocabulary retention, task difficulty ratings, and task utility ratings under varied task load conditions (reading only, fill-in-the-blanks, writing) when controlling for level of trait anxiety. The task loads were based on the Involvement Load Hypothesis. The…

  12. Predicting physiological capacity of human load carriage - a review.

    PubMed

    Drain, Jace; Billing, Daniel; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Aisbett, Brad

    2016-01-01

    This review article aims to evaluate a proposed maximum acceptable work duration model for load carriage tasks. It is contended that this concept has particular relevance to physically demanding occupations such as military and firefighting. Personnel in these occupations are often required to perform very physically demanding tasks, over varying time periods, often involving load carriage. Previous research has investigated concepts related to physiological workload limits in occupational settings (e.g. industrial). Evidence suggests however, that existing (unloaded) workload guidelines are not appropriate for load carriage tasks. The utility of this model warrants further work to enable prediction of load carriage durations across a range of functional workloads for physically demanding occupations. If the maximum duration for which personnel can physiologically sustain a load carriage task could be accurately predicted, commanders and supervisors could better plan for and manage tasks to ensure operational imperatives were met whilst minimising health risks for their workers.

  13. 46 CFR 46.10-30 - Subdivision load line certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subdivision load line certificates. 46.10-30 Section 46.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-30 Subdivision load line certificates. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 23.391 - Control surface loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control surface loads. 23.391 Section 23.391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... and System Loads § 23.391 Control surface loads. The control surface loads specified in §§...

  15. 14 CFR 23.391 - Control surface loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control surface loads. 23.391 Section 23.391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... and System Loads § 23.391 Control surface loads. The control surface loads specified in §§...

  16. 46 CFR 46.10-30 - Subdivision load line certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subdivision load line certificates. 46.10-30 Section 46.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-30 Subdivision load line certificates. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 23.391 - Control surface loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control surface loads. 23.391 Section 23.391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... and System Loads § 23.391 Control surface loads. The control surface loads specified in §§...

  18. 46 CFR 46.10-30 - Subdivision load line certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subdivision load line certificates. 46.10-30 Section 46.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-30 Subdivision load line certificates. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 23.391 - Control surface loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control surface loads. 23.391 Section 23.391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... and System Loads § 23.391 Control surface loads. The control surface loads specified in §§...

  20. Peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles decreases premature release of physically loaded combretastatin A4 in whole blood and increases its mean residence time and subsequent potency against primary murine breast tumors after IV administration

    PubMed Central

    Wakaskar, Rajesh R.; Bathena, Sai Praneeth R.; Tallapaka, Shailendra; Ambardekar, Vishakha V.; Gautum, Nagsen; Thakare, Rhishikesh N.; Simet, Samantha M.; Curran, Stephen M.; Singh, Rakesh K.; Dong, Yuxiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Determine the feasibility and potential benefit of peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles on the premature release of physically loaded hydrophobic drug in whole blood and subsequent potency against solid tumors. Methods Individual Pluronic F127 polymer micelles (F127 PM) peripherally cross-linked with ethylenediamine at 76% of total PEO blocks (X-F127 PM) were physically loaded with combretastatin A4 (CA4) by the solid dispersion method and compared to CA4 physically loaded in uncross-linked F127 PM, CA4 in DMSO in vitro, or water-soluble CA4 phosphate (CA4P) in vivo. Results X-F127 PM had similar CA4 loading and aqueous solubility as F127 PM up to 10 mg CA4 / mL at 22.9 wt% and did not aggregate in PBS or 90% (v/v) human serum at 37°C for at least 24 h. In contrast, X-F127 PM decreased the unbound fraction of CA4 in whole blood (fu) and increased the mean plasma residence time and subsequent potency of CA4 against the vascular function and growth of primary murine 4T1 breast tumors over CA4 in F127 PM and water-soluble CA4P after IV administration. Conclusions Given that decreasing the fu is an indication of decreased drug release, peripherally cross-linking the shell of core-shell polymer micelles may be a simple approach to decrease premature release of physically loaded hydrophobic drug in the blood and increase subsequent potency in solid tumors. PMID:25223962

  1. Administrative Costs of Education Voucher Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    This paper focuses on the administrative costs of vouchers programs. It considers the tasks that public and private agencies must undertake and estimates the administrative burdens and cash flow that local programs create. It assumes that all voucher programs, including those meant in part to reduce overcrowding, will be voluntary. The paper…

  2. Counselor/Administrator Perceptions of Counselor Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert L.

    School counselors perform a variety of tasks and are expected to assume a variety of roles. In an effort to determine school counselor and administrator perceptions of counselor responsibilities, 404 counselors and 315 administrators in Iowa completed a questionnaire by ranking their perceptions of actual and ideal counselor roles in each of 13…

  3. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  4. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  5. Task Time Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, G.

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  6. Behavioral Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    depicting hierarchical behavioral task relationships as well. An extensive list of such tools is given in Wikipedia articles at http...Hierarchical task analysis . In D. Diaper & N. A. Stanton (Eds .), The handbook of task analysis for human-computer interaction (pp. 67-82). Mahwah, NJ

  7. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  8. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  9. 78 FR 23970 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force Meeting. SUMMARY: This document corrects the SBA's Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Developments notice of a public...

  10. 75 FR 62611 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force meeting. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this... Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development. The meeting will be open to the public....

  11. 76 FR 8393 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force meeting. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this... Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development. The meeting will be open to the public....

  12. 77 FR 41472 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force meeting. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this... Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development. The meeting will be open to the public....

  13. 75 FR 15742 - NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting AGENCY... Administration announces a meeting of the Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense of the NASA Advisory Council... include: Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense Terms of Reference. NASA Near Earth Object (NEO)...

  14. 75 FR 43565 - NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting AGENCY... Administration announces a two-part meeting of the Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense of the NASA Advisory...@nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The agenda topic is: Drafting of the Ad-Hoc Task Force...

  15. Effects of running with backpack loads during simulated gravitational transitions: Improvements in postural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey David

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is planning for long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. For feasible long-duration space travel, improvements in exercise countermeasures are necessary to maintain cardiovascular fitness, bone mass throughout the body and the ability to perform coordinated movements in a constant gravitational environment that is six orders of magnitude higher than the "near weightlessness" condition experienced during transit to and/or orbit of the Moon, Mars, and Earth. In such gravitational transitions feedback and feedforward postural control strategies must be recalibrated to ensure optimal locomotion performance. In order to investigate methods of improving postural control adaptation during these gravitational transitions, a treadmill based precision stepping task was developed to reveal changes in neuromuscular control of locomotion following both simulated partial gravity exposure and post-simulation exercise countermeasures designed to speed lower extremity impedance adjustment mechanisms. The exercise countermeasures included a short period of running with or without backpack loads immediately after partial gravity running. A novel suspension type partial gravity simulator incorporating spring balancers and a motor-driven treadmill was developed to facilitate body weight off loading and various gait patterns in both simulated partial and full gravitational environments. Studies have provided evidence that suggests: the environmental simulator constructed for this thesis effort does induce locomotor adaptations following partial gravity running; the precision stepping task may be a helpful test for illuminating these adaptations; and musculoskeletal loading in the form of running with or without backpack loads may improve the locomotor adaptation process.

  16. Using the "Issues Analysis Team" Concept To Develop Administrative Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theel, Ronald K.

    The factors for an effective administrative task force are examined in this report on the Syracuse school superintendent's Issue Analysis Team. The team, composed of voluntary potential administrators, acts as a special task force to facilitate informed decision making by the school superintendent. Topics discussed are member selection, role…

  17. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loads. 23.301 Section 23.301 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... to determine load intensities and distribution on canard and tandem wing configurations must...

  18. 14 CFR 23.425 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gust loads. 23.425 Section 23.425 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Balancing Surfaces § 23.425 Gust loads. (a) Each horizontal surface, other than a main wing, must...

  19. 30 CFR 56.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.9317 Section 56.9317 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9317 Suspended loads. Persons shall not work or pass under the buckets or booms of loaders...

  20. 30 CFR 56.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.9317 Section 56.9317 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9317 Suspended loads. Persons shall not work or pass under the buckets or booms of loaders...

  1. 30 CFR 56.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.9317 Section 56.9317 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9317 Suspended loads. Persons shall not work or pass under the buckets or booms of loaders...

  2. 30 CFR 56.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.9317 Section 56.9317 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9317 Suspended loads. Persons shall not work or pass under the buckets or booms of loaders...

  3. 30 CFR 56.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended loads. 56.9317 Section 56.9317 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9317 Suspended loads. Persons shall not work or pass under the buckets or booms of loaders...

  4. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  5. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  6. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  7. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  8. 14 CFR 31.21 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loads. 31.21 Section 31.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.21 Loads. Strength requirements are specified in terms...

  9. 14 CFR 27.301 - Loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loads. 27.301 Section 27.301 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.301 Loads. (a)...

  10. Effects of Peer-Tutor Competences on Learner Cognitive Load and Learning Performance during Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya-Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    In Learning Networks, learners need to share knowledge with others to build knowledge. In particular, when working on complex tasks, they often need to acquire extra cognitive resources from others to process a high task load. However, without support high task load and organizing knowledge sharing themselves might easily overload learners'…

  11. Task Analysis of the Duties Performed in Secondary School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, Robin; Diamantes, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Researchers on the job of principal have discussed the increasing complex nature of educational leadership. Some have even suggested why the principal's position is one that fewer and fewer teachers seek to fill (Fenwick, 2000). A recent report (Rayfield, 2002) suggests that the job of a principal is complex and difficult, and many duties of the…

  12. Take Russia to 'task' on bioweapons transparency.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2012-06-06

    In the run-up to his reelection, Russian president Vladimir Putin outlined 28 tasks to be undertaken by his administration, including one that commanded the development of weapons based on “genetic principles.” Political pressure must be applied by governments and professional societies to ensure that there is not a modern reincarnation of the Soviet biological warfare program.

  13. 75 FR 22497 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Force on Veterans Small Business Development By the authority vested in me as President by the... ``Act''), and in order to establish an interagency task force to coordinate the efforts of Federal... Administration (Administrator) shall establish within the Small Business Administration an Interagency Task...

  14. How does cognitive load influence speech perception? An encoding hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Mattys, Sven L

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the conditions under which cognitive load exerts an effect on the acuity of speech perception. These experiments extend earlier research by using a different speech perception task (four-interval oddity task) and by implementing cognitive load through a task often thought to be modular, namely, face processing. In the cognitive-load conditions, participants were required to remember two faces presented before the speech stimuli. In Experiment 1, performance in the speech-perception task under cognitive load was not impaired in comparison to a no-load baseline condition. In Experiment 2, we modified the load condition minimally such that it required encoding of the two faces simultaneously with the speech stimuli. As a reference condition, we also used a visual search task that in earlier experiments had led to poorer speech perception. Both concurrent tasks led to decrements in the speech task. The results suggest that speech perception is affected even by loads thought to be processed modularly, and that, critically, encoding in working memory might be the locus of interference.

  15. Visuospatial and verbal working memory load: effects on visuospatial vigilance.

    PubMed

    Helton, William S; Russell, Paul N

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of concurrent verbal and visuospatial working memory demands on performance of a visuospatial successive target detection task. Three hundred and four participants performed a visuospatial vigilance task while simultaneously performing either a spatial or verbal working memory task that either required a memory load during the vigil or did not require a memory load during the vigil. Perceptual sensitivity A' to vigilance target stimuli was reduced by concurrent memory load, both verbal and visuospatial. The decline in perceptual sensitivity to vigilance targets, the vigilance decrement, was steeper for a visuospatial memory task than a verbal memory task, regardless of concurrent memory load. Memory performance after vigilance detection trials was much lower for visuospatial than verbal items, even though memory performance before vigilance detection trials was higher for visuospatial than verbal items. Together, this indicates increased interference when a visuospatial vigilance task is paired with a visuospatial memory task, than when paired with a verbal memory task. Overall, the visuospatial and verbal working memory loads both impacted vigilance target detection, suggesting utilization of common executive resources. There may, however, be domain specific interference, and this may be exacerbated for two visuospatial tasks.

  16. Evaluation of Electronic Formats of the NASA Task Load Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2011-01-01

    Paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The primary objective of this research was to determine whether electronic formats of paper questionnaires change subjects ratings and, if so, how the ratings changed. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in self-assessment of workload when using the electronic replica or the paper format of the NASA-TLX scale. Variations of the electronic formats were tested to enforce structure to the TLX scale. Respondents had more consistent ratings with these alternative formats of the NASA-TLX. Non-pilots, in general, had lower workload ratings than pilots. The time to input the rating was the fastest for the electronic facsimile and random title formats. Also subjects preferred the electronic formats and thought these formats were easier to use. Therefore, moving questionnaires from paper to electronic media could change respondents' answers.

  17. Task 0715: Army Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    NDCEE/CTC The NDCEE is operated by: Office of the Assistant Sec etary of the Army for Installations, E ergy and Enviro ment Technology Transition...Fertilizer applications; – Wastewater treatment plants; and – Urban storm water runoff. INSERT EVENT TITLE – INSERT MONTH & YEAR2S2 Symposium and...the following land uses: − Impervious urban − Pervious urban − Construction − Extractive − Agricultural (various) − Forest − Harvested Forest

  18. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport.

  19. Rotation during lifting tasks: effects of rotation frequency and task order on localized muscle fatigue and performance.

    PubMed

    Horton, Leanna M; Nussbaum, Maury A; Agnew, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Though widely considered to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, there is limited evidence suggesting that rotating between tasks is effective in doing so. The purpose of the current study was to quantify the effects of rotation and parameters of rotation (frequency and task order) on muscle fatigue and performance. This was done using a simulated lifting task, with rotation between two levels of loading of the same muscle groups. Twelve participants completed six experimental sessions during which repetitive box lifting was performed for one hour either with or without rotation. When rotation was present, it occurred every 15 minutes or every 30 minutes and was between two load levels (box weights). Rotation reduced fatigue and cardiovascular demand compared to the heavier load without rotation, with a mean reduction of ∼33% in perceived discomfort and a ∼17% reduction in percentage of heart rate reserve. Further, rotation increased fatigue and cardiovascular demand compared to the lighter load without rotation, with a mean increase of ∼34% perceived discomfort and a ∼19% increase in percentage of heart rate reserve. Neither rotation frequency nor task order had definitive effects, though maximum discomfort ratings were nearly 20% higher when starting with the lighter load task. These parameters of rotation should be further evaluated under more realistic task conditions.

  20. Peripheral administration of the soluble TNF inhibitor XPro1595 modifies brain immune cell profiles, decreases beta-amyloid plaque load, and rescues impaired long-term potentiation in 5xFAD mice.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Kathryn P; Sompol, Pradoldej; Kannarkat, George T; Chang, Jianjun; Sniffen, Lindsey; Wildner, Mary E; Norris, Christopher M; Tansey, Malú G

    2017-06-01

    Clinical and animal model studies have implicated inflammation and peripheral immune cell responses in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Peripheral immune cells including T cells circulate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy adults and are found in the brains of AD patients and AD rodent models. Blocking entry of peripheral macrophages into the CNS was reported to increase amyloid burden in an AD mouse model. To assess inflammation in the 5xFAD (Tg) mouse model, we first quantified central and immune cell profiles in the deep cervical lymph nodes and spleen. In the brains of Tg mice, activated (MHCII(+), CD45(high), and Ly6C(high)) myeloid-derived CD11b(+) immune cells are decreased while CD3(+) T cells are increased as a function of age relative to non-Tg mice. These immunological changes along with evidence of increased mRNA levels for several cytokines suggest that immune regulation and trafficking patterns are altered in Tg mice. Levels of soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (sTNF) modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and are increased in CSF and brain parenchyma post-mortem in AD subjects and Tg mice. We report here that in vivo peripheral administration of XPro1595, a novel biologic that sequesters sTNF into inactive heterotrimers, reduced the age-dependent increase in activated immune cells in Tg mice, while decreasing the overall number of CD4(+) T cells. In addition, XPro1595 treatment in vivo rescued impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) measured in brain slices in association with decreased Aβ plaques in the subiculum. Selective targeting of sTNF may modulate brain immune cell infiltration, and prevent or delay neuronal dysfunction in AD.

  1. Repeated administration of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) modulates neuroinflammation and amyloid plaque load in mice bearing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutant transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Perdita L; Vidgeon-Hart, Martin P; Ashmeade, Tracey; Culbert, Ainsley A; Seymour, Zoe; Perren, Marion J; Joyce, Flora; Bate, Simon T; Babin, Anna; Virley, David J; Richardson, Jill C; Upton, Neil; Sunter, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Data indicates anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-cognitive properties of noradrenaline and analyses of post-mortem brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients reveal major neuronal loss in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), the main source of CNS noradrenaline (NA). The LC has projections to brain regions vulnerable to amyloid deposition and lack of LC derived NA could play a role in the progression of neuroinflammation in AD. Previous studies reveal that intraperitoneal (IP) injection of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) can modulate neuroinflammation in amyloid over-expressing mice and in one study, DSP-4 exacerbated existing neurodegeneration. Methods TASTPM mice over-express human APP and beta amyloid protein and show age related cognitive decline and neuroinflammation. In the present studies, 5 month old C57/BL6 and TASTPM mice were injected once monthly for 6 months with a low dose of DSP-4 (5 mg kg-1) or vehicle. At 8 and 11 months of age, mice were tested for cognitive ability and brains were examined for amyloid load and neuroinflammation. Results At 8 months of age there was no difference in LC tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) across all groups and cortical NA levels of TASTPM/DSP-4, WT/Vehicle and WT/DSP-4 were similar. NA levels were lowest in TASTPM/Vehicle. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for various inflammatory markers were significantly increased in TASTPM/Vehicle compared with WT/Vehicle and by 8 months of age DSP-4 treatment modified this by reducing the levels of some of these markers in TASTPM. TASTPM/Vehicle showed increased astrocytosis and a significantly larger area of cortical amyloid plaque compared with TASTPM/DSP-4. However, by 11 months, NA levels were lowest in TASTPM/DSP-4 and there was a significant reduction in LC TH of TASTPM/DSP-4 only. Both TASTPM groups had comparable levels of amyloid, microglial activation and astrocytosis and mRNA for inflammatory markers was

  2. Expectation Suppression in Early Visual Cortex Depends on Task Set.

    PubMed

    St John-Saaltink, Elexa; Utzerath, Christian; Kok, Peter; Lau, Hakwan C; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus expectation can modulate neural responses in early sensory cortical regions, with expected stimuli often leading to a reduced neural response. However, it is unclear whether this expectation suppression is an automatic phenomenon or is instead dependent on the type of task a subject is engaged in. To investigate this, human subjects were presented with visual grating stimuli in the periphery that were either predictable or non-predictable while they performed three tasks that differently engaged cognitive resources. In two of the tasks, the predictable stimulus was task-irrelevant and spatial attention was engaged at fixation, with a high load on either perceptual or working memory resources. In the third task, the predictable stimulus was task-relevant, and therefore spatially attended. We observed that expectation suppression is dependent on the cognitive resources engaged by a subjects' current task. When the grating was task-irrelevant, expectation suppression for predictable items was visible in retinotopically specific areas of early visual cortex (V1-V3) during the perceptual task, but it was abolished when working memory was loaded. When the grating was task-relevant and spatially attended, there was no significant effect of expectation in early visual cortex. These results suggest that expectation suppression is not an automatic phenomenon, but dependent on attentional state and type of available cognitive resources.

  3. Numbers Are Associated with Different Types of Spatial Information Depending on the Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Gevers, Wim; Fias, Wim

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature of the spatial-numerical associations underlying the SNARC-effect by imposing a verbal or spatial working memory load during a parity judgment and a magnitude comparison task. The results showed a double dissociation between the type of working memory load and type of task. The SNARC-effect disappeared under…

  4. The effects of task difficulty and workload on training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mane, Amir; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1986-01-01

    Four hypotheses regarding the possible effects of workload and task difficulty on training are proposed. These are: (1) increased levels of task difficulty will facilitate learning to the extent that these increases are (a) resource loading and (b) intrinsic to the component task to be learned; (2) decrease of task difficulty will facilitate learning to the extent that these decreases (a) reduce the resource load and (b) are extrinsic of the component task to be learned; (3) the lerner's tendency to conserve resources may bead to the adoption of undesirable, short-term, low resource strategies early in training; and (4) the effect of changes in resource demand on learning will depend upon the similarity of the resource whose demand is changed to the resource involved in learning.

  5. Dynamic Loads and Structural Criteria Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    intended mission assignment from a practical standpoint, discussing possible bias in the operationa data. The Task IV objective was to identify...critical segments and conditions. Three criteria were used: high loads, high fatigue damage , and high ••’ibration. it II- Unclassified SECURITY...IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL SEGMENTS/ CONDITIONS 84 High Structural Loads and Fatigue Damage 84 High Vibration ^0 Causal Factors ^O

  6. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  7. Job Task Systems Management: A Performance Technology Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeaver, Mary J.; Huettner, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Description of a management strategy for assessing performance goals called Job Task Systems Management (JTSM) focuses on a study of inspector jobs at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The adaptation of business planning strategies to the government sector is discussed, and a job and task analysis is described. (LRW)

  8. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  9. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-29

    0575 N5-95-1 Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support...SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. Sp-5 Safety and Health Final Report Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee Task No

  10. Emergency Medical Services Program Administration Prototype Curriculum: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The curriculum guide was developed for training administrators (new entrants and incumbents), at the college level, in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) program administration. It is designed to be comprehensive and to include all knowledge and skills needed to perform the functions and tasks involved in EMS administration and management. The brief…

  11. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  12. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  13. 14 CFR 29.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 29.681 Section 29.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by...

  14. 14 CFR 25.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 25.681 Section 25.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this Part must be shown by...

  15. 14 CFR 23.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 23.681 Section 23.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.681 Limit load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of...

  16. 14 CFR 25.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 25.681 Section 25.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this Part must be shown by...

  17. 14 CFR 23.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 23.681 Section 23.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.681 Limit load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of...

  18. 14 CFR 29.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 29.681 Section 29.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by...

  19. 14 CFR 23.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 23.681 Section 23.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.681 Limit load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of...

  20. 14 CFR 29.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 29.681 Section 29.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by...

  1. 14 CFR 23.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 23.681 Section 23.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.681 Limit load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of...

  2. 14 CFR 29.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 29.681 Section 29.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by...

  3. 14 CFR 25.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 25.681 Section 25.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this Part must be shown by...

  4. 14 CFR 23.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 23.681 Section 23.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.681 Limit load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of...

  5. 14 CFR 25.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 25.681 Section 25.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this Part must be shown by...

  6. 14 CFR 29.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 29.681 Section 29.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by...

  7. 14 CFR 25.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 25.681 Section 25.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this Part must be shown by...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6701 - Tamping and loading pole requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tamping and loading pole requirements. 56.6701 Section 56.6701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Equipment/tools § 56.6701 Tamping and loading pole requirements. Tamping and loading poles shall be of...

  9. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities. 237.71... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a) Each track owner shall determine the load capacity of each of...

  10. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities. 237.71... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a) Each track owner shall determine the load capacity of each of...

  11. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities. 237.71... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a) Each track owner shall determine the load capacity of each of...

  12. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities. 237.71... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a) Each track owner shall determine the load capacity of each of...

  13. 14 CFR 25.525 - Application of loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of loads. 25.525 Section 25.525 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... excessive local shear loads and bending moments at the location of water load application) using...

  14. 14 CFR 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design fuel and oil loads. 25.343 Section 25.343 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... the wing at limit loads corresponding to— (i) A maneuvering load factor of +2.25; and (ii) The...

  15. 29 CFR 1919.77 - Safe working load increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safe working load increase. 1919.77 Section 1919.77 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... load increase. (a) In no case shall safe working loads be increased beyond the manufacturer's...

  16. 29 CFR 1919.77 - Safe working load increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safe working load increase. 1919.77 Section 1919.77 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... load increase. (a) In no case shall safe working loads be increased beyond the manufacturer's...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6307 - Drill stem loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill stem loading. 56.6307 Section 56.6307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Drill stem loading. Explosive material shall not be loaded into blastholes with drill stem equipment...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6307 - Drill stem loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill stem loading. 56.6307 Section 56.6307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Drill stem loading. Explosive material shall not be loaded into blastholes with drill stem equipment...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6307 - Drill stem loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill stem loading. 56.6307 Section 56.6307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Drill stem loading. Explosive material shall not be loaded into blastholes with drill stem equipment...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6307 - Drill stem loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill stem loading. 56.6307 Section 56.6307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Drill stem loading. Explosive material shall not be loaded into blastholes with drill stem equipment...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6307 - Drill stem loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill stem loading. 56.6307 Section 56.6307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Drill stem loading. Explosive material shall not be loaded into blastholes with drill stem equipment...

  2. AGENDA: A task organizer and scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fratter, Isabelle

    1993-01-01

    AGENDA will be the main tool used in running the SPOT 4 Earth Observation Satellite's Operational Control Center. It will reduce the operator's work load and make the task easier. AGENDA sets up the work plan for a day of operations, automatically puts the day's tasks into sequence and monitors their progress in real time. Monitoring is centralized, and the tasks are run on different computers in the Center. Once informed of any problems, the operator can intervene at any time while an activity is taking place. To carry out the various functions, the operator has an advanced, efficient, ergonomic graphic interface based on X11 and OSF/MOTIF. Since AGENDA is the heart of the Center, it has to satisfy several constraints that have been taken into account during the various development phases. AGENDA is currently in its final development stages.

  3. Spatial load factor in prediction of reading performance.

    PubMed

    Larter, S C; Herse, P R; Naduvilath, T J; Dain, S J

    2004-09-01

    Abstract This study investigated whether there is a relationship between reading age and clinical optometric tests that have varying degrees of spatial loading in their design. Spatial loading in this context is the demand on the visual system to process information about the relative position and orientation of stimuli. A total of 112 children aged 8-11 years were assessed using saccadic eye movement and rapid naming tasks with varying spatial loads. All were subtests of Garzia's Developmental Eye Movement test and Liubinas' SeeRite Reading Diagnostic Programme. Variability in load was achieved by comparing rapid naming of numerals vs the spatially loaded letters p, d, b, q; and by comparing the speed of reading numerals presented in increasingly complex arrays. Reading Age was assessed independently and results were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Spatially loaded naming tasks performed at speed exposed a Spatial Loading Factor which clearly differentiates children at risk with reading.

  4. Enhancement and suppression in the visual field under perceptual load

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Nathan A.; Beck, Diane M.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    The perceptual load theory of attention proposes that the degree to which visual distractors are processed is a function of the attentional demands of a task—greater demands increase filtering of irrelevant distractors. The spatial configuration of such filtering is unknown. Here, we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in conjunction with time-domain event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the distribution of load-induced distractor suppression and task-relevant enhancement in the visual field. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while subjects performed a foveal go/no-go task that varied in perceptual load. Load-dependent distractor suppression was assessed by presenting a contrast reversing ring at one of three eccentricities (2, 6, or 11°) during performance of the go/no-go task. Rings contrast reversed at 8.3 Hz, allowing load-dependent changes in distractor processing to be tracked in the frequency-domain. ERPs were calculated to the onset of stimuli in the load task to examine load-dependent modulation of task-relevant processing. Results showed that the amplitude of the distractor SSVEP (8.3 Hz) was attenuated under high perceptual load (relative to low load) at the most proximal (2°) eccentricity but not at more eccentric locations (6 or 11°). Task-relevant ERPs revealed a significant increase in N1 amplitude under high load. These results are consistent with a center-surround configuration of load-induced enhancement and suppression in the visual field. PMID:23734135

  5. He who is well prepared has half won the battle: an FMRI study of task preparation.

    PubMed

    Manelis, Anna; Reder, Lynne M

    2015-03-01

    The neural mechanism underlying preparation for tasks that vary in difficulty has not been explored. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study manipulated task difficulty by varying the working memory (WM) load of the n-back task. Each n-back task block was preceded by a preparation period involving a screen that indicated the level of difficulty of the upcoming task. Consistent with previous work, activation in some brain regions depended on WM load in the task. These regions were used as regions of interest for the univariate and multivariate (classification) analyses of preparation periods. The findings were that the patterns of brain activation during task preparation contain information about the upcoming task difficulty. (1) A support vector machine classifier was able to decode the n-back task difficulty from the patterns of brain activation during task preparation. Those individuals whose activation patterns for anticipated 1- versus 2- versus 3-back conditions were classified with higher accuracy showed better behavioral performance on the task, suggesting that task performance depends on task preparation. (2) Left inferior frontal gyrus, intraparietal sulcus, and anterior cingulate cortex parametrically decreased activation as anticipated task difficulty increased. Taken together, these results suggest dynamic involvement of the WM network not only during WM task performance, but also during task preparation.

  6. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  7. Neural mechanisms of dual-task interference and cognitive capacity limitation in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2014-04-01

    Simultaneous performance of two tasks often leads to performance deficits in the component tasks. This effect, known as dual-task interference, is thought to be a proof of capacity limitation in cognition, and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) has been highlighted as its putative neural substrate. Here we recorded single-neuron activities in LPFC while monkeys performed dual tasks that required the simultaneous performance of a varying-load spatial attention task and a spatial memory task. We found that the performance of the monkeys exhibited dual-task interference, and prefrontal neuron activities showed a decreased ability to represent task-relevant information to a degree proportional to the increased demand of the concurrent counterpart task. The locus of the interference was shown to originate in the simultaneous, overloaded recruitment of the same LPFC neural population by the two tasks. These results provide direct neurophysiological evidence for, and constraints to, psychological models of dual-task interference and capacity limitation.

  8. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  9. Data analysis tasks: BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1993-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the operation of, and analysis of data from, the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  10. Data Systems Task Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS. (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...TECI-NICIAN jl. CCMPUTER SYSTEMS EVALLATOR ,13. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MANAGER 314. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MCNITOR A5o LCMPUTER TERMINAL OPERATOR j16. LCNFIGURATION...OPERATOR )27. DATA PROCESSING NCO )28. DATA PROCESSINIG TECHNICIAN 329e DATA SYSTEMS LIBRARIAN )35* DATA SYSTEMS OPERATICNS Cl-IEF 331. DATA SYSTEMS

  11. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  12. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in BPA Control Area: Task 2 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2009-09-18

    Task report detailing low probability tail event analysis and mitigation in BPA control area. Tail event refers to the situation in a power system when unfavorable forecast errors of load and wind are superposed onto fast load and wind ramps, or non-wind generators falling short of scheduled output, causing the imbalance between generation and load to become very significant.

  13. Effects of Cognitive Load on Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattys, Sven L.; Wiget, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    The effect of cognitive load (CL) on speech recognition has received little attention despite the prevalence of CL in everyday life, e.g., dual-tasking. To assess the effect of CL on the interaction between lexically-mediated and acoustically-mediated processes, we measured the magnitude of the "Ganong effect" (i.e., lexical bias on phoneme…

  14. 75 FR 24781 - Task Force on Space Industry Workforce and Economic Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of May 3, 2010 Task Force on Space Industry... Business Administration the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration the Chair of... National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) budget over the next 5 years, this strategy...

  15. Social anxiety under load: the effects of perceptual load in processing emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sandra C; Rocha, Marta; Neiva, Tiago; Rodrigues, Paulo; Silva, Carlos F

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in the social anxiety arena have shown an impaired attentional control system, similar to that found in trait anxiety. However, the effect of task demands on social anxiety in socially threatening stimuli, such as angry faces, remains unseen. In the present study, 54 university students scoring high and low in the Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale (SIPAAS) questionnaire, participated in a target letter discrimination task while task-irrelevant face stimuli (angry, disgust, happy, and neutral) were simultaneously presented. The results showed that high (compared to low) socially anxious individuals were more prone to distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli, particularly under high perceptual load conditions. More importantly, for such individuals, the accuracy proportions for angry faces significantly differed between the low and high perceptual load conditions, which is discussed in light of current evolutionary models of social anxiety.

  16. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  17. Auditory perceptual load: A review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sandra; Spence, Charles; Dalton, Polly

    2017-02-08

    Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less research has addressed the question of whether the same principles hold in audition and, to date, the existing literature provides a mixed picture. Here, we review the evidence for and against the applicability of perceptual load theory in hearing, concluding that this question still awaits resolution.

  18. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  19. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…

  20. Comparative evaluation of workload estimation techniques in piloting tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques to measure operator workload in a wide range of situations and tasks were examined. The sensitivity and intrusion of a wide variety of workload assessment techniques in simulated piloting tasks were investigated. Four different piloting tasks, psychomotor, perceptual, mediational, and communication aspects of piloting behavior were selected. Techniques to determine relative sensitivity and intrusion were applied. Sensitivity is the relative ability of a workload estimation technique to discriminate statistically significant differences in operator loading. High sensitivity requires discriminable changes in score means as a function of load level and low variation of the scores about the means. Intrusion is an undesirable change in the task for which workload is measured, resulting from the introduction of the workload estimation technique or apparatus.

  1. 44 CFR 360.4 - Administrative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the State Director of the agency tasked with emergency management responsibilities for that State. (ii... report quarterly during the Federal Fiscal year, directly to the Regional Administrator of their.... Any course or training activity included in the Scope of Work and not presented as scheduled should...

  2. 44 CFR 360.4 - Administrative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the State Director of the agency tasked with emergency management responsibilities for that State. (ii... report quarterly during the Federal Fiscal year, directly to the Regional Administrator of their.... Any course or training activity included in the Scope of Work and not presented as scheduled should...

  3. 44 CFR 360.4 - Administrative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the State Director of the agency tasked with emergency management responsibilities for that State. (ii... report quarterly during the Federal Fiscal year, directly to the Regional Administrator of their.... Any course or training activity included in the Scope of Work and not presented as scheduled should...

  4. 44 CFR 360.4 - Administrative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the State Director of the agency tasked with emergency management responsibilities for that State. (ii... report quarterly during the Federal Fiscal year, directly to the Regional Administrator of their.... Any course or training activity included in the Scope of Work and not presented as scheduled should...

  5. The Administrative Grid: A Leader Style Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Donald G.; Heun, Richard E.

    The Administrative Grid was developed to aid in rapid interpretation of orthogonal data on management style. The grid is a simple device for illustrating Z-score values from any instrument with orthogonality determined and scores normalized. The two dimensions, "people" and "task,"are divided into standard deviations and, by…

  6. ABCDF--Time Management for New Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roitman, Sue

    Several time-management techniques will help administrators accomplish necessary objectives and tasks. The most important technique is to prioritize activities, first distinguishing "desired" from "required" activities, and then organizing them according to the "ABCDF" formula of setting priorities: A=Absolutely, B=Better Do, C=Can Wait,…

  7. Task 8 -- Design and test of critical components

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, T.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report covers tasks 8.1, 8.1.1, and 8.2. The primary objective of Task 8.1, Particulates Flow Deposition, is to characterize the particulate generated in an operating gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) power plant whose configuration approximates that proposed for an ATS power plant. In addition, the task is to evaluate the use of full-flow filtering to reduce the steam particulate loads. Before the start of this task, GE had already negotiated an agreement with the candidate power plant, piping and a filter unit had already been installed at the power plant site, and major elements of the data acquisition system had been purchased. The objective of Task 8.1.1, Coolant Purity, is to expose typical ATS gas turbine airfoil cooling channel geometries to real steam flow to determine whether there are any unexpected deposit formations. The task is a static analog of the centrifugal deposition rig trials of Task 8.2, in which a bucket channel return bend is exposed to steam flow. Two cooling channel geometries are of primary interest in this static exposure. The primary objective of Task 8.2, Particle Centrifugal Sedimentation, is to determine the settling characteristics of particles in a cooling stream from an operating gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) power plant when that stream is ducted through a passage experiencing the G-loads expected in a simulated bucket channel specimen representative of designs proposed for an ATS gas turbine.

  8. Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

    2014-04-01

    This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task.

  9. Robot task space analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.; Osborn, J.

    1997-12-01

    Many nuclear projects such as environmental restoration and waste management challenges involve radiation or other hazards that will necessitate the use of remote operations that protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote work is far more costly to execute than what workers could accomplish directly with conventional tools and practices because task operations are slow and tedious due to difficulties of remote manipulation and viewing. Decades of experience within the nuclear remote operations community show that remote tasks may take hundreds of times longer than hands-on work; even with state-of-the-art force- reflecting manipulators and television viewing, remote task performance execution is five to ten times slower than equivalent direct contact work. Thus the requirement to work remotely is a major cost driver in many projects. Modest improvements in the work efficiency of remote systems can have high payoffs by reducing the completion time of projects. Additional benefits will accrue from improved work quality and enhanced safety.

  10. Benchmarking Ada tasking on tightly coupled multiprocessor architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe; Goforth, Andre; Marquardt, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    The development of benchmarks and performance measures for parallel Ada tasking is reported with emphasis on the macroscopic behavior of the benchmark across a set of load parameters. The application chosen for the study was the NASREM model for telerobot control, relevant to many NASA missions. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of parallel Ada in accomplishing the task of developing a control system for a system such as the Flight Telerobotic Servicer using the NASREM framework.

  11. The role of perceptual load in processing distractor faces.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Nilli; Ro, Tony; Russell, Charlotte

    2003-09-01

    It has been established that successful ignoring of irrelevant distractors depends on the extent to which the current task loads attention. However, the previous load studies have typically employed neutral distractor stimuli (e.g., letters). In the experiments reported here, we examined whether the perception of irrelevant distractor faces would show the same effects. We manipulated attentional load in a relevant task of name search by varying the search set size and found that whereas congruency effects from meaningful nonface distractors were eliminated by higher search load, interference from distractor faces was entirely unaffected by search load. These results support the idea that face processing may be mandatory and generalize the load theory to the processing of meaningful and more complex nonface distractors.

  12. 78 FR 21492 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force Meeting. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this... Force on Veterans Small Business Development. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES:...

  13. 78 FR 70087 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force meeting. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this... Force on Veterans Small Business Development. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES:...

  14. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...

  15. 78 FR 45996 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force meeting. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this... Force on Veterans Small Business Development. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: August...

  16. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...

  17. 75 FR 62438 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... No: 2010-25455] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business... Task Force Meeting. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the first public meeting of the Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business...

  18. Agricultural Production: Task Analysis for Livestock Production. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the agricultural production program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for the livestock production portion of agricultural production IV and V. Tasks are divided into six duty areas:…

  19. 77 FR 6786 - U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Public Meeting and Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Public Meeting and Public..., Notice of public comment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a public meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task.... Coral Reef Task Force, provides a forum for coordinated planning and action among federal...

  20. 76 FR 52318 - U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Public Meeting and Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Public Meeting and Public..., Notice of public comment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a public meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task... the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, provides a forum for coordinated planning and action among...

  1. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  2. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by…

  3. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  4. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  5. Chizu Task Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Chizu is a tool for Mapping MPI processes or tasks to physical processors or nodes for optimizing communication performance. It takes the communication graph of a High Performance Computing (HPC) application and the interconnection topology of a supercomputer as input. It outputs a new MPI rand to processor mapping, which can be used when launching the HPC application.

  6. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  7. Mining Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    In fall 1988, the Board of Directors of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) created a task force to study the training needs of the mining industry in the province and evaluate SIAST's responsiveness to those needs. After assessing the technological changes taking place in the industry, surveying manpower needs,…

  8. Realistic Sensor Tasking Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, C.; Fiedler, H.; Herzog, J.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sensor tasking is a crucial step in building up and maintaining a catalog of space objects at the highest possible orbit quality. Sensor resources are limited; sensor location and setup (hardware and processing software) influence the quality of observations for initial orbit determination or orbit improvement that can be obtained. Furthermore, improved sensing capabilities are expected to lead to an increase of objects that are sought to be maintained in a catalog, easily reaching over 100'000 objects. Sensor tasking methods hence need to be computationally efficient in order to be successfully applied to operational systems, and need to take realistic constraints, such as limited visibility of objects, time-varying probability of detection and the specific capabilities in software and hardware for the specific sensors into account. This paper shows a method to formulate sensor tasking as an optimization problem and introduces a new method to provide fast and computationally efficient real time, near optimal sensor tasking solutions. Simulations are preformed using the USSTRATCOM TLE catalog of all geosynchronous objects. The results are compared to state of the art observation strategies.

  9. BIA Reorganization Task Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on three hearings held this spring by the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization Task Force, this article presents highlights from the testimony of Forrest Gerard, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs and discusses the matrix system of organization currently under consideration by the BIA. (JC)

  10. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  11. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  12. Paine Appointed Administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew

  13. Sensorimotor modulation differs with load type during constant finger force or position.

    PubMed

    Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Syo; Onishi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    During submaximal isometric contraction, there are two different load types: production of a constant force against a rigid restraint (force task), and maintenance of position against a constant load (position task). Previous studies reported that the time to task failure during a fatigue task was twice as long in the force task compared with the position task. Sensory feedback processing may contribute to these differences. The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of load types during static muscle contraction tasks on the gating effect, i.e., attenuation of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and the cortical silent period (cSP). Ten healthy subjects contracted their right first dorsal interosseus muscle by abducting their index finger for 90 s, to produce a constant force against a rigid restraint that was 20% of the maximum voluntary contraction (force task), or to maintain a constant position with 10° abduction of the metacarpophalangeal joint against the same load (position task). Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded from C3' by stimulating either the right ulnar or median nerve at the wrist while maintaining contraction. The cortical silent period (cSP) was also elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Reduction of the amplitude of the P45 component of SEPs was significantly larger during the position task than during the force task and under control rest conditions when the ulnar nerve, but not the median nerve, was stimulated. The position task had a significantly shorter cSP duration than the force task. These results suggest the need for more proprioceptive information during the position task than the force task. The shorter duration of the cSP during the position task may be attributable to larger amplitude of heteronymous short latency reflexes. Sensorimotor modulations may differ with load type during constant finger force or position tasks.

  14. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  15. Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism.

    PubMed

    Remington, Anna M; Swettenham, John G; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

  16. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in Elementary Cognitive Tasks Reflect Task Difficulty and Task Threshold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caryl, P. G.; Harper, Alison

    1996-01-01

    Effects on the event-related potential (ERP) waveform of differences in stimuli (task difficulty) and threshold were studied with 35 undergraduates performing a visual inspection time task and 30 performing a pitch discrimination task. In both tasks, ERP differences related to threshold were temporally localized differences in waveform shape. (SLD)

  17. 40 CFR 86.529-98 - Road load force and inertia weight determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... these limits shall be tested at an equivalent inertial mass and road load force specified by the Administrator. Figure F98-9 follows: Figure F98-9 Loaded vehicle mass (kg) Equivalent inertial mass (kg)...

  18. 40 CFR 86.529-98 - Road load force and inertia weight determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... these limits shall be tested at an equivalent inertial mass and road load force specified by the Administrator. Figure F98-9 follows: Figure F98-9 Loaded vehicle mass (kg) Equivalent inertial mass (kg)...

  19. The Effects of Load Carriage and Physical Fatigue on Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Marianna D.; Hasselquist, Leif; Giles, Grace; Hayes, Jacqueline F.; Howe, Jessica; Rourke, Jennifer; Coyne, Megan; O’Donovan, Meghan; Batty, Jessica; Brunyé, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, ten participants walked for two hours while carrying no load or a 40 kg load. During the second hour, treadmill grade was manipulated between a constant downhill or changing between flat, uphill, and downhill grades. Throughout the prolonged walk, participants performed two cognitive tasks, an auditory go no/go task and a visual target detection task. The main findings were that the number of false alarms increased over time in the loaded condition relative to the unloaded condition on the go no/go auditory task. There were also shifts in response criterion towards responding yes and decreased sensitivity in responding in the loaded condition compared to the unloaded condition. In the visual target detection there were no reliable effects of load carriage in the overall analysis however, there were slower reaction times in the loaded compared to unloaded condition during the second hour. PMID:26154515

  20. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  1. Effects of cognitive appraisal and mental workload factors on performance in an arithmetic task.

    PubMed

    Galy, Edith; Mélan, Claudine

    2015-12-01

    We showed in a previous study an additive interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads and of participants' alertness in an 1-back working memory task. The interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads was only observed when participants' alertness was low (i.e. in the morning). As alertness is known to reflect an individual's general functional state, we suggested that the working memory capacity available for germane cognitive load depends on a participant's functional state, in addition to intrinsic and extraneous loads induced by the task and task conditions. The relationships between the different load types and their assessment by specific load measures gave rise to a modified cognitive load model. The aim of the present study was to complete the model by determining to what extent and at what processing level an individual's characteristics intervene in order to implement efficient strategies in a working memory task. Therefore, the study explored participants' cognitive appraisal of the situation in addition to the load factors considered previously-task difficulty, time pressure and alertness. Each participant performed a mental arithmetic task in four different cognitive load conditions (crossover of two task difficulty conditions and of two time pressure conditions), both while their alertness was low (9 a.m.) and high (4 p.m.). Results confirmed an additive effect of task difficulty and time pressure, previously reported in the 1-back memory task, thereby lending further support to the modified cognitive load model. Further, in the high intrinsic and extraneous load condition, performance was reduced on the morning session (i.e. when alertness was low) on one hand, and in those participants' having a threat appraisal of the situation on the other hand. When these factors were included into the analysis, a performance drop occurred in the morning irrespective of cognitive appraisal, and with threat appraisal in the

  2. Management Agenda Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Report FY04-4 • Recommendations related to business management priorities for the Secretary of Defense February...Business Board (DBB) formed this Task Group to assess and make recommendations to the Department of Defense on management priorities for the next four...This list should be drawn from the four primary areas of DBB focus over the past three years: human resources, financial management, acquisition

  3. Perceptual load in sport and the heuristic value of the perceptual load paradigm in examining expertise-related perceptual-cognitive adaptations.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Schmid, Simone

    2013-03-01

    In two experiments, we transferred perceptual load theory to the dynamic field of team sports and tested the predictions derived from the theory using a novel task and stimuli. We tested a group of college students (N = 33) and a group of expert team sport players (N = 32) on a general perceptual load task and a complex, soccer-specific perceptual load task in order to extend the understanding of the applicability of perceptual load theory and further investigate whether distractor interference may differ between the groups, as the sport-specific processing task may not exhaust the processing capacity of the expert participants. In both, the general and the specific task, the pattern of results supported perceptual load theory and demonstrates that the predictions of the theory also transfer to more complex, unstructured situations. Further, perceptual load was the only determinant of distractor processing, as we neither found expertise effects in the general perceptual load task nor the sport-specific task. We discuss the heuristic utility of using response-competition paradigms for studying both general and domain-specific perceptual-cognitive adaptations.

  4. The task force process

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-31

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several {open_quotes}big picture{close_quotes} issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald.

  5. Schools Inc.: An Administrator's Guide to the Business of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Bob; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue describes ways in which educational administrators are successfully automating many of their administrative tasks. Articles focus on student management; office automation, including word processing, databases, and spreadsheets; human resources; support services, including supplies, textbooks, and learning resources; financial…

  6. Tomorrow's Schools: The Reform of Education Administration in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Dept. of Education, Wellington.

    This booklet on elementary and secondary education sets out the policy position reached by the Government of New Zealand following its consideration of the implications of the extensive reform of educational administration recommended by the Picot task force. It outlines the most thoroughgoing changes to the administration of education in the…

  7. Persuasive Strategies for School Administrators: A Key to School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Thomas A.; Cox, Glenda C.

    1994-01-01

    To gain others' consistent and active cooperation, administrators should convince faculty and staff that a task should be done. An administrator who uses persuasion communicates a degree of respect that strengthens the supervisor-subordinate relationship. Compliance-gaining strategies may be classified according to expectancies and consequences,…

  8. System Administrator for LCS Development Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System Project is creating a Checkout and Control System that will eventually launch the next generation of vehicles from Kennedy Space Center. KSC has a large set of Development and Operational equipment already deployed in several facilities, including the Launch Control Center, which requires support. The position of System Administrator will complete tasks across multiple platforms (Linux/Windows), many of them virtual. The Hardware Branch of the Control and Data Systems Division at the Kennedy Space Center uses system administrators for a variety of tasks. The position of system administrator comes with many responsibilities which include maintaining computer systems, repair or set up hardware, install software, create backups and recover drive images are a sample of jobs which one must complete. Other duties may include working with clients in person or over the phone and resolving their computer system needs. Training is a major part of learning how an organization functions and operates. Taking that into consideration, NASA is no exception. Training on how to better protect the NASA computer infrastructure will be a topic to learn, followed by NASA work polices. Attending meetings and discussing progress will be expected. A system administrator will have an account with root access. Root access gives a user full access to a computer system and or network. System admins can remove critical system files and recover files using a tape backup. Problem solving will be an important skill to develop in order to complete the many tasks.

  9. Visual perceptual load induces inattentional deafness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we establish a new phenomenon of "inattentional deafness" and highlight the level of load on visual attention as a critical determinant of this phenomenon. In three experiments, we modified an inattentional blindness paradigm to assess inattentional deafness. Participants made either a low- or high-load visual discrimination concerning a cross shape (respectively, a discrimination of line color or of line length with a subtle length difference). A brief pure tone was presented simultaneously with the visual task display on a final trial. Failures to notice the presence of this tone (i.e., inattentional deafness) reached a rate of 79% in the high-visual-load condition, significantly more than in the low-load condition. These findings establish the phenomenon of inattentional deafness under visual load, thereby extending the load theory of attention (e.g., Lavie, Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 25, 596-616, 1995) to address the cross-modal effects of visual perceptual load.

  10. Scalable cluster administration - Chiba City I approach and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, J. P.; Evard, R.; Nurmi, D.; Desai, N.

    2002-07-01

    Systems administrators of large clusters often need to perform the same administrative activity hundreds or thousands of times. Often such activities are time-consuming, especially the tasks of installing and maintaining software. By combining network services such as DHCP, TFTP, FTP, HTTP, and NFS with remote hardware control, cluster administrators can automate all administrative tasks. Scalable cluster administration addresses the following challenge: What systems design techniques can cluster builders use to automate cluster administration on very large clusters? We describe the approach used in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory on Chiba City I, a 314-node Linux cluster; and we analyze the scalability, flexibility, and reliability benefits and limitations from that approach.

  11. Low back load in airport baggage handlers.

    PubMed

    Koblauch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a major economic problem in many countries. The causes of LBP are still largely unknown and several risk factors have been suggested including heavy lifting, which causes high compression forces of the tissues in the low back. Micro-fractures in the endplates of the vertebrae caused by compression forces have been suggested as a source of unspecific pain. Although airport baggage handlers exhibit a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints the amount of biomechanical research within this and similar areas is limited. The aims of this thesis were to perform a general description of the lumbar loading in baggage handlers (Paper I), to develop a generically useful tool to examine specific lumbar compression in a valid manner (Paper II & III), and to investigate the spinal loading in common work tasks for baggage handlers. (Paper III). We recorded electromyography during baggage handling in the baggage hall, by a conveyor, and inside the aircraft baggage compartment. Electromyography was analyzed using amplitude probability distribution functions (APDF) on both tasks and full day recordings and root mean square (RMS) values on tasks. Furthermore, we estimated L4/L5 compression and moment along with shoulder flexor moment with a Watbak model based on more specific subtasks. In addition, we built an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal computer model using the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). Motion capture recorded the movements in 3D during a stooped and a kneeling lifting task simulating airport baggage handler work. Marker trajectories were used to drive the model. The AMS-models computed estimated compression forces, shear forces and the moments around the L4/L5 joint. The compression forces were used for comparison with the vertebral compression tolerances reported in the literature. The RMS muscle activity was high in all tasks. The average peak RMS muscle activity was up to 120% EMGmax in the erector spinae during the baggage

  12. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  13. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  14. Rehabilitation Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...

  15. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  16. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  17. Load theory of selective attention and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Nilli; Hirst, Aleksandra; de Fockert, Jan W; Viding, Essi

    2004-09-01

    A load theory of attention in which distractor rejection depends on the level and type of load involved in current processing was tested. A series of experiments demonstrates that whereas high perceptual load reduces distractor interference, working memory load or dual-task coordination load increases distractor interference. These findings suggest 2 selective attention mechanisms: a perceptual selection mechanism serving to reduce distractor perception in situations of high perceptual load that exhaust perceptual capacity in processing relevant stimuli and a cognitive control mechanism that reduces interference from perceived distractors as long as cognitive control functions are available to maintain current priorities (low cognitive load). This theory resolves the long-standing early versus late selection debate and clarifies the role of cognitive control in selective attention.

  18. Scioto: A Framework for Global-ViewTask Parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James S.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Larkins, D. B.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2008-09-09

    We introduce Scioto, Shared Collections of Task Objects, a framework for supporting task-parallelism in one-sided and global-view parallel programming models. Scioto provides lightweight, locality aware dynamic load balancing and interoperates with existing parallel models including MPI, SHMEM, CAF, and Global Arrays. Through task parallelism, the Scioto framework provides a solution for overcoming load imbalance and heterogeneity as well as dynamic mapping of computation onto emerging multicore architectures. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the Scioto framework and demonstrate its effectiveness on the Unbalanced Tree Search (UTS) benchmark and two quantum chemistry codes: the closed shell Self-Consistent Field (SCF) method and a sparse tensor contraction kernel extracted from a coupled cluster computation. We explore the efficiency and scalability of Scioto through these sample applications and demonstrate that is offers low overhead, achieves good performance on heterogeneous and multicore clusters, and scales to hundreds of processors.

  19. Legal and Administrative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  20. Women in Administration 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. Office of Communications Services.

    In a survey by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC), women are shown to hold 2,905 of the 13,638 administrative positions reported by 106 major U.S. public universities--slightly more than 21 percent of the administrators at state and land-grant universities. The median number of women administrators at…

  1. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  2. Missing a trick: Auditory load modulates conscious awareness in audition.

    PubMed

    Fairnie, Jake; Moore, Brian C J; Remington, Anna

    2016-07-01

    In the visual domain there is considerable evidence supporting the Load Theory of Attention and Cognitive Control, which holds that conscious perception of background stimuli depends on the level of perceptual load involved in a primary task. However, literature on the applicability of this theory to the auditory domain is limited and, in many cases, inconsistent. Here we present a novel "auditory search task" that allows systematic investigation of the impact of auditory load on auditory conscious perception. An array of simultaneous, spatially separated sounds was presented to participants. On half the trials, a critical stimulus was presented concurrently with the array. Participants were asked to detect which of 2 possible targets was present in the array (primary task), and whether the critical stimulus was present or absent (secondary task). Increasing the auditory load of the primary task (raising the number of sounds in the array) consistently reduced the ability to detect the critical stimulus. This indicates that, at least in certain situations, load theory applies in the auditory domain. The implications of this finding are discussed both with respect to our understanding of typical audition and for populations with altered auditory processing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  4. Silicon material task review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Silicon Material Task are to evaluate technologies, new and old; to develop the most promising technologies; to establish practicality of the processes to meet production, energy use, and economic criteria; and to develop an information base on impurities in polysilicon and to determine their effects on solar cell performance. The approach involves determining process feasibility, setting milestones for the forced selection of the processes, and establishing the technical readiness of the integrated process.

  5. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  6. Blur Detection is Unaffected by Cognitive Load

    PubMed Central

    Loschky, Lester C.; Ringer, Ryan V.; Johnson, Aaron P.; Larson, Adam M.; Neider, Mark; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Blur detection is affected by retinal eccentricity, but is it also affected by attentional resources? Research showing effects of selective attention on acuity and contrast sensitivity suggests that allocating attention should increase blur detection. However, research showing that blur affects selection of saccade targets suggests that blur detection may be pre-attentive. To investigate this question, we carried out experiments in which viewers detected blur in real-world scenes under varying levels of cognitive load manipulated by the N-back task. We used adaptive threshold estimation to measure blur detection thresholds at 0°, 3°, 6°, and 9° eccentricity. Participants carried out blur detection as a single task, a single task with to-be-ignored letters, or an N-back task with four levels of cognitive load (0, 1, 2, or 3-back). In Experiment 1, blur was presented gaze-contingently for occasional single eye fixations while participants viewed scenes in preparation for an easy picture recognition memory task, and the N-back stimuli were presented auditorily. The results for three participants showed a large effect of retinal eccentricity on blur thresholds, significant effects of N-back level on N-back performance, scene recognition memory, and gaze dispersion, but no effect of N-back level on blur thresholds. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 but presented the images tachistoscopically for 200 ms (half with, half without blur), to determine whether gaze-contingent blur presentation in Experiment 1 had produced attentional capture by blur onset during a fixation, thus eliminating any effect of cognitive load on blur detection. The results with three new participants replicated those of Experiment 1, indicating that the use of gaze-contingent blur presentation could not explain the lack of effect of cognitive load on blur detection. Thus, apparently blur detection in real-world scene images is unaffected by attentional resources, as manipulated by the

  7. 14 CFR 27.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 27.681 Section 27.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests...

  8. 14 CFR 27.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 27.681 Section 27.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests...

  9. 14 CFR 27.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 27.681 Section 27.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests...

  10. 14 CFR 27.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 27.681 Section 27.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests...

  11. 14 CFR 27.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 27.681 Section 27.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests...

  12. 14 CFR 23.525 - Application of loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of loads. 23.525 Section 23.525 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... bottom (in order to avoid excessive local shear loads and bending moments at the location of water...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 56.19103 Section 56.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping facilities and...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 57.19103 Section 57.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1402-1 - Maximum load; posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum load; posting. 77.1402-1 Section 77.1402-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1402-1 Maximum load; posting. The operator shall designate the...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1402-1 - Maximum load; posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum load; posting. 77.1402-1 Section 77.1402-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1402-1 Maximum load; posting. The operator shall designate the...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1402-1 - Maximum load; posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum load; posting. 77.1402-1 Section 77.1402-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1402-1 Maximum load; posting. The operator shall designate the...

  18. 14 CFR 31.23 - Flight load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight load factor. 31.23 Section 31.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.23 Flight load factor. In determining limit...

  19. 14 CFR 31.23 - Flight load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight load factor. 31.23 Section 31.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.23 Flight load factor. In determining limit...

  20. 14 CFR 31.23 - Flight load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight load factor. 31.23 Section 31.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.23 Flight load factor. In determining limit...

  1. 14 CFR 31.23 - Flight load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight load factor. 31.23 Section 31.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.23 Flight load factor. In determining limit...

  2. 14 CFR 27.339 - Resultant limit maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resultant limit maneuvering loads. 27.339 Section 27.339 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads §...

  3. 14 CFR 31.23 - Flight load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight load factor. 31.23 Section 31.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.23 Flight load factor. In determining limit...

  4. 14 CFR 27.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 27.337 Section 27.337 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads §...

  5. Dual-tasking postural control in patients with right brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bourlon, Clémence; Lehenaff, Laurent; Batifoulier, Cécile; Bordier, Aurélie; Chatenet, Aurélia; Desailly, Eric; Fouchard, Christian; Marsal, Muriel; Martinez, Marianne; Rastelli, Federica; Thierry, Anaïs; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Duret, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The control of dual-tasking effects is a daily challenge in stroke neurorehabilitation. It maybe one of the reasons why there is poor functional prognosis after a stroke in the right hemisphere, which plays a dominant role in posture control. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive motor interference in right brain-lesioned and healthy subjects maintaining a standing position while performing three different tasks: a control task, a simple attentional task and a complex attentional task. We measured the sway area of the subjects on a force platform, including the center of pressure and its displacements. Results showed that stroke patients presented a reduced postural sway compared to healthy subjects, who were able to maintain their posture while performing a concomitant attentional task in the same dual-tasking conditions. Moreover, in both groups, the postural sway decreased with the increase in attentional load from cognitive tasks. We also noticed that the stability of stroke patients in dual-tasking conditions increased together with the weight-bearing rightward deviation, especially when the attentional load of the cognitive tasks and lower limb motor impairments were high. These results suggest that stroke patients and healthy subjects adopt a similar postural regulation pattern aimed at maintaining stability in dual-tasking conditions involving a static standing position and different attention-related cognitive tasks. Our results indicate that attention processes might facilitate static postural control.

  6. Modulation of amygdala response to task-irrelevant emotion.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Catherine L; McCrory, Eamon J; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

    2017-01-24

    It has been shown that as cognitive demands of a non-emotional task increase, amygdala response to task-irrelevant emotional stimuli is reduced. However, it remains unclear whether effects are due to altered task demands, or altered perceptual input associated with task demands. Here, we present fMRI data from 20 adult males during a novel cognitive conflict task in which the requirement to scan emotional information was necessary for task performance and held constant across levels of cognitive conflict. Response to fearful facial expressions was attenuated under high (vs. low) conflict conditions, as indexed by both slower reaction times (RTs) and reduced right amygdala response. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis showed that increased amygdala response to fear in the low conflict condition was accompanied by increased functional coupling with middle frontal gyrus, a prefrontal region previously associated with emotion regulation during cognitive task performance. These data suggest that amygdala response to emotion is modulated as a function of task demands, even when perceptual inputs are closely matched across load conditions. PPI data also show that, in particular emotional contexts, increased functional coupling of amygdala with prefrontal cortex can paradoxically occur when executive demands are lower.

  7. Interference effects of vocalization on dual task performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. M.; Goodman, L. S.; Pianka, M. J.

    1984-09-01

    Voice command and control systems have been proposed as a potential means of off-loading the typically overburdened visual information processing system. However, prior to introducing novel human-machine interfacing technologies in high workload environments, consideration must be given to the integration of the new technologists within existing task structures to ensure that no new sources of workload or interference are systematically introduced. This study examined the use of voice interactive systems technology in the joint performance of two cognitive information processing tasks requiring continuous memory and choice reaction wherein a basis for intertask interference might be expected. Stimuli for the continuous memory task were presented aurally and either voice or keyboard responding was required in the choice reaction task. Performance was significantly degraded in each task when voice responding was required in the choice reaction time task. Performance degradation was evident in higher error scores for both the choice reaction and continuous memory tasks. Performance decrements observed under conditions of high intertask stimulus similarity were not statistically significant. The results signal the need to consider further the task requirements for verbal short-term memory when applying speech technology in multitask environments.

  8. Principles of Communicative Task Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  9. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  10. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  11. Reverse-Engineering Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamber, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to planning sequences of communication tasks that require learners to become personally involved in their learning. By drawing on their own ideas and experiences, as a product of earlier tasks in a given sequence, learners generate the content and resource material on which subsequent tasks operate. The article…

  12. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  13. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  14. Proximal arm kinematics affect grip force-load force coordination.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, Billy C; Lum, Peter S; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-10-01

    During object manipulation, grip force is coordinated with load force, which is primarily determined by object kinematics. Proximal arm kinematics may affect grip force control, as proximal segment motion could affect control of distal hand muscles via biomechanical and/or neural pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proximal kinematics on grip force modulation during object manipulation. Fifteen subjects performed three vertical lifting tasks that involved distinct proximal kinematics (elbow/shoulder), but resulted in similar end-point (hand) trajectories. While temporal coordination of grip and load forces remained similar across the tasks, proximal kinematics significantly affected the grip force-to-load force ratio (P = 0.042), intrinsic finger muscle activation (P = 0.045), and flexor-extensor ratio (P < 0.001). Biomechanical coupling between extrinsic hand muscles and the elbow joint cannot fully explain the observed changes, as task-related changes in intrinsic hand muscle activation were greater than in extrinsic hand muscles. Rather, between-task variation in grip force (highest during task 3) appears to contrast to that in shoulder joint velocity/acceleration (lowest during task 3). These results suggest that complex neural coupling between the distal and proximal upper extremity musculature may affect grip force control during movements, also indicated by task-related changes in intermuscular coherence of muscle pairs, including intrinsic finger muscles. Furthermore, examination of the fingertip force showed that the human motor system may attempt to reduce variability in task-relevant motor output (grip force-to-load force ratio), while allowing larger fluctuations in output less relevant to task goal (shear force-to-grip force ratio).

  15. The Effects of Task Type on Time to Task Failure During Fatigue: A Modified Sørensen Test.

    PubMed

    Russ, David W; Ross, Andrew J; Clark, Brian C; Thomas, James S

    2017-03-28

    Understanding mechanisms of fatigue of the trunk extensors is important because fatigue is a major factor in predicting incidence of low back pain, but few studies have examined trunk extensor fatigue muscles using differing load types and measured the amplitude and frequency domain of the electromyographic signal to explain these differences. Sixteen healthy participants performed position- and force-matching fatigue tasks in a modified Sørensen test position. Time to task failure was significantly longer during the position-matching task compared to force-matching task (58.3 ± 6.6 min vs. 36.1 ± 5.4 min). This finding is the opposite of that commonly reported for the appendicular muscle, but the mean power frequency shifts and muscle activation patterns of the trunk and hip extensors did not explain this difference. The mean power frequency shifts and muscle activation patterns of the trunk and hip extensors did not explain this difference. The greater time to task failure during the position-matching task may reflect adaptation of the trunk extensor muscles to optimize maintaining specific joint angles more so than specific loads.

  16. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting.

    PubMed

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice.

  17. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice. PMID:27788192

  18. Use of body armor protection with fighting load impacts soldier performance and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load.

  19. Neural effects of cognitive control load on auditory selective attention.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Merav; Humphries, Colin; Verber, Matthew; Liebenthal, Einat; Binder, Jeffrey R; Mangalathu, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2014-08-01

    Whether and how working memory disrupts or alters auditory selective attention is unclear. We compared simultaneous event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses associated with task-irrelevant sounds across high and low working memory load in a dichotic-listening paradigm. Participants performed n-back tasks (1-back, 2-back) in one ear (Attend ear) while ignoring task-irrelevant speech sounds in the other ear (Ignore ear). The effects of working memory load on selective attention were observed at 130-210ms, with higher load resulting in greater irrelevant syllable-related activation in localizer-defined regions in auditory cortex. The interaction between memory load and presence of irrelevant information revealed stronger activations primarily in frontal and parietal areas due to presence of irrelevant information in the higher memory load. Joint independent component analysis of ERP and fMRI data revealed that the ERP component in the N1 time-range is associated with activity in superior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate a dynamic relationship between working memory load and auditory selective attention, in agreement with the load model of attention and the idea of common neural resources for memory and attention.

  20. Defining soldier equipment trade space: load effects on combat marksmanship and perception-action coupling.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christopher J; Bigelow, Carol; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2013-01-01

    Soldier equipment compromises task performance as temporal constraints during critical situations and load increase inertial and interactive forces during movement. Methods are necessary to optimise equipment that relate task performance to underlying coordination and perception-action coupling. Employing ecological task analysis and methods from dynamical systems theory, equipment load and coordination was examined during two sub-tasks embedded in combat performance, threat discrimination and dynamic marksmanship. Perception-action coupling was degraded with load during threat discrimination, leading to delays in functional reaction time. Reduced speed and accuracy during dynamic marksmanship under load was related to disrupted segmental coordination and adaptability during postural transitions between targets. These results show how reduced performance under load relates to coordination changes and perception-action coupling. These changes in functional capability are directly related to soldier survivability in combat. The methods employed may aid equipment design towards more optimised performance by modifying equipment or its distribution on humans.