Science.gov

Sample records for administrative circulars rev

  1. 75 FR 32911 - Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. See Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  2. 76 FR 33210 - Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. See Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  3. Uniform administrative requirements for grants and agreements with institutions of higher education, hospitals and other non-profit organizations--OMB. Final revision to OMB circular A-110.

    PubMed

    1993-11-29

    Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 provides standards for obtaining consistency and uniformity among Federal agencies in the administration of grants and agreements with institutions of higher education, hospitals, and other non-profit organizations. OMB issued Circular A-110 in 1976 and, except for a minor revision in February 1987, the Circular contains its original provisions. To update the Circular, OMB established an interagency task force to review the Circular. The task force solicited suggestions for changes to the Circular from university groups, non-profit organizations and other interested parties and compared, for consistency, the provisions of similar provisions applied to State and local governments. The revised Circular reflects the results of these efforts.

  4. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration Joint Development: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration... the form of a circular, on joint development. This circular provides guidance to recipients of Federal... joint development. This circular: (1) Defines the term ``joint development''; ] (2) explains how...

  5. Research Administration in History: The Development of OMB Circular A-110 through Joseph Warner's COGR Subcommittee, 1976-1979

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Phillip E.; Smith, Marie F.

    2008-01-01

    Research administrators can be assisted in resolving issues with awareness of the critical period of policy formation divulged in the Joseph Warner Papers. He and his colleagues on the Subcommittee on Grants and Contracts Provisions of COGR adopted the philosophy that research administrators needed flexibility and reduced paperwork and costs.…

  6. 76 FR 62148 - Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This notice... program questions, Amber Ontiveros, Office of Civil Rights, Federal Transit Administration, 1200...

  7. Circular Coinduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  8. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Environmental Justice: Final Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit... (hereinafter ``EJ Circular'') on incorporating environmental justice principles into plans, projects, and... recipients of FTA funds on how to fully engage environmental justice populations in the public...

  9. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  10. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  11. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  12. 5 CFR 1310.3 - Availability of circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of circulars. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.3 Availability of circulars. Copies of individual circulars are available at OMB's Internet home page; you...

  13. 5 CFR 1310.3 - Availability of circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of circulars. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.3 Availability of circulars. Copies of individual circulars are available at OMB's Internet home page; you...

  14. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride... determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, was not withdrawn from sale... refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, is the...

  15. Stable complex formation between HIV Rev and the nucleosome assembly protein, NAP1, affects Rev function

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, Alan; Murley, Laura Lea; Gao Mian; Wong, Raymond; Clayton, Kiera; Brufatto, Nicole; Canadien, Veronica; Mamelak, Daniel; Chen, Tricia; Richards, Dawn; Zeghouf, Mahel; Greenblatt, Jack; Burks, Christian; Frappier, Lori

    2009-05-25

    The Rev protein of HIV-1 is essential for HIV-1 proliferation due to its role in exporting viral RNA from the nucleus. We used a modified version of tandem affinity purification (TAP) tagging to identify proteins interacting with HIV-1 Rev in human cells and discovered a prominent interaction between Rev and nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1). This interaction was also observed by specific retention of Nap1 from human cell lysates on a Rev affinity column. Nap1 was found to bind Rev through the Rev arginine-rich domain and altered the oligomerization state of Rev in vitro. Overexpression of Nap1 stimulated the ability of Rev to export RNA, reduced the nucleolar localization of Rev, and affected Rev nuclear import rates. The results suggest that Nap-1 may influence Rev function by increasing the availability of Rev.

  16. Uniform administrative requirements for grants and agreements with institutions of higher education, hospitals and other non-profit organizations--OMB Circular A-110 (revised)--HUD. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1995-06-20

    Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 provides standards for obtaining consistency and uniformity among Federal agencies in the administration of grants and agreements with institutions of higher education, hospitals, and other non-profit organizations. On September 13, 1994, the Department published a final rule which adopted the revised circular as it pertains to HUD. However, the September 13, 1994 rule contained, in subpart E, special provisions relating to the use of lump sum grants. Therefore, subpart E was treated as an interim rule, and the public was invited to submit comments on subpart E. This final rule addresses the public comments received on subpart E and makes final the provisions of subpart E.

  17. Cold Rydberg atoms in circular states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Raithel, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Circular-state Rydberg atoms are interesting in that they exhibit a unique combination of extraordinary properties; long lifetimes (˜n^5), large magnetic moments (l=|m|=n-1) and no first order Stark shift. Circular states have found applications in cavity quantum electrodynamics and precision measurements [1,2], among other studies. In this work we present the production of circular states in an atom trapping apparatus using an adiabatic state-switching method (the crossed-field method [3]). To date, we have observed lifetimes of adiabatically prepared states of several milliseconds. Their relatively large ionization electric fields have been verified by time-of-flight signatures of ion trajectories. We intend to explore the magnetic trapping of circular state Rydberg atoms, as well as their production and interaction properties in ultra-cold and degenerate samples.[4pt] [1] P. Bertet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 14 (2002)[0pt] [2] M. Brune et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 21 (1994)[0pt] [3] D. Delande and J.C. Gay, Europhys. Lett., 5, 303-308 (1988).

  18. Optimized Chemical Probes for REV-ERBα

    PubMed Central

    Trump, Ryan P.; Bresciani, Stefano; Cooper, Anthony W. J.; Tellam, James P.; Wojno, Justyna; Blaikley, John; Orband-Miller, Lisa A.; Kashatus, Jennifer A.; Dawson, Helen C.; Loudon, Andrew; Ray, David; Grant, Daniel; Farrow, Stuart N.; Willson, Timothy M.; Tomkinson, Nicholas C. O.

    2015-01-01

    REV-ERBα has emerged as an important target for regulation of circadian rhythm and its associated physiology. Herein, we report on the optimization of a series of REV-ERBα agonists based on GSK4112 (1) for potency, selectivity, and bioavailability. Potent REV-ERBα agonists 4, 10, 16, and 23 are detailed for their ability to suppress BMAL and IL-6 expression from human cells while also demonstrating excellent selectivity over LXRα. Amine 4 demonstrated in vivo bioavailability after either IV or oral dosing. PMID:23656296

  19. Optimized chemical probes for REV-ERBα.

    PubMed

    Trump, Ryan P; Bresciani, Stefano; Cooper, Anthony W J; Tellam, James P; Wojno, Justyna; Blaikley, John; Orband-Miller, Lisa A; Kashatus, Jennifer A; Boudjelal, Mohamed; Dawson, Helen C; Loudon, Andrew; Ray, David; Grant, Daniel; Farrow, Stuart N; Willson, Timothy M; Tomkinson, Nicholas C O

    2013-06-13

    REV-ERBα has emerged as an important target for regulation of circadian rhythm and its associated physiology. Herein, we report on the optimization of a series of REV-ERBα agonists based on GSK4112 (1) for potency, selectivity, and bioavailability. (1) Potent REV-ERBα agonists 4, 10, 16, and 23 are detailed for their ability to suppress BMAL and IL-6 expression from human cells while also demonstrating excellent selectivity over LXRα. Amine 4 demonstrated in vivo bioavailability after either iv or oral dosing.

  20. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Federal Transit Administration Title VI; Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has placed in the docket and on its Web site, proposed guidance in... locations will be ADA- and transit-accessible. For details about the exact location of each...

  1. Project Execution Plan, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-08-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls.

  2. 75 FR 16229 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Notice of Final Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Program: Notice of Final Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Final Circular. ] SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is issuing Circular 9030.1D to provide comprehensive assistance...

  3. Characterization of bovine immunodeficiency virus rev cDNAs and identification and subcellular localization of the Rev protein.

    PubMed Central

    Oberste, M S; Williamson, J C; Greenwood, J D; Nagashima, K; Copeland, T D; Gonda, M A

    1993-01-01

    One of the six putative accessory genes of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is similar to those identified as rev in the human immunodeficiency virus and visna virus genomes. To further analyze the BIV rev gene locus, protein, and function, rev cDNAs were cloned and characterized. BIV rev mRNA is derived from the full-length transcript by multiple splicing events and consists of three exons, including the untranslated leader sequence and two coding exons. BIV rev cDNA was expressed in bacteria and in a mammalian in vitro translation expression system. A 23-kDa Rev protein (p23rev) was immunologically detected in lysates from both systems by using an antiserum made to a synthetic Rev peptide. Recombinant p23rev made in bacteria was purified and used to make a polyvalent antiserum. Antisera to Rev peptide and recombinant p23rev immunoprecipitated p23rev from BIV-infected mammalian cells but not from virions. A mammalian expression vector using the BIV rev cDNA was constructed; p23rev was immunoprecipitated with anti-Rev serum from 32P-labeled lysates of monkey cells transfected with this plasmid, demonstrating that BIV Rev is phosphorylated. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy with anti-BIV Rev antisera localized Rev in the nucleus and, particularly, in the nucleoli of BIV-infected cells. In functional studies, the expression of BIV Rev was shown to positively regulate the appearance both of Gag protein, which is translated from the unspliced primary viral transcript, and of singly spliced env mRNA but not that of the multiply spliced tat mRNA. These results demonstrate that BIV Rev activity correlates with the known function of lentivirus Rev proteins. Images PMID:8411341

  4. 76 FR 60590 - Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Federal Transit Administration Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit...: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has placed in the docket and on its Web site, proposed... ADA- and transit-accessible. For details about the exact location of each Information Session...

  5. Pharmacological Targeting the REV-ERBs in Sleep/Wake Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Ariadna; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Roberts, Amanda J.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock maintains appropriate timing for a wide range of behaviors and physiological processes. Circadian behaviors such as sleep and wakefulness are intrinsically dependent on the precise oscillation of the endogenous molecular machinery that regulates the circadian clock. The identical core clock machinery regulates myriad endocrine and metabolic functions providing a link between sleep and metabolic health. The REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are nuclear receptors that are key regulators of the molecular clock and have been successfully targeted using small molecule ligands. Recent studies in mice suggest that REV-ERB-specific synthetic agonists modulate metabolic activity as well as alter sleep architecture, inducing wakefulness during the light period. Therefore, these small molecules represent unique tools to extensively study REV-ERB regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In these studies, our aim was to further investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting the REV-ERBs for regulation of sleep by characterizing efficacy, and optimal dosing time of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Applying different experimental paradigms in mice, our studies establish that SR9009 does not lose efficacy when administered more than once a day, nor does tolerance develop when administered once a day over a three-day dosing regimen. Moreover, through use of a time response paradigm, we determined that although there is an optimal time for administration of SR9009 in terms of maximal efficacy, there is a 12-hour window in which SR9009 elicited a response. Our studies indicate that the REV-ERBs are potential therapeutic targets for treating sleep problems as those encountered as a consequence of shift work or jet lag. PMID:27603791

  6. [Circular migration in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Mantra, I B

    1979-12-01

    The author examines circular migration in Indonesia, with primary focus on the 1970s. It is found that circular, or repeated return migration, generally occurs over short distances and for short periods and is more frequent than lifetime migration. The relationships between improvements in the national transport system, access to labor force opportunities in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and circular migration are discussed.

  7. 77 FR 20782 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes have been made below normal value (NV) during the March...

  8. Toroidal circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, T. A.; Fedotov, V. A.; Papasimakis, N.; Kuprov, I.; Youngs, I. J.; Chen, W. T.; Tsai, D. P.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the induced toroidal dipole, represented by currents flowing on the surface of a torus, makes a distinct and indispensable contribution to circular dichroism. We show that toroidal circular dichroism supplements the well-known mechanism involving electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions. We illustrate this with rigorous analysis of the experimentally measured polarization-sensitive transmission spectra of an artificial metamaterial, constructed from elements of toroidal symmetry. We argue that toroidal circular dichroism will be found in large biomolecules with elements of toroidal symmetry and should be taken into account in the interpretation of circular dichroism spectra of organics.

  9. 77 FR 32531 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman...: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: Effective Date... Operations, Office 7, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of...

  10. 75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the...

  11. A nucleolar localizing Rev binding element inhibits HIV replication

    PubMed Central

    Michienzi, Alessandro; De Angelis, Fernanda G; Bozzoni, Irene; Rossi, John J

    2006-01-01

    The Rev protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) facilitates the nuclear export of intron containing viral mRNAs allowing formation of infectious virions. Rev traffics through the nucleolus and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Rev multimerization and interaction with the export protein CRM1 takes place in the nucleolus. To test the importance of Rev nucleolar trafficking in the HIV-1 replication cycle, we created a nucleolar localizing Rev Response Element (RRE) decoy and tested this for its anti-HIV activity. The RRE decoy provided marked inhibition of HIV-1 replication in both the CEM T-cell line and in primary CD34+ derived monocytes. These results demonstrate that titration of Rev in the nucleolus impairs HIV-1 replication and supports a functional role for Rev trafficking in this sub-cellular compartment. PMID:16712721

  12. Spiral Bevel and Circular Arc Helical Gears: Tooth Contact Analysis and the Effect of Misalignment on Circular Arc Helical Gears.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    AD-AI59 738 SPIRAL BEVEL AND CIRCULAR ARC HELICAL BEARS: TOOTH Loll CONTACT ANALYSIS AND T..(U) NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...STANDARDS -1963A -_L177- 7 7 71 7 -777 , AD-A 158 738 NASA USAAVSCOM Technical Memorandum 87013 Technical Report 85-C-6 Spiral Bevel and Circular Arc Helical ...this paper cover the generation of (1) spiral bevel gears with almost zero kinematic errors, and (2) helical gears with circular arc teeth

  13. 49 CFR 1548.19 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.19 Security Directives and Information Circulars. (a) TSA may issue an...

  14. 49 CFR 1549.109 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CERTIFIED CARGO SCREENING PROGRAM Operations § 1549.109 Security Directives and Information Circulars. (a) TSA may issue...

  15. 78 FR 70482 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-71; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Chapter 1 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-71; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National Aeronautics and...

  16. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.

  17. Squaring a Circular Segment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian…

  18. 77 FR 7656 - Advisory Circular: Public Aircraft Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Policy Regarding Civil Aircraft Operators Providing Contract Support to Government Entities (Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular: Public Aircraft Operations AGENCY: Federal...

  19. 78 FR 72863 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...). \\3\\ See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China, 78 FR 70069 (November 22, 2013). Scope... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China... revocation of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular welded...

  20. 78 FR 23818 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit...: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has placed in the docket and on its Web site, proposed... Transit Administration) and Docket Number (FTA-2013-0010) must be included at the beginning of...

  1. Circular free-electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Kurnit, Norman A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.

  2. Compact waveguide circular polarizer

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-08-16

    A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.

  3. 76 FR 43981 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the People's Republic of..., 2010. \\1\\ See Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

  4. 77 FR 64468 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel... the publication of the preliminary determination.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel...

  5. 77 FR 19192 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Affirmative... being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular... Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the...

  6. 75 FR 64696 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... preliminary results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular ] welded carbon steel... the antidumping duty order on pipes and tubes from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  7. 76 FR 15941 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel...

  8. 77 FR 8808 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel...

  9. 77 FR 73015 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe... merchandise subject to the order is circular welded non-alloy steel pipe and tube. The product is...

  10. 75 FR 20342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of... antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  11. REV7 counteracts DNA double-strand break resection and impacts PARP inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guotai; Yuan, Jingsong; Mistrik, Martin; Bouwman, Peter; Bartkova, Jirina; Gogola, Ewa; Warmerdam, Daniël; Barazas, Marco; Jaspers, Janneke E.; Watanabe, Kenji; Pieterse, Mark; Kersbergen, Ariena; Sol, Wendy; Celie, Patrick H. N.; Schouten, Philip C.; van den Broek, Bram; Salman, Ahmed; Nieuwland, Marja; de Rink, Iris; de Ronde, Jorma; Jalink, Kees; Boulton, Simon J.; Chen, Junjie; van Gent, Dik C.; Bartek, Jiri; Jonkers, Jos; Borst, Piet; Rottenberg, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is achieved by homologous recombination (HR), and BRCA1 is an important factor for this repair pathway1. In the absence of BRCA1-mediated HR, administration of PARP inhibitors induces synthetic lethality of tumor cells of patients with breast or ovarian cancers2,3. Despite the benefit of this tailored therapy, drug resistance can occur by HR restoration4. Genetic reversion of BRCA1-inactivating mutations can be the underlying mechanism of drug resistance, but this does not explain resistance in all cases5. In particular, little is known about BRCA1-independent restoration of HR. Here, we show that loss of REV7 (also known as MAD2L2) re-establishes CtIP-dependent end resection of DSBs in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to HR restoration and PARP inhibitor resistance, reversed by ATM kinase inhibition. REV7 is recruited to DSBs in a manner dependent on the H2AX-MDC1-RNF8-RNF168-53BP1 chromatin pathway, and appears to block HR and promote end joining in addition to its regulatory role in DNA damage tolerance6. Finally, we establish that REV7 blocks DSB resection to promote non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Our results reveal an unexpected critical function of REV7 downstream of 53BP1 in coordinating pathological DSB repair pathway choices in BRCA1-deficient cells. PMID:25799992

  12. Circular Fibonacci gratings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2011-11-01

    We introduce circular Fibonacci gratings (CFGs) that combine the concept of circular gratings and Fibonacci structures. Theoretical analysis shows that the diffraction pattern of CFGs is composed of fractal distributions of impulse rings. Numerical simulations are performed with two-dimensional fast Fourier transform to reveal the fractal behavior of the diffraction rings. Experimental results are also presented and agree well with the numerical results. The fractal nature of the diffraction field should be of great theoretical interest, and shows potential to be further developed into practical applications, such as in laser measurement with wideband illumination.

  13. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  14. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a bicycle wheel.

  15. Copyright Basics. Circular 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    This circular answers some of the questions that are frequently asked about copyright, a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship" including library, dramatic musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. The Copyright Act of 1976 (title 17 of the United States…

  16. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements. PMID:28090380

  17. Biallelic inactivation of REV7 is associated with Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Clairmont, Connor; Rousseau, Alix; Ceccaldi, Raphael; Dubois d’Enghien, Catherine; Bluteau, Olivier; Cuccuini, Wendy; Gachet, Stéphanie; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Leblanc, Thierry; Socié, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; D’Andrea, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, chromosome instability, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), and a strong predisposition to cancer. Twenty FA genes have been identified, and the FANC proteins they encode cooperate in a common pathway that regulates DNA crosslink repair and replication fork stability. We identified a child with severe BMF who harbored biallelic inactivating mutations of the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) gene REV7 (also known as MAD2L2), which encodes the mutant REV7 protein REV7-V85E. Patient-derived cells demonstrated an extended FA phenotype, which included increased chromosome breaks and G2/M accumulation upon exposure to DNA crosslinking agents, γH2AX and 53BP1 foci accumulation, and enhanced p53/p21 activation relative to cells derived from healthy patients. Expression of WT REV7 restored normal cellular and functional phenotypes in the patient’s cells, and CRISPR/Cas9 inactivation of REV7 in a non-FA human cell line produced an FA phenotype. Finally, silencing Rev7 in primary hematopoietic cells impaired progenitor function, suggesting that the DNA repair defect underlies the development of BMF in FA. Taken together, our genetic and functional analyses identified REV7 as a previously undescribed FA gene, which we term FANCV. PMID:27500492

  18. DNA nuclease activity of Rev-coupled transition metal chelates.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Jeff C; Keuper, Kevin D; Cowan, J A

    2012-06-07

    Artificial nucleases containing Rev-coupled metal chelates based on combinations of the transition metals Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+) and the chelators DOTA, DTPA, EDTA, NTA, tripeptide GGH, and tetrapeptide KGHK have been tested for DNA nuclease activity. Originally designed to target reactive transition metal chelates (M-chelates) to the HIV-1 Rev response element mRNA, attachment to the arginine-rich Rev peptide also increases DNA-binding affinity for the attached M-chelates. Apparent K(D) values ranging from 1.7 to 3.6 µM base pairs for binding of supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA by Ni-chelate-Rev complexes were observed, as a result of electrostatic attraction between the positively-charged Rev peptide and negatively-charged DNA. Attachment of M-chelates to the Rev peptide resulted in enhancements of DNA nuclease activity ranging from 1-fold (no enhancement) to at least 13-fold (for Cu-DTPA-Rev), for the rate of DNA nicking, with second order rate constants for conversion of DNA(supercoiled) to DNA(nicked) up to 6 × 10(6) M(-1) min(-1), and for conversion of DNA(nicked) to DNA(linear) up to 1 × 10(5) M(-1) min(-1). Freifelder-Trumbo analysis and the ratios of linearization and nicking rate constants (k(lin)/k(nick)) revealed concerted mechanisms for nicking and subsequent linearization of plasmid DNA for all of the Rev-coupled M-chelates, consistent with higher DNA residency times for the Rev-coupled M-chelates. Observed rates for Rev-coupled M-chelates were less skewed by differing DNA-binding affinities than for M-chelates lacking Rev, as a result of the narrow range of DNA-binding affinities observed, and therefore relationships between DNA nuclease activity and other catalyst properties, such as coordination unsaturation, the ability to consume ascorbic acid and generate diffusible radicals, and the identity of the metal center, are now clearly illustrated in light of the similar DNA-binding affinities of all M-chelate-Rev complexes. This work

  19. 76 FR 49437 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Flessner or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  20. 75 FR 78216 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...: December 15, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Flessner or Robert James, AD/CVD...

  1. Circular inferences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Denève, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs. Indeed, the consequence of excitatory to inhibitory imbalance in a hierarchical neural network is equated to a pathological form of causal inference called 'circular belief propagation'. In circular belief propagation, bottom-up sensory information and top-down predictions are reverberated, i.e. prior beliefs are misinterpreted as sensory observations and vice versa. As a result, these predictions are counted multiple times. Circular inference explains the emergence of erroneous percepts, the patient's overconfidence when facing probabilistic choices, the learning of 'unshakable' causal relationships between unrelated events and a paradoxical immunity to perceptual illusions, which are all known to be associated with schizophrenia.

  2. Specific binding of a basic peptide from HIV-1 Rev.

    PubMed Central

    Kjems, J; Calnan, B J; Frankel, A D; Sharp, P A

    1992-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) encodes a regulatory protein, Rev, which is required for cytoplasmic expression of incompletely spliced viral mRNA. Rev activity is mediated through specific binding to a cis-acting Rev responsive element (RRE) located within the env region of HIV-1. A monomer Rev binding site corresponding to 37 nucleotides of the RRE (IIB RNA) was studied by RNA footprinting, modification interference experiments and mutational analysis. Surprisingly, a 17 amino acid peptide, corresponding to the basic domain of Rev, binds specifically to this site at essentially identical nucleotides and probably induces additional base pairing. The Rev protein and related peptide interact primarily with two sets of nucleotides located at the junction of single and double stranded regions, and at an additional site located within a helix. This suggests that the domains of proteins responsible for specific RNA binding can be remarkably small and that the interaction between RNA and protein can probably induce structure in both constituents. Images PMID:1547776

  3. 75 FR 62366 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. See Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  4. 78 FR 71563 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from... Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  5. Proflavine acts as a Rev inhibitor by targeting the high-affinity Rev binding site of the Rev responsive element of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Eric S; Chang, Chia-en; Gilson, Michael K; Marino, John P

    2003-07-08

    Rev is an essential regulatory HIV-1 protein that binds the Rev responsive element (RRE) within the env gene of the HIV-1 RNA genome, activating the switch between viral latency and active viral replication. Previously, we have shown that selective incorporation of the fluorescent probe 2-aminopurine (2-AP) into a truncated form of the RRE sequence (RRE-IIB) allowed the binding of an arginine-rich peptide derived from Rev and aminoglycosides to be characterized directly by fluorescence methods. Using these fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, proflavine has been identified, through a limited screen of selected small heterocyclic compounds, as a specific and high-affinity RRE-IIB binder which inhibits the interaction of the Rev peptide with RRE-IIB. Direct and competitive 2-AP fluorescence binding assays reveal that there are at least two classes of proflavine binding sites on RRE-IIB: a high-affinity site that competes with the Rev peptide for binding to RRE-IIB (K(D) approximately 0.1 +/- 0.05 microM) and a weaker binding site(s) (K(D) approximately 1.1 +/- 0.05 microM). Titrations of RRE-IIB with proflavine, monitored using (1)H NMR, demonstrate that the high-affinity proflavine binding interaction occurs with a 2:1 (proflavine:RRE-IIB) stoichiometry, and NOEs observed in the NOESY spectrum of the 2:1 proflavine.RRE-IIB complex indicate that the two proflavine molecules bind specifically and close to each other within a single binding site. NOESY data further indicate that formation of the 2:1 proflavine.RRE-IIB complex stabilizes base pairing and stacking within the internal purine-rich bulge of RRE-IIB in a manner analogous to what has been observed in the Rev peptide.RRE-IIB complex. The observation that proflavine competes with Rev for binding to RRE-IIB by binding as a dimer to a single high-affinity site opens the possibility for rational drug design based on linking and modifying it and related compounds.

  6. Rethinking the Meaning of "REV" in Modeling Fractured Rock Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellman, T. P.; Poeter, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    Discrete fracture network (DFN) models are often useful in characterizing fracture controlled flow and transport, as evidenced by their application in numerous studies over the last 20 years. Collectively, numerical models of fractured aquifers may be coarsely categorized as DFN, continuum, or mixed approach, the latter method representing major features explicitly with the remainder as volume-averaged continuum. A mixed model is often ideal for large-scale fractured aquifers where large features are known deterministically and structural simplification for remaining fractures is helpful to render models computational feasible. The term "REV" (Representative Elementary Volume) is often associated with this simplification. Generally, the classical "REV" approach identifies a single scale at which regions may be represented as continuum, and where parameter values are considered deterministic and scalar. As an alternative, stochastic continuum methodologies allow for distributions of parameter values in a probabilistic framework, and while the scale of continuum is considered important, the classical "REV" definition is not considered entirely relevant. Also, there may be additional influences on "REV" imposed by a model's governing equations, the model parameter(s) of primary interest, and the scale of analysis. Thus, appropriate "REVs" differ depending on the scale at which model predictions are needed to facilitate decision making. For the purpose of evaluating water resources, we provide estimates of basin-scale continuum suitable for managing regional water resources in Turkey Creek Basin near Denver, Colorado using spatial averaging of hydraulic head observations. We also evaluate the commonly discussed requirements of "REV", such as the need for fracture networks to be dense and well connected, and for features to be much smaller than the scale of interest. While these conditions often meet classical "REV" requirements they are neither universally acceptable

  7. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Methods: EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Results: Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1–4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Conclusions: Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. Citation: Mang GM, La Spada F, Emmenegger Y, Chappuis S, Ripperger JA, Albrecht U, Franken P. Altered sleep homeostasis in Rev

  8. 78 FR 72863 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013). \\2\\ See Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's... FR 60849 (October 2, 2013). \\3\\ See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from China, 78 FR 70069... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of...

  9. 76 FR 36086 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of... welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico... Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico, 75...

  10. 77 FR 36256 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Postponement of Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Postponement of Final... investigation on circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe from India.\\1\\ On June 1, 2012, the Department... antidumping duty investigation is currently due on August 6, 2012. \\1\\ See Circular Welded...

  11. 77 FR 64465 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel...\\ \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

  12. 76 FR 14649 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Extension of Time... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico for the November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009, period of review. See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results...

  13. 76 FR 52636 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial... the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``circular welded...

  14. 75 FR 70723 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The review covers two firms: Yieh Phui Enterprise... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan covering...

  15. 76 FR 77480 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The period... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan covering...

  16. 75 FR 28557 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time... antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission, in Part, of...

  17. 75 FR 4529 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes (pipes and tubes) from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 74...

  18. 77 FR 72818 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey.\\1\\ This review covers four producers and... section entitled ``Final Results of Review.'' \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  19. 76 FR 44304 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Amended Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Amended..., 2009. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the... during the period of review. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of...

  20. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  1. Circularly Polarized MHOHG with Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Mauger, Francois; Uzer, Turgay

    2016-05-01

    Circularly polarized MHOHG-Molecular High Order Harmonic Generation is shown to occur efficiently with intense ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized pulses due to frequent electron-parent -ion recollision with co-or counter-rotating incident circular pulses as predicted in 1995. We show in this context that molecules offer a very robust and efficient frameworkfor the production of circularly polarized harmonics for the generation of single circularly polarized ``attosecond'' pulses. The efficiency of such new MHOHG is shown to depend on the compatibility of the symmetry of the molecular medium with the net electric field generated by the combination of the laser pulses.Using a time-dependent symmetry analysis with concrete examples such as H 2 + vs H 3 + we show how all the features(harmonic order and ∧ polarization) of MHOHG can be explained and predicted.

  2. Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-03-13

    A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.

  3. International Field Reversible Thermal Connector (RevCon) Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: Comparison Temperature History of T3 from each Thermal Connector........................ 6...OHP Thermal Connector Delivered by MissStateU .................................................. 54 Figure 49: Comparison Temperature History of T1...88 Figure A2: Schematic of Temperature Monitoring and Vibration Detection Setup for RevCon IV

  4. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  5. 49 CFR 1544.305 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.305 Security...

  6. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5...-11—“Preparation and Submission of Budget Estimates” (Part 1) “Preparation and Submission of Strategic... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations” A-123—“Management Accountability and Control” A-125—“Prompt...

  7. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  9. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  10. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  11. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  12. 40 CFR 30.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 30.6 Section 30.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  13. 40 CFR 30.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 30.6 Section 30.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  14. 40 CFR 30.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 30.6 Section 30.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  15. 40 CFR 30.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 30.6 Section 30.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  16. 40 CFR 30.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 30.6 Section 30.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  17. 24 CFR 585.501 - Application of OMB Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Application of OMB Circulars. 585... Local Governments) and 24 CFR part 85 (Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements... and use of assistance under the program by applicable entities, and to the remedies for...

  18. 75 FR 36635 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Rescission of... antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand. See Antidumping or... welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand for the period March 1, 2009 through February 28,...

  19. 78 FR 21105 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary... tubes from Thailand. This review covers two producers/exporters of the subject merchandise, Saha Thai... The products covered by the antidumping order are certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and...

  20. 78 FR 49255 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial... certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The period of review (POR) is May 1... pipes and tubes from Taiwan covering the period May 1, 2012, through April 30, 2013.\\1\\ The...

  1. 78 FR 34335 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary... pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012, and the... is certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The product is...

  2. 77 FR 32539 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates.... Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe (certain steel pipe) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is being, or is likely to be, sold in...

  3. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  4. 78 FR 35248 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final... order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (CWP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea) for the period... Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011, 77 FR...

  5. 76 FR 63902 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan, 76 FR 33210 (June 8, 2011) (Preliminary Results)....

  6. 77 FR 61738 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... preliminary results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel... (Pacific Pipe) and Saha Thai Steel Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd. (Saha Thai). Based on our analysis of...

  7. 76 FR 40689 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe...

  8. 75 FR 2487 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Court Decision Not in Harmony with...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Court Decision... tubes from Thailand covering the period March 1, 2006 through February 28, 2007. Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73...

  9. 78 FR 64916 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of... administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes (steel pipes and tubes) from Turkey for the January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011, period of...

  10. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  11. Towards future circular colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  12. Beam Rounders for Circular Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; Ya. Derbenev

    2001-07-01

    By means of linear optics, an arbitrary uncoupled beam can be locally transformed into a round (rotation-invariant) state and then back. This provides an efficient way to round beams in the interaction region of circular colliders.

  13. Beam rounders for circular colliders

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov and S. Nagaitsev

    2002-12-10

    By means of linear optics, an arbitrary uncoupled beam can be locally transformed into a round (rotation-invariant) state and then back. This provides an efficient way to round beams in the interaction region of circular colliders.

  14. Beach vortices near circular topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, A. K.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.

    2016-10-01

    Finite-area monopolar vortices which propagate around topography without change in shape are computed for circular seamounts and wells including the limiting cases of each: islands and infinitely deep wells. The time-dependent behaviour of vortex pairs propagating toward circular topography is also examined. Trajectories of point-vortex pairs exterior to the topography are found and compared to trajectories of vortex patches computed using contour dynamics.

  15. 76 FR 77452 - Advisory Circular for Stall and Stick Pusher Training

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Training AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of availability of proposed Advisory Circular for Stall and Stick Pusher Training, request for... and stick pusher training for transport category airplanes for comment. This Advisory...

  16. Endogenous rhythmicity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha in the hamster pineal gland is not driven by norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2009-05-01

    Pineal melatonin is synthesized with daily and seasonal rhythms following the hypothalamic clock-driven release of norepinephrine (NE). The pineal gland of rats and mice, like the biological clock, expresses a number of clock genes. However, the role of pineal clock elements in pineal physiology is still unknown. We examined the expression and regulation of several clock genes (Per1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha) under different lighting conditions or following adrenergic treatments in the Syrian hamster, a seasonal rodent. We found that Per1 and Cry2 genes were similarly regulated by the nocturnal release of NE: levels of Per1 and Cry2 mRNA displayed a nocturnal increase that was maintained after 2 days in constant darkness (DD) but abolished after 2 days under constant light (LL), a condition that suppresses endogenous NE release, or after an early night administration of the adrenergic antagonist propranolol. In contrast, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha exhibited a different pattern of expression and regulation. mRNA levels of both clock genes displayed a marked daily variation, maintained in DD, with higher values at midday for Bmal1 and at day/night transition for Rev-erb alpha. Remarkably, the daily variation of both Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha mRNA was maintained in LL conditions and was not affected by propranolol. This study confirms the daily regulation of Per1 and Cry2 gene expression by NE in the pineal gland of rodents and shows for the first time that a second set of clock genes, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha are expressed with a circadian rhythm independent of the hypothalamic clock-driven noradrenergic signal.

  17. Nuclear Export Signal Masking Regulates HIV-1 Rev Trafficking and Viral RNA Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Ryan T; Aligeti, Mounavya; Pocock, Ginger M; Higgins, Christina A; Sherer, Nathan M

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1's Rev protein forms a homo-oligomeric adaptor complex linking viral RNAs to the cellular CRM1/Ran-GTP nuclear export machinery through the activity of Rev's prototypical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). In this study, we used a functional fluorescently tagged Rev fusion protein as a platform to study the effects of modulating Rev NES identity, number, position, or strength on Rev subcellular trafficking, viral RNA nuclear export, and infectious virion production. We found that Rev activity was remarkably tolerant of diverse NES sequences, including supraphysiological NES (SNES) peptides that otherwise arrest CRM1 transport complexes at nuclear pores. Rev's ability to tolerate a SNES was both position and multimerization dependent, an observation consistent with a model wherein Rev self-association acts to transiently mask the NES peptide(s), thereby biasing Rev's trafficking into the nucleus. Combined imaging and functional assays also indicated that NES masking underpins Rev's well-known tendency to accumulate at the nucleolus, as well as Rev's capacity to activate optimal levels of late viral gene expression. We propose that Rev multimerization and NES masking regulates Rev's trafficking to and retention within the nucleus even prior to RNA binding.

  18. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  19. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 1, Computer Codes Volume 3: Utility Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Miley, Terri B.; Nichols, William E.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2004-09-14

    This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.

  20. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes.

  1. 75 FR 13729 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2007 through October 31, 2008. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea:...

  2. Recognition of the high affinity binding site in rev-response element RNA by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 rev protein.

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, S; Pritchard, C; Mann, D A; Karn, J; Gait, M J

    1992-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 rev protein binds with high affinity to a bubble structure located within the rev-response element (RRE) RNA in stemloop II. After this initial interaction, additional rev molecules bind to the RRE RNA in an ordered assembly process which requires a functional bubble structure, since mutations in the bubble sequence that reduce rev affinity block multiple complex formation. We have used synthetic chemistry to characterize the interaction between rev protein and its high affinity binding site. A minimal synthetic duplex RNA (RBC6) carrying the bubble and 12 flanking base pairs is able to bind rev with 1 to 1 stoichiometry and with high affinity. When the bubble structure is inserted into synthetic RNA molecules carrying longer stretches of flanking double-stranded RNA, rev forms additional complexes resembling the multimers observed with the RRE RNA. The ability of rev to bind to RBC6 analogues containing functional group modifications on base and sugar moieties of nucleoside residues was also examined. The results provide strong evidence that the bubble structure contains specific configurations of non-Watson--Crick G:G and G:A base pairs and suggest that high affinity recognition of RRE RNA by rev requires hydrogen bonding to functional groups in the major groove of a distorted RNA structure. Images PMID:1282702

  3. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hui

    2015-12-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. - Highlights: • MOV10 can function as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev. • MOV10 facilitates Rev/RRE-dependent transport of viral mRNAs. • MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. • The DEAG-box of MOV10 is required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent export.

  4. Circular piezoelectric bender laser tuners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. H.; Thompson, P. E.; Walker, H. E.; Johnson, E. H.; Radecki, D. J.; Reynolds, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The circular piezoelectric bender laser tuner to replace conventional laser tuners when mirror diameters up to 0.50 inch are sufficient is described. The circular piezoelectric bender laser tuner offers much higher displacements per applied volt and permits laser control circuits to be fabricated using standard operational amplifiers, rather than the expensive high-voltage amplifiers required by conventional tuners. The cost of the device is more than one order of magnitude lower than conventional tuners and the device is very rugged with all mechanical resonances easily designed to be greater than 3kHz. In addition to its use as a laser frequency tuner, the circular bender tuner should find many applications in interferometers and similar devices.

  5. Photoelectron circular dichroism of isopropanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catone, D.; Turchini, S.; Contini, G.; Prosperi, T.; Stener, M.; Decleva, P.; Zema, N.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopies based on circular polarized light are sensitive to the electronic and structural properties of chiral molecules. Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a powerful technique that combines the chiral sensitivity of the circular polarized light and the electronic information obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy. An experimental and theoretical PECD study of the outer valence and C 1s core states of 1-amino-2-propanol in the gas phase is presented. The experimental dichroic dispersions in the photoelectron kinetic energy are compared with theoretical calculations employing a multicentric basis set of B-spline functions and a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. In order to understand analogies and differences in the dichroism of structural isomers bearing the same functional groups, a comparison with previous PECD study of valence band of 2-amino-1-propanol is carried out.

  6. Paired circularly polarized heterodyne ellipsometer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.-J.; Lin, C.-E.; Yu, L.-P.; Chou, C

    2009-02-01

    We develop a paired circularly polarized heterodyne ellipsometer (PCPHE), in which a heterodyne interferometer based on a two-frequency circularly polarized laser beam is set up. It belongs to an amplitude-sensitive ellipsometer that is able to provide not only a wider dynamic range of polarization modulation frequency but also a higher detection sensitivity than that of a conventional photometric ellipsometer. A real-time and precise measurement of ellipsometric parameters, which demonstrated an accuracy of less than 1 nm on thickness measurement of SiO2 thin film deposited on silicon substrate, can be applied with the PCPHE.

  7. 77 FR 34344 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade..., International Trade ] Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue...

  8. 75 FR 60494 - Notice of Proposed Guidance and Request for Comment on the Federal Transit Administration's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Proposed Guidance and Request for Comment on the Federal Transit Administration's Research, Technical Assistance, and Training Programs: Application Instructions and Program Management Guidelines (FTA Circular 6100.1D) AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...

  9. Maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Pellegrini, Marco; Pirillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-21

    We determine here the number and the list of maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. We prove that there is no maximal dinucleotide circular code having strictly less than 6 elements (maximum size of dinucleotide circular codes). On the other hand, a computer calculus shows that there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with less than 20 elements (maximum size of trinucleotide circular codes). More precisely, there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 elements and no maximal trinucleotide circular code having less than 14 elements. We give the same information for the maximal self-complementary dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. The amino acid distribution of maximal trinucleotide circular codes is also determined.

  10. Analysis of the virulence-associated RevSR two-component signal transduction system of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jackie K; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Adams, Vicki M; Quinsey, Noelene S; Rood, Julian I

    2016-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes human gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) and food poisoning. Early studies showed that virulence was regulated by the VirSR two-component signal transduction system. However, our identification of the RevR orphan response regulator indicated that more than one system was involved in controlling virulence. To further characterize this virulence-associated regulator, gel mobility shift experiments, coupled with DNase I footprinting, were used to identify the RevR DNA binding sequence. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that an orphan sensor histidine kinase, CPE1757 (renamed RevS), was the cognate sensor of RevR. Interaction between RevS and RevR was demonstrated by use of a bacterial two-hybrid system and validated by protein-protein interaction studies using biolayer interferometry. To assess the involvement of RevS in virulence regulation, the revS gene was inactivated by Targetron insertion. When isogenic wild-type, revS and complemented revS strains were tested in a mouse myonecrosis model, the revS mutant was found to be attenuated in virulence, which was similar to the attenuation observed previously with the revR mutant. However, transcriptional analysis of selected RevR-regulated genes in the revS mutant revealed a different pattern of expression to a revR mutant, suggesting that the RevSR system is more complex than originally thought. Taken together, the results have led to the identification and characterization of the two essential parts of a new regulatory network that is involved in the regulation of virulence in C. perfringens.

  11. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-12-14

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  12. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-11-10

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  13. Class IIc or Circular Bacteriocins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Visscher, Leah A.; van Belkum, Marco J.; Vederas, John C.

    The circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria represent a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides. These bacteriocins display enhanced stability compared to linear bacteriocins, which arises from their characteristic circular backbone. Currently, eight unique circular bacteriocins have been identified, and analysis of their gene clusters indicates that they likely utilize complex mechanisms for maturation and secretion, as well as for immunity. These bacteriocins target the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells, leading to pore formation that results in loss of ions, dissipation of membrane potential, and ultimately, cell death. Structural studies suggest that despite variation in their sequences, most of these bacteriocins likely adopt a common three-dimensional architecture, consisting of four or five tightly packed helices encompassing a hydrophobic core. There are many mysteries surrounding the biosynthesis of these peptides, particularly in regard to the mechanism by which they are cyclized. Elucidation of such a mechanism may provide exciting new approaches to the bioengineering of new, stable, and antimicrobially active circular peptides.

  14. Stress Analysis of Circular Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahlbusch, H; Wegner, W

    1941-01-01

    The stresses in circular frames of constant bending stiffnesses, as encountered in thin-wall shells, are investigated from the point of view of finite depth of sectional area of frame. The solution is carried out for four fundamental load conditions. The method is illustrated on a worked out example.

  15. A minimal dynamical model for tidal synchronization and orbit circularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyó, József; Escribano, Bruno; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; González, Diego L.; Piro, Oreste; Tél, Tamás

    2011-02-01

    We study tidal synchronization and orbit circularization in a minimal model that takes into account only the essential ingredients of tidal deformation and dissipation in the secondary body. In previous work we introduced the model (Escribano et al. in Phys. Rev. E, 78:036216, 2008); here we investigate in depth the complex dynamics that can arise from this simplest model of tidal synchronization and orbit circularization. We model an extended secondary body of mass m by two point masses of mass m/2 connected with a damped spring. This composite body moves in the gravitational field of a primary of mass M ≫ m located at the origin. In this simplest case oscillation and rotation of the secondary are assumed to take place in the plane of the Keplerian orbit. The gravitational interactions of both point masses with the primary are taken into account, but that between the point masses is neglected. We perform a Taylor expansion on the exact equations of motion to isolate and identify the different effects of tidal interactions. We compare both sets of equations and study the applicability of the approximations, in the presence of chaos. We introduce the resonance function as a resource to identify resonant states. The approximate equations of motion can account for both synchronization into the 1:1 spin-orbit resonance and the circularization of the orbit as the only true asymptotic attractors, together with the existence of relatively long-lived metastable orbits with the secondary in p: q ( p and q being co-prime integers) synchronous rotation.

  16. The Nuclear Receptor Rev-erbα Controls Circadian Thermogenic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Everett, Logan J.; Loro, Emanuele; Briggs, Erika R.; Bugge, Anne; Hou, Catherine; Ferrara, Christine; Seale, Patrick; Pryma, Daniel A.; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    Circadian oscillation of body temperature is a basic, evolutionary-conserved feature of mammalian biology1. Additionally, homeostatic pathways allow organisms to protect their core temperatures in response to cold exposure2. However, the mechanism responsible for coordinating daily body temperature rhythm and adaptability to environmental challenges is unknown. Here we show that the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα, a powerful transcriptional repressor, links circadian and thermogenic networks through the regulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mice exposed to cold fare dramatically better at 5 AM (Zeitgeber time 22) when Rev-erbα is barely expressed than at 5 PM (ZT10) when Rev-erbα is abundant. Deletion of Rev-erbα markedly improves cold tolerance at 5 PM, indicating that overcoming Rev-erbα-dependent repression is a fundamental feature of the thermogenic response to cold. Physiological induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) by cold temperatures is preceded by rapid down-regulation of Rev-erbα in BAT. Rev-erbα represses UCP1 in a brown adipose cell-autonomous manner and BAT UCP1 levels are high in Rev-erbα-null mice even at thermoneutrality. Genetic loss of Rev-erbα also abolishes normal rhythms of body temperature and BAT activity. Thus, Rev-erbα acts as a thermogenic focal point required for establishing and maintaining body temperature rhythm in a manner that is adaptable to environmental demands. PMID:24162845

  17. Human REV3 DNA Polymerase Zeta Localizes to Mitochondria and Protects the Mitochondrial Genome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupendra; Li, Xiurong; Owens, Kjerstin M; Vanniarajan, Ayyasamy; Liang, Ping; Singh, Keshav K

    2015-01-01

    To date, mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) is the only polymerase known to be present in mammalian mitochondria. A dogma in the mitochondria field is that there is no other polymerase present in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate localization of REV3 DNA polymerase in the mammalian mitochondria. We demonstrate localization of REV3 in the mitochondria of mammalian tissue as well as cell lines. REV3 associates with POLG and mitochondrial DNA and protects the mitochondrial genome from DNA damage. Inactivation of Rev3 leads to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced OXPHOS activity, and increased glucose consumption. Conversely, inhibition of the OXPHOS increases expression of Rev3. Rev3 expression is increased in human primary breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Inactivation of Rev3 decreases cell migration and invasion, and localization of Rev3 in mitochondria increases survival and the invasive potential of cancer cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that REV3 functions in mammalian mitochondria and that mitochondrial REV3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cells.

  18. RNA-guided assembly of Rev-RRE nuclear export complexes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun; Tambe, Akshay; Zhou, Kaihong; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-08-27

    HIV replication requires nuclear export of unspliced and singly spliced viral transcripts. Although a unique RNA structure has been proposed for the Rev-response element (RRE) responsible for viral mRNA export, how it recruits multiple HIV Rev proteins to form an export complex has been unclear. We show here that initial binding of Rev to the RRE triggers RNA tertiary structural changes, enabling further Rev binding and the rapid formation of a viral export complex. Analysis of the Rev-RRE assembly pathway using SHAPE-Seq and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveals two major steps of Rev-RRE complex formation, beginning with rapid Rev binding to a pre-organized region presenting multiple Rev binding sites. This step induces long-range remodeling of the RNA to expose a cryptic Rev binding site, enabling rapid assembly of additional Rev proteins into the RNA export complex. This kinetic pathway may help maintain the balance between viral replication and maturation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03656.001.

  19. REV3L modulates cisplatin sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjie; Sheng, Wenjiong; Yu, Chenxiao; Cao, Jianping; Zhou, Jundong; Wu, Jinchang; Zhang, Huojun; Zhang, Shuyu

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80-85% of all cases of lung cancer. Cisplatin plays a significant role in the management of human lung cancer. Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is involved in DNA damage repair. DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) is able to mediate the DNA replication bypass of DNA damage, which is suggested to be involved in chemoresistance. REV3L is the catalytic subunit of Pol ζ. Due to its critical role in translesion DNA synthesis, whether REV3L modulates cisplatin response in NSCLC cells remains unknown. In this study, REV3L overexpression and silencing H1299 cell lines were established. The reports showed that cisplatin induced the expression of REV3L by recruiting Sp1 to its promoter. Similar results were obtained when the ability of the cells to express luciferase from a platinated plasmid was measured. Co-transfection of the reporter with the REV3L overexpression vector or REV3L plus REV7L significantly enhanced the reporter activity. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation of shRNA-REV3L H1299 cells were more pronounced than shRNA-NC H1299 cells after cisplatin exposure, indicating that REV3L overexpression abolished cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Moreover, a forced expression of REV3L conferred the resistance of H1299 cells to cisplatin, whereas the knockdown of REV3L sensitized cisplatin efficacy in H1299 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that inhibition of REV3L sensitized lung cancer H1299 cells to cisplatin treatment. Thus, REV3L may be a novel target for the chemotherapy of NSCLC.

  20. 75 FR 20334 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Correction to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of...: April 19, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Conniff, AD/CVD Operations, Office 3, ] Import... final determination pursuant to final court decision for circular welded carbon quality steel line...

  1. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20- 167A...: This notice announces the availability of draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and draft AC 20- 167A, Airworthiness Approval of Enhanced Vision System, Synthetic Vision...

  2. 76 FR 27987 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Amended Final... on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand, which covered Saha Thai Steel Pipe... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

  3. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand... antidumping duty orders on certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and... India, Thailand, and Turkey. See Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes...

  4. 76 FR 72173 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman... Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, dated..., producers, or importers of certain steel pipe from India, the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), the United...

  5. 77 FR 64473 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel... Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Negative Countervailing...

  6. 76 FR 3612 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time... rescinding the review with respect to Yieh Hsing. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  7. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand. This review covers two... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on...

  8. 76 FR 71938 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand for...

  9. 75 FR 73033 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Amended Final... steel pipes and tubes (pipes and tubes) from Thailand, covering the period March 1, 2008 through... published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  10. Circular on planned parenthood, 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    In 1987 fourteen units of the Government of Henan issued a Circular stating that: "Planned parenthood must be publicized deep into the grass roots and among the people, and importance must be attached to results." The Circular stresses: "In the propaganda drive, it is necessary to successfully grasp three key links: 1. It is necessary to disseminate intensively the important directive on population problems that is contained in the report of the 13th CPC National Congress and the seriousness of the population situation of our country and province so that the cadres and the masses can understand the relationship between population control and the achievement of the strategic target of the three big steps, understand the reason for carrying out planned parenthood, understand that the one-child policy is still advocated, and conscientiously carry out planned parenthood. 2. It is essential to succeed in propagating knowledge of contraception, sterilization, childbirth, and child care and in conducting ideological education for those who undergo operations and for their family members. 3. It is imperative to visit those who have undergone operations and to help them solve practically their difficulties in making a living." The Circular concludes by demanding that under the unified leadership of party committees and governments at all levels, the propaganda drive be carried out by relying on the efforts of all of society. In conjunction with their own work, departments, including the propaganda, education, public health, and cultural departments, must carry out propaganda and education for planned parenthood.

  11. A novel replicating circular DNAzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Ruijian; Li, Zhe; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yanhong; Hao, Dongyun; Zhang, Jin

    2004-01-01

    10–23 DNAzyme has the potential to suppress gene expressions through sequence-specific mRNA cleavage. However, the dependence on exogenous delivery limits its applications. The objective of this work is to establish a replicating DNAzyme in bacteria using a single-stranded DNA vector. By cloning the 10–23 DNAzyme into the M13mp18 vector, we constructed two circular DNAzymes, C-Dz7 and C-Dz482, targeting the β-lactamase mRNA. These circular DNAzymes showed in vitro catalytic efficiencies (kcat/KM) of 7.82 × 106 and 1.36 × 107 M–1·min–1, respectively. Their dependence on divalent metal ions is similar to that found with linear 10–23 DNAzyme. Importantly, the circular DNAzymes were not only capable of replicating in bacteria but also exhibited high activities in inhibiting β-lactamase and bacterial growth. This study thus provides a novel strategy to produce replicating DNAzymes which may find widespread applications. PMID:15115797

  12. Proteasomal regulation of the mutagenic translesion DNA polymerase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rev1.

    PubMed

    Wiltrout, Mary Ellen; Walker, Graham C

    2011-02-07

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) functions as a tolerance mechanism for DNA damage at a potentially mutagenic cost. Three TLS polymerases (Pols) function to bypass DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Rev1, Pol ζ, a heterodimer of the Rev3 and Rev7 proteins, and Pol η (Rad30). Our lab has shown that S. cerevisiae Rev1 protein levels are under striking cell cycle regulation, being ∼50-fold higher during G2/M than during G1 and much of S phase (Waters and Walker, 2006). REV1 transcript levels only vary ∼3-fold in a similar cell cycle pattern, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism controls protein levels. Here, we show that the S. cerevisiae Rev1 protein is unstable during both the G1 and the G2/M phases of the cell cycle, however, the protein's half-life is shorter in G1 arrested cells than in G2/M arrested cells, indicating that the rate of proteolysis strongly contributes to Rev1's cell cycle regulation. In the presence of the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, the steady-state levels and half-life of Rev1 increase during G1 and G2/M. Through the use of a viable proteasome mutant, we confirm that the levels of Rev1 protein are dependent on proteasome-mediated degradation. The accumulation of higher migrating forms of Rev1 under certain conditions shows that the degradation of Rev1 is possibly directed through the addition of a polyubiquitination signal or another modification. These results support a model that proteasomal degradation acts as a regulatory system of mutagenic TLS mediated by Rev1.

  13. 77 FR 64471 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Vietnam: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International... welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular welded pipe'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). DATES: Effective Date: October 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christopher...

  14. 78 FR 48647 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Preliminary Results... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: In response to requests by.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Flessner or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7,...

  15. 75 FR 16071 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Huludao Bohai Oil Pipe Industrial Co. Ltd. (Huludao Bohai) (collectively, the Huludao Companies) of 31.29... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On December 11, 2009,...

  16. 75 FR 1335 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  17. Production of avian leukosis virus particles in mammalian cells can be mediated by the interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus protein Rev and the Rev-responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Nasioulas, G; Hughes, S H; Felber, B K; Whitcomb, J M

    1995-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells, the efficient expression of viral proteins from unspliced and singly spliced RNAs is dependent on two factors: the presence in the cell of the viral protein Rev and the presence in the viral RNA of the Rev-responsive element (RRE). We show here that the HIV-1 Rev/RRE system can increase the expression of avian leukosis virus (ALV) structural proteins in mammalian cells (D-17 canine osteosarcoma) and promote the release of mature ALV virions from these cells. In this system, the Rev/RRE interaction appears to facilitate the export of full-length unspliced ALV RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, allowing increased production of the ALV structural proteins. Gag protein is produced in the cytoplasm of the ALV-transfected cells even in the absence of a Rev/RRE interaction. However, a functional Rev/RRE interaction increases the amount of Gag present intracellularly and, more strikingly, results in the release of mature ALV particles into the supernatant. RCAS virus containing an RRE is replication-competent in chicken embryo fibroblasts; however, we have been unable to determine whether the particles produced in D-17 cells are as infectious as the particles produced in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8524879

  18. The DNA polymerase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rev1 is biologically significant.

    PubMed

    Wiltrout, Mary Ellen; Walker, Graham C

    2011-01-01

    A cell's ability to tolerate DNA damage is directly connected to the human development of diseases and cancer. To better understand the processes underlying mutagenesis, we studied the cell's reliance on the potentially error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS), and an error-free, template-switching pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary proteins mediating S. cerevisiae TLS are three DNA polymerases (Pols): Rev1, Pol ζ (Rev3/7), and Pol η (Rad30), all with human homologs. Rev1's noncatalytic role in recruiting other DNA polymerases is known to be important for TLS. However, the biological significance of Rev1's unusual conserved DNA polymerase activity, which inserts dC, is much less well understood. Here, we demonstrate that inactivating Rev1's DNA polymerase function sensitizes cells to both chronic and acute exposure to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) but not to UV or cisplatin. Full Rev1-dependent resistance to 4-NQO, however, also requires the additional Rev1 functions. When error-free tolerance is disrupted through deletion of MMS2, Rev1's catalytic activity is more vital for 4-NQO resistance, possibly explaining why the biological significance of Rev1's catalytic activity has been elusive. In the presence or absence of Mms2-dependent error-free tolerance, the catalytic dead strain of Rev1 exhibits a lower 4-NQO-induced mutation frequency than wild type. Furthermore, Pol ζ, but not Pol η, also contributes to 4-NQO resistance. These results show that Rev1's catalytic activity is important in vivo when the cell has to cope with specific DNA lesions, such as N(2)-dG.

  19. 48 CFR 53.301-18 - SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations. 53.301-18 Section 53.301-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-18 SF 18 (Rev. 6/95),...

  20. 48 CFR 53.301-18 - SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations. 53.301-18 Section 53.301-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-18 SF 18 (Rev. 6/95),...

  1. 48 CFR 53.301-1414 - SF 1414 (Rev. 10/93) Consent of Surety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false SF 1414 (Rev. 10/93) Consent of Surety. 53.301-1414 Section 53.301-1414 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1414 SF 1414 (Rev....

  2. 48 CFR 53.301-18 - SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations. 53.301-18 Section 53.301-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-18 SF 18 (Rev. 6/95),...

  3. 48 CFR 53.301-18 - SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations. 53.301-18 Section 53.301-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-18 SF 18 (Rev. 6/95),...

  4. 48 CFR 53.301-18 - SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations. 53.301-18 Section 53.301-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-18 SF 18 (Rev. 6/95),...

  5. Biological Characterization of CVRM2-BAC, A Recombinant CV1988 Virus Containing an REV LTR Insertion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been previously reported that avian retroviruses, i.e. avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticoloendotheliosis virus (REV), integrate in the Marek’s disease virus genome affecting MDV pathogenicity. RM-2 is an attenuated serotype 1 MDV virus generated by insertion of the REV LTR in the genome of...

  6. Pharmacological and Genetic Modulation of REV-ERB Activity and Expression Affects Orexigenic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Ariadna; Wang, Yongjun; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kameneka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ are transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of the circadian rhythm and various metabolic processes. The circadian rhythm is an endogenous mechanism, which generates entrainable biological changes that follow a 24-hour period. It regulates a number of physiological processes, including sleep/wakeful cycles and feeding behaviors. We recently demonstrated that REV-ERB-specific small molecules affect sleep and anxiety. The orexinergic system also plays a significant role in mammalian physiology and behavior, including the regulation of sleep and food intake. Importantly, orexin genes are expressed in a circadian manner. Given these overlaps in function and circadian expression, we wanted to determine whether the REV-ERBs might regulate orexin. We found that acute in vivo modulation of REV-ERB activity, with the REV-ERB-specific synthetic ligand SR9009, affects the circadian expression of orexinergic genes in mice. Long term dosing with SR9009 also suppresses orexinergic gene expression in mice. Finally, REV-ERBβ-deficient mice present with increased orexinergic transcripts. These data suggest that the REV-ERBs may be involved in the repression of orexinergic gene expression. PMID:26963516

  7. Dinucleotide circular codes and bijective transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-12-07

    The presence of circular codes in mRNA coding sequences is postulated to be involved in informational mechanisms aimed at detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame during protein synthesis. Most of the recent research is focused on trinucleotide circular codes. However, also dinucleotide circular codes are important since dinucleotides are ubiquitous in genomes and associated to important biological functions. In this work we adopt the group theoretic approach used for trinucleotide codes in Fimmel et al. (2015) to study dinucleotide circular codes and highlight their symmetry properties. Moreover, we characterize such codes in terms of n-circularity and provide a graph representation that allows to visualize them geometrically. The results establish a theoretical framework for the study of the biological implications of dinucleotide circular codes in genomic sequences.

  8. Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayut, Itai; Ben Ishai, Paul; Agranat, Aharon J.; Feldman, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    The upper part of the human eccrine sweat ducts, embedded within the epidermis layer, have a well-defined helical structure. It was recently suggested that, as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts interact with sub-mm waves [Y. Feldman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.128102]. Although correlation between changes in the reflectance spectrum in this frequency range and physiological activities has been shown, a direct link between the electromagnetic reflection and the helical structure itself has remained to be established. The fact that the sweat ducts manifest natural homochirality is henceforth used to produce this link. We report the detection of circular polarization asymmetry in the electromagnetic reflection from the human skin at sub-THz frequencies in vivo. We compare the results to numerical simulations and to measurements of a fabricated metamaterial. We argue that the observed circular dichroism can be interpreted uniquely as the signature of the helical structure itself. By twisting reflected electromagnetic waves, the human skin exhibits properties which are usually discussed only in the framework of metamaterial science.

  9. Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields. II. Derivation of formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We provide detailed analysis of strong field ionization of degenerate valence p orbitals by circularly polarized fields. Our analytical approach is conceptually equivalent to the Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev (PPT) theory and is virtually exact for short-range potentials. After benchmarking our results against the PPT theory for s orbitals, we obtain the results for p orbitals. We also show that, as long as the dipole approximation is valid, both the PPT method and our results are gauge invariant, in contrast with widely used strong field approximation (SFA). Our main result, which has already been briefly outlined in [I. Barth and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.063415 84, 063415 (2011)], is that strong field ionization preferentially removes electrons counter-rotating to the circularly polarized laser field. The result is illustrated using the example of Kr atom. Strong, up to one order of magnitude, sensitivity of strong field ionization to the sense of electron rotation in the initial state is one of the key signatures of nonadiabatic regime of strong field ionization.

  10. Impact of circadian nuclear receptor REV-ERBα on midbrain dopamine production and mood regulation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sooyoung; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yun, Seongsik; Choe, Han Kyoung; Park, Seong-Beom; Son, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Dluzen, Dean E; Lee, Inah; Hwang, Onyou; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin

    2014-05-08

    The circadian nature of mood and its dysfunction in affective disorders is well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we show that the circadian nuclear receptor REV-ERBα, which is associated with bipolar disorder, impacts midbrain dopamine production and mood-related behavior in mice. Genetic deletion of the Rev-erbα gene or pharmacological inhibition of REV-ERBα activity in the ventral midbrain induced mania-like behavior in association with a central hyperdopaminergic state. Also, REV-ERBα repressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene transcription via competition with nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (NURR1), another nuclear receptor crucial for dopaminergic neuronal function, thereby driving circadian TH expression through a target-dependent antagonistic mechanism. In conclusion, we identified a molecular connection between the circadian timing system and mood regulation, suggesting that REV-ERBα could be targeting in the treatment of circadian rhythm-related affective disorders.

  11. HIV-1 pre-mRNA commitment to Rev mediated export through PSF and Matrin 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, Anna; Gharu, Lavina; Marcello, Alessandro

    2013-01-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus gene expression and replication are regulated at several levels. Incompletely spliced viral RNAs and full-length genomic RNA contain the RRE element and are bound by the viral trans-acting protein Rev to be transported out of the nucleus. Previously we found that the nuclear matrix protein MATR3 was a cofactor of Rev-mediated RNA export. Here we show that the pleiotropic protein PSF binds viral RNA and is associated with MATR3. PSF is involved in the maintenance of a pool of RNA available for Rev activity. However, while Rev and PSF bind the viral pre-mRNA at the site of viral transcription, MATR3 interacts at a subsequent step. We propose that PSF and MATR3 define a novel pathway for RRE-containing HIV-1 RNAs that is hijacked by the viral Rev protein.

  12. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  13. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  14. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  15. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  16. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  17. RevBayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models and an Interactive Model-Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Lartillot, Nicolas; Moore, Brian R; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-01

    Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-specification language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous flexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our field. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.].

  18. The orphan receptor Rev-erbα gene is a target of the circadian clock pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Triqueneaux, Gérard; Thenot, Sandrine; Kakizawa, Tomoko; Antoch, Marina P; Safi, Rachid; Takahashi, Joseph S; Delaunay, Franck; Laudet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Rev-erbα is a ubiquitously expressed orphan nuclear receptor which functions as a constitutive transcriptional repressor and is expressed in vertebrates according to a robust circadian rhythm. We report here that two Rev-erbα mRNA isoforms, namely Rev-erbα1 and Rev-erbα2, are generated through alternative promoter usage and that both show a circadian expression pattern in an in vitro system using serum-shocked fibroblasts. Both promoter regions P1 (Rev-erbα1) and P2 (Rev-erbα2) contain several E-box DNA sequences, which function as response elements for the core circadian-clock components: CLOCK and BMAL1. The CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer stimulates the activity of both P1 and P2 promoters in transient transfection assay by 3–6-fold. This activation was inhibited by the overexpression of CRY1, a component of the negative limb of the circadian transcriptional loop. Critical E-box elements were mapped within both promoters. This regulation is conserved in vertebrates since we found that the CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer also regulates the zebrafish Rev-erbα gene. In line with these data Rev-erbα circadian expression was strongly impaired in the livers of Clock mutant mice and in the pineal glands of zebrafish embryos treated with Clock and Bmal1 antisense oligonucleotides. Together these data demonstrate that CLOCK is a critical regulator of Rev-erbα circadian gene expression in evolutionarily distant vertebrates and suggest a role for Rev-erbα in the circadian clock output. PMID:15591021

  19. RevBayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models and an Interactive Model-Specification Language

    PubMed Central

    Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-specification language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous flexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our field. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com. [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:27235697

  20. Tests on Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Marshall

    1941-01-01

    Compressive tests were made of two series of stiffened circular cylindrical shells under axial load. All the shells were 16 inches in diameter by 24 inches in length and were made of aluminum-alloy sheet curved to the proper radius and welded with one longitudinal weld. The ratios of diameter to thickness of shell wall in the two series of specimens were 258 and 572. Strains were measured with Huggenberger tensometers at a number of gage lines on the stiffeners and shell. The results of these tests indicate that a spacing of circumferential stiffeners equal to 0.67 times the radius is too great to strengthen the shell wall appreciably. The results are not inclusive enough to show the optimum in stiffeners. Plain cylinders without stiffeners developed ultimate strengths approximately half as great as the buckling strengths computed by the equation resulting from the classical theory and slightly greater than those computed by Donnell's large deflection theory.

  1. Complement C5-inhibitor rEV576 (coversin) ameliorates in-vivo effects of antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Romay-Penabad, Z; Carrera Marin, A L; Willis, R; Weston-Davies, W; Machin, S; Cohen, H; Brasier, A; Gonzalez, E B

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the complement cascade is an important mechanism for antiphospholipid antibody-mediated thrombosis. We examined the effects of rEV576 (coversin), a recombinant protein inhibitor of complement factor 5 activation, on antiphospholipid antibody-mediated tissue factor up-regulation and thrombosis. Groups of C57BL/6J mice (n=5) received either IgG from a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) or control IgG from normal human serum (NHS). Each of these groups of mice had IgG administration preceded by either rEV576, or phosphate buffer control. For each of the four treatment groups, the size of induced thrombus, tissue factor activity in carotid homogenates, anticardiolipin and anti-β2glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) levels were measured 72 h after the first injection. Mice treated with IgG-APS had significantly higher titers of anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-β2GPI at thrombus induction compared with those treated with IgG-NHS. The IgG-APS/phosphate buffer treatment induced significantly larger thrombi and tissue factor activity compared with other groups. Mice treated with IgG-APS/rEV576 had significantly smaller thrombi and reduced tissue factor activity than those treated with IgG-APS/phosphate buffer. The data confirm involvement of complement activation in antiphospholipid antibody-mediated thrombogenesis and suggest that complement inhibition might ameliorate this effect.

  2. Rev-erb beta regulates the Srebp-1c promoter and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Sathiya N.; Lau, Patrick; Crowther, Lisa M.; Cleasby, Mark E.; Millard, Susan; Leong, Gary M.; Cooney, Gregory J.; Muscat, George E.O.

    2009-10-30

    The nuclear hormone receptor, Rev-erb beta operates as a transcriptional silencer. We previously demonstrated that exogenous expression of Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E in skeletal muscle cells increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. We validated these in vitro observations by injection of an expression vector driving Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E expression into mouse tibialis muscle that resulted in increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. Paradoxically, Rev-erb{beta} siRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells repressed Srebp-1c expression, and indicated that Rev-erb{beta} expression was necessary for Srebp-1c expression. ChIP analysis demonstrated that Rev-erb{beta} was recruited to the Srebp-1c promoter. Moreover, Rev-erb{beta} trans-activated the Srebp-1c promoter, in contrast, Rev-erb{beta} efficiently repressed the Rev-erb{alpha} promoter, a previously characterized target gene. Finally, treatment with the Rev-erb agonist (hemin) (i) increased the trans-activation of the Srebp-1c promoter by Rev-erb{beta}; and (ii) increased Rev-erb{beta} and Srebp-1c mRNA expression. These data suggest that Rev-erb{beta} has the potential to activate gene expression, and is a positive regulator of Srebp-1c, a regulator of lipogenesis.

  3. Scattering of circularly polarized light by a rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2012-07-01

    We study scattering of polarized light by a rotating (Kerr) black hole of mass M and angular momentum J. In order to keep trace of the polarization dependence of photon trajectories one can use the following dimensionless parameter: ɛ=±(ωM)-1, where ω is the photon frequency and the sign + (-) corresponds to the right (left) circular polarization. We assume that |ɛ|≪1 and use the modified geometric optics approximation developed in [Phys. Rev. D 84, 044026 (2011)]; that is, we include the first order in ɛ polarization-dependent terms into the eikonal equation. These corrections modify late-time behavior of photons. We demonstrate that the photon moves along a null curve, which in the limit ɛ=0 becomes a null geodesic. We focus on the scattering problem for polarized light. Namely, we consider the following problems: (i) How does the photon’s bending angle depend on its polarization? (ii) How does the position of the image of a pointlike source depend on its polarization? (iii) How does the arrival time of photons depend on their polarization? We perform the numerical calculations that illustrate these effects for an extremely rotating black hole and discuss their possible applications.

  4. Rev1 is a base excision repair enzyme with 5′-deoxyribose phosphate lyase activity

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajendra; Poltoratsky, Vladimir; Hou, Esther W.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Rev1 is a member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases and is known for its deoxycytidyl transferase activity that incorporates dCMP into DNA and its ability to function as a scaffold factor for other Y-family polymerases in translesion bypass events. Rev1 also is involved in mutagenic processes during somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. In light of the mutation pattern consistent with dCMP insertion observed earlier in mouse fibroblast cells treated with a base excision repair-inducing agent, we questioned whether Rev1 could also be involved in base excision repair (BER). Here, we uncovered a weak 5′-deoxyribose phosphate (5′-dRP) lyase activity in mouse Rev1 and demonstrated the enzyme can mediate BER in vitro. The full-length Rev1 protein and its catalytic core domain are similar in their ability to support BER in vitro. The dRP lyase activity in both of these proteins was confirmed by NaBH4 reduction of the Schiff base intermediate and kinetics studies. Limited proteolysis, mass spectrometry and deletion analysis localized the dRP lyase active site to the C-terminal segment of Rev1's catalytic core domain. These results suggest that Rev1 could serve as a backup polymerase in BER and could potentially contribute to AID-initiated antibody diversification through this activity. PMID:27683219

  5. The Nuclear Receptor REV-ERBα Regulates Fabp7 and Modulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Anna; Chappuis, Sylvie; Schmutz, Isabelle; Brai, Emanuele; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Schaad, Olivier; Welzl, Hans; Descombes, Patrick; Alberi, Lavinia; Albrecht, Urs

    2014-01-01

    The function of the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα (Nr1d1) in the brain is, apart from its role in the circadian clock mechanism, unknown. Therefore, we compared gene expression profiles in the brain between wild-type and Rev-erbα knock-out (KO) animals. We identified fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, Blbp) as a direct target of repression by REV-ERBα. Loss of Rev-erbα manifested in memory and mood related behavioral phenotypes and led to overexpression of Fabp7 in various brain areas including the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus, where neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) can initiate adult neurogenesis. We found increased proliferation of hippocampal neurons and loss of its diurnal pattern in Rev-erbα KO mice. In vitro, proliferation and migration of glioblastoma cells were affected by manipulating either Fabp7 expression or REV-ERBα activity. These results suggest an important role of Rev-erbα and Fabp7 in adult neurogenesis, which may open new avenues for treatment of gliomas as well as neurological diseases such as depression and Alzheimer. PMID:24932636

  6. Creation operators for Cartesian and circular beams.

    PubMed

    Siguenza-Torres, Anibal; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2016-05-01

    Creation operators of fractional order, to derive the general Cartesian beams and circular beams from the lowest-order Gaussian beam, are introduced and discussed. Finding the creation operator for these general cases is a way to find the creation operator of all the special cases of Cartesian and circular beams.

  7. A Random Walk on a Circular Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, W.-K.; Lee, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This short note introduces an interesting random walk on a circular path with cards of numbers. By using high school probability theory, it is proved that under some assumptions on the number of cards, the probability that a walker will return to a fixed position will tend to one as the length of the circular path tends to infinity.

  8. Rev1, Rev3, or Rev7 siRNA Abolishes Ultraviolet Light-Induced Translesion Replication in HeLa Cells: A Comprehensive Study Using Alkaline Sucrose Density Gradient Sedimentation

    PubMed Central

    Takezawa, Jun; Ishimi, Yukio; Aiba, Naomi; Yamada, Kouichi

    2010-01-01

    When a replicative DNA polymerase stalls upon encountering a lesion on the template strand, it is relieved by other low-processivity polymerase(s), which insert nucleotide(s) opposite the lesion, extend by a few nucleotides, and dissociate from the 3′-OH. The replicative polymerase then resumes DNA synthesis. This process, termed translesion replication (TLS) or replicative bypass, may involve at least five different polymerases in mammals, although the participating polymerases and their roles have not been entirely characterized. Using siRNAs originally designed and an alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation technique, we verified the involvement of several polymerases in ultraviolet (UV) light-induced TLS in HeLa cells. First, siRNAs to Rev3 or Rev7 largely abolished UV-TLS, suggesting that these 2 gene products, which comprise Polζ, play a main role in mutagenic TLS. Second, Rev1-targeted siRNA also abrogated UV-TLS, indicating that Rev1 is also indispensable to mutagenic TLS. Third, Polη-targeted siRNA also prevented TLS to a greater extent than our expectations. Forth, although siRNA to Polι had no detectable effect, that to Polκ delayed UV-TLS. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting apparent evidence for the participation of Polκ in UV-TLS. PMID:21151666

  9. Circular motion in NUT space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefremov, Paul I.; Perlick, Volker

    2016-12-01

    We consider circular motion in the NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) space-time. Among other things, we determine the location of circular time-like geodesic orbits, in particular of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and of the marginally bound circular orbit. Moreover, we discuss the von Zeipel cylinders with respect to the stationary observers and with respect to the zero angular momentum observers (ZAMOs). We also investigate the relation of von Zeipel cylinders to inertial forces, in particular in the ultra-relativistic limit. Finally, we generalise the construction of thick accretion tori (‘Polish doughnuts’) which are well known on the Schwarzschild or Kerr background to the case of the NUT metric. We argue that, in principle, an NUT source could be distinguished from a Schwarzschild or Kerr source by observing the features of circular matter flows in its neighbourhood.

  10. REV-ERBα regulates Fgf21 expression in the liver via hepatic nuclear factor 6.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Rohit; Preitner, Nadia; Okabe, Takashi; Strittmatter, Laureen Mansencal; Xu, Cheng; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Pitteloud, Nelly; Albrecht, Urs

    2017-01-15

    The circadian clock contributes to the timing of many body functions including metabolism and reproduction. The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a critical metabolic regulator involved in modulation of fertility. Here we show that lack of the clock component REV-ERBα elevates FGF21 levels in liver and plasma. At the molecular level, REV-ERBα modulates the expression of FGF21 via the liver-specific hepatic nuclear factor 6 (HNF6). We conclude that REV-ERBα regulates metabolism and reproduction, at least in part, via regulation of Fgf21.

  11. REV-ERBα regulates Fgf21 expression in the liver via hepatic nuclear factor 6

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Rohit; Preitner, Nadia; Okabe, Takashi; Strittmatter, Laureen Mansencal; Xu, Cheng; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Pitteloud, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The circadian clock contributes to the timing of many body functions including metabolism and reproduction. The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a critical metabolic regulator involved in modulation of fertility. Here we show that lack of the clock component REV-ERBα elevates FGF21 levels in liver and plasma. At the molecular level, REV-ERBα modulates the expression of FGF21 via the liver-specific hepatic nuclear factor 6 (HNF6). We conclude that REV-ERBα regulates metabolism and reproduction, at least in part, via regulation of Fgf21. PMID:27875243

  12. 30 CFR 725.20 - Administrative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative procedures. 725.20 Section 725.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... contained in Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-102....

  13. 44 CFR 209.11 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-87 and A-122 on Cost Principles. States may use up to 7 percent of the grant funds for management costs of the grant. The State should include management costs in its... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant administration....

  14. 44 CFR 209.11 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-87 and A-122 on Cost Principles. States may use up to 7 percent of the grant funds for management costs of the grant. The State should include management costs in its... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant administration....

  15. Amchitka Mud Pit Sites 2006 Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Report, Amchitka Island, Alaska, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA/NSO) remediated six areas associated with Amchitka mud pit release sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. This included the construction of seven closure caps. To ensure the integrity and effectiveness of remedial action, the mud pit sites are to be inspected every five years as part of DOE's long-term monitoring and surveillance program. In August of 2006, the closure caps were inspected in accordance with the ''Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Plan for Amchitka Island Mud Pit Release Sites'' (Rev. 0, November 2005). This post-closure monitoring report provides the 2006 cap inspection results.

  16. Revival of circular variable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabib, Dario; Lavi, Moshe; Orr, Henry

    2010-10-01

    Up to about a decade or more ago Circular Variable Filters (CVF) were a commercial optical component useful in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges and were being produced and sold by the US company Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. The CVF was used as a monochromator and its advantage was in its ease of use for spectroscopy especially in remote sensing applications. Based on the idea of multilayer interference coating with linearly varying thickness on the circumference of a rotating wheel, it worked as a continuously variable center-wavelength narrowbandpass filter with 1-2% spectral resolution. One spin of the wheel placed on the optical path of a light beam provided a full scan in the wavelength range and allowed a detector to record a full spectrum in that range. Since then this component was discontinued and companies used old remaining stocks from previous production batches. CI is now reconstructing the technology to be able to produce the CVF again and is building new radiometers for new applications based on it. In this paper we review the history of the CVF and its use by CI and we provide some details on the characteristics of the CVF as planned and as preliminarily tested.

  17. Circular on family planning, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside."

  18. Emerging Functions of Circular RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-López, Mariela; Miura, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Many thousands of Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently been identified in metazoan genomes by transcriptome-wide sequencing. Most circRNAs are generated by back-splicing events from exons of protein-coding genes. A great deal of progress has recently been made in understanding the genome-wide expression patterns, biogenesis, and regulation of circRNAs. To date, however, few functions of circRNAs have been identified. CircRNAs are preferentially expressed in neural tissues and some are found at synapses, suggesting possible functions in the nervous system. Several circRNAs have been shown to function as microRNA “sponges” to counteract microRNA mediated repression of mRNA. New functions for circRNAs are arising, including protein sequestration, transcriptional regulation, and potential functions in cancer. Here, we highlight the recent progress made in understanding the biogenesis and regulation of circRNAs, discuss newly uncovered circRNA functions, and explain the methodological approaches that could reveal more exciting and unexpected roles for these RNAs. PMID:28018143

  19. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  20. FANCD2 and REV1 cooperate in the protection of nascent DNA strands in response to replication stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeran; Liu, Zhenbo; Wang, Fengli; Temviriyanukul, Piya; Ma, Xiaolu; Tu, Yingfeng; Lv, Lingna; Lin, Yu-Fen; Huang, Min; Zhang, Ting; Pei, Huadong; Chen, Benjamin P C; Jansen, Jacob G; de Wind, Niels; Fischhaber, Paula L; Friedberg, Errol C; Tang, Tie-Shan; Guo, Caixia

    2015-09-30

    REV1 is a eukaryotic member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases involved in translesion DNA synthesis and genome mutagenesis. Recently, REV1 is also found to function in homologous recombination. However, it remains unclear how REV1 is recruited to the sites where homologous recombination is processed. Here, we report that loss of mammalian REV1 results in a specific defect in replication-associated gene conversion. We found that REV1 is targeted to laser-induced DNA damage stripes in a manner dependent on its ubiquitin-binding motifs, on RAD18, and on monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (FANCD2-mUb) that associates with REV1. Expression of a FANCD2-Ub chimeric protein in RAD18-depleted cells enhances REV1 assembly at laser-damaged sites, suggesting that FANCD2-mUb functions downstream of RAD18 to recruit REV1 to DNA breaks. Consistent with this suggestion we found that REV1 and FANCD2 are epistatic with respect to sensitivity to the double-strand break-inducer camptothecin. REV1 enrichment at DNA damage stripes also partially depends on BRCA1 and BRCA2, components of the FANCD2/BRCA supercomplex. Intriguingly, analogous to FANCD2-mUb and BRCA1/BRCA2, REV1 plays an unexpected role in protecting nascent replication tracts from degradation by stabilizing RAD51 filaments. Collectively these data suggest that REV1 plays multiple roles at stalled replication forks in response to replication stress.

  1. FANCD2 and REV1 cooperate in the protection of nascent DNA strands in response to replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yeran; Liu, Zhenbo; Wang, Fengli; Temviriyanukul, Piya; Ma, Xiaolu; Tu, Yingfeng; Lv, Lingna; Lin, Yu-Fen; Huang, Min; Zhang, Ting; Pei, Huadong; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Jansen, Jacob G.; de Wind, Niels; Fischhaber, Paula L.; Friedberg, Errol C.; Tang, Tie-Shan; Guo, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    REV1 is a eukaryotic member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases involved in translesion DNA synthesis and genome mutagenesis. Recently, REV1 is also found to function in homologous recombination. However, it remains unclear how REV1 is recruited to the sites where homologous recombination is processed. Here, we report that loss of mammalian REV1 results in a specific defect in replication-associated gene conversion. We found that REV1 is targeted to laser-induced DNA damage stripes in a manner dependent on its ubiquitin-binding motifs, on RAD18, and on monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (FANCD2-mUb) that associates with REV1. Expression of a FANCD2-Ub chimeric protein in RAD18-depleted cells enhances REV1 assembly at laser-damaged sites, suggesting that FANCD2-mUb functions downstream of RAD18 to recruit REV1 to DNA breaks. Consistent with this suggestion we found that REV1 and FANCD2 are epistatic with respect to sensitivity to the double-strand break-inducer camptothecin. REV1 enrichment at DNA damage stripes also partially depends on BRCA1 and BRCA2, components of the FANCD2/BRCA supercomplex. Intriguingly, analogous to FANCD2-mUb and BRCA1/BRCA2, REV1 plays an unexpected role in protecting nascent replication tracts from degradation by stabilizing RAD51 filaments. Collectively these data suggest that REV1 plays multiple roles at stalled replication forks in response to replication stress. PMID:26187992

  2. 75 FR 10524 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for... document entitled: ``NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action...-4737, or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3,...

  3. 75 FR 27840 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...: 2010-11842] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0080] NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3...: ``NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for General... the existing guidance contained in Supplement 3 to NUREG- 0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, ``Criteria...

  4. Interaction of a circularly polarised gravitational wave with a charged particle in a static magnetic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Anirban; Saha, Swarup

    2015-06-01

    Interaction of a charged particle in a static magnetic background, i.e., a Landau system with circularly polarised gravitational wave (GW) is studied quantum mechanically in the long wavelength and low velocity limit. We quantize the classical Hamiltonian following (Speliotopoulos in Phys Rev D 51:1701, 1995). The rotating polarization vectors of the circularly polarized GW are employed to form a unique directional triad which served as the coordinate axes. The Schrodinger equations for the system are cast in the form of a set of coupled linear differential equations. This system is solved by iterative technique. We compute the time-evolution of the position and momentum expectation values of the particle. The results show that the resonance behaviour obtained earlier (Macedo and Nelson in Astrophys J 362:584, 1990; Papadopoulos in Astron Astrophys 396:1045, 2002) by classical treatements of the system has a quantum analogue not only for the linearly polarized GW (Gangopadhyay and Saha in Mod Phys Lett A 27:1250192, 2012), but for circularly polarized GW as well.

  5. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars. 151.72 Section 151.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  6. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars. 151.72 Section 151.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  7. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars. 151.72 Section 151.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  8. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars. 151.72 Section 151.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  9. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars. 151.72 Section 151.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  10. 76 FR 49525 - Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating... Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils. This AC provides guidance on regulations and policy applicable to... aircraft, engines, or APUs to operate with specified propulsion fuels and lubricating oils. DATES:...

  11. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of... welded carbon steel pipe and tube with an outside diameter of 0.375 inch or more, but not over 16...

  12. Inhibition of REV3 Expression Induces Persistent DNA Damage and Growth Arrest in Cancer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Philip A; Kotov, Ilya N; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf A; Marti, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    REV3 is the catalytic subunit of DNA translesion synthesis polymerase ζ. Inhibition of REV3 expression increases the sensitivity of human cells to a variety of DNA-damaging agents and reduces the formation of resistant cells. Surprisingly, we found that short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of REV3 per se suppresses colony formation of lung (A549, Calu-3), breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), mesothelioma (IL45 and ZL55), and colon (HCT116 +/-p53) tumor cell lines, whereas control cell lines (AD293, LP9-hTERT) and the normal mesothelial primary culture (SDM104) are less affected. Inhibition of REV3 expression in cancer cells leads to an accumulation of persistent DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-ATM, 53BP1, and phospho-H2AX foci formation, subsequently leading to the activation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response cascade. REV3 depletion in p53-proficient cancer cell lines results in a G1 arrest and induction of senescence as indicated by the accumulation of p21 and an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In contrast, inhibition of REV3 expression in p53-deficient cells results in growth inhibition and a G2/M arrest. A small fraction of the p53-deficient cancer cells can overcome the G2/M arrest, which results in mitotic slippage and aneuploidy. Our findings reveal that REV3 depletion per se suppresses growth of cancer cell lines from different origin, whereas control cell lines and a mesothelial primary culture were less affected. Thus, our findings indicate that depletion of REV3 not only can amend cisplatin-based cancer therapy but also can be applied for susceptible cancers as a potential monotherapy. PMID:22028621

  13. Construction of peptides with nucleobase amino acids: design and synthesis of the nucleobase-conjugated peptides derived from HIV-1 Rev and their binding properties to HIV-1 RRE RNA.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Hamasaki, K; Ueno, A; Mihara, H

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop a novel molecule that recognizes a specific structure of RNA, we have attempted to design peptides having L-alpha-amino acids with a nucleobase at the side chain (nucleobase amino acid (NBA)), expecting that the function of a nucleobase which can specifically recognize a base in RNA is regulated in a peptide conformation. In this study, to demonstrate the applicability of the NBA units in the peptide to RNA recognition, we designed and synthesized a variety of NBA-conjugated peptides, derived from HIV-1 Rev. Circular dichroism study revealed that the conjugation of the Rev peptide with an NBA unit did not disturb the peptide conformation. RNA-binding affinities of the designed peptides with RRE IIB RNA were dependent on the structure of the nucleobase moieties in the peptides. The peptide having the cytosine NBA at the position of the Asn40 site in the Rev showed a higher binding ability for RRE IIB RNA, despite the diminishing the Asn40 function. Furthermore, the peptide having the guanine NBA at the position of the Arg44 site, which is the most important residue for the RNA binding in the Rev, bound to RRE IIB RNA in an ability similar to Rev34-50 with native sequence. These results demonstrate that an appropriate NBA unit in the peptide plays an important role in the RNA binding with a specific contact such as hydrogen bonding, and the interaction between the nucleobase in the peptide and the base in the RNA can enhance the RNA-binding affinity and specificity.

  14. Rev-erbα in the brain is essential for circadian food entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Delezie, Julien; Dumont, Stéphanie; Sandu, Cristina; Reibel, Sophie; Pevet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Foraging is costly in terms of time and energy. An endogenous food-entrainable system allows anticipation of predictable changes of food resources in nature. Yet the molecular mechanism that controls food anticipation in mammals remains elusive. Here we report that deletion of the clock component Rev-erbα impairs food entrainment in mice. Rev-erbα global knockout (GKO) mice subjected to restricted feeding showed reduced elevations of locomotor activity and body temperature prior to mealtime, regardless of the lighting conditions. The failure to properly anticipate food arrival was accompanied by a lack of phase-adjustment to mealtime of the clock protein PERIOD2 in the cerebellum, and by diminished expression of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK) during mealtime in the mediobasal hypothalamus and cerebellum. Furthermore, brain-specific knockout (BKO) mice for Rev-erbα display a defective suprachiasmatic clock, as evidenced by blunted daily activity under a light-dark cycle, altered free-running rhythm in constant darkness and impaired clock gene expression. Notably, brain deletion of Rev-erbα totally prevented food-anticipatory behaviour and thermogenesis. In response to restricted feeding, brain deletion of Rev-erbα impaired changes in clock gene expression in the hippocampus and cerebellum, but not in the liver. Our findings indicate that Rev-erbα is required for neural network-based prediction of food availability. PMID:27380954

  15. Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J

    2010-07-27

    It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal.

  16. Depth perception through circular movements of dots.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Elements that move with velocity gradients have been shown to give the impression of depth. In this study, it was found that dots in circular motion around a line of sight give a depth impression corresponding to the gradients of the angular velocities of circular motion on a screen. The results of two experiments show that depth perception through circular motion is as effective as that through expansion or spiral motion, but less effective than that through lateral motion parallax when the local speed distributions on the screen are matched. The present depth effect shows that expansion-contraction, spiral, and circular motions are a continuum in terms of producing depth effects; they differ from lateral motion parallax.

  17. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  18. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  19. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  20. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  1. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  2. Making A Circular-Harmonic Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yeou Yen

    1989-01-01

    Optical image-correlating system made rotationally invariant. Experiment shows circular-harmonic filter generated optically. Hologram made by phase-shifted-double-exposure procedure. Filter used in optical image-recognition system based on correlation between target (image to be recognized) and matched spatial filter. In addition to usual invariance under translation of target, circular harmonic filter invariant under rotation of target; peak intensity of illumination at origin of correlation plane does not vary when target rotated about optical axis.

  3. CIRCULAR RIBBON FLARES AND HOMOLOGOUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2012-12-01

    Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), which has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan-spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence H{alpha} blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory. In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite polarity, forming a circular PIL traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons brighten sequentially, with cospatial surges, rather than simultaneously, (2) the central flare kernels show an intriguing 'round-trip' motion and become elongated, and (3) remote brightenings occur at a region with the same magnetic polarity as the central parasitic field and are co-temporal with a separate phase of flare emissions. In another flare on 1991 February 25, the circular flare emission and surge activity occur successively, and the event could be associated with magnetic flux cancellation across the circular PIL. We discuss the implications of these observations combining circular flare ribbons, homologous jets, and remote brightenings for understanding the dynamics of 3D magnetic restructuring.

  4. Circular Data Images for Directional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morpet, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Directional data includes vectors, points on a unit sphere, axis orientation, angular direction, and circular or periodic data. The theoretical statistics for circular data (random points on a unit circle) or spherical data (random points on a unit sphere) are a recent development. An overview of existing graphical methods for the display of directional data is given. Cross-over occurs when periodic data are measured on a scale for the measurement of linear variables. For example, if angle is represented by a linear color gradient changing uniformly from dark blue at -180 degrees to bright red at +180 degrees, the color image will be discontinuous at +180 degrees and -180 degrees, which are the same location. The resultant color would depend on the direction of approach to the cross-over point. A new graphical method for imaging directional data is described, which affords high resolution without color discontinuity from "cross-over". It is called the circular data image. The circular data image uses a circular color scale in which colors repeat periodically. Some examples of the circular data image include direction of earth winds on a global scale, rocket motor internal flow, earth global magnetic field direction, and rocket motor nozzle vector direction vs. time.

  5. The vital role of polymerase ζ and REV1 in mutagenic, but not correct, DNA synthesis across benzo[a]pyrene-dG and recruitment of polymerase ζ by REV1 to replication-stalled site.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Keiji; Cho, Youngjin; Yang, In-Young; Akagi, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Eiji; Tateishi, Satoshi; de Wind, Niels; Hanaoka, Fumio; Ohmori, Haruo; Moriya, Masaaki

    2012-03-16

    The DNA synthesis across DNA lesions, termed translesion synthesis (TLS), is a complex process influenced by various factors. To investigate this process in mammalian cells, we examined TLS across a benzo[a]pyrene dihydrodiol epoxide-derived dG adduct (BPDE-dG) using a plasmid bearing a single BPDE-dG and genetically engineered mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In wild-type MEFs, TLS was extremely miscoding (>90%) with G → T transversions being predominant. Knockout of the Rev1 gene decreased both the TLS efficiency and the miscoding frequency. Knockout of the Rev3L gene, coding for the catalytic subunit of pol ζ, caused even greater decreases in these two TLS parameters; almost all residual TLS were error-free. Thus, REV1 and pol ζ are critical to mutagenic, but not accurate, TLS across BPDE-dG. The introduction of human REV1 cDNA into Rev1(-/-) MEFs restored the mutagenic TLS, but a REV1 mutant lacking the C terminus did not. Yeast and mammalian three-hybrid assays revealed that the REV7 subunit of pol ζ mediated the interaction between REV3 and the REV1 C terminus. These results support the hypothesis that REV1 recruits pol ζ through the interaction with REV7. Our results also predict the existence of a minor REV1-independent pol ζ recruitment pathway. Finally, although mutagenic TLS across BPDE-dG largely depends on RAD18, experiments using Polk(-/-) Polh(-/-) Poli(-/-) triple-gene knockout MEFs unexpectedly revealed that another polymerase(s) could insert a nucleotide opposite BPDE-dG. This indicates that a non-Y family polymerase(s) can insert a nucleotide opposite BPDE-dG, but the subsequent extension from miscoding termini depends on REV1-polζ in a RAD18-dependent manner.

  6. 24 CFR 574.605 - Applicability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Applicability of OMB circulars. 574... of 24 CFR part 85 (codified pursuant to OMB Circular No. A-102) and OMB Circular No. A-87 apply with... acceptance and use of funds under the program by private non-profit entities. (Copies of OMB Circulars may...

  7. Structure of the Human Rev1-DNA-dNTP Ternary Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, M.; Johnson, R; Prakash, L; Prakash, S; Aggarwal, A

    2009-01-01

    Y-family DNA polymerases have proven to be remarkably diverse in their functions and in strategies for replicating through DNA lesions. The structure of yeast Rev1 ternary complex has revealed the most radical replication strategy, where the polymerase itself dictates the identity of the incoming nucleotide, as well as the identity of the templating base. We show here that many of the key elements of this highly unusual strategy are conserved between yeast and human Rev1, including the eviction of template G from the DNA helix and the pairing of incoming deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate with a surrogate arginine residue. We also show that the catalytic core of human Rev1 is uniquely augmented by two large inserts, I1 and I2, wherein I1 extends > 20 A away from the active site and may serve as a platform for protein-protein interactions specific for Rev1's role in translesion DNA synthesis in human cells, and I2 acts as a 'flap' on the hydrophobic pocket accommodating template G. We suggest that these novel structural features are important for providing human Rev1 greater latitude in promoting efficient and error-free translesion DNA synthesis through the diverse array of bulky and potentially carcinogenic N2-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts in human cells.

  8. Ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line; Nielsen, Jens H.; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2011-02-15

    We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction of the molecular electric dipole moment. These findings are explained by a tunneling model invoking the laser-induced Stark shifts associated with the dipoles and polarizabilities of the molecule and its unrelaxed cation. The focus of the present article is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons. In the following article [Phys. Rev. A 83, 023406 (2011)] the focus is to understand strong-field ionization from three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals.

  9. Apex shift of a circular biconcave vesicle induced by osmotic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quan-Hui; Yan, Jie; Zhong-Can, Ou-Yang

    1999-09-01

    The contribution of a small osmotic pressure into the exact circular biconcave solution (H. Naito, M. Okuda, Ou-Yang Zhong-Can, Phys. Rev. E 48 (1993) 2304; 54 (1996) 2816) of the spontaneous curvature model of Helfrich leads to a definite and new theoretical consequence, the radius of the apex of the biconcave shape can shift toward to or apart from the center depending on the increase or decrease of the osmotic pressure. This result is in agreement with the following observed phenomena: The first stage of the discocyte-echinocyte and the discocyte-spherocyte transformation induced by exposing the cells to high concentrations of certain chemical agents; and the ring-shaped torocyte formation due to the iron deficiency or thalassemia.

  10. Chiral Orbital Angular Momentum and Circular Dichroism ARPES in p- and d-orbital Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Hong; Han, Jung Hoon

    2012-02-01

    We derive explicit formulas relating the circular dichroism angle-resolved photoemission (CD-ARPES) signal to the existence of nonzero chiral orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the band structure. The existence of nonzero chiral OAM is a generic feature of surface states that break inversion symmetry, as pointed out in several recent articles [1-3]. We propose that CD-ARPES setup is an effective probe of the OAM of quasi-particles occupying the surface states. Explicit formulas for the p- and d-orbital bands are derived to show that the CD-ARPES signal is proportional to the OAM in the momentum space.[4pt] [1] S. R. Park, C. H. Kim, J. Yu, J. H. Han and C. Kim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 156803 (2011).[0pt] [2] S. R. Park et al., arXiv:1103.0805 (2011).[0pt] [3] Choong H. Kim et al., arXiv:1107.3285 (2011).

  11. Rev3, the catalytic subunit of Polζ, is required for maintaining fragile site stability in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Audesh; Qin, Zhoushuai; Xiao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    It has been long speculated that mammalian Rev3 plays an important, yet unknown role(s) during mammalian development, as deletion of Rev3 causes embryonic lethality in mice, whereas no other translesion DNA synthesis polymerases studied to date are required for mouse embryo development. Here, we report that both subunits of Polζ (Rev3 and Rev7) show an unexpected increase in expression during G2/M phase, but they localize independently in mitotic cells. Experimental depletion of Rev3 results in a significant increase in anaphase bridges, chromosomal breaks/gaps and common fragile site (CFS) expression, whereas Rev7 depletion primarily causes lagging chromosome defect with no sign of CFS expression. The genomic instability induced by Rev3 depletion seems to be related to replication stress, as it is further enhanced on aphidicolin treatment and results in increased metaphase-specific Fanconi anemia complementation group D type 2 (FANCD2) foci formation, as well as FANCD2-positive anaphase bridges. Indeed, a long-term depletion of Rev3 in cultured human cells results in massive genomic instability and severe cell cycle arrest. The aforementioned observations collectively support a notion that Rev3 is required for the efficient replication of CFSs during G2/M phase, and that the resulting fragile site instability in Rev3 knockout mice may trigger cell death during embryonic development. PMID:23303771

  12. Photoemission and magnetic circular dichroism studies of magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Atsushi

    2005-03-01

    Recently, a series of novel ferromagnetic semiconductors have been synthesized using MBE and related techniques and have attracted much attention because of unknown mechanisms of carrier-induced ferromagnetism and potential applications as "spin electronics" devices. Some new materials show ferromagnetism even well above room temperature. Photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the d orbitals of the dilute transition-metal atoms, mostly Mn, and their hybridization with the host band states [1]. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) at the transition-metal 2p-3d absorption edges are useful techniques to study the valence and spin states of the transition-metal atoms. Furthermore, since MCD has different sensitivities to the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic components at different temperatures and magnetic fileds, if the sample is a mixture of ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic transition- metal atoms, it can be used to separate the two components and to study their electronic structures. In this talk, results are presented for the prototypical diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs [2] and the room-temperature ferromagnets Zn1-xCoxO and Ti1-xCoxO2.I acknowledge collaboration with Y. Ishida, J.-I. Hwang, M. Kobayashi, Y. Takeda, Y. Saitoh, J. Okamoto, T. Okane, Y. Muramatsu, K. Mamiya, T. Koide, A. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, Hayashi, S. Ohya, T. Kondo, H. Munekata, H. Saeki, H. Tabata, T. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, H. Koinuma, T. Fukumura and M. Kawasaki. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Priority Area "Semiconductor nano-spintronics" (14076209) from MEXT, Japan.1. J. Okabayashi et al., Phys. Rev. B 64, 125304 (2001).2. A. Fujimori et al., J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., in press.

  13. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  14. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  15. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  16. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  17. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  18. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  19. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  20. Circular and Elliptic Submerged Impinging Water Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudey, Eric; Benedicto, Olivier; Ravier, Emmanuel; Gutmark, Ephraim

    1999-11-01

    Experiments and CFD have been performed to study circular and elliptic jets in a submerged water jet facility. The tests included discharge coefficient measurement to evaluate pressure losses encountered in noncircular nozzles compared to circular ones. Three-dimensional pressure mappings on the impingement surface and PIV measurement of the jet mean and turbulent velocity have been performed at different compound impingement angles relative to the impingement surface and at different stand-off distances. The objective was to investigate the effect of the non-circular geometry on the flow field and on the impact region. The tests were performed in a close loop system in which the water was pumped through the nozzles into a clear Plexiglas tank. The Reynolds numbers were typically in the range of 250000. Discharge coefficients of the elliptic nozzle was somewhat lower than that of the circular jet but spreading rate and turbulence level were higher. Pressure mapping showed that the nozzle exit geometry had an effect on the pressure distribution in the impact region and that high-pressure zones were generated at specific impact points. PIV measurements showed that for a same total exit area, the elliptic jets affected a surface area that is 8the equivalent circular. The turbulence level in the elliptic jet tripled due to the nozzle design. Results of the CFD model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Rev-erbalpha, a heme sensor that coordinates metabolic and circadian pathways.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lei; Wu, Nan; Curtin, Joshua C; Qatanani, Mohammed; Szwergold, Nava R; Reid, Robert A; Waitt, Gregory M; Parks, Derek J; Pearce, Kenneth H; Wisely, G Bruce; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2007-12-14

    The circadian clock temporally coordinates metabolic homeostasis in mammals. Central to this is heme, an iron-containing porphyrin that serves as prosthetic group for enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism as well as transcription factors that regulate circadian rhythmicity. The circadian factor that integrates this dual function of heme is not known. We show that heme binds reversibly to the orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha, a critical negative component of the circadian core clock, and regulates its interaction with a nuclear receptor corepressor complex. Furthermore, heme suppresses hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose output through Rev-erbalpha-mediated gene repression. Thus, Rev-erbalpha serves as a heme sensor that coordinates the cellular clock, glucose homeostasis, and energy metabolism.

  2. Estimation of REV Size for Fractured Rock Mass Based on Damage Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Pengpeng; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Cungen; Zhang, Simiao

    2017-03-01

    Estimation of representative elementary volume (REV) is significant to analyze fractured rock mass in the framework of continuum mechanics. Engineers can therefore simplify the analysis by using an equivalent rock block with an average property, and the influence of fractures can be neglected in finite element modelling. The indicators to determine the REV size based on the joint geometrical parameters include the volumetric fracture intensity ( P 32) and the fracture tensor, but this type of calculation generally provides a lower bound evaluation. A novel conceptual framework of damage coefficient is introduced in this paper to consider the mechanical properties of fractures, such as joint aperture and roughness. A parametric study has been performed to establish the correlation between the proposed dimensionless damage coefficient and the traditional derived P 32 value. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated by a case study, where a larger mechanical REV size is indeed calculated based on the damage coefficient.

  3. Mildly Increased Mechanical Nociceptive Sensitivity in REV-ERBα Knock-out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehyun; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Kim, Kyungjin

    2016-01-01

    Nociception is one of the most complex senses that is affected not only by external stimulation but also internal conditions. Previous studies have suggested that circadian rhythm is important in modulating nociception. REV-ERBα knock-out (KO) mice have disrupted circadian rhythm and altered mood-related phenotypes. In this study, we examined the role of REV-ERBα in inflammatory nociception. We found that the nociceptive sensitivity of KO mice was partially enhanced in mechanical nociception. However, this partial alteration was independent of the circadian rhythm. Taken together, deletion of REV-ERBα induced a mild change in mechanical nociceptive sensitivity but this alteration was not dependent on the circadian rhythm. PMID:28035185

  4. Genetic and functional analysis of HIV-1 Rev Responsive Element (RRE) sequences from North-India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 Rev protein regulates the expression of HIV-1 transcripts by binding to a highly structured stem loop structure called the Rev Responsive Element (RRE) present in the genomic and partially spliced RNAs. Genetic variation in this structure is likely to affect binding of Rev protein and ultimately overall gene expression and replication. We characterized RRE sequences from 13 HIV-1 infected individuals from North India which also included two mother-child pairs following vertical transmission. We observed high degree of conservation of sequences, including the 9-nt (CACUAUGGG) long sequence in stem-loop B, required for efficient binding of Rev protein. All of our 13 RRE sequences possessed G to A (position 66) mutation located in the critical branched-stem-loop B which is not present in consensus C or B sequence. We derived a consensus RRE structure which showed interesting changes in the stem-loop structures including the stem-loop B. Mother-Child RRE sequences showed conservation of unique polymorphisms as well as some new mutations in child RRE sequences. Despite these changes, the ability to form multiple essential stem-loop structures required for Rev binding was conserved. RRE RNA derived from one of the samples, VT5, retained the ability to bind Rev protein under in vitro conditions although it showed alternate secondary structure. This is the first study from India describing the structural and possible functional implications due to very unique RRE sequence heterogeneity and its possible role in vertical transmission and gene expression. PMID:20682034

  5. Unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev from Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Kaneko, Masafumi; Shiomi, Atsushi; Yang, Guang-Ming; Yamaura, Toshiaki; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-03-15

    Bioassay-guided separation from the MeOH extract of the South American medicinal plant Sida cordifolia resulted in isolation of (10E,12Z)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (1) as an unprecedented NES non-antagonistic inhibitor for nuclear export of Rev. This mechanism of action was established by competitive experiment by the biotinylated probe derived from leptomycin B, the known NES antagonistic inhibitor. Additionally, structure-activity relationship analysis by use of the synthesized analogs clarified cooperation of several functionalities in the Rev-export inhibitory activity of 1.

  6. A rev1-vpu polymorphism unique to HIV-1 subtype A and C strains impairs envelope glycoprotein expression from rev-vpu-env cassettes and reduces virion infectivity in pseudotyping assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Matthias H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Shaw, Katharina S.; Decker, Julie M.; Keele, Brandon F.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Grayson, Truman; McPherson, David T.; Ping, Li-Hua; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Swanstrom, Ronald; Williamson, Carolyn; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2010-02-20

    Functional studies of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) commonly include the generation of pseudoviruses, which are produced by co-transfection of rev-vpu-env cassettes with an env-deficient provirus. Here, we describe six Env constructs from transmitted/founder HIV-1 that were defective in the pseudotyping assay, although two produced infectious virions when expressed from their cognate proviruses. All of these constructs exhibited an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and vpu were in the same reading frame without an intervening stop codon. Disruption of the rev1-vpu fusion gene by frameshift mutation, stop codon, or abrogation of the rev initiation codon restored pseudovirion infectivity. Introduction of the fusion gene into wildtype Env cassettes severely compromised their function. The defect was not due to altered env and rev transcription or a dominant negative effect of the expressed fusion protein, but seemed to be caused by inefficient translation at the env initiation codon. Although the rev1-vpu polymorphism affects Env expression only in vitro, it can cause problems in studies requiring Env complementation, such as analyses of co-receptor usage and neutralization properties, since 3% of subtype A, 20% of subtype C and 5% of CRF01{sub A}/E viruses encode the fusion gene. A solution is to eliminate the rev initiation codon when amplifying rev-vpu-env cassettes since this increases Env expression irrespective of the presence of the polymorphism.

  7. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S.; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to `see what we expect' (through descending loops), to `expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ.

  8. Nanophotonic control of circular dipole emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feber, B.; Rotenberg, N.; Kuipers, L.

    2015-04-01

    Controlling photon emission by single emitters with nanostructures is crucial for scalable on-chip information processing. Nowadays, nanoresonators can affect the lifetime of linear dipole emitters, while nanoantennas can steer the emission direction. Expanding this control to the emission of orbital angular momentum-changing transitions would enable a future coupling between solid state and photonic qubits. As these transitions are associated with circular dipoles, such control requires knowledge of the interaction of a complex dipole with optical eigenstates containing local helicity. We experimentally map the coupling of classical, circular dipoles to photonic modes in a photonic crystal waveguide. We show that, depending on the combination of the local helicity of the mode and the dipole helicity, circular dipoles can couple to left- or rightwards propagating modes with a near-unity directionality. The experimental maps are in excellent agreement with calculations. Our measurements, therefore, demonstrate the possibility of coupling the spin to photonic pathway.

  9. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to ‘see what we expect' (through descending loops), to ‘expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ. PMID:28139642

  10. Circular bacteriocins: biosynthesis and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2014-11-01

    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides.

  11. Structure and genetics of circular bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    van Belkum, Marco J; Martin-Visscher, Leah A; Vederas, John C

    2011-08-01

    Circular bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. They are part of a growing family of ribosomally synthesized peptides with a head-to-tail cyclization of their backbone that are found in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria and are exceptionally stable. These bacteriocins permeabilize the membrane of sensitive bacteria, causing loss of ions and dissipation of the membrane potential. Most circular bacteriocins probably adopt a common 3D structure consisting of four or five α-helices encompassing a hydrophobic core. This review compares the various structures, as well as the gene clusters that encode circular bacteriocins, and discusses the biogenesis of this unique class of bacteriocins.

  12. Circular Bacteriocins: Biosynthesis and Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Brede, Dag A.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2014-01-01

    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides. PMID:25172850

  13. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  14. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Simple Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carnerero, Esther M; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L; Muller, Gilles; Ortiz, María J; de la Moya, Santiago

    2015-09-21

    This article aims to show the identity of "circularly polarized luminescent active simple organic molecules" as a new concept in organic chemistry due to the potential interest of these molecules, as availed by the exponentially growing number of research articles related to them. In particular, it describes and highlights the interest and difficulty in developing chiral simple (small and non-aggregated) organic molecules able to emit left- or right-circularly polarized light efficiently, the efforts realized up to now to reach this challenging objective, and the most significant milestones achieved to date. General guidelines for the preparation of these interesting molecules are also presented.

  15. Practical circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Huang, H C

    1997-09-20

    The author describes a new idea for making circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber with an existing fabrication technique. The method simply requires one to spin at a constant rate a special preform consisting of only one off-axis stress-applying element in addition to the on-axis core. Measurements taken with such a fiber specimen verify the existence of circular eigenmodes, the ease of joining or splicing two fiber segments, the tolerance to macrobending with a small radius, etc. Good agreement exists between the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. Prospective applications are discussed.

  16. Rotatable non-circular forebody flow controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskovitz, Cary A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a rotatable, non-circular forebody flow controller. The apparatus comprises a small geometric device located at a nose of a forebody of an aircraft and a non-circular cross-sectional area that extends toward the apex of the aircraft. The device is symmetrical about a reference plane and preferably attaches to an axle which in turn attaches to a rotating motor. The motor rotates the device about an axis of rotation. Preferably, a control unit connected to an aircraft flight control computer signals to the rotating motor the proper rotational positioning of the geometric device.

  17. Analysis of Transfer Maneuvers from Initial Circular Orbit to a Final Circular or Elliptic Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaf, M. A.; Saad, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper an analysis of the transfer maneuvers from initial circular orbit to a final circular or elliptic orbit was developed to study the problem of impulsive transfers for space missions. It considers planar maneuvers using newly derived equations. With these equations, comparisons of circular and elliptic maneuvers are made. This comparison is important for the mission designers to obtain useful mappings showing where one maneuver is better than the other. In this aspect, we developed this comparison throughout ten results, together with some graphs to show their meaning.

  18. The HIV-2 Rev-response element: determining secondary structure and defining folding intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Sztuba-Solinska, Joanna; Purzycka, Katarzyna J.; Pauly, Gary T.; Rausch, Jason W.; Grice, Stuart F. J. Le

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between the viral protein Rev and the RNA motifs known as Rev response elements (RREs) is required for transport of unspliced and partially spliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during the later stages of virus replication. A more detailed understanding of these nucleoprotein complexes and the host factors with which they interact should accelerate the development of new antiviral drugs targeting cis-acting RNA regulatory signals. In this communication, the secondary structures of the HIV-2 RRE and two RNA folding precursors have been identified using the SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) chemical probing methodology together with a novel mathematical approach for determining the secondary structures of RNA conformers present in a mixture. A complementary chemical probing technique was also used to support these secondary structure models, to confirm that the RRE2 RNA undergoes a folding transition and to obtain information about the relative positioning of RRE2 substructures in three dimensions. Our analysis collectively suggests that the HIV-2 RRE undergoes two conformational transitions before assuming the energetically most favorable conformer. The 3D models for the HIV-2 RRE and folding intermediates are also presented, wherein the Rev-binding stem–loops (IIB and I) are located coaxially in the former, which is in agreement with previous models for HIV-1 Rev-RRE binding. PMID:23640333

  19. De novo mutations in PLXND1 and REV3L cause Möbius syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tomas-Roca, Laura; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; Jansen, Jacob G.; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Altunoglu, Umut; Verzijl, Harriette; Soria, Laura; van Beusekom, Ellen; Roscioli, Tony; Iqbal, Zafar; Gilissen, Christian; Hoischen, Alexander; de Brouwer, Arjan P. M.; Erasmus, Corrie; Schubert, Dirk; Brunner, Han; Pérez Aytés, Antonio; Marin, Faustino; Aroca, Pilar; Kayserili, Hülya; Carta, Arturo; de Wind, Niels; Padberg, George W.; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Möbius syndrome (MBS) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by paralysis of the facial nerves and variable other congenital anomalies. The aetiology of this syndrome has been enigmatic since the initial descriptions by von Graefe in 1880 and by Möbius in 1888, and it has been debated for decades whether MBS has a genetic or a non-genetic aetiology. Here, we report de novo mutations affecting two genes, PLXND1 and REV3L in MBS patients. PLXND1 and REV3L represent totally unrelated pathways involved in hindbrain development: neural migration and DNA translesion synthesis, essential for the replication of endogenously damaged DNA, respectively. Interestingly, analysis of Plxnd1 and Rev3l mutant mice shows that disruption of these separate pathways converge at the facial branchiomotor nucleus, affecting either motoneuron migration or proliferation. The finding that PLXND1 and REV3L mutations are responsible for a proportion of MBS patients suggests that de novo mutations in other genes might account for other MBS patients. PMID:26068067

  20. Bioavailable inhibitors of HIV-1 RNA biogenesis identified through a Rev-based screen.

    PubMed

    Prado, Silvia; Beltrán, Manuela; Coiras, Mayte; Bedoya, Luis M; Alcamí, José; Gallego, José

    2016-05-01

    New antiretroviral agents with alternative mechanisms are needed to complement the combination therapies used to treat HIV-1 infections. Here we report the identification of bioavailable molecules that interfere with the gene expression processes of HIV-1. The compounds were detected by screening a small library of FDA-approved drugs with an assay based on measuring the displacement of Rev, and essential virus-encoded protein, from its high-affinity RNA binding site. The antiretroviral activity of two hits was based on interference with post-integration steps of the HIV-1 cycle. Both hits inhibited RRE-Rev complex formation in vitro, and blocked LTR-dependent gene expression and viral transcription in cellular assays. The best compound altered the splicing pattern of HIV-1 transcripts in a manner consistent with Rev inhibition. This mechanism of action is different from those used by current antiretroviral agents. The screening hits recognized the Rev binding site in the viral RNA, and the best compound did so with substantial selectivity, allowing the identification of a new RNA-binding scaffold. These results may be used for developing novel antiretroviral drugs.

  1. TextRev: A Window into How General and Organic Chemistry Students Use Textbook Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bradley D.; Jacobs, Dennis C.

    2003-01-01

    Points out the important use of textbooks and their ancillary resources in lower-division chemistry courses and the scientific misconceptions found in them. Introduces the TextRev Project which is a new resource for data collection and analysis. Investigates how first and second year chemistry students use and value their textbooks and their study…

  2. Athabaskan Stories from Anvik. Rev. John W. Chapman's "Ten'a Texts and Tales."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, John W.; Kari, James, Ed.

    Sixteen Deg Hit'an (Ingalik) Athabaskan stories recorded by Rev. John W. Chapman during 1887-1905 in Anvik, Alaska, are presented. The stories are retranscribed with the help of current Deg Hit'an speakers, and are accompanied by both interlinear and free translations in English. The materials are intended to serve as reading material for students…

  3. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall contain: (1) Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red Blood Cells are...: (1) The approximate volume of plasma from which a sample unit of Platelets is prepared. (2... container. (m) For Plasma, the instruction circular shall contain: (1) A warning against further...

  4. Non-Circular Wheels: Reuleaux and Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Circular wheels are so familiar on vehicles of all types that it is seldom realized that alternatives do exist. This short non-mathematical article describes Reuleaux and square wheels that, rolling along appropriate tracks, can maintain a moving platform at a constant height. Easily made working models lend themselves to demonstrations at science…

  5. Stability analysis of cylinders with circular cutouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almroth, B. O.; Brogan, F. A.; Marlowe, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The stability of axially compressed cylinders with circular cutouts is analyzed numerically. An extension of the finite-difference method is used which removes the requirement that displacement components be defined in the directions of the grid lines. The results of this nonlinear analysis are found to be in good agreement with earlier experimental results.

  6. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  7. All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Lin, Yu; Zhu, Aijiao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Guo, Peiji; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-31

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism waveplate (CPDW) using a Si-based all-dielectric 2Dchiral metasurface. We demonstrate that the CPDW exhibits a unique dichroism in that it functions as a transmissive quarter waveplate for one of either left-or right-handed circularly polarized incident lightand a reflective mirror for the opposite polarization. The circular polarization dichroism (CPD = IRCP - ILCP) in transmission at wavelength ~1.5 μm reaches 97% and the extinction ratio (ER = IRCP/ILCP) is as high as 345:1. Experimental fabrications and measurements of the proposed all-dielectric metasurface are implemented and found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations. The proposed all-dielectric chiral metasurface is of advantages of high-dichroism, easy-fabrication and standard semiconductor fabrication techniques compatible, which could lead to enhanced security in fiber and free-space communications, as well as imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light with a highly integrated photonic platform.

  8. Circular polarisation characteristics of stacked microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Talty, T.; Lee, K. F.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental results on the circular polarization (CP) characteristics of a two-layer electromagnetically coupled (EMCP) antenna are presented. Compared to the single CP patch antenna, the two-layer EMCP antenna with proper spacings can provide better axial ratio and directivity.

  9. Compliance Supplement. OMB Circular A-133.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC.

    This document is a supplement to Circular A-133 (1990) from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which extended the government's "single audit process" for agencies that administer federal financial assistance programs to higher education institutions and non-profit organizations. This supplement is based on the 1996 Amendments …

  10. Using Pesticides Safely. Special Circular 296.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, W. K.

    The use of pesticides is necessary to aid in the production of food, feed and fiber, and is equally important in the control of home garden and household pests, but correct use is critical in preventing injury to persons, animals, and plants. This circular contains information on State of Pennsylvania and federal pesticide laws; different types of…

  11. All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Lin, Yu; Zhu, Aijiao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Guo, Peiji; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism waveplate (CPDW) using a Si-based all-dielectric 2Dchiral metasurface. We demonstrate that the CPDW exhibits a unique dichroism in that it functions as a transmissive quarter waveplate for one of either left-or right-handed circularly polarized incident lightand a reflective mirror for the opposite polarization. The circular polarization dichroism (CPD = IRCP − ILCP) in transmission at wavelength ~1.5 μm reaches 97% and the extinction ratio (ER = IRCP/ILCP) is as high as 345:1. Experimental fabrications and measurements of the proposed all-dielectric metasurface are implemented and found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations. The proposed all-dielectric chiral metasurface is of advantages of high-dichroism, easy-fabrication and standard semiconductor fabrication techniques compatible, which could lead to enhanced security in fiber and free-space communications, as well as imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light with a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:28139753

  12. All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Lin, Yu; Zhu, Aijiao; Zhu, Xiaojun; Guo, Peiji; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism waveplate (CPDW) using a Si-based all-dielectric 2Dchiral metasurface. We demonstrate that the CPDW exhibits a unique dichroism in that it functions as a transmissive quarter waveplate for one of either left-or right-handed circularly polarized incident lightand a reflective mirror for the opposite polarization. The circular polarization dichroism (CPD = IRCP ‑ ILCP) in transmission at wavelength ~1.5 μm reaches 97% and the extinction ratio (ER = IRCP/ILCP) is as high as 345:1. Experimental fabrications and measurements of the proposed all-dielectric metasurface are implemented and found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations. The proposed all-dielectric chiral metasurface is of advantages of high-dichroism, easy-fabrication and standard semiconductor fabrication techniques compatible, which could lead to enhanced security in fiber and free-space communications, as well as imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light with a highly integrated photonic platform.

  13. Combustor with non-circular head end

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  14. NOTE: Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Franklin, J.

    2010-05-01

    We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null.

  15. Ionization and Dissociation of N2 from 17.5 to 36.5 eV by Linearly and Circularly Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Gould, H.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Machacek, J. R.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2007-06-01

    We have measured the linear ( P1 ) and circular ( P3 ) polarization of the fluorescence emitted in the , ^2σu^+ ->, ^2σg^+ ;( ν'=0,ν''=0 ) transition (391.4 nm) of N2^+ after photoionization of N2 by both linearly and circularly polarized VUV radiation. The value of P1 for linearly polarized excitation is in qualitative agreement with previous results [1]. Results for circularly-polarized excitation show significantly different energy dependence. In this energy range, photofragmentation into neutral atoms caused by the predissociation of doubly-excited Rydberg states via non-Rydberg doubly-excited resonances competes with photoionization [2]. We have measured the intensity and a distinct non-zero P3 of the fluorescence from the NI,p,^4P^o->3s,^4P,transition (818 nm) between 22.5 and 25 eV which corresponds to the initial excitation of the N2 Rydberg R(C) states. [1] J. A. Guest et al., Phys. Rev. A 28, 2217 (1983) [2] P. Erman et al., Phys. Rev. A 60, 426 (1999) Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0354946), the DOE (LBNL/ALS) and the ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  16. Hole dynamics and spin currents after ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga

    2014-10-01

    We apply the time-dependent analytical R-matrix theory to develop a movie of hole motion in a Kr atom upon ionization by strong circularly polarized field. We find rich hole dynamics, ranging from rotation to swinging motion. The motion of the hole depends on the final energy and the spin of the photoelectron and can be controlled by the laser frequency and intensity. Crucially, hole rotation is a purely non-adiabatic effect, completely missing in the framework of quasistatic (adiabatic) tunneling theories. We explore the possibility to use hole rotation as a clock for measuring ionization time. Analyzing the relationship between the relative phases in different ionization channels we show that in the case of short-range electron-core interaction the hole is always initially aligned along the instantaneous direction of the laser field, signifying zero delays in ionization. Finally, we show that strong-field ionization in circular fields creates spin currents (i.e. different flow of spin-up and spin-down density in space) in the ions. This phenomenon is intimately related to the production of spin-polarized electrons in strong laser fields Barth and Smirnova (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 013401). We demonstrate that rich spin dynamics of electrons and holes produced during strong field ionization can occur in typical experimental conditions and does not require relativistic intensities or strong magnetic fields.

  17. Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts.

    PubMed

    Hayut, Itai; Ben Ishai, Paul; Agranat, Aharon J; Feldman, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    The upper part of the human eccrine sweat ducts, embedded within the epidermis layer, have a well-defined helical structure. It was recently suggested that, as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts interact with sub-mm waves [Y. Feldman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008)]. Although correlation between changes in the reflectance spectrum in this frequency range and physiological activities has been shown, a direct link between the electromagnetic reflection and the helical structure itself has remained to be established. The fact that the sweat ducts manifest natural homochirality is henceforth used to produce this link. We report the detection of circular polarization asymmetry in the electromagnetic reflection from the human skin at sub-THz frequencies in vivo. We compare the results to numerical simulations and to measurements of a fabricated metamaterial. We argue that the observed circular dichroism can be interpreted uniquely as the signature of the helical structure itself. By twisting reflected electromagnetic waves, the human skin exhibits properties which are usually discussed only in the framework of metamaterial science.

  18. Nonlinear optical responses to circularly polarized lights of the surface state of a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tetsuro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi

    2012-02-01

    Recent photoelectron spectroscopy experiments have revealed the presence of the Dirac cone on the surface of the topological insulator and its spin-splitting due to the spin-orbit interaction. In general, on spin-orbit coupled systems, electric fields induce spin polarizations as linear and nonlinear responses. Here we investigate the inverse Faraday effect on the surface of the topological insulator. The inverse Faraday effect is a non-linear optical effect where a circularly polarized light induces a dc spin polarization. We employ the Keldysh Green's function method to calculate the induced spin polarization and discuss its frequency dependence. In particular, in the low frequency limit, our analytical result gives the spin polarization proportional to the frequency and the square of the lifetime. As for the finite frequency regime, we employ numerical methods to discuss the resonance due to interband transitions. We also discuss the photogalvanic effect, where an illumination of a circular polarized light generates the dc charge current. Lastly, we evaluate those quantities with realistic parameters.[4pt] [1] T. Misawa, T. Yokoyama, S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. B84, 165407 (2011).

  19. Molecular typing of Brucella melitensis endemic strains and differentiation from the vaccine strain Rev-1.

    PubMed

    Noutsios, Georgios T; Papi, Rigini M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Minas, Anastasios; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study forty-four Greek endemic strains of Br. melitensis and three reference strains were genotyped by Multi locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (ML-VNTR) analysis based on an eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence that was revealed in eight loci of Br. melitensis genome. The forty-four strains were discriminated from the vaccine strain Rev-1 by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The ML-VNTR analysis revealed that endemic, reference and vaccine strains are genetically closely related, while most of the loci tested (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) are highly polymorphic with Hunter-Gaston Genetic Diversity Index (HGDI) values in the range of 0.939 to 0.775. Analysis of ML-VNTRs loci stability through in vitro passages proved that loci 1 and 5 are non stable. Therefore, vaccine strain can be discriminated from endemic strains by allele's clusters of loci 2, 4, 6 and 7. RFLP and DGGE were also employed to analyse omp2 gene and reveled different patterns among Rev-1 and endemic strains. In RFLP, Rev-1 revealed three fragments (282, 238 and 44 bp), while endemic strains two fragments (238 and 44 bp). As for DGGE, the electrophoretic mobility of Rev-1 is different from the endemic strains due to heterologous binding of DNA chains of omp2a and omp2b gene. Overall, our data show clearly that it is feasible to genotype endemic strains of Br. melitensis and differentiate them from vaccine strain Rev-1 with ML-VNTR, RFLP and DGGE techniques. These tools can be used for conventional investigations in brucellosis outbreaks.

  20. The amino terminal domain of HIV-1 Rev is required for discrimination of the RRE from nonspecific RNA.

    PubMed

    Daly, T J; Doten, R C; Rusche, J R; Auer, M

    1995-10-20

    The ability of HIV-1 Rev to successfully discriminate between specific Rev-responsive elements (RRE) and nonspecific binding sites in the presence of excess nonspecific RNA was examined using filter binding, gel shift, and gel filtration techniques, using purified M4 Rev mutant protein and endoproteinase Lys-C cleaved wild-type Rev. The M4 Rev displayed a slightly reduced binding affinity to the RRE, as well as a tenfold decrease in its ability to discriminate the RRE from non-specific RNA compared to the wild-type Rev. Gel shift and gel filtration chromotography data also showed decreased ability of the mutant to multimerize in the absence or presence of the RRE. The Lys-C cleaved Rev, which lacks the amino-terminal 20 amino acids of the protein, displayed less ability to discriminate the RRE from nonspecific RNA compared to either the wild-type or the M4 mutant Rev and appeared unable to form protein-protein interactions, yet still bound sense and antisense RNA species with high affinity (Kd was in the nanomolar concentration range). A 40 amino acid peptide containing the arginine-rich RRE binding domain of Rev was also observed to interact with both the RRE and antisense RNA fragments with a binding constant of about 1 x 10(-9) M. However, the peptide displayed almost no ability to discriminate between the RRE and a comparably sized antisense RRE. The loss in ability to discriminate correct from incorrect binding sites correlates with overall decreases in the alpha-helical character of the protein and perturbations within the amino terminus. The amino terminus of Rev is likely to maintain the conformational integrity of the arginine rich RRE binding domain which is required for specific RNA binding site discrimination or stabilization of specific Rev-RRE interactions.

  1. 27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING UP AT CIRCULAR MOTIF AND BANDS IN THE CEILING ABOVE THE ACOUSTICAL TILES - Ford Motor Company Plant, 700 South Union Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  2. Finding Optimal Alignment and Consensus of Circular Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyung; Na, Joong Chae; Park, Heejin; Park, Kunsoo; Sim, Jeong Seop

    We consider the problem of finding the optimal alignment and consensus (string) of circular strings. Circular strings are different from linear strings in that the first (leftmost) symbol of a circular string is wrapped around next to the last (rightmost) symbol. In nature, for example, bacterial and mitochondrial DNAs typically form circular strings. The consensus string problem is finding a representative string (consensus) of a given set of strings, and it has been studied on linear strings extensively. However, only a few efforts have been made for the consensus problem for circular strings, even though circular strings are biologically important. In this paper, we introduce the consensus problem for circular strings and present novel algorithms to find the optimal alignment and consensus of circular strings under the Hamming distance metric. They are O(n 2logn)-time algorithms for three circular strings and an O(n 3logn)-time algorithm for four circular strings. Our algorithms are O(n/ logn) times faster than the naïve algorithm directly using the solutions for the linear consensus problems, which takes O(n 3) time for three circular strings and O(n 4) time for four circular strings. We achieved this speedup by adopting a convolution and a system of linear equations into our algorithms to reflect the characteristics of circular strings that we found.

  3. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. W.; Justice, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    A circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. This device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  4. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  5. Spinning test body orbiting around a Schwarzschild black hole: Circular dynamics and gravitational-wave fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Enno; Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    We consider a spinning test-body in circular motion around a nonrotating black hole and analyze different prescriptions for the body's dynamics. We compare, for the first time, the Mathisson-Papapetrou formalism under the Tulczyjew spin-supplementary condition (SSC), the Pirani SSC, and the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC, and the spinning particle limit of the effective-one-body Hamiltonian of Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 044018 (2014).]. We analyze the four different dynamics in terms of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) shifts and in terms of the coordinate-invariant binding energies, separating higher-order spin contributions from spin-orbit contributions. The asymptotic gravitational-wave fluxes produced by the spinning body are computed by solving the inhomogeneous (2 +1 )D Teukolsky equation and contrasted for the different cases. For small orbital frequencies Ω , all the prescriptions reduce to the same dynamics and the same radiation fluxes. For large frequencies, x ≡(M Ω )2/3>0.1 , where M is the black hole mass, and especially for positive spins (aligned with the orbital angular momentum) a significant disagreement between the different dynamics is observed. The ISCO shifts can differ by up to a factor of 2 for large positive spins; for the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak and the Pirani SSC the ISCO diverges around dimensionless spins ˜0.52 and ˜0.94 , respectively. In the spin-orbit part of the energetics the deviation from the Hamiltonian dynamics is largest for the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC; it exceeds 10% for x >0.17 . The Tulczyjew and the Pirani SSCs are compatible across almost the whole spin and frequency range. Our results will have direct applications in including spin effects in effective-one-body waveform models for circularized binaries in the extreme-mass-ratio limit.

  6. Borrelia burgdorferi RevA Significantly Affects Pathogenicity and Host Response in the Mouse Model of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Byram, Rebecca; Gaultney, Robert A.; Floden, Angela M.; Hellekson, Christopher; Stone, Brandee L.; Bowman, Amy; Stevenson, Brian; Johnson, Barbara J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, expresses RevA and numerous outer surface lipoproteins during mammalian infection. As an adhesin that promotes bacterial interaction with fibronectin, RevA is poised to interact with the extracellular matrix of the host. To further define the role(s) of RevA during mammalian infection, we created a mutant that is unable to produce RevA. The mutant was still infectious to mice, although it was significantly less well able to infect cardiac tissues. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type revA gene restored heart infectivity to wild-type levels. Additionally, revA mutants led to increased evidence of arthritis, with increased fibrotic collagen deposition in tibiotarsal joints. The mutants also induced increased levels of the chemokine CCL2, a monocyte chemoattractant, in serum, and this increase was abolished in the complemented strain. Therefore, while revA is not absolutely essential for infection, deletion of revA had distinct effects on dissemination, arthritis severity, and host response. PMID:26150536

  7. Strand-biased defect in C/G transversions in hypermutating immunoglobulin genes in Rev1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jacob G; Langerak, Petra; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; van den Berk, Paul; Jacobs, Heinz; de Wind, Niels

    2006-02-20

    Somatic hypermutation of Ig genes enables B cells of the germinal center to generate high-affinity immunoglobulin variants. Key intermediates in somatic hypermutation are deoxyuridine lesions, introduced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase. These lesions can be processed further to abasic sites by uracil DNA glycosylase. Mutagenic replication of deoxyuridine, or of its abasic derivative, by translesion synthesis polymerases is hypothesized to underlie somatic hypermutation. Rev1 is a translesion synthesis polymerase that in vitro incorporates uniquely deoxycytidine opposite deoxyuridine and abasic residues. To investigate a role of Rev1 in mammalian somatic hypermutation we have generated mice deficient for Rev1. Although Rev1-/- mice display transient growth retardation, proliferation of Rev1-/- LPS-stimulated B cells is indistinguishable from wild-type cells. In mutated Ig genes from Rev1-/- mice, C to G transversions were virtually absent in the nontranscribed (coding) strand and reduced in the transcribed strand. This defect is associated with an increase of A to T, C to A, and T to C substitutions. These results indicate that Rev1 incorporates deoxycytidine residues, most likely opposite abasic nucleotides, during somatic hypermutation. In addition, loss of Rev1 causes compensatory increase in mutagenesis by other translesion synthesis polymerases.

  8. 75 FR 32493 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for... be held to discuss the proposed Supplement 3 to NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev.1, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for General Emergencies (NUREG Supp 3). NUREG Supp 3 addresses onsite and...

  9. A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, shares sequences with tat, env, and rev proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Benko, D M; Schwartz, S; Pavlakis, G N; Felber, B K

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized a novel 28-kilodalton protein, p28tev, detected in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells. tev is recognized by both tat and rev monospecific antibodies. tev is initiated at the tat AUG and contains the first exon of tat at its amino terminus, a small portion of env in the middle, and the second exon of rev at its carboxy terminus. A cDNA clone producing tev was cloned and expressed in human cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the tev mRNA is generated by splicing to a novel exon located in the env region. This identifies a fourth class of multiply spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs, produced in infected and transfected cells. tev is regulated during the virus life cycle similarly to the other regulatory proteins, tat, rev, and nef, and displays both tat and rev activities in functional assays. Since tev contains important functional domains of tat and rev and is produced very early after transfection, it may be an important regulator in the initial phase of virus expression. Another rev-related protein, p18(6)Drev, containing env and rev sequences, was characterized and was found not to have detectable rev activity. Images PMID:2186172

  10. Achromatic circular polarization generation for ultra-intense lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, Briggs W.; Schollmeier, Marius; Bennett, Guy R.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

    2010-05-01

    Generating circular polarization for ultra-intense lasers requires solutions beyond traditional transmissive waveplates which have insufficient bandwidth and pose nonlinear phase (B-integral) problems. We demonstrate a reflective design employing 3 metallic mirrors to generate circular polarization.

  11. Amplitude-modulated circular-harmonic filter for pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, X W; Chen, Z P

    1995-02-10

    An amplitude-modulated circular-harmonic filter is proposed for rotation-invariant pattern recognition. We investigate the filter characteristics by varying two design parameters, A(ρ) and B(ρ), and select optimum values to design an amplitude-modulated circular-harmonic filter. When compared with the phase-only circular-harmonic filter, the amplitude-modulated circular-harmonic filter is found to yield a sharper correlation peak, a better noise tolerance, and an improved correlation discrimination.

  12. Structural and functional characterization of rev-like transcripts of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rosin-Arbesfeld, R; Rivlin, M; Noiman, S; Mashiah, P; Yaniv, A; Miki, T; Tronick, S R; Gazit, A

    1993-01-01

    Three cDNA clones representing structurally distinct transcripts were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from cells infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) by using a probe representing the S3 open reading frame, which is thought to encode Rev. One species, designated p2/2, contained four exons and was identical to a previously described polycistronic mRNA that encodes Tat. This transcript was predicted to also direct the synthesis of a truncated form of the transmembrane protein and a putative Rev protein whose N-terminal 29 amino acids, derived from env, are linked to S3 sequences. The second cDNA, p176, also consisted of four exons which were generated by two of three of the same splicing events that occur with p2/2 but not with the Tat mRNA. The alternative splice site giving rise to the second exon of p176 results in a bicistronic message that would encode the same transmembrane and Rev proteins as p2/2. The first exon of the third transcript, p20, was identical to those of p2/2 and p176 but was spliced directly to S3. This monocistronic message could encode a second form of Rev that lacks env sequences, provided that Rev synthesis would initiate at a non-AUG codon. The coding capacity of each cDNA was assessed in a eukaryotic system using S3 antisera. Two putative Rev proteins with apparent molecular masses of 18 and 16 kDa were expressed by p2/2 and p176, while p20 expressed only a 16-kDa species. Analysis of EIAV-infected cells with S3 antisera revealed the presence of an 18-kDa protein. Surprisingly, the same protein was detected in purified virions. By using a reporter construct, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene linked to EIAV env sequences, we were able to demonstrate greatly enhanced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in cells cotransfected with this construct and any of the three cDNAs. Images PMID:8394464

  13. Identification of Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine-strain genetic markers: Towards understanding the molecular mechanism behind virulence attenuation.

    PubMed

    Issa, Mohammad Nouh; Ashhab, Yaqoub

    2016-09-22

    Brucella melitensis Rev.1 is an avirulent strain that is widely used as a live vaccine to control brucellosis in small ruminants. Although an assembled draft version of Rev.1 genome has been available since 2009, this genome has not been investigated to characterize this important vaccine. In the present work, we used the draft genome of Rev.1 to perform a thorough genomic comparison and sequence analysis to identify and characterize the panel of its unique genetic markers. The draft genome of Rev.1 was compared with genome sequences of 36 different Brucella melitensis strains from the Brucella project of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The comparative analyses revealed 32 genetic alterations (30 SNPs, 1 single-bp insertion and 1 single-bp deletion) that are exclusively present in the Rev.1 genome. In silico analyses showed that 9 out of the 17 non-synonymous mutations are deleterious. Three ABC transporters are among the disrupted genes that can be linked to virulence attenuation. Out of the 32 mutations, 11 Rev.1 specific markers were selected to test their potential to discriminate Rev.1 using a bi-directional allele-specific PCR assay. Six markers were able to distinguish between Rev.1 and a set of control strains. We succeeded in identifying a panel of 32 genome-specific markers of the B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine strain. Extensive in silico analysis showed that a considerable number of these mutations could severely affect the function of the associated genes. In addition, some of the discovered markers were able to discriminate Rev.1 strain from a group of control strains using practical PCR tests that can be applied in resource-limited settings.

  14. 75 FR 44763 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

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  20. 21 CFR 606.122 - Circular of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  1. 72 FR 7917 - PS-ACE100-2005-50001, Final Policy Statement on Applying Advisory Circular 20-152, “RTCA, Inc...

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  2. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Garnett, Robert W.; Dobelbower, M. Christian

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  3. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  4. Entropic penalties in circular DNA assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Zoli, Marco

    2014-11-07

    The thermodynamic properties of DNA circular molecules are investigated by a new path integral computational method which treats in the real space the fundamental forces stabilizing the molecule. The base pair and stacking contributions to the classical action are evaluated separately by simulating a broad ensemble of twisted conformations. We obtain, for two short sequences, a free energy landscape with multiple wells corresponding to the most convenient values of helical repeat. Our results point to a intrinsic flexibility of the circular structures in which the base pair fluctuations move the system from one well to the next thus causing the local unwinding of the helix. The latter is more pronounced in the shorter sequence whose cyclization causes a higher bending stress. The entropic reductions associated to the formation of the ordered helicoidal structure are estimated.

  5. Bilateral symmetry breaking in nonlinear circular cylinders.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan

    2014-12-01

    Symmetry breaking is a common phenomenon in nonlinear systems, it refers to the existence of solutions that do not preserve the original symmetries of the underlying system. In nonlinear optics, symmetry breaking has been previously investigated in a number of systems, usually based on simplified model equations or temporal coupled mode theories. In this paper, we analyze the scattering of an incident plane wave by one or two circular cylinders with a Kerr nonlinearity, and show the existence of solutions that break a lateral reflection symmetry. Although symmetry breaking is a known phenomenon in nonlinear optics, it is the first time that this phenomenon was rigorously studied in simple systems with one or two circular cylinders.

  6. Circular machine design techniques and tools

    SciTech Connect

    Servranckx, R.V.; Brown, K.L.

    1986-04-01

    Some of the basic optics principles involved in the design of circular accelerators such as Alternating Gradient Synchrotrons, Storage and Collision Rings, and Pulse Stretcher Rings are outlined. Typical problems facing a designer are defined, and the main references and computational tools are reviewed that are presently available. Two particular classes of problems that occur typically in accelerator design are listed - global value problems, which affect the control of parameters which are characteristic of the complete closed circular machine, and local value problems. Basic mathematical formulae are given that are considered useful for a first draft of a design. The basic optics building blocks that can be used to formulate an initial machine design are introduced, giving only the elementary properties and transfer matrices only in one transverse plane. Solutions are presented for some first-order and second-order design problems. (LEW)

  7. The circular migration of smallholders in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bigsten, A

    1996-01-01

    Circular migration is a central phenomenon in the lives of smallholders in East Africa. Many migration decisions are not individual decisions, but rather household decisions in which the household allocates its labor force among activities to maximize household utility. A probit model which incorporates circular migration and takes into account contacts, information, and indivisibilities is used to analyze migration among 763 farm households in the Central and Nyanza provinces of Kenya. Study data are from a 1982 survey. The pull of high urban wages appears to be a far more important determinant of migration decision outcomes than the push of land scarcity, while a strong local nonagricultural economy does not seem to restrict migration. Networks of personal contacts were found to be highly significant determinants of migration. These findings suggest that rural development will probably not reduce the flow of migration.

  8. Photoelectron circular dichroism in different ionization regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenhaupt, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) describes an asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) from photoionization of randomly oriented enantiomers with circularly polarized light. Baulieu et al present a comprehensive set of measured PADs from multiphoton ionization of limonene and fenchone in different ionization regimes (multiphoton and tunneling) and analyze the resulting PECD (Baulieu et al 2016 New J. Phys. 18 102002). From their observations the authors conclude that the PECD is universal in the sense that the molecular chirality is encoded in the PAD independent of the ionization regime. The analysis is supplemented by a classical model based on electron scattering in a chiral potential. The paper presents beautiful data and is an important step towards a more complete physical picture of PECD. The results and their interpretation stimulate the ongoing vivid debate on the role of resonances in multiphoton PECD.

  9. Impedance properties of circular microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A moment method solution to the input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna excited by either a microstrip feed or a coaxial probe is presented. Using the exact dyadic Green's function and the Fourier transform the problem is formulated in terms of Richmond's reaction integral equation from which the unknown patch current can be solved for. The patch current is expanded in terms of regular surface patch modes and an attachment mode (for probe excited case) which insures continuity of the current at probe/patch junction, proper polarization and p-dependance of patch current in the vicinity of the probe. The input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna is computed and compared with earlier results. Effect of attachment mode on the input impedance is also discussed.

  10. Shock structure in non-circular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The shock-cell structure of supersonic jets with non-circular exit geometry is modeled using a linearized analysis. The model takes into account the finite thickness of the jet shear layer using realistic velocity and density profiles. The effects of the shear layer turbulence are included by incorporating eddy-viscosity terms. A finite-difference numerical method is used to solve the steady linearized equations of motion. A body-fitted coordinate system is used to describe the shear layer. The variation of the pressure fluctuation with downstream distance is given for circular jets and for an elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2.0. Comparisons with experimental data are made. Difficulties with the numerical technique are also discussed.

  11. Circular Metal/Semiconductor/Metal Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, James A.; Towe, Elias; Bishop, William L.; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1995-01-01

    Metal/semiconductor/metal (MSM) photodetectors with multiple concentric circular electrodes developed. Some electrical characteristics expected superior to those of older MSM photodetectors containing interdigitated straight electrodes. Response times smaller and shorter, and breakdown voltages larger. Decrease in capacitance allows greater signal-detection bandwidth. Important advantage in fiber-optic telecommunication systems, in which photodectors central components in receiver circuits. Increasing bandwidth of such photodetector enables receiver to handle larger number of channels or increased information rate in each channel.

  12. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  13. Biological Sensing with Terahertz Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-31

    S.J. and Plaxco, K.W. (2003) “Terahertz circular dichroism spectroscopy: a potential approach to unbiased, in situ life detection.” Astrobiology , 3...detection.” Astrobiology , 3, 489-504 Xu, J., Ramian, G.J., Galan, J.F., Savvidis, P.G., Scopatz, A.M., Birge, R.R., Allen, S.J. and Plaxco, K.W. (2004

  14. Electromagnetic Scattering by Open Circular Waveguides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Camouflage Symposium , 18-20 November 1980 , sponsored by USAF Avionics Laboratory and Martin Marietta Corp. Pearson, J.D., (1953) "The Diffraction of...Huang, ( 1980 ) "An Analysis of the Electromag-: netic Fields Backscattered From a Jet Intake Configuration," Proceed- ings of the 1980 Radar ...8-AIBI 998 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGH4T-PATTERSON AFB ON F/6 21/B ELECTROMANETIC SCATTERING BY OPEN CIRCULAR WAVEUIDES.(U) 1980 T W JOHN4SON

  15. Nuclear collisions at the Future Circular Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armesto, N.; Dainese, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Masciocchi, S.; Roland, C.; Salgado, C. A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Wiedemann, U. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Future Circular Collider is a new proposed collider at CERN with centre-of-mass energies around 100 TeV in the pp mode. Ongoing studies aim at assessing its physics potential and technical feasibility. Here we focus on updates in physics opportunities accessible in pA and AA collisions not covered in previous Quark Matter contributions, including Quark-Gluon Plasma and gluon saturation studies, novel hard probes of QCD matter, and photon-induced collisions.

  16. Acoustic characteristics of circular bends in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firth, D.; Fahy, F. J.

    1984-11-01

    The acoustic properties of circular bends in pipework systems are investigated by calculation of the mode shapes and propagation constants of the acoustic modes of the bend, the torus modes, and by evaluation of the transmission and reflection coefficients at a bend in an otherwise infinite straight pipe. The coefficients for the first three cylinder and torus modes are plotted against frequency for the case of a plane wave incident upon a 90° bend. The pipe walls are assumed to be rigid.

  17. Accelerator Considerations of Large Circular Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    As we consider the tremendous physics reaches of the big future circular electron-positron and proton-proton colliders, it might be advisable to keep a close track of what accelerator challenges they face. Good progresses are being made, and yet it is reported here that substantial investments in funding, manpower, as well as a long sustained time to the R&D efforts will be required in preparation to realize these dream colliders.

  18. Accelerator considerations of large circular colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2016-07-01

    As we consider the tremendous physics reaches of the big future circular electron-positron and proton-proton colliders, it might be advisable to keep a close track of what accelerator challenges they face. Good progresses are being made, and yet it is reported here that substantial investments in funding, manpower, as well as a long sustained time to the R&D efforts will be required in preparation to realize these dream colliders.

  19. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamante, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.

  20. Propulsion by Helical Strips in Circular Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilyurt, Serhat; Demir, Ebru

    2016-11-01

    Progress in manufacturing techniques avails the production of artificial micro swimmers (AMS) in various shapes and sizes. There are numerous studies on the generation of efficient locomotion by means of helical tails with circular cross-sections. This work focuses on locomotion with helical strips in circular channels. A CFD model is used to analyze the effects of geometric parameters and the radius of the channel on swimming velocity of infinite helical-strips in circular channels. Results show that there is an optimum wavelength that depends on thickness to channel radius ratio, suggesting that these parameters need to be optimized simultaneously. With constant torque, thinner strips swim faster, whereas under constant angular velocity application, thicker strips (in radial direction) prevail. As width approaches the wavelength, velocity decreases under both conditions, unless a magnetically coated tail is simulated, for which width has an optimum value. Increasing channel radius to helix amplitude ratio increases the velocity up to a maximum and after a slight drop, saturation occurs as bulk swimming conditions are approached.

  1. Functions and Regulation of Circular Dorsal Ruffles

    PubMed Central

    Hoon, Jing-Ling; Wong, Wai-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Cells construct a number of plasma membrane structures to meet a range of physiological demands. Driven by juxtamembrane actin machinery, these actin-based membrane protrusions are essential for the operation and maintenance of cellular life. They are required for diverse cellular functions, such as directed cell motility, cell spreading, adhesion, and substrate/matrix degradation. Circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs) are one class of such structures characterized as F-actin-rich membrane projections on the apical cell surface. CDRs commence their formation minutes after stimulation as flat, open, and immature ruffles and progressively develop into fully enclosed circular ruffles. These “rings” then mature and contract centrifugally before subsiding. Serving a critical function in receptor internalization and cell migration, CDRs are thus highly dynamic but transient formations. Here, we review the current state of knowledge concerning the regulation of circular dorsal ruffles. We focus specifically on the biochemical pathways leading to CDR formation in order to better define the roles and functions of these enigmatic structures. PMID:22927640

  2. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  3. Continuous-wave circular polarization terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jillian P.; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2016-07-01

    Biomedical applications of terahertz (THz) radiation are appealing because THz radiation is nonionizing and has the demonstrated ability to detect intrinsic contrasts between cancerous and normal tissue. A linear polarization-sensitive detection technique for tumor margin delineation has already been demonstrated; however, utilization of a circular polarization-sensitive detection technique has yet to be explored at THz frequencies. A reflective, continuous-wave THz imaging system capable of illuminating a target sample at 584 GHz with either linearly or circularly polarized radiation, and capable of collecting both cross- and copolarized signals remitted from the target, is implemented. To demonstrate the system's utility, a fresh ex vivo human skin tissue specimen containing nonmelanoma skin cancer was imaged. Both polarization-sensitive detection techniques showed contrast between tumor and normal skin tissue, although some differences in images were observed between the two techniques. Our results indicate that further investigation is required to explain the contrast mechanism, as well as to quantify the specificity and sensitivity of the circular polarization-sensitive detection technique.

  4. Oxygen transfer in circular surface aeration tanks.

    PubMed

    Rao, Achanta Ramakrishna; Patel, Ajey Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2009-06-01

    Surface aeration systems employed in activated sludge plants are the most energy-intensive units of the plants and typically account for a higher percentage of the treatment facility's total energy use. The geometry of the aeration tank imparts a major effect on the system efficiency. It is said that at optimal geometric conditions, systems exhibits the maximum efficiency. Thus the quantification of the optimal geometric conditions in surface aeration tanks is needed. Optimal geometric conditions are also needed to scale up the laboratory result to the field installation. In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out on baffled and unbaffled circular surface aeration tanks to ascertain the optimal geometric conditions. It is found that no optimal geometric conditions exist for the liquid/water depth in circular surface aeration tanks; however, for design purposes, a standard value has been assumed. Based on the optimal geometric conditions, a scale-up equation has been developed for the baffled circular surface aeration tanks.

  5. The "effects" of Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats on human brucellosis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Minas, A; Minas, M; Stournara, A; Tselepidis, S

    2004-06-10

    Vaccination of young animals (3-6-month-old sheep and goats) with Rev-1 vaccine for 15 years in Greece, importantly decreased the abortions in sheep and goats as well as the incidence of brucellosis in humans. After the stop of vaccination in 1994, all over Greece, the prevalence of brucellosis in animals and the incidence in humans quickly increased. It was a positive rank correlation (0.90) among these variables. Once an emergency mass-vaccination programme of young and adult animals with Rev-1 vaccine was started in 1998, the human incidence again decreased. The association of the vaccination coverage of animals and incidence of brucellosis in humans was not linear; the decrease in human brucellosis incidence was observed when the vaccination coverage of animals was >30%.

  6. Addendum and Erratum: Nature of vibrational excitations in vitreous silica [Phys. Rev. B 56, 8605 (1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheblanov, Nikita S.; Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Elliott, Stephen R.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify details of the projectional analysis for atomic vibrations in vitreous silica presented in a paper by Taraskin and Elliott [Phys. Rev. B 56, 8605 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.8605]. The description of the stretching and bending modes has been discussed in detail while a description of the rotational modes and the procedure of their calculation have not been given in full detail. We specify the method for calculating the rotational modes omitted in the paper. We also correct a misprint in the expression for the B2(E ) mode which, unfortunately, has been reproduced in the vibrational analysis of the E mode in some publications.

  7. Rapid and Efficient Purification of RNA-Binding Proteins: Application to HIV-1 Rev

    PubMed Central

    Marenchino, Marco; Armbruster, David W.; Hennig, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Non-specifically bound nucleic acid contaminants are an unwanted feature of recombinant RNA-binding proteins purified from Escherichia coli (E. coli). Removal of these contaminants represents an important step for the proteins’ application in several biological assays and structural studies. The method described in this paper is a one-step protocol which is effective at removing tightly bound nucleic acids from over-expressed tagged HIV-1 Rev in E. coli. We combined affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions with subsequent on-column refolding, to prevent self-association of Rev while removing the nucleic acid contaminants from the end product. We compare this purification method with an established, multi-step protocol involving precipitation with polyethyleneimine (PEI). As our tailored protocol requires only one step to simultaneously purify tagged proteins and eliminate bound cellular RNA and DNA, it represents a substantial advantage in time, effort, and expense. PMID:18852051

  8. A Naturally Occurring rev1-vpu Fusion Gene Does Not Confer a Fitness Advantage to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon M.; Hopfensperger, Kristina; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Kreider, Edward F.; Learn, Gerald H.; Lee, Lan-Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sauter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Pandemic strains of HIV-1 (group M) encode a total of nine structural (gag, pol, env), regulatory (rev, tat) and accessory (vif, vpr, vpu, nef) genes. However, some subtype A and C viruses exhibit an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and the vpu gene are placed in the same open reading frame. Although this rev1-vpu gene fusion is present in a considerable fraction of HIV-1 strains, its functional significance is unknown. Results Examining infectious molecular clones (IMCs) of HIV-1 that encode the rev1-vpu polymorphism, we show that a fusion protein is expressed in infected cells. Due to the splicing pattern of viral mRNA, however, these same IMCs also express a regular Vpu protein, which is produced at much higher levels. To investigate the function of the fusion gene, we characterized isogenic IMC pairs differing only in their ability to express a Rev1-Vpu protein. Analysis in transfected HEK293T and infected CD4+ T cells showed that all of these viruses were equally active in known Vpu functions, such as down-modulation of CD4 or counteraction of tetherin. Furthermore, the polymorphism did not affect Vpu-mediated inhibition of NF-кB activation or Rev-dependent nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. There was also no evidence for enhanced replication of Rev1-Vpu expressing viruses in primary PBMCs or ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissues. Finally, the frequency of HIV-1 quasispecies members that encoded a rev1-vpu fusion gene did not change in HIV-1 infected individuals over time. Conclusions Expression of a rev1-vpu fusion gene does not affect regular Rev and Vpu functions or alter HIV-1 replication in primary target cells. Since there is no evidence for increased replication fitness of rev1-vpu encoding viruses, this polymorphism likely emerged in the context of other mutations within and/or outside the rev1-vpu intergenic region, and may have a neutral phenotype. PMID:26554585

  9. International AIDS Society conference update. Compound targeting Rev protein promising. Orphaned approach still looking for home.

    PubMed

    2005-09-01

    While clinicians and HIV/AIDS patients anxiously watch the trend of the virus developing resistance to multiple antiretroviral therapies, the question remains whether new drug research will continue to save the day. Some suggest there will need to be multiple new classes of antiretroviral drugs developed in order to stretch further the life span of longtime HIV patients. One potential new class would target the Rev protein, an approach that has received very little attention from the research and pharmaceutical communities.

  10. Haloarcula marismortui (Volcani) sp. nov., nom. rev., an extremely halophilic bacterium from the Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, A.; Ginzburg, M.; Ginzburg, B. Z.; Hochstein, L. I.; Volcani, B. E.

    1990-01-01

    An extremely halophilic red archaebacterium isolated from the Dead Sea (Ginzburg et al., J. Gen. Physiol. 55: 187-207, 1970) belongs to the genus Haloarcula and differs sufficiently from the previously described species of the genus to be designated a new species; we propose the name Haloarcula marismortui (Volcani) sp. nov., nom. rev. because of the close resemblance of this organism to "Halobacterium marismortui," which was first described by Volcani in 1940. The type strain is strain ATCC 43049.

  11. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 0-97. Index of Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars (NVICS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-21

    This Circular provides the current listing of Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars (NVICS). NVICs are issued by Coast Guard Headquarters in the form of duplicated circulars. Their purpose is to inform the public of Coast Guard guidance, requirements or information regarding marine safety activities.

  12. REV-ERBα influences the stability and nuclear localization of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Takashi; Chavan, Rohit; Fonseca Costa, Sara S; Brenna, Andrea; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Albrecht, Urs

    2016-11-01

    REV-ERBα (encoded by Nr1d1) is a nuclear receptor that is part of the circadian clock mechanism and regulates metabolism and inflammatory processes. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, encoded by Nr3c1) influences similar processes, but is not part of the circadian clock, although glucocorticoid signaling affects resetting of the circadian clock in peripheral tissues. Because of their similar impact on physiological processes, we studied the interplay between these two nuclear receptors. We found that REV-ERBα binds to the C-terminal portion and GR to the N-terminal portion of HSP90α and HSP90β, a chaperone responsible for the activation of proteins to ensure survival of a cell. The presence of REV-ERBα influences the stability and nuclear localization of GR by an unknown mechanism, thereby affecting expression of GR target genes, such as IκBα (Nfkbia) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1). Our findings highlight an important interplay between two nuclear receptors that influence the transcriptional potential of each other. This indicates that the transcriptional landscape is strongly dependent on dynamic processes at the protein level.

  13. REV-ERBα influences the stability and nuclear localization of the glucocorticoid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Takashi; Chavan, Rohit; Fonseca Costa, Sara S.; Brenna, Andrea; Ripperger, Jürgen A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT REV-ERBα (encoded by Nr1d1) is a nuclear receptor that is part of the circadian clock mechanism and regulates metabolism and inflammatory processes. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, encoded by Nr3c1) influences similar processes, but is not part of the circadian clock, although glucocorticoid signaling affects resetting of the circadian clock in peripheral tissues. Because of their similar impact on physiological processes, we studied the interplay between these two nuclear receptors. We found that REV-ERBα binds to the C-terminal portion and GR to the N-terminal portion of HSP90α and HSP90β, a chaperone responsible for the activation of proteins to ensure survival of a cell. The presence of REV-ERBα influences the stability and nuclear localization of GR by an unknown mechanism, thereby affecting expression of GR target genes, such as IκBα (Nfkbia) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1). Our findings highlight an important interplay between two nuclear receptors that influence the transcriptional potential of each other. This indicates that the transcriptional landscape is strongly dependent on dynamic processes at the protein level. PMID:27686098

  14. Chimeric RNase H-competent oligonucleotides directed to the HIV-1 Rev response element.

    PubMed

    Prater, Chrissy E; Saleh, Anthony D; Wear, Maggie P; Miller, Paul S

    2007-08-15

    Chimeric oligo-2'-O-methylribonucleotides containing centrally located patches of contiguous 2'-deoxyribonucleotides and terminating in a nuclease resistant 3'-methylphosphonate internucleotide linkage were prepared. The oligonucleotides were targeted to the 3'-side of HIV Rev response element (RRE) stem-loop IIB RNA, which is adjacent to the high affinity Rev protein binding site and is critical to virus function. Thermal denaturation experiments showed that chimeric oligonucleotides form very stable duplexes with a complementary single-stranded RNA, and gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that they bind with high affinity and specificity to RRE stem-loop II RNA (K(D) approximately 200 nM). The chimeric oligonucleotides promote RNase H-mediated hydrolysis of RRE stem-loop II RNA and have half-lives exceeding 24h when incubated in cell culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum. One of the chimeric oligonucleotides inhibited RRE mediated expression of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) approximately 60% at a concentration of 300 nM in HEK 293T cells co-transfected with p-RRE/CAT and p-Rev mammalian expression vectors.

  15. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Antenna with a Multiple-Circular-Sector Dielectric Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a wideband circularly polarized antenna using a multiple-circular-sector dielectric resonator (DR). The DR is composed of twelve circular-sector DRs with identical central angles of 30∘ but with different radii. A genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize the radii of the twelve circular-sector DRs to realize wideband circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited using an aperture-coupled feeding technique through a narrow rectangular slot etched onto the ground plane. An antenna prototype is experimentally verified. The measured −10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidths are 31.39% (1.88–2.58 GHz) and 19.30% (2.06–2.50 GHz), respectively, covering the operating bands of the following systems: UMTS-2100 (2.145 GHz), WiMAX (2.3 GHz), and Wi-Fi (2.445 GHz). A measured peak gain of 7.65 dBic at 2.225 GHz and gain variation of less than 2.70 dBic within the measured 3 dB AR bandwidth are achieved. In addition, the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are presented and discussed. PMID:27827881

  16. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Antenna with a Multiple-Circular-Sector Dielectric Resonator.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-11-03

    This paper presents the design of a wideband circularly polarized antenna using a multiple-circular-sector dielectric resonator (DR). The DR is composed of twelve circular-sector DRs with identical central angles of 30 ∘ but with different radii. A genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize the radii of the twelve circular-sector DRs to realize wideband circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited using an aperture-coupled feeding technique through a narrow rectangular slot etched onto the ground plane. An antenna prototype is experimentally verified. The measured -10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidths are 31.39% (1.88-2.58 GHz) and 19.30% (2.06-2.50 GHz), respectively, covering the operating bands of the following systems: UMTS-2100 (2.145 GHz), WiMAX (2.3 GHz), and Wi-Fi (2.445 GHz). A measured peak gain of 7.65 dBic at 2.225 GHz and gain variation of less than 2.70 dBic within the measured 3 dB AR bandwidth are achieved. In addition, the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are presented and discussed.

  17. Overexpression of SlREV alters the development of the flower pedicel abscission zone and fruit formation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guojian; Fan, Jing; Xian, Zhiqiang; Huang, Wei; Lin, Dongbo; Li, Zhengguo

    2014-12-01

    Versatile roles of REVOLUTA (REV), a Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) transcription factor, have been depicted mainly in Arabidopsis and Populus. In this study, we investigated the functions of its tomato homolog, namely SlREV. Overexpression of a microRNA166-resistant version of SlREV (35S::REV(Ris)) not only resulted in vegetative abnormalities such as curly leaves and fasciated stems, but also caused dramatic reproductive alterations including continuous production of flowers at the pedicel abscission zone (AZ) and ectopic fruit formation on receptacles. Microscopic analysis showed that meristem-like structures continuously emerged from the exodermises of the pedicel AZs and that ectopic carpels formed between the first and second whorl of floral buds in 35S::REV(Ris) plants. Transcriptional data suggest that SlREV may regulate genes related to meristem maintenance and cell differentiation in the development of the flower pedicel abscission zone, and modulate genes in homeodomain and MADS-box families and hormone pathways during fruit formation. Altogether, these results reveal novel roles of SlREV in tomato flower development and fruit formation.

  18. Characterization of the HIV-1 RNA associated proteome identifies Matrin 3 as a nuclear cofactor of Rev function

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Central to the fully competent replication cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced RNAs mediated by the Rev posttranscriptional activator and the Rev response element (RRE). Results Here, we introduce a novel method to explore the proteome associated with the nuclear HIV-1 RNAs. At the core of the method is the generation of cell lines harboring an integrated provirus carrying RNA binding sites for the MS2 bacteriophage protein. Flag-tagged MS2 is then used for affinity purification of the viral RNA. By this approach we found that the viral RNA is associated with the host nuclear matrix component MATR3 (Matrin 3) and that its modulation affected Rev activity. Knockdown of MATR3 suppressed Rev/RRE function in the export of unspliced HIV-1 RNAs. However, MATR3 was able to associate with Rev only through the presence of RRE-containing viral RNA. Conclusions In this work, we exploited a novel proteomic method to identify MATR3 as a cellular cofactor of Rev activity. MATR3 binds viral RNA and is required for the Rev/RRE mediated nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 RNAs. PMID:21771346

  19. Circular RNAs as Promising Biomarkers: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Abu, Nadiah; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    The interest in circular RNAs has resurfaced in the past few years. What was considered as "junk" for nearly two decades is now one of the most interesting molecules. Circular RNAs are non-coding RNAs that are formed by back-splicing events and have covalently closed loops with no poly-adenylated tails. The regulation of circular RNAs is distinctive and they are selectively abundant in different types of tissues. Based on the current knowledge of circular RNAs, these molecules have the potential to be the "next big thing" especially as biomarkers for different diseases. This mini-review attempts to concisely look at the biology of circular RNAs, the putative functional activities, the prevalence of circular RNAs, and the possible role of circular RNA as biomarkers for diagnosis or measuring drug response.

  20. Circular Dichroism Microscopy Free from Commingling Linear Dichroism via Discretely Modulated Circular Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Narushima, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we developed a circular dichroism (CD) imaging microscope with a device to suppress the commingling of linear birefringence (LB) and linear dichroism (LD) signals. CD signals are, in principle, free from the commingling influence of LD and LB if the sample is illuminated with pure circularly polarized light, with no linear polarization contribution. Based on this idea, we here propose a novel circular polarization modulation method to suppress the contribution of linear polarization, which enables high-sensitivity CD detection (10−4 level in optical density unit or mdeg level in ellipticity) for microscopic imaging at a nearly diffraction limited spatial resolution (sub-μm level). The highly sensitive, diffraction-limited local CD detection will make direct analyses of chiral structures and spatial mappings of optical activity feasible for μm- to sub-μm-sized materials and may yield a number of applications as a unique optical imaging method. PMID:27761022

  1. Circular and near-circular polarization states of evanescent monochromatic light fields in total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Azzam, R M A

    2011-11-20

    Conditions for the production of near-circular polarization states of the evanescent field present in the rarer medium in total internal reflection of incident monochromatic p-polarized light at a dielectric-dielectric planar interface are determined. Such conditions are satisfied if high-index (>3.2) transparent prism materials (e.g., GaP and Ge) are used at angles of incidence well above the critical angle but sufficiently below grazing incidence. Furthermore, elliptical polarization of incident light with nonzero p and s components can be tailored to cause circular polarization of the resultant tangential electric field in the plane of the interface or circular polarization of the transverse electric field in a plane normal to the direction of propagation of the evanescent wave. Such polarization control of the evanescent field is significant, e.g., in the fluorescent excitation of molecules adsorbed at solid-liquid and solid-gas interfaces by total internal reflection.

  2. 24 CFR 1006.370 - Federal administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Governments.” (b) Non-profit organizations. The requirements of OMB Circular No. A-122, “Cost Principles for Non-profit Organizations,” and the requirements of 24 CFR part 84, “Uniform Administrative... Organizations,” apply to contractors receiving NHHBG funds that are non-profit organizations that are...

  3. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH+ ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3+ has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 1013 W/cm2 and 3.15 × 1013 W/cm2, respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3+. The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene.

  4. Stabilization of circular Rydberg atoms by circularly polarized infrared laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Askeland, S.; Soerngaard, S. A.; Nepstad, R.; Foerre, M.; Pilskog, I.

    2011-09-15

    The ionization dynamics of circular Rydberg states in strong circularly polarized infrared (800 nm) laser fields is studied by means of numerical simulations with the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We find that at certain intensities, related to the radius of the Rydberg states, atomic stabilization sets in, and the ionization probability decreases as the intensity is further increased. Moreover, there is a strong dependence of the ionization probability on the rotational direction of the applied laser field, which can be understood from a simple classical analogy.

  5. Circular Polarization in AGNs: Polarity and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Plotkin, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    Circular polarization (Stokes V) observations potentially provide information on the nature and origin of the underlying magnetic fields in AGNs. We have been systematically monitoring a group of sources with detectable circular polarization (V>0.1 percent, a level set by the instrumental polarization of our system) in all 4 Stokes parameters at 8.0 and 4.8 GHz since 2000, and also at 14.5 GHz since November 2003, with the University of Michigan prime focus paraboloid antenna. These data are compared with historical observations obtained with the same instrument at 8.0 and 4.8 GHz extending back to 1978. Specific goals are to study the temporal spectral behavior of Stokes V and its relation to variability in total flux and linear polarization, and to investigate the question of polarity stability on decade-long time scales using data obtained with the same instrumentation and at the same frequencies. The data are consistent with linear-to-circular mode conversion in partially opaque regions of the source. We find examples of polarity changes with time at one or more frequencies associated with outbursts in total flux and linear polarization, and polarity differences within the 3 frequencies at a single epoch in one case, 3C 279. Such behavior argues against the notion that the sign of Stokes V is a simple tracer of the net flow of magnetic energy from the central engine to the jet or an indicator of the direction of rotation of the spinning central black hole/accretion disk via the winding up of the initial seed magnetic field. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST-0307629 and by funds from the University of Michigan.

  6. Multipole Analysis of Circular Cylindircal Magnetic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaggi, Jerry P.

    2005-12-01

    This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a ''Fourier series-like'' expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six-pole permanent magnet motor in terms of

  7. An Inverse of the Circular Coverage Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report describes an algorithm, INCIR , to evaluate an inverse of the...A Fortran 77 subroutine, INVCIR, is available that is based on INCIR , which produces R to eight significant digits for 10–8 ≤ P ≤ 1 – 10–8 and 0 ≤ d...h2 + k2)1/2 ≤ 108. A table of R versus P and d is included. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 48 14. SUBJECT TERMS algorithm, INCIR , inverse, Circular

  8. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  9. Laser tuners using circular piezoelectric benders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. H.; Thompson, P. E.; Walker, H. E.; Johnson, E. H.; Radecki, D. J.; Reynolds, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental evaluation of a new type of piezoelectric ceramic device designed for use as a laser mirror tuner. Thin plates made from various materials were assembled into a circular bimorph configuration and tested for linearity of movement, maximum travel, and resonant frequency for varying conditions of clamping torque and mirror loading values. Most of the devices tested could accept mirror diameters up to approximately 1.3 cm and maintain a resonant frequency above 2 kHz. Typical mirror translation without measurable tilt was plus or minus 20 micrometers or greater for applied voltages of less than plus or minus 300 V.

  10. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1992-06-09

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes is disclosed. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal. 10 figs.

  11. Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foeppl, L.

    1983-01-01

    Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.

  12. Poynting-Robertson effect - 'Circular' orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klacka, J.; Kaufmannova, J.

    1992-11-01

    The study investigates time evolution of the interplanetary dust particle under the action of the solar electromagnetic radiation (Poynting-Robertson effect). The evolution of the initially circular orbit in terms of the orbital elements present in the standard equations for their secular changes is considered. It is shown that the osculating eccentricity is virtually constant during the motion in spite of the generally accepted opinion that the standard equations for the secular changes of orbital elements represent the time evolution of the osculating elements.

  13. Budgeted phylogenetic diversity on circular split systems.

    PubMed

    Minh, Bui Quang; Pardi, Fabio; Klaere, Steffen; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) has gained interest in the community of conservation biologists as a surrogate measure for assessing biodiversity. We have recently proposed two approaches to select taxa for maximizing PD, namely PD with budget constraints and PD on split systems. In this paper, we will unify these two strategies and present a dynamic programming algorithm to solve the unified framework of selecting taxa with maximal PD under budget constraints on circular split systems. An improved algorithm will also be given if the underlying split system is a tree.

  14. Steady viscous flow past a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fornberg, B.

    1984-01-01

    Viscous flow past a circular cylinder becomes unstable around Reynolds number Re = 40. With a numerical technique based on Newton's method and made possible by the use of a supercomputer, steady (but unstable) solutions have been calculated up to Re = 400. It is found that the wake continues to grow in length approximately linearly with Re. However, in conflict with available asymptotic predictions, the width starts to increase very rapidly around Re = 300. All numerical calculations have been performed on the CDC CYBER 205 at the CDC Service Center in Arden Hills, Minnesota.

  15. Acoustic focusing by metal circular ring structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    We report an exotic acoustic focusing effect through a simple brass circular ring structure immersed in water. The acoustic waves can be focused on a prefect point at the centre of the ring structure. This exotic acoustic focusing phenomenon arises from the intrinsic modes in the ring structure at some special eigenfrequencies, which is essentially distinct from the previous studies originating from the negative refraction. The focusing effect is closely related to the size and shape of the ring structure. Interesting applications of the focusing mechanism in black box detectors in the sea and medical ultrasound treatment are further discussed.

  16. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1991-03-21

    This invention is comprised of a circular, zig-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  17. WBN-1 Cycle 10 TPBAR Tritium Release, Deduced From Analysis of RCS Data TTP-1-3046-00, Rev 0

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Niehus, Mark T.; Love, Edward F.

    2012-02-19

    This document contains the calculation of the TPBAR tritium release from the Mark 9.2 design TPBARs irradiated in WBN cycle 10. The calculation utilizes the generalized cycle analysis methodology given in TTP-1-3045 Rev. 0.

  18. Potent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by an Intracellular Anti-Rev Single-Chain Antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lingxun; Bagasra, Omar; Laughlin, Mark A.; Oakes, Joseph W.; Pomerantz, Roger J.

    1994-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has a complex life cycle, which has made it a difficult target for conventional therapeutic modalities. A single-chain antibody moiety, directed against the HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which rescues unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus of infected cells, has now been developed. This anti-Rev single-chain construct (SFv) consists of both light and heavy chain variable regions of an anti-Rev monoclonal antibody, which, when expressed intracellularly within human cells, potently inhibits HIV-1 replication. This intracellular SFv molecule is demonstrated to specifically antagonize Rev function. Thus, intracellular SFv expression, against a retroviral regulatory protein, may be useful as a gene therapeutic approach to combat HIV-1 infections.

  19. Involvement of the clock gene Rev-erb alpha in the regulation of glucagon secretion in pancreatic alpha-cells.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elaine; Marroquí, Laura; Figueroa, Ana Lucia C; Merino, Beatriz; Fernandez-Ruiz, Rebeca; Nadal, Angel; Burris, Thomas P; Gomis, Ramon; Quesada, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of pancreatic clock genes impairs pancreatic beta-cell function, leading to the onset of diabetes. Despite the importance of pancreatic alpha-cells in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and in diabetes pathophysiology, nothing is known about the role of clock genes in these cells. Here, we identify the clock gene Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion. Rev-erb alpha down-regulation by siRNA (60-70% inhibition) in alphaTC1-9 cells inhibited low-glucose induced glucagon secretion (p<0.05) and led to a decrease in key genes of the exocytotic machinery. The Rev-erb alpha agonist GSK4112 increased glucagon secretion (1.6 fold) and intracellular calcium signals in alphaTC1-9 cells and mouse primary alpha-cells, whereas the Rev-erb alpha antagonist SR8278 produced the opposite effect. At 0.5 mM glucose, alphaTC1-9 cells exhibited intrinsic circadian Rev-erb alpha expression oscillations that were inhibited by 11 mM glucose. In mouse primary alpha-cells, glucose induced similar effects (p<0.001). High glucose inhibited key genes controlled by AMPK such as Nampt, Sirt1 and PGC-1 alpha in alphaTC1-9 cells (p<0.05). AMPK activation by metformin completely reversed the inhibitory effect of glucose on Nampt-Sirt1-PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha. Nampt inhibition decreased Sirt1, PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha mRNA expression (p<0.01) and glucagon release (p<0.05). These findings identify Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion via AMPK/Nampt/Sirt1 pathway.

  20. XRCC1 interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain suggests a role in post replication repair.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Scott A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    The function of X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), a scaffold that binds to DNA repair enzymes involved in single-strand break and base excision repair, requires that it be recruited to sites of damaged DNA. However, structural insights into this recruitment are currently limited. Sequence analysis of the first unstructured linker domain of XRCC1 identifies a segment consistent with a possible REV1 interacting region (X1RIR) motif. The X1RIR motif is present in translesion polymerases that can be recruited to the pol /REV1 DNA repair complex via a specific interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain. NMR and fluorescence titration studies were performed on XRCC1-derived peptides containing this putative RIR motif in order to evaluate the binding affinity for the REV1 C-terminal domain. These studies demonstrate an interaction of the XRCC1-derived peptide with the human REV1 C-terminal domain characterized by dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Ligand competition studies comparing the XRCC1 RIR peptide with previously studied RIR peptides were found to be inconsistent with the NMR based Kd values. These discrepancies were resolved using a fluorescence assay for which the RIR–REV1 system is particularly well suited. The structure of a REV1-XRCC1 peptide complex was determined by using NOE restraints to dock the unlabeled XRCC1 peptide with a labeled REV1 C-terminal domain. The structure is generally homologous with previously determined complexes with the pol κ and pol η RIR peptides, although the helical segment in XRCC1 is shorter than was observed in these cases. These studies suggest the possible involvement of XRCC1 and its associated repair factors in post replication repair.

  1. Simple Broadband Circular Polarizer in Oversized Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stange, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a possibility is shown to realize a simple waveguide polarizer producing nearly the same circular polarization over a broad frequency range up to an octave. It is based upon the combination of two smoothly squeezed oversized waveguides with different diameters. The principle is similar to an achromatic lens in optics, where two counteracting lenses with differently sloped wavelength dependencies of the refractive index are combined to compensate the dispersion in the desired wavelength range. Consequently, two different wavelengths of light are brought into focus at the same plane. A waveguide for the transmission of microwaves has a similar frequency dependence of the refractive index resulting in a frequency-dependent phase shift between two propagating waves polarized along the symmetry axes of a waveguide with an elliptical cross section. For this reason, an incident wave with a linear polarization between the axes of symmetry can be only converted into a circularly polarized wave over a limited frequency range. However, the diameter and the shape along two counteracting squeezed waveguides can be adjusted in such a way that the frequency dependence of the resultant phase shift is finally canceled out.

  2. Unwinding of circular helicoidal molecules vs. size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The thermodynamical stability of a set of circular double helical molecules is analyzed by path integral techniques. The minicircles differ only in i) the radius and ii) the number of base pairs (N) arranged along the molecule axis. Instead, the rise distance is kept constant. For any molecule size, the computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible helicoidal configurations while the partition function is a sum over the path trajectories describing the base pair fluctuational states. The stablest helical repeat of every minicircle is determined by free-energy minimization. We find that, for molecules with N larger than 100, the helical repeat grows linearly with size and the twist number is constant. On the other hand, by reducing the size below 100 base pairs, the double helices sharply unwind and the twist number drops to one for N = 20. This is predicted as the minimum size for the existence of helicoidal molecules in the closed form. The helix unwinding appears as a strategy to release the bending stress associated to the circularization of the molecules.

  3. [Hand injuries caused by circular saw].

    PubMed

    Trybus, Marek; Guzik, Piotr; Lorkowski, Jacek; Hładki, Waldemar; Brongel, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on 1199 patients treated for hand injuries in the II Department of Surgery of the Jagiellonian University between years 1987-2000. There were 225 patients injured while working with circular saw. These injuries were much more severe than others (p < 0.001) and patients with these injuries were more often (p < 0.001) admitted to the clinic. The length of total treatment was considerably longer (p < 0.001) and final results--worse than in other patients (p < 0.001)--permanent hand disability was almost three times larger. Disability pension was given to these patients much more frequently than to others (p < 0.001). The main reason of these injuries seems to be the common use of home-made circular saws without any protection devices and non-conformity to fundamental rules of work security. Patients with extensive multitissular hand injuries should be treated in specialistic centers of hand surgery, where the final results can be improved and the total costs of treatment considerably reduced.

  4. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  5. HIV-1 Rev protein specifies the viral RNA export pathway by suppressing TAP/NXF1 recruitment.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ichiro; Mabuchi, Naoto; Ohno, Mutsuhito

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear RNA export pathways in eukaryotes are often linked to the fate of a given RNA. Therefore, the choice of export pathway should be well-controlled to avoid an unfavorable effect on gene expression. Although some RNAs could be exported by more than one pathway, little is known about how the choice is regulated. This issue is highlighted when the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein induces the export of singly spliced and unspliced HIV-1 transcripts. How these RNAs are exported is not well understood because such transcripts should have the possibility of utilizing CRM1-dependent export via Rev or cellular TAP/NXF1-dependent export via the transcription/export (TREX) complex, or both. Here we found that Rev suppressed TAP/NXF1-dependent export of model RNA substrates that recapitulated viral transcripts. In this effect, Rev interacted with the cap-binding complex and inhibited the recruitment of the TREX complex. Thus, Rev controls the identity of the factor occupying the cap-proximal region that determines the RNA export pathway. This ribonucleoprotein remodeling activity of Rev may favor viral gene expression.

  6. A novel, mouse mammary tumor virus encoded protein with Rev-like properties

    SciTech Connect

    Indik, Stanislav; Guenzburg, Walter H.; Salmons, Brian . E-mail: salmons@austrianova.com; Rouault, Francoise

    2005-06-20

    We have identified a novel, multiple spliced, subgenomic mRNA species in MMTV producing cells of different origin containing an open reading frame encoding a 39-kDa Rev-like protein, Rem (regulator of expression of MMTV). An EGFP-Rem fusion protein is shown to be predominantly in the nucleolus. Further leptomycin B inhibits the nuclear export of nonspliced MMTV transcripts, implicating Rem in nuclear export by the Crm1 pathway in MMTV. Rem is thus reminiscent of the Rec protein from the related endogenous human retrovirus, HERV-K.

  7. Permeability computation on a REV with an immersed finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Laure, P.; Puaux, G.; Silva, L.; Vincent, M.

    2011-05-04

    An efficient method to compute permeability of fibrous media is presented. An immersed domain approach is used to represent the porous material at its microscopic scale and the flow motion is computed with a stabilized mixed finite element method. Therefore the Stokes equation is solved on the whole domain (including solid part) using a penalty method. The accuracy is controlled by refining the mesh around the solid-fluid interface defined by a level set function. Using homogenisation techniques, the permeability of a representative elementary volume (REV) is computed. The computed permeabilities of regular fibre packings are compared to classical analytical relations found in the bibliography.

  8. Dual circular polarization gaps in helix photonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tzu-Hung; Chien, Lung-Yu Chang; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-09-21

    Chiral structures exhibit strong interactions with circularly polarized light, and have been demonstrated to show many polarization-dependent properties. Various chiral structures exhibit some level of circular dichroism, where right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized waves experience different transmission. In this study, we use a dielectric helix array as a model system to examine the interactions of circularly polarized light with helical structures. Our results show that circular polarization band gaps can be formed in a dielectric helix array not only by light having the same handedness with the structure but also by light with the opposite handedness, resulting from additional chiral motifs induced by the arrangement of helices. Dual polarization band gaps can thus be tailored by varying the geometrical parameters, and circular-polarization dependent properties can be manipulated for optoelectronic devices and applications.

  9. Spiral plasmonic nanoantennas as circular polarization transmission filters.

    PubMed

    Bachman, K A; Peltzer, J J; Flammer, P D; Furtak, T E; Collins, R T; Hollingsworth, R E

    2012-01-16

    We present simulation and experimental results for easily fabricated spiral plasmonic antenna analogues providing circular polarization selectivity. One circular polarization state is concentrated and transmitted through a subwavelength aperture, while the opposite circular state is blocked. The spectral bandwidth, efficiency, and extinction ratios are tunable through geometric parameters. Integration of such structures onto a focal plane array in conjunction with linear micropolarizers enables complete Stokes vector imaging, that, until now, has been difficult to achieve. An array of these structures forms a plasmonic metamaterial that exhibits high circular dichroism.

  10. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  11. The non-canonical protein binding site at the monomer-monomer interface of yeast proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) regulates the Rev1-PCNA interaction and Polζ/Rev1-dependent translesion DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeru M; Kochenova, Olga V; Shcherbakova, Polina V

    2011-09-23

    Rev1 and DNA polymerase ζ (Polζ) are involved in the tolerance of DNA damage by translesion synthesis (TLS). The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the auxiliary factor of nuclear DNA polymerases, plays an important role in regulating the access of TLS polymerases to the primer terminus. Both Rev1 and Polζ lack the conserved hydrophobic motif that is used by many proteins for the interaction with PCNA at its interdomain connector loop. We have previously reported that the interaction of yeast Polζ with PCNA occurs at an unusual site near the monomer-monomer interface of the trimeric PCNA. Using GST pull-down assays, PCNA-coupled affinity beads pull-down and gel filtration chromatography, we show that the same region is required for the physical interaction of PCNA with the polymerase-associated domain (PAD) of Rev1. The interaction is disrupted by the pol30-113 mutation that results in a double amino acid substitution at the monomer-monomer interface of PCNA. Genetic analysis of the epistatic relationship of the pol30-113 mutation with an array of DNA repair and damage tolerance mutations indicated that PCNA-113 is specifically defective in the Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS pathway. Taken together, the data suggest that Polζ and Rev1 are unique among PCNA-interacting proteins in using the novel binding site near the intermolecular interface of PCNA. The new mode of Rev1-PCNA binding described here suggests a mechanism by which Rev1 adopts a catalytically inactive configuration at the replication fork.

  12. Rev-mediated nuclear export of RNA is dominant over nuclear retention and is coupled to the Ran-GTPase cycle.

    PubMed

    Fischer, U; Pollard, V W; Lührmann, R; Teufel, M; Michael, M W; Dreyfuss, G; Malim, M H

    1999-11-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Rev protein induces the nuclear export of intron-containing viral mRNAs that harbor its binding site, the Rev response element (RRE). A leucine-rich region of Rev, the activation domain, is essential for function and has been shown to be a nuclear export signal (NES). Although Rev exports viral RNAs that resemble cellular mRNAs, competition studies performed using microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes have previously indicated that Rev utilizes a non-mRNA export pathway. Here, we show that Rev is able to induce the export of both spliceable and non-spliceable RRE-containing pre-mRNAs and that this activity is not dependent on the location of the RRE within the RNA. Importantly, even RNA molecules of different classes, such as U3 snoRNA and U6 snRNA, which are retained in the nucleus by non-pre-mRNA mechanisms, are exported to the cytoplasm in response to Rev. Consistent with the notion that Rev-mediated export of RRE-containing RNA is mechanistically distinct from the export of processed cellular mRNA, a chimeric Rev protein in which its NES is replaced by the NES of hnRNP A1 does not induce the export of a Rev-responsive mRNA. Finally, we demonstrate that Rev/RRE-activated RNA export is, like other nuclear export pathways, linked to the Ran-GTPase cycle.

  13. Determinants of G quadruplex-induced epigenetic instability in REV1-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Davide; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Murat, Pierre; Papadopoulou, Charikleia; Sarkies, Peter; Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Sale, Julian E

    2014-01-01

    REV1-deficient chicken DT40 cells are compromised in replicating G quadruplex (G4)-forming DNA. This results in localised, stochastic loss of parental chromatin marks and changes in gene expression. We previously proposed that this epigenetic instability arises from G4-induced replication fork stalls disrupting the accurate propagation of chromatin structure through replication. Here, we test this model by showing that a single G4 motif is responsible for the epigenetic instability of the BU-1 locus in REV1-deficient cells, despite its location 3.5 kb from the transcription start site (TSS). The effect of the G4 is dependent on it residing on the leading strand template, but is independent of its in vitro thermal stability. Moving the motif to more than 4 kb from the TSS stabilises expression of the gene. However, loss of histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K9/14ac) around the transcription start site correlates with the position of the G4 motif, expression being lost only when the promoter is affected. This supports the idea that processive replication is required to maintain the histone modification pattern and full transcription of this model locus. PMID:25190518

  14. Trimethylguanosine capping selectively promotes expression of Rev-dependent HIV-1 RNAs.

    PubMed

    Yedavalli, Venkat S R K; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2010-08-17

    5'-mRNA capping is an early modification that affects pre-mRNA synthesis/splicing, RNA cytoplasmic transport, and mRNA translation and turnover. In eukaryotes, a 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap is added to newly transcribed RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcripts. A subset of RNAP II-transcribed cellular RNAs, including small nuclear RNA (snRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), and telomerase RNA, is further hypermethylated at the exocyclic N2 of the guanosine to create a trimethylguanosine (TMG)-capped RNA. Some of these TMG-capped RNAs are transported within the nucleus and from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1 (required for chromosome region maintenance) protein. CRM-1 is also used to export Rev/RRE-dependent unspliced/ partially spliced HIV-1 RNAs. Here we report that like snRNAs and snoRNAs, some Rev/RRE-dependent HIV-1 RNAs are TMG-capped. The methyltransferase responsible for TMG modification of HIV-1 RNAs is the human PIMT (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-interacting protein with methyltransferase) protein. TMG capping of unspliced/partially spliced HIV-1 RNAs represents a new regulatory mechanism for selective expression.

  15. Circular common-path point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2012-10-01

    A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular common-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and reference waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a reference pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the common focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The reference wave is filtered by the reference pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The reference and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic processes.

  16. Two-port circularly polarized microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. F.

    A circularly polarized (CP) two-port microstrip antenna simultaneously operated at two CP states is investigated. The CP bandwidth of this antenna is increased by 0.35 percent to about 5 percent, almost 14 times wider than that of a single port patch. The antenna directivity due to the loss in the load is reduced by about 3 dB. Such a tradeoff should make the antenna much more useful for transmitting or receiving simultaneously two CP waves of opposite senses. The crosstalk between the two ports depends on the purity of the CP and is about -19 dB for axial ratios equal to 2 dB and -14 dB for axial ratio equal to 3 dB. A method for improving the isolation between the two antenna ports is discussed.

  17. Steady Slug Flow in a Circular Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xiaoqiang; Perlin, Marc; Schultz, William W.

    2002-11-01

    The steady motion of a water slug in a circular tube is studied. When the contact lines completely stick to the tube, the axisymmetric surface modes are solved with a spectral method for originally spherical menisci. The results agree well with a simple 0-degree approximation for lowest slosh mode. The effects of slip in natural frequencies are also discussed. The velocity and menisci geometry are measured for slugs moving in a tilted tube for dry and pre-wetted inner tube surfaces. A custom glass tube has a square outer cross section for minimizing optic distortions and measuring velocity and meniscus geometry. Asymptotic methods and numerics solve the menisci sliding on pre-wetted inner surface. These results are qualitatively compared with our experiments and those in NASA TN-515. As expected, near-meniscus behavior plays a big role in the total resistance to the moving slug.

  18. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-01

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  19. A 90° fair circular waveguide bend.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-hua; Deng, Ji-liang; Cao, Wei-ping; Li, Si-min; Gao, Xi; Jiang, Yan-nan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a synthesis method to design a 90° bent fair circular waveguide TE01 mode transition based on the non-uniform rational B-spline technique. The transition by this method has advantages of small geometry, high transmission with wide band and high profile fairness. An example of design of such a transition is presented. The simulation shows that the transition exhibits a transmission as high as 99.3% at the central frequency 35 GHz and has a bandwidth of 16.7% when keeping the transmission over 95%. Furthermore, the profile is extremely fair, which meets the requirements to decrease the geometry errors between actual device and its design, to reduce the machining difficulty in the machining process. The hot test data indicate that good transmission of the TE01 mode is obtained.

  20. Higher order diffractions from a circular disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsland, Diane P.; Balanis, Constantine A.; Brumley, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    The backscattering from a circular disk is analyzed using the geometrical theory of diffraction. First-, second-, and third-order diffractions are included in the hard polarization analysis, while first-, second-, and third-order slope diffractions are included for soft polarization. Improvements in the prediction of the monostatic radar cross section over previous works are noted. For hard polarization, an excellent agreement is exhibited between experimental and theoretical results, while a very good agreement is noted for soft polarization. To further improve the soft polarization results for wide angles, a model for the creeping wave or circulating current on the edge of the disk is obtained and used to find an additional component of the backscattered field. The addition of this component significantly improves the results for wide angles, leading to excellent agreement for soft polarization also. An axial-caustic correction method using equivalent currents is also included in the analysis.

  1. Circular RNAs in Cardiovascular Disease: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xinyu; Zhao, Yifan; Chen, Wei; Gan, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNA (circRNA), a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNA (ncRNA), has become a research hotspot in recent years. CircRNAs are abundant and stably exist in creatures, and they are found with covalently closed loop structures in which they are quite different from linear RNAs. Nowadays, an increasing number of scientists have demonstrated that circRNAs may have played an essential role in the regulation of gene expression, especially acting as miRNA sponges, and have described the potential mechanisms of several circRNAs in diseases, hinting at their clinical therapeutic values. In this review, the authors summarized the current understandings of the biogenesis and properties of circRNAs and their functions and role as biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28210621

  2. Circular dichroism of erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Decker, R V; Carraway, K L

    1975-03-28

    The circular dichroism spectra were obtained for purified equine, human and bovine membrane glycoproteins, which have 40, 55 and 70% carbohydrate, respectively. The spectra in aqueous buffer show similar shapes, maxima and minima but somewhat different peak amplitudes. Analysis of the spectra indicated that the glycoproteins can be pictured as existing primarily in an unordered form in dilute aqueous buffer with small amounts of alpha-helix (13-23%) present. In 2-chloroethanol, a helix-promoting solvent, the amount of alpha-helix is increased to 60-70%. The glycoproteins underwent denaturation in guanidine hydrochloride, although evidence of some residual structure did remain. The spectra of the glycoproteins change relatively little on going from aqueous buffer to dodecylsulfate solutions. Removal of 60% of the sialic acid does not induce significant conformational alterations. The anomalous behavior of the glycoproteins during molecular weight determinations does not appear to be related primarily to conformational restrictions on the polypeptide chain.

  3. Torsion Tests of Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Wescoat, C

    1944-01-01

    The design of curved sheet panels to resist shear involves a consideration of several factors: the buckling resistance of the sheet, the stress at which buckling becomes permanent, and the strength which may be developed beyond the buckling limit by tension-field action. Although some experimental as well as theoretical work has been done on the buckling and tension-field phases of this problem, neither of these types of action appears to be very well understood. The problem is of sufficient importance from the standpoint of aircraft design, it is believed, to warrant further experimental investigation. This report presents the results of the first series of torsion tests of stiffened circular cylinders to be completed in connection with this study at Aluminum Research Laboratories. (author)

  4. Borges, immortality and the circular ruins.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Catalina

    2002-06-01

    The author explores ideas surrounding immortality and death focusing on the interplay between their development in two stories by Borges ('The circular ruins' and 'The immortal') and their manifestation in a patient. With the help of Borges's stories, the author addresses the desperate necessity experienced by some individuals to search for immortality. This is not just an expression of the universal wish to live forever but, at a deeper level, arises from the impossibility of bearing the mental pain of experiencing ordinary human vulnerability and loss - death being the ultimate expression of such vulnerability. It is suggested that the relentless pursuit of immortality in such individuals expresses an omnipotent phantasy of ridding the self of the emotional pain and fear that arises through being alive. It leads to a denial of the emotional significance of passage of time, of separation and sexual differences. In actuality, the individual's state of not feeling approximates to a complete loss of human identity and emotional death, with no place for any meaningful others. The individual him/herself becomes a 'mere image', living in a delusional world peopled by him/herself and his/ her projections, and ending up trapped inside the circular ruins he/she has generated. The horror experienced at the stark awareness of the individual's emotional death and the wish to re-establish contact with the good internal objects that have been attacked sets in motion the long process of searching for the recovery of a sense of temporality (that would still include the wish for immortality) and, with it, a sense of identity.

  5. The structural basis of gas-responsive transcription by the human nuclear hormone receptor REV-ERBbeta.

    PubMed

    Pardee, Keith I; Xu, Xiaohui; Reinking, Jeff; Schuetz, Anja; Dong, Aiping; Liu, Suya; Zhang, Rongguang; Tiefenbach, Jens; Lajoie, Gilles; Plotnikov, Alexander N; Botchkarev, Alexey; Krause, Henry M; Edwards, Aled

    2009-02-24

    Heme is a ligand for the human nuclear receptors (NR) REV-ERBalpha and REV-ERBbeta, which are transcriptional repressors that play important roles in circadian rhythm, lipid and glucose metabolism, and diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer. Here we show that transcription repression mediated by heme-bound REV-ERBs is reversed by the addition of nitric oxide (NO), and that the heme and NO effects are mediated by the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). A 1.9 A crystal structure of the REV-ERBbeta LBD, in complex with the oxidized Fe(III) form of heme, shows that heme binds in a prototypical NR ligand-binding pocket, where the heme iron is coordinately bound by histidine 568 and cysteine 384. Under reducing conditions, spectroscopic studies of the heme-REV-ERBbeta complex reveal that the Fe(II) form of the LBD transitions between penta-coordinated and hexa-coordinated structural states, neither of which possess the Cys384 bond observed in the oxidized state. In addition, the Fe(II) LBD is also able to bind either NO or CO, revealing a total of at least six structural states of the protein. The binding of known co-repressors is shown to be highly dependent upon these various liganded states. REV-ERBs are thus highly dynamic receptors that are responsive not only to heme, but also to redox and gas. Taken together, these findings suggest new mechanisms for the systemic coordination of molecular clocks and metabolism. They also raise the possibility for gas-based therapies for the many disorders associated with REV-ERB biological functions.

  6. The Structural Basis of Gas-Responsive Transcription by the Human Nuclear Hormone Receptor REV-ERBβ

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Keith I; Xu, Xiaohui; Reinking, Jeff; Schuetz, Anja; Dong, Aiping; Liu, Suya; Zhang, Rongguang; Tiefenbach, Jens; Lajoie, Gilles; Plotnikov, Alexander N; Botchkarev, Alexey; Krause, Henry M; Edwards, Aled

    2009-01-01

    Heme is a ligand for the human nuclear receptors (NR) REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, which are transcriptional repressors that play important roles in circadian rhythm, lipid and glucose metabolism, and diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer. Here we show that transcription repression mediated by heme-bound REV-ERBs is reversed by the addition of nitric oxide (NO), and that the heme and NO effects are mediated by the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). A 1.9 Å crystal structure of the REV-ERBβ LBD, in complex with the oxidized Fe(III) form of heme, shows that heme binds in a prototypical NR ligand-binding pocket, where the heme iron is coordinately bound by histidine 568 and cysteine 384. Under reducing conditions, spectroscopic studies of the heme-REV-ERBβ complex reveal that the Fe(II) form of the LBD transitions between penta-coordinated and hexa-coordinated structural states, neither of which possess the Cys384 bond observed in the oxidized state. In addition, the Fe(II) LBD is also able to bind either NO or CO, revealing a total of at least six structural states of the protein. The binding of known co-repressors is shown to be highly dependent upon these various liganded states. REV-ERBs are thus highly dynamic receptors that are responsive not only to heme, but also to redox and gas. Taken together, these findings suggest new mechanisms for the systemic coordination of molecular clocks and metabolism. They also raise the possibility for gas-based therapies for the many disorders associated with REV-ERB biological functions. PMID:19243223

  7. A combination spectrophotometer for measuring electronic absorption, natural circular dichroism, and magnetic circular dichroism spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Policke, Timothy A.; Schreiner, Anton F.; Trexler, Jack W.; Knopp, James A.

    1990-08-01

    The design, construction, and evaluation of a combination spectrometer for measuring electronic absorption (EA), natural circular dichroism (CD), and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) are described. Around the optical components of a JASCO ORD/UV-5 spectropolarimeter, a new EA/CD/MCD instrument was built with the realized intentions of increasing sensitivity and upgrading the analog tube type circuitry to a solid-state digitally, computer-controlled spectrophotometer. It is a flexible, dynamic, and user-controllable system, interfaced to an Apple II Plus computer, for studying instrument and signal parameters. The monochromator (M), photoelastic modulator (PEM), photomultiplier tube applied voltage (PMHV), and photomultiplier tube dc output current (PMdc) are under complete and independent software control. Our system has two unique aspects for obtaining the circular dichroism. First, the ac signal is measured with a voltage-to-frequency (V/f) converter; and, second, both the ac and the dc are independently recorded and their ratio is digitally calculated. This design has several advantages which include the elimination of voltage divider integrated circuits or division electronics, a wide dynamic range, a greater precision of ac values at low percentages of full scale, and the capability of continuous integration over long time periods. Also, both types of spectra, EA and CD or MCD, are obtained from the current output of the PM. This paper not only describes the design of the instrument for obtaining the two types of spectra but also compares four methods of obtaining the circular dichroism. Sensitivities of ˜1×10-7ΔA units are achievable as determined by measuring CD spectra of the well-known enantiomer (+)-[Co(en)3]3+.

  8. Quasistatic limit of the strong-field approximation describing atoms in intense laser fields: Circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Jaroslaw H.

    2011-03-15

    In the recent work of Vanne and Saenz [Phys. Rev. A 75, 063403 (2007)] the quasistatic limit of the velocity gauge strong-field approximation describing the ionization rate of atomic or molecular systems exposed to linearly polarized laser fields was derived. It was shown that in the low-frequency limit the ionization rate is proportional to the laser frequency {omega} (for a constant intensity of the laser field). In the present work I show that for circularly polarized laser fields the ionization rate is proportional to {omega}{sup 4} for H(1s) and H(2s) atoms, to {omega}{sup 6} for H(2p{sub x}) and H(2p{sub y}) atoms, and to {omega}{sup 8} for H(2p{sub z}) atoms. The analytical expressions for asymptotic ionization rates (which become nearly accurate in the limit {omega}{yields}0) contain no summations over multiphoton contributions. For very low laser frequencies (optical or infrared) these expressions usually remain with an order-of-magnitude agreement with the velocity gauge strong-field approximation.

  9. Interaction effect of number of circular holes in a circular plate

    SciTech Connect

    Ukadgaonker, V.G.; Agnahotri, N.A.

    1996-12-01

    The problem of circular tubesheet with uniform tension at its circular boundary and nine holes in the circular pitch pattern at its center is solved using complex stress functions. The Schwarz Alternating Technique is used to find the interaction effect of the holes on each other and then the superposition method is used to obtain desired geometry of the nine holes. This superposition gives the stress free boundary at the central hole exactly satisfied. When these results are compared with those obtained by Ukadgaonker and Kale by Finite Element Method it is found that the theoretical solutions give higher stress concentration than FEM by about 20% for a large outer radius. When the outer radius is reduced the stress concentration factor increases considerably and the difference in the analytical and the FEM solution also increases to a large extent. The analytical solution found in the present paper is verified with the FEM and Photoelasticity solution obtained by Ukadgaonker and Kale (1996) earlier. This problem is further generalized for a rhombic pitch pattern, which can be reduced to particular cases such as square pitch pattern, triangular pitch pattern, diagonal pitch pattern by changing the angle of the rhombus. The stress concentration factor around the central hole varies very little for various ligament efficiencies which is given in percentage.

  10. Veterans Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Marine Continues to Serve by Serving Veterans David ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...

  11. Circularization pathway of a bacterial group II intron

    PubMed Central

    Monat, Caroline; Cousineau, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Group II introns are large RNA enzymes that can excise as lariats, circles or in a linear form through branching, circularization or hydrolysis, respectively. Branching is by far the main and most studied splicing pathway while circularization was mostly overlooked. We previously showed that removal of the branch point A residue from Ll.LtrB, the group II intron from Lactococcus lactis, exclusively leads to circularization. However, the majority of the released intron circles harbored an additional C residue of unknown origin at the splice junction. Here, we exploited the Ll.LtrB-ΔA mutant to study the circularization pathway of bacterial group II introns in vivo. We demonstrated that the non-encoded C residue, present at the intron circle splice junction, corresponds to the first nt of exon 2. Intron circularization intermediates, harboring the first 2 or 3 nts of exon 2, were found to accumulate showing that branch point removal leads to 3′ splice site misrecognition. Traces of properly ligated exons were also detected functionally confirming that a small proportion of Ll.LtrB-ΔA circularizes accurately. Overall, our data provide the first detailed molecular analysis of the group II intron circularization pathway and suggests that circularization is a conserved splicing pathway in bacteria. PMID:26673697

  12. Identification of Prostate Cancer-Specific Circular RNAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AND SUBTITLE Identification of Prostate Cancer-Specific Circular RNAs ” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0384 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The major goal of this application is to determine whether newly identified circular RNAs can

  13. Overlapping cis sites used for splicing of HIV-1 env/nef and rev mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Swanson, A K; Stoltzfus, C M

    1998-12-18

    Alternative splicing is used to generate more than 30 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) spliced and unspliced mRNAs from a single primary transcript. The abundance of HIV-1 mRNAs is determined by the efficiencies with which its different 5' and 3' splice sites are used. Three splice sites (A4c, A4a, and A4b) are upstream of the rev initiator AUG. RNAs spliced at A4c, A4a, and A4b are used as mRNAs for Rev. Another 3' splice site (A5) is immediately downstream of the rev initiator. RNAs spliced at A5 are used as mRNAs for Env and Nef. In this report, primer extension analysis of splicing intermediates was used to show that there are eight branch points in this region, all of which map to adenosine residues. In addition, cis elements recognized by the cellular splicing machinery overlap; the two most 3' branch points overlap with the AG dinucleotides at rev 3' splice sites A4a and A4b. Competition of the overlapping cis sites for different splicing factors may play a role in maintaining the appropriate balance of mRNAs in HIV-1-infected cells. In support of this possibility, mutations at rev 3' splice site A4b AG dinucleotide dramatically increased splicing of the env/nef 3' splice site A5. This correlated with increased usage of the four most 3' branch points, which include those within the rev 3' splice site AG dinucleotides. Consistent with these results, analysis of a mutant in which three of the four env/nef branch points were inactivated indicated that use of splice site A5 was inhibited and splicing was shifted predominantly to the most 5' rev 3' splice site A4c with preferential use of the two most 5' branch points. Our results suggest that spliceosomes formed at rev A4a-4b, rev A4c, and env/nef A5 3' splice sites each recognize different subsets of the eight branch point sequences.

  14. Metabolism and apoptotic properties of elevated ceramide in HT29rev cells.

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, R J; Klappe, K; Hoekstra, D; Kok, J W

    1998-01-01

    Ceramide (Cer) has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we elevated cellular Cer levels in human colon-carcinoma (HT29(rev)) cells by incubating the cells in the presence of bacterial sphingomyelinase (bSMase) or, alternatively, in the presence of C2-Cer, a short-chain analogue of the sphingolipid. bSMase treatment did not induce apoptosis in these cells, as revealed by a lack of both DNA fragmentation and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. In contrast, apoptosis did occur upon addition of C2-Cer. These findings led us to study whether differences in the metabolic fate of the excess of Cer, as generated by both treatments, contributed to the observed difference in apoptosis-inducing capacity. C2-Cer was rapidly taken up by HT29(rev) cells and accumulated due to the absence of substantial metabolic conversion. Upon addition of bSMase, hydrolysis of sphingomyelin resulted in a reduction of that pool to 20% compared with control values, accompanied by a multi-fold increase in Cer level. In spite of the continuous presence of active bSMase, the Cer increase turned out to be transient. Cer levels reached their maximum 1-2 h after addition of bSMase, followed by a significant decrease. Excessive Cer was mainly turned over via cerebrosides into complex glycolipids, including gangliosides. In the presence of glucosylceramide synthase- and/or ceramidase inhibitors, this conversion was significantly blocked and bSMase-generated Cer accumulated in the cells. However, even under these conditions apoptosis did not occur. In conclusion, the inability of bSMase to induce apoptosis of HT29(rev) cells does not appear to be due to rapid metabolic conversion of excessive Cer. Since apoptosis is induced upon addition of C2-Cer, we therefore propose that the intracellular target involved in the propagation of the apoptotic signal is reached by C2-Cer, but not by bSMase-generated Cer. PMID:9531498

  15. Development of a real-time quantitative RT-PCR to detect REV contamination in live vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luan, Huaibiao; Wang, Yixin; Li, Yang; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Based on the published Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) whole genome sequence, primers and TaqMan probes were designed and synthesized, and the TaqMan probe fluorescence real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detecting the REV pol gene was established by optimizing the reaction conditions. Sensitivity analysis showed that the qRT-PCR method had a sensitivity that was 1,000-fold higher than conventional PCR. Additionally, no amplification signals were obtained when we attempted to detect DNA or cDNA of ALV-A/B/J, MDV, CIAV, IBDV, ARV, NDV, AIV, or other viruses, suggesting a high specificity for our method. Various titers of REV were artificially "spiked" into the FPV and MDV vaccines to simulate REV contamination in attenuated vaccines to validate this qRT-PCR method. Our findings indicated that this qRT-PCR method could detect REV contamination at a dose of 1 TCID50/1,000 feathers, which was 10,000-fold more sensitive than the regular RT-PCR detection (10(4) TCID50/1000 feathers).

  16. Synthesis and in Vitro Anticancer Activity of the First Class of Dual Inhibitors of REV-ERBβ and Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Esther; Parodi, Chiara; Ercolani, Luisa; De Mei, Claudia; Ferrari, Alessio; Scarpelli, Rita; Grimaldi, Benedetto

    2015-08-13

    Autophagy inhibition is emerging as a promising anticancer strategy. We recently reported that the circadian nuclear receptor REV-ERBβ plays an unexpected role in sustaining cancer cell survival when the autophagy flux is compromised. We also identified 4-[[[1-(2-fluorophenyl)cyclopentyl]amino]methyl]-2-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]phenol, 1 (ARN5187), as a novel dual inhibitor of REV-ERBβ and autophagy. 1 had improved cytotoxicity against BT-474 breast cancer cells compared to chloroquine, a clinically relevant autophagy inhibitor. Here, we present the results of structure-activity studies, based around 1, that disclose the first class of dual inhibitors of REV-ERBβ and autophagy. This study led to identification of 18 and 28, which were more effective REV-ERBβ antagonists than 1 and were more cytotoxic to BT-474. The combination of optimal chemical and structural moieties of these analogs generated 30, which elicited 15-fold greater REV-ERBβ inhibitory and cytotoxic activities compared to 1. Furthermore, 30 induced death in a panel of tumor cell lines at doses 5-50 times lower than an equitoxic amount of chloroquine but did not affect the viability of normal mammary epithelial cells.

  17. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, William B.; Hough, James; Germer, Thomas A.; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T.; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Martin, William

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Because of the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches. PMID:19416893

  18. Discovery of Circularly Polarized Radio Emission from SS 433.

    PubMed

    Fender; Rayner; Norris; Sault; Pooley

    2000-02-10

    We report the discovery of circularly polarized radio emission from the radio-jet X-ray binary SS 433 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The flux density spectrum of the circular polarization, clearly detected at four frequencies between 1 and 9 GHz, is of the form V~nu-0.9+/-0.1. Multiple components in the source and a lack of very high spatial resolution do not allow a unique determination of the origin of the circular polarization or of the spectrum of fractional polarization. However, we argue that the emission is likely to arise in the inner regions of the binary, possibly via propagation-induced conversion of linear to circular polarization, and the fractional circular polarization of these regions may be as high as 10%. Observations such as these have the potential to help us investigate the composition, whether pairs or baryonic, of the ejecta from X-ray binaries.

  19. Giant local circular dichroism within an asymmetric plasmonic nanoparticle trimer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hancong; Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Han; Wang, Peijie; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-02-03

    We investigated the near-field response in silver nanoparticle aggregates to the excitation of circular polarized light. In a right-angle trimer system, the local field intensity excited by right-hand circularly polarized light is almost one thousand times larger than the left-hand case. By analyzing the polarization and phase of the local field in plasmonic hotspots, we found this local circular dichroism is originated from the near-field interference excited by orthogonal polarized incident lights. The local circular dichroism can be tuned by the rotation of the third particle, the interparticle distance, and the dielectric environment. This phenomenon could also widely exist in more complicated nanoaggregates. These findings would benefit for resolving light handedness, and enhancing circular dichroism and optical activity.

  20. Outlier detection in a new half-circular distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambli, Adzhar; Mohamed, Ibrahim Bin; Shimizu, Kunio; Khalidin, Nurliza

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we use a discordancy test based on spacing theory to detect outlier in a half-circular data. Up to now, numerous discordancy tests have been proposed to detect outlier in circular distributions which are defined in [0,2π). However, some circular data lie within just half of this range. Therefore, first we introduce a new half-circular distribution developed using the inverse stereographic projection technique on a gamma distributed variable. Then, we develop a new discordancy test to detect single or multiple outliers in the half-circular data based on the spacing theory. We show the practical value of the test by applying it to an eye data set obtained from a glaucoma clinic at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia.

  1. Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets.

    PubMed

    Saba, M; Thiel, M; Turner, M D; Hyde, S T; Gu, M; Grosse-Brauckmann, K; Neshev, D N; Mecke, K; Schröder-Turk, G E

    2011-03-11

    Nature provides impressive examples of chiral photonic crystals, with the notable example of the cubic so-called srs network (the label for the chiral degree-three network modeled on SrSi2) or gyroid structure realized in wing scales of several butterfly species. By a circular polarization analysis of the band structure of such networks, we demonstrate strong circular dichroism effects: The butterfly srs microstructure, of cubic I4(1)32 symmetry, shows significant circular dichroism for blue to ultraviolet light, that warrants a search for biological receptors sensitive to circular polarization. A derived synthetic structure based on four like-handed silicon srs nets exhibits a large circular polarization stop band of a width exceeding 30%. These findings offer design principles for chiral photonic devices.

  2. Experimental evidence for formation mechanism of regular circular fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhu, R.; Wang, G.; Wang, P.; Li, H.; Zhang, W.; Ren, G.

    2016-10-01

    Laser active suppressing jamming is one of the most effective technologies to cope with optoelectric imaging systems. In the process of carrying out laser disturbing experiment, regular circular fringes often appeared on the detector, besides laser spot converging by optical system. First of all, the formation of circular fringes has been experimentally investigated by using a simple converging lens to replace the complex optical system. Moreover, circular fringes have been simulated based on the interference theory of coherent light. The coherence between the experimental phenomena and the simulated results showed that the formation mechanism of regular circular fringes was the interference effect between reflected light by back surface of lens and directly refractive light on the detector. At last, the visibility of circular fringes has been calculated from 0.05 to 0.22 according to the current plating standard of lens surface and manufacture technique of optoelectric detector.

  3. Acute experimental colitis decreases colonic circular smooth muscle contractility in rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, B S; Martin, J S; Dempsey, D T; Parkman, H P; Thomas, R M; Ryan, J P

    1997-10-01

    Distal colitis decreases the contractility of the underlying circular smooth muscle. We examined how time after injury and lesion severity contribute to the decreased contractility and how colitis alters the calcium-handling properties of the affected muscle. Distal colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Contractile responses to acetylcholine, increased extracellular potassium, and the G protein activator NaF were determined for circular muscle strips from sham control and colitic rats at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 postenemas. Acetylcholine stimulation of tissues from day 3 colitic rats was performed in a zero calcium buffer, in the presence of nifedipine, and after depletion of intracellular stores of calcium. The colitis was graded macroscopically as mild, moderate, or severe. Regardless of agonist, maximal decrease in force developed 2 to 3 days posttreatment, followed by a gradual return to control by day 14. The inhibitory effect of colitis on contractility increased with increasing severity of inflammation. Limiting extracellular calcium influx had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from colitic rats; intracellular calcium depletion had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from control animals. The data suggest that both lesion severity and time after injury affect the contractile response of circular smooth muscle from the inflamed distal colon. Impaired utilization of intracellular calcium may contribute to the decreased contractility.

  4. Update to Rev6 ignition designs NIF, with details about support tent in particular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haan, S. W.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Clark, D. S.; Eder, D.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Ho, D.; Jones, O. S.; Kritcher, A.; Lafortune, K.; MacGowan, B. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Milovich, J.; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P.; Kline, J. L.; Wilson, D. C.; Simakov, A. N.; Yi, S. A.; Nikroo, A.; Huang, H.; Hoover, D.

    2013-10-01

    Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility will use an indirectly driven spherical implosion to assemble and ignite a mass of DT fuel. Requirements describing the specifics of the experiment and the corresponding expected performance were established several years prior. These requirements include laser features, target fabrication and characterization, and data obtained from pre-ignition experiments. Since those requirements were originally set, various NIF experiments using surrogate targets have motivated updates to the target designs and requirements. A summary of these updates will be presented. Rev6 designs for CH(Si), C(W), and Be(Cu) will be summarized. One particularly significant change regards the thickness of the tent films supporting the capsule, and the presentation will include updated thickness goals and the experimental motivation for the change. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Rev-erbα and the Circadian Transcriptional Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock orchestrates the coordinated rhythmicity of numerous metabolic pathways to anticipate daily and seasonal changes in energy demand. This vital physiological function is controlled by a set of individual clock components that are present in each cell of the body, and regulate each other as well as clock output genes. A key factor is the nuclear receptor, Reverbα, a transcriptional repressor which functions not only as a clock component but also as a modulator of metabolic programming in an array of tissues. This chapter explores the role of Rev-erbα in mediating this crosstalk between circadian rhythm and tissue-specific biological networks and its relevance to organismal physiology. PMID:26332963

  6. Modelling one row of Horns Rev wind farm with the Actuator Line Model with coarse resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, M.; Guggeri, A.; Usera, G.

    2016-09-01

    Actuator models have been used to represent the presence of wind turbines in a simulation in the past few years. The Actuator Line Model (ALM) has shown to reproduce with reasonable accuracy the wind flow through wind turbines under different operational conditions. Nevertheless, there are not many simulations of wind farms performed with the ALM mainly because of its computational cost. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the ALM in spatial resolutions coarser than what is generally recommended, also using larger time steps, in a simulation of a real wind farm. To accomplish this, simulations of one row of Horns Rev wind farm are performed, for different wind directions. It is concluded that the ALM is able to capture the main features of the interaction between wind turbines relaxing its resolution requirements. A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the influence of the smearing factor and the spatial resolution.

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  8. Protection against brucellosis in goats, five years after vaccination with reduced-dose Brucella melitensis Rev 1 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Aparicio, E; Hernández, L; Suárez-Güemes, F

    2004-02-01

    The protection conferred by the reduced-dose Rev 1 Brucella melitensis vaccine in goats that had been immunized 5 years previously was evaluated. Sixteen goats vaccinated 5 years before with Rev 1 (1 x 10(5) cfu) and 5 non-vaccinated goats were challenged with B. melitensis 16M (4 x 10(5) cfu) using the conjunctival route. After giving birth or aborting, the goats were sacrificed and tissue samples were taken for bacteriological study. The challenge strain was recovered in 12%, of the animals from the vaccinated group, and in (80% of the control group. It is concluded, therefore that the use of reduced-dose Rev 1 protects goats vaccinated in endemic areas for at least 5 years after immunization.

  9. Erratum: Studying the precision of ray tracing techniques with Szekeres models [Phys. Rev. D 92, 023532 (2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koksbang, S. M.; Hannestad, S.

    2015-09-01

    This erratum serves to give corrections of two errors made in Koksbang and Hannestad [Phys. Rev. D, 92, 023532 (2015)]. One error consists of having used the expression for the Doppler convergence for a flat background to study the convergence on curved backgrounds. The other error which was made, is a typo in the numerical code used to study the convergence in onion models with curved backgrounds. After correcting this typo, the results of Sec. VI A in Koksbang and Hannestad [Phys. Rev. D, 92, 023532 (2015)] were recomputed. Contrary to the original results, the new results show that the ray-tracing scheme studied in Koksbang and Hannestad [Phys. Rev. D, 92, 023532 (2015)] can reproduce the exact results in LTB onion models very well. The corrections and new results are described more elaborately below.

  10. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding equine infectious anemia virus tat and putative Rev proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, R M; Derse, D; Rice, N R

    1990-01-01

    We isolated and characterized six cDNA clones from an equine infectious anemia virus-infected cell line that displays a Rev-defective phenotype. With the exception of one splice site in one of the clones, all six cDNAs exhibited the same splicing pattern and consisted of four exons. Exon 1 contained the 5' end of the genome; exon 2 contained the tat gene from mid-genome; exon 3 consisted of a small section of env, near the 5' end of the env gene; and exon 4 contained the putative rev open reading frame from the 3' end of the genome. The structures of the cDNAs predict a bicistronic message in which Tat is encoded by exons 1 and 2 and the presumptive Rev protein is encoded by exons 3 and 4. tat translation appears to be initiated at a non-AUG codon within the first 15 codons of exon 1. Equine infectious anemia virus-specific tat activity was expressed in transient transfections with cDNA expression plasmids. The predicted wild-type Rev protein contains 30 env-derived amino acids and 135 rev open reading frame residues. All of the cDNAs had a frameshift in exon 4, leading to a truncated protein and thus providing a plausible explanation for the Rev-defective phenotype of the original cells. We used peptide antisera to detect the faulty protein, thus confirming the cDNA sequence, and to detect the normal protein in productively infected cells. Images PMID:2164593

  11. Temperature inducible β-sheet structure in the transactivation domains of retroviral regulatory proteins of the Rev family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumb, Werner; Graf, Christine; Parslow, Tristram; Schneider, Rainer; Auer, Manfred

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulatory protein Rev with cellular cofactors is crucial for the viral life cycle. The HIV-1 Rev transactivation domain is functionally interchangeable with analog regions of Rev proteins of other retroviruses suggesting common folding patterns. In order to obtain experimental evidence for similar structural features mediating protein-protein contacts we investigated activation domain peptides from HIV-1, HIV-2, VISNA virus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) by CD spectroscopy, secondary structure prediction and sequence analysis. Although different in polarity and hydrophobicity, all peptides showed a similar behavior with respect to solution conformation, concentration dependence and variations in ionic strength and pH. Temperature studies revealed an unusual induction of β-structure with rising temperatures in all activation domain peptides. The high stability of β-structure in this region was demonstrated in three different peptides of the activation domain of HIV-1 Rev in solutions containing 40% hexafluoropropanol, a reagent usually known to induce α-helix into amino acid sequences. Sequence alignments revealed similarities between the polar effector domains from FIV and EIAV and the leucine rich (hydrophobic) effector domains found in HIV-1, HIV-2 and VISNA. Studies on activation domain peptides of two dominant negative HIV-1 Rev mutants, M10 and M32, pointed towards different reasons for the biological behavior. Whereas the peptide containing the M10 mutation (L 78E 79→D 78L 79) showed wild-type structure, the M32 mutant peptide (L 78L 81L 83→A 78A 81A 83) revealed a different protein fold to be the reason for the disturbed binding to cellular cofactors. From our data, we conclude, that the activation domain of Rev proteins from different viral origins adopt a similar fold and that a β-structural element is involved in binding to a

  12. Drops with non-circular footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzoli, Pablo D.; González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. These drops are consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to the hysteresis of the contact angle since there is a wetting process in some parts of the contact line, while a dewetting occurs in other parts. Here, we obtain a characteristic drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting on a solid substrate. We analyze its shape and contact angles by means of goniometric and refractive techniques. We also find a non-trivial steady state solution for the drop shape within the long wave approximation (lubrication theory), and we compare most of its features with experimental data. This solution is presented both in Cartesian and polar coordinates, whose constants must be determined by a certain group of measured parameters. Besides, we obtain the dynamics of the drop generation from numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equation, where we emulate the hysteretic effects with an appropriate spatial distribution of the static contact angle over the substrate.

  13. A tunable optofluidic circular liquid fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wu, Wei; Shi, Yang; Gong, Enze; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tunable optofluidic circular liquid fiber through the numerical simulation. Fiber is a significant optical device and has been widely applied on optical fiber communication. But the fiber based solid has limited tunability. Compared to solid fiber, the fiber based liquid material is relatively infrequent. Cause for the liquid optical device has more freedom tunable properties than solid counterpart, it has attracted more interest. The traditional optofluidic waveguide is designed like a sandwich in planar channel. This two-dimensional (2D) structure liquid waveguide will face huge transmission loss in the perpendicular direction of the flow streams. In this paper, a curving microchannel is designed inside the microchip to produce centrifugal effect. Two different liquids are injected into the chip by external pumps. In a particular situation, the core flow will be totally surrounded by the cladding flow. So the liquid can form an optical waveguide. Its structure is similar to an optical fiber which high refractive index (RI) liquid is core of the waveguide and the low RI liquid is cladding of the waveguide. Profit from the reconfigurability of liquid material, this liquid fiber has excellent tunability. The diameter of the core flow can be tuned in a wider range by changing the volume ratio of the flows through the finite element analysis. It is predictable that such a tunable liquid fiber may find wider applications in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated optical devices.

  14. THE ORBIT OF CHARON IS CIRCULAR

    SciTech Connect

    Buie, Marc W.; Tholen, David J.; Grundy, William M. E-mail: tholen@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2012-07-15

    We present a detailed analysis of the orbit of Charon where we show its orbit to be circular. This analysis explores the effects of surface albedo variations on the astrometry and the resulting errors in the orbital elements. We present two new epochs of data from the Hubble Space Telescope taken in 2008 and 2010 and combine that with a re-analysis of previously published data from 1992 and 2002. Our adopted two-body Keplerian orbital elements for Charon are P = 6.3872273 {+-} 0.0000003 days, a = 19573 {+-} 2 km, e = 0., i = 96.218 {+-} 0.008 deg, L = 4.50177 {+-} 0.00018 rad, and {Omega} = 3.89249 {+-} 0.00012 rad for an epoch of JDT = 2452600.5 in the J2000 reference frame. The 1{sigma} upper limit to the eccentricity is 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. The predicted uncertainty in the position of Charon relative to Pluto at the time of the New Horizons encounter based on this orbit is 8 km.

  15. Laminar flow past a rotating circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sangmo; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Sangsan

    1999-11-01

    The present study numerically investigates two-dimensional laminar flow past a circular cylinder rotating with a constant angular velocity, for the purpose of controlling vortex shedding and understanding the underlying flow mechanism. Numerical simulations are performed for flows with Re=60, 100, and 160 in the range of 0⩽α⩽2.5, where α is the circumferential speed at the cylinder surface normalized by the free-stream velocity. Results show that the rotation of a cylinder can suppress vortex shedding effectively. Vortex shedding exists at low rotational speeds and completely disappears at α>αL, where αL is the critical rotational speed which shows a logarithmic dependence on Re. The Strouhal number remains nearly constant regardless of α while vortex shedding exists. With increasing α, the mean lift increases linearly and the mean drag decreases, which differ significantly from those predicted by the potential flow theory. On the other hand, the amplitude of lift fluctuation stays nearly constant with increasing α (<αL), while that of drag fluctuation increases. Further studies from the instantaneous flow fields demonstrate again that the rotation of a cylinder makes a substantial effect on the flow pattern.

  16. Wave interaction with dual circular porous plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Arpita; Gayen, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigated the reflection and the transmission of a system of two symmetric circular-arc-shaped thin porous plates submerged in deep water within the context of linear theory. The hypersingular integral equation technique has been used to analyze the problem mathematically. The integral equations are formulated by applying Green's integral theorem to the fundamental potential function and the scattered potential function into a suitable fluid region, and then using the boundary condition on the porous plate surface. These are solved approximately using an expansion-cum-collocation method using the behaviour of the potential functions at the tips of the plates. This method ultimately produces a very good numerical approximation for the reflection and the transmission coefficients and hydrodynamic force components. The numerical results are depicted graphically against the wave number for a variety of layouts of the arc. Some results are compared with known results for similar configurations of dual rigid plate systems available in the literature with good agreement.

  17. Circular Conditional Autoregressive Modeling of Vector Fields.

    PubMed

    Modlin, Danny; Fuentes, Montse; Reich, Brian

    2012-02-01

    As hurricanes approach landfall, there are several hazards for which coastal populations must be prepared. Damaging winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes play havoc with both the coast and inland areas; but, the biggest seaside menace to life and property is the storm surge. Wind fields are used as the primary forcing for the numerical forecasts of the coastal ocean response to hurricane force winds, such as the height of the storm surge and the degree of coastal flooding. Unfortunately, developments in deterministic modeling of these forcings have been hindered by computational expenses. In this paper, we present a multivariate spatial model for vector fields, that we apply to hurricane winds. We parameterize the wind vector at each site in polar coordinates and specify a circular conditional autoregressive (CCAR) model for the vector direction, and a spatial CAR model for speed. We apply our framework for vector fields to hurricane surface wind fields for Hurricane Floyd of 1999 and compare our CCAR model to prior methods that decompose wind speed and direction into its N-S and W-E cardinal components.

  18. Circular Conditional Autoregressive Modeling of Vector Fields*

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Danny; Fuentes, Montse; Reich, Brian

    2013-01-01

    As hurricanes approach landfall, there are several hazards for which coastal populations must be prepared. Damaging winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes play havoc with both the coast and inland areas; but, the biggest seaside menace to life and property is the storm surge. Wind fields are used as the primary forcing for the numerical forecasts of the coastal ocean response to hurricane force winds, such as the height of the storm surge and the degree of coastal flooding. Unfortunately, developments in deterministic modeling of these forcings have been hindered by computational expenses. In this paper, we present a multivariate spatial model for vector fields, that we apply to hurricane winds. We parameterize the wind vector at each site in polar coordinates and specify a circular conditional autoregressive (CCAR) model for the vector direction, and a spatial CAR model for speed. We apply our framework for vector fields to hurricane surface wind fields for Hurricane Floyd of 1999 and compare our CCAR model to prior methods that decompose wind speed and direction into its N-S and W-E cardinal components. PMID:24353452

  19. Circular photogalvanic effect in silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Sajal; Mele, E. J.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    Circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), the generation of a photocurrent whose magnitude and polarity depends on chirality of optical excitation, is demonstrated in the visible optical range in silicon nanowires, a bulk non-gyrotropic material with weak spin-orbit coupling. CPGE, which is absent in bulk Si is found to arise from interband transitions only at the metal-semiconductor contacts to Si nanowires where inversion symmetry is broken by a Schottky electric field. Furthermore, by applying a bias voltage that modulates this field, the sign and magnitude of the CPGE can be controlled. From excitation energy dependent measurements and symmetry considerations, it is argued that the [10] surface states due to Si chains that are not aligned with the nanowire growth direction and the Schottky field produce an artificial gyrotropic optical medium that supports CPGE. This work reveals the role of the surface states in the generation of chirality-dependent photocurrents in silicon with a purely orbital-based mechanism, and also opens up new possibilities of engineering new functionalities in Si that can be integrated with conventional electronics.

  20. Paine Appointed Administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew

  1. Cloning and sequencing of 28 kDa outer membrane protein gene of Brucella melitensis Rev. 1.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Pallab; Kumar, S Vinoth; Prasad, Rajeev; Srivastava, S K; Yadav, M P

    2005-09-01

    Brucella melitensis is an organism of paramount zoonotic importance. The 28 kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) is one of the immunodominant antigens of B. melitensis. The gene encoding 28 kDa OMP (omp28) has been amplified from B. melitensis Rev. 1 strain. A PCR product of 753 bp, encoding complete omp28 gene of B. melitensis, was obtained. The gene was further cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of B. melitensis Rev. 1 strain showed substitution of 2 nucleotides from that of 16M strain.

  2. A stably expressed llama single-domain intrabody targeting Rev displays broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Boons, Eline; Li, Guangdi; Vanstreels, Els; Vercruysse, Thomas; Pannecouque, Christophe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Daelemans, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    The HIV Rev protein mediates the transport of partially and unspliced HIV mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Rev multimerizes on a secondary stem-loop structure present in the viral intron-containing mRNA species and recruits the cellular karyopherin CRM1 to export viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Previously we have identified a single-domain intrabody (Nb(190)), derived from a llama heavy-chain antibody, which efficiently inhibits Rev multimerization and suppresses the production of infectious virus. We recently mapped the epitope of this nanobody and demonstrated that Rev residues K20 and Y23 are crucial for interaction while residues V16, H53 and L60 are important to a lesser extent. Here, we generated cell lines stably expressing Nb(190) and assessed the capacity of these cell lines to suppress the replication of different HIV-1 subtypes. These cells stably expressing the single-domain antibody are protected from virus-induced cytopathogenic effect even in the context of high multiplicity of infection. In addition, the replication of different subtypes of group M and one strain of group O is significantly suppressed in these cell lines. Next, we analysed the natural variations of Rev amino acids in sequence samples from HIV-1 infected patients worldwide and assessed the effect of Nb(190) on the most prevalent polymorphisms occurring at the key epitope positions (K20 and Y23) in Rev. We found that Nb(190) was able to suppress the function of these Rev variants except for the K20N mutant, which was present in only 0.7% of HIV-1 sequence populations (n = 4632). Cells stably expressing the single-domain intrabody Nb(190) are protected against virus-induced cytopathogenic effect and display a selective survival advantage upon infection. In addition, Nb(190) suppresses the replication of a wide range of different HIV-1 subtypes. Large-scale sequence analysis reveals that the Nb(190) epitope positions in Rev are well conserved across major HIV-1

  3. Thermal conductivity modeling of circular-wire nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tse-Yang; Yang, Jaw-Yen

    2010-08-01

    A phonon Boltzmann equation solver using multiblock-structured grid system is developed and applied to study transverse thermal transport in silicon-germanium circular-wire nanocomposite (silicon nanowires embedded in germanium host matrix). Past studies usually assume geometric simplification for the circular-wire nanocomposite, so the heat transfer is actually modeled in a square-wire nanocomposite. To demonstrate geometry effect, phonon transport in both the circular-wire and square-wire nanocomposites are investigated with various wire spacings, volume fractions, and dimensions. In ballistic phonon transport, due to the smoothness of circular shape, the circular wire imposes less thermal resistance than the square wire. Nevertheless, in the geometric simplification, the wire spacing of the square-wire nanocomposite is larger than that of the circular-wire nanocomposite. The usual geometric simplification can overestimate the thermal conductivity of the circular-wire nanocomposite. The obtained results can provide essential information for the development of bulk-nanostructured thermoelectric devices.

  4. Double circular erosion patterns on dielectric target in magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Ejima, Seiki

    2009-10-01

    In rf magnetron sputtering, a circular erosion pattern forms on the surface of a circular metal conductor target with permanent magnets on its back. In this case, the theory behind the erosion pattern has been established. However, in the case of a dielectric target, a double circular erosion pattern is formed. So far, this pattern has been phenomenologically recognized by experimenters; however, it has not yet been investigated. In this study, we performed a magnetron sputtering experiment with a SiO2 dielectric target, and confirmed the formation of a double circular erosion pattern. The dimensions of the double circular erosion pattern varied depending on the insulation resistance or the thickness of the SiO2 target. Furthermore, we found that the dimensions of a double circular erosion pattern changed by making a gap between the SiO2 target and guard ring. Based on the experimental results, we have proposed a qualitative model to explain the formation mechanism of double circular erosion patterns.

  5. Inversion of the circular averages transform using the Funk transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Yarman, Can; Yazıcı, Birsen

    2011-06-01

    The integral of a function defined on the half-plane along the semi-circles centered on the boundary of the half-plane is known as the circular averages transform. Circular averages transform arises in many tomographic image reconstruction problems. In particular, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) when the transmitting and receiving antennas are colocated, the received signal is modeled as the integral of the ground reflectivity function of the illuminated scene over the intersection of spheres centered at the antenna location and the surface topography. When the surface topography is flat the received signal becomes the circular averages transform of the ground reflectivity function. Thus, SAR image formation requires inversion of the circular averages transform. Apart from SAR, circular averages transform also arises in thermo-acoustic tomography and sonar inverse problems. In this paper, we present a new inversion method for the circular averages transform using the Funk transform. For a function defined on the unit sphere, its Funk transform is given by the integrals of the function along the great circles. We used hyperbolic geometry to establish a diffeomorphism between the circular averages transform, hyperbolic x-ray and Funk transforms. The method is exact and numerically efficient when fast Fourier transforms over the sphere are used. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the inversion method. Dedicated to Dennis Healy, a friend of Applied Mathematics and Engineering.

  6. 70 FR 46903 - Advisory Circular 431.35-2A, Reusable Launch and Reentry Vehicle System Safety Process-Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-08-11

    ... Safety Process--Notice of Issuance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of..., ``Reusable Launch and Reentry Vehicle System Safety Process,'' dated July 20, 2005. This advisory circular provides guidance for applying a systematic and logical system safety process for identification,...

  7. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  8. The error-prone DNA polymerase zeta catalytic subunit (Rev3) gene is ubiquitously expressed in normal and malignant human tissues.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, K; O-Wang, J; Bahar, R; Koshikawa, N; Shishikura, T; Nakagawara, A; Sakiyama, S; Kajiwara, K; Kimura, M; Tagawa, M

    2001-01-01

    Mutagenesis induced by UV light and chemical agents in yeast is largely dependent on the function of Rev3, the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta that carries out translesion DNA synthesis. Human and mouse homologues of the yeast Rev3 gene have recently been identified, and inhibition of Rev3 expression in cultured human fibroblasts by Rev3 anti-sense was shown to reduce UV-induced mutagenesis, indicating that Rev3 also plays a crucial role in mutagenesis in mammalian cells. A common variant transcript with an insertion of 128-bp between nucleotides +139 and +140 is found in both human and mouse Rev3 cDNAs, but its biological significance has not been defined. We show here that the insertion variant is not translatable either under in vitro or in vivo conditions. We also found that the translational efficiency of Rev3 gene is enhanced by the 5' untranslated region that contains a putative stem-loop structure postulated to inhibit the translation. Since the human Rev3 gene is localized to chromosome 6q21, a region previously shown to contain genes involved in tumor suppression and cellular senescence, we examined its expression in various normal and malignant tissues. Rev3 and its insertion variant transcripts were ubiquitously detected in all 27 normal human tissues studied, with an additional variant species found in tissues with relatively high levels of Rev3 expression. Levels of Rev3 transcripts were similar in lung, gastric, colon and renal tumors compared to normal tissue counterparts. The data indicate that Rev3 expression is ubiquitous and is not dysregulated in malignancies.

  9. Deletion of the GI-2 integrase and the wbkA flanking transposase improves the stability of Brucella melitensis Rev 1 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mancilla, Marcos; Grilló, María-Jesús; de Miguel, María-Jesús; López-Goñi, Ignacio; San-Román, Beatriz; Zabalza-Baranguá, Ana; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2013-10-31

    Brucella melitensis Rev 1 is the best vaccine available for the prophylaxis of small ruminant brucellosis and, indirectly, for reducing human brucellosis. However, Rev 1 shows anomalously high rates of spontaneous dissociation from smooth (S) to rough (R) bacteria, the latter being inefficacious as vaccines. This S-R instability results from the loss of the O-polysaccharide. To overcome this problem, we investigated whether some recently described mechanisms promoting mutations in O-polysaccharide genes were involved in Rev 1 S-R dissociation. We found that a proportion of Rev 1 R mutants result from genome rearrangements affecting the wbo O-polysaccharide loci of genomic island GI-2 and the wbkA O-polysaccharide glycosyltransferase gene of the wbk region. Accordingly, we mutated the GI-2 int gene and the wbk IS transposase involved in those arrangements, and found that these Rev 1 mutants maintained the S phenotype and showed lower dissociation levels. Combining these two mutations resulted in a strain (Rev 2) displaying a 95% decrease in dissociation with respect to parental Rev 1 under conditions promoting dissociation. Rev 2 did not differ from Rev 1 in the characteristics used in Rev 1 typing (growth rate, colonial size, reactivity with O-polysaccharide antibodies, phage, dye and antibiotic susceptibility). Moreover, Rev 2 and Rev 1 showed similar attenuation and afforded similar protection in the mouse model of brucellosis vaccines. We conclude that mutations targeting genes and DNA sequences involved in spontaneous O-polysaccharide loss enhance the stability of a critical vaccine phenotype and complement the empirical stabilization precautions taken during S Brucella vaccine production.

  10. Plastic welding techniques based on torsional and circular motion.

    PubMed

    Kising, J

    2001-05-01

    The torsion ultrasonic welding process and the frequency decoupled circular friction process at low frequencies deliver low particle production. In addition, the even, circular movement of the circular welding process over the whole seam area and the freely selectable frequency open up applications in the medical field that cannot be achieved, or can only be achieved with difficulty, by traditional welding processes. The processes are fast and can be process controlled to a fine degree with a facility to be integrated into automation lines.

  11. Conceptual design of X band waveguide dual circular polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Tantawi, Sami; Wang, Juwen

    2016-06-01

    A new design of dual circular polarizer is presented in this paper. This innovative design converts radiofrequency (rf) energy from TE10 mode in a rectangular waveguide to two polarized TE11 modes in a circular waveguide. A reflection less than -20 db is achieved and breakdown field is less than 42 MV /m at input of 1 MW. Meanwhile, this polarizer has a megahertz bandwidth, and the thermal stability is also discussed. This device can be used for broadcasting and receiving the circular polarized signals.

  12. Mathematical model for light scanning system based on circular laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peiquan; Yao, Shun; Lu, Fenggui; Tang, Xinhua; Zhang, Wei

    2005-11-01

    A novel light scanning system based on circular laser trajectory for welding robot is developed. With the help of image processing technique, intelligent laser welding could be realized. According to laser triangulation algorithm and Scheimpflug condition, mathematical model for circular laser vision is built. This scanning system projects circular laser onto welded seams and recovers the depth of the welded seams, escapes from shortcomings of less information, explains ambiguity and single tracking direction inherent in "spot" or "line" type laser trajectory. Three-dimensional (3D) model for welded seams could be recognized after depth recovery. The imaging error is investigated also.

  13. On the Mutual Coupling between Circular Resonant Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovshy, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2007-01-01

    For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such an array is impaired by the existing mutual coupling between the radiating elements or in this case circular slots. The mutual coupling problem imposes a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and the overall system sensitivity and dynamic range. In this paper, the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane is investigated both numerically and experimentally. In particular, the mutual coupling in the E- and H-plane configurations of two identical slots is studied.

  14. 75 FR 14057 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40: Introduction, Small Entity... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40; Introduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense...

  15. Z-DNA: vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.; Keck, P.C.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-08-01

    In concentrated salt or ethanolic solutions, the self-complementary copolymer poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) forms a left-handed double-helical structure that has been termed Z-DNA. The first evidence for this structure came from changes observed in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum between 230 and 300 nm for low- and high-salt solutions. In 3 M NaCl, the CD spectrum is approximately inverted compared to the B-form spectrum observed in low salt solution. We measured the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) down to 180 nm under conditions in which the 230- to 300-nm spectrum is inverted. Below 200 nm, where the B form exhibits the large positive peak at 187 nm that is characteristic of right-handed double-helical DNAs, the Z form exhibits a large negative peak at 194 nm and a positive band below 186 nm. Therefore, the Z-form vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum resembles an inverted and red-shifted B-form spectrum. The magnitudes of the differences observed between the B and Z forms in the CD spectrum below 200 nm are about 10 times greater than those observed between 230 and 300 nm. The vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) is 3 M C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ also is inverted compared to the B-form spectrum; however, between 230 and 300 nm, it is nonconservative with a negative maximum at 290 nm and a weak positive CD signal above 300 nm, presumably reflecting differential light scattering and indicating the existence of molecular aggregates. Our results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum is sensitive to the handedness of doublehelical DNA structures.

  16. Z-DNA Vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.; Keck, P.C.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-08-01

    In concentrated salt or ethanolic solutions, the self-complementary copolymer poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) forms a left-handed double-helical structure that has been termed ZDNA. The first evidence for this structure came from changes observed in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum between 230 and 300 nm for low- and high-salt solutions (Pohl, F.M. and Jovin, T.M. (1972) J. Mol. Biol. 67, 675-696). In 3 M NaCl, the CD spectrum is approximately inverted compared to the B-form spectrum observed in low-salt solution. We measured the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) down to 180 nm under conditions in which the 230 to 300 nm spectrum is inverted. Below 200 nm, where the B form exhibits the large positive peak at 187 nm that is characteristic of right-handed double-helical DNAs, the Z form exhibits a large negative peak at 194 nm and a positive band below 186 nm. Therefore, the Z-form vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum resembles an inverted and red-shifted B-form spectrum. The magnitudes of the differences observed between the Band Z forms in the CD spectrum below 200 nm are about 10 times greater than those observed between 230 and 300 nm. The vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) in 3 M Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also is inverted compared to the B-form spectrum; however, between 230 and 300 nm, it is nonconservative with a negative maximum at 290 nm and a weak positive CD signal above 300 nm, presumably reflecting differential light scattering and indicating the existence of molecular aggregates. Our results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum is sensitive to the handedness of double-helical DNA structures.

  17. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments.

  18. The Circular Hydraulic Jump in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the key experimental results and observations that were obtained under NASA grant NAG 3-1627 from the Fluid Physics Program. The Principle Investigator was Thomas Avedisian. In addition a half-time post-doctoral associate, Ziqun Zhao, was funded for half year. The project monitor was David Chao of the NASA-Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The grant period was originally for one year at $34K and a no-cost extension was applied for and granted for an additional year. The research consisted of an experimental study of the circular hydraulic jump (CHJ) in microgravity using water as the working fluid. The evolution of the CHJ radius was measured during a sudden transition from normal to microgravity in a drop tower. The downstream height of the CHJ was controlled by submerging the target plate in a tank filled with water to the desired depth, and the measurements are compared with an existing theory for the location of the CHJ. Results show that the CHJ diameter is larger in microgravity than normal gravity. The adjustment of the CHJ diameter to a sudden change in gravity occurs over a period of about 200ms for the conditions of the present study, and remains constant thereafter for most of the flow conditions examined. For flow conditions that a CHJ was not first established at normal gravity but which later appeared during the transition tb microgravity, the CHJ diameter was not constant during the period of microgravity but continually changed. Good agreement between measured and predicted CHJ radii is found for normal gravity CHJ radii, but comparatively poorer agreement is observed for the CHJ radii measurements in microgravity.

  19. Failure of Non-Circular Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a progressive failure analysis is used to investigate leakage in internally pressurized non-circular composite cylinders. This type of approach accounts for the localized loss of stiffness when material failure occurs at some location in a structure by degrading the local material elastic properties by a certain factor. The manner in which this degradation of material properties takes place depends on the failure modes, which are determined by the application of a failure criterion. The finite-element code STAGS, which has the capability to perform progressive failure analysis using different degradation schemes and failure criteria, is utilized to analyze laboratory scale, graphite-epoxy, elliptical cylinders with quasi-isotropic, circumferentially-stiff, and axially-stiff material orthotropies. The results are divided into two parts. The first part shows that leakage, which is assumed to develop if there is material failure in every layer at some axial and circumferential location within the cylinder, does not occur without failure of fibers. Moreover before fibers begin to fail, only matrix tensile failures, or matrix cracking, takes place, and at least one layer in all three cylinders studied remain uncracked, preventing the formation of a leakage path. That determination is corroborated by the use of different degradation schemes and various failure criteria. Among the degradation schemes investigated are the degradation of different engineering properties, the use of various degradation factors, the recursive or non-recursive degradation of the engineering properties, and the degradation of material properties using different computational approaches. The failure criteria used in the analysis include the noninteractive maximum stress criterion and the interactive Hashin and Tsai-Wu criteria. The second part of the results shows that leakage occurs due to a combination of matrix tensile and compressive, fiber tensile and compressive, and inplane

  20. Ligand Induced Circular Dichroism and Circularly Polarized Luminescence in CdSe Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Tohgha, Urice; Deol, Kirandeep K.; Porter, Ashlin G.; Bartko, Samuel G.; Choi, Jung Kyu; Leonard, Brian M.; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Muller, Gilles; Balaz, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Chiral thiol capping ligands L- and D-cysteines induced modular chiroptical properties in achiral cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs). Cys-CdSe prepared from achiral oleic acid capped CdSe by post-synthetic ligand exchange displayed size-dependent electronic circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Opposite CPL signals were measured for the CdSe QDs capped with D- and L-cysteine. The CD profile and CD anisotropy varied with size of CdSe nanocrystals with largest anisotropy observed for CdSe nanoparticles of 4.4 nm. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR (MAS ssNMR) experiments suggested bidentate interaction between cysteine and the surface of CdSe. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations verified that attachment of L- and D-cysteine to the surface of model (CdSe)13 nanoclusters induces measurable opposite CD signals for the exitonic band of the nanocluster. The chirality was induced by the hybridization of highest occupied CdSe molecular orbitals with those of the chiral ligand. PMID:24200288

  1. Added mass and damping on an oscillating surface-piercing circular column with a circular footing

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Added mass and damping on a vertical, surface-piercing, circular cylinder or column with a submerged sharp-cornered circular floating, oscillating in water of finite and infinite depths are measured using a planar motion mechanism. The model is made of aluminum, and the outer diameters of the column and footing are 26.67 cm and 60.96 cm, and their lengths are 90.17 cm and 22.86 cm, respectively. The bodies were forced to oscillate sinusoidally with small amplitudes, for several submergences below a free surface. The added-mass and wave-damping coefficients are shown to be influenced strongly by the free-surface effect and are presented as a function of water depth, frequency and direction of oscillation and of depth of submergence from the free surface. For the vertical oscillation close to the free surface, negative added mass values are measured, and the predictions of the added mass by a 3-D diffraction theory are 10--20% lower than the experimental values at the model submergences tested. The experimental added mass coefficient values for the horizontal oscillation and the wave damping coefficients for the vertical oscillation in finite depth differ more than 100% from the corresponding 3-D theory prediction at a certain at-sea operational frequency range. This set of data provides further experimental information for the improvement of theoretical predictions.

  2. 48 CFR 53.301-1415 - SF 1415 (Rev. 7/93) Consent of Surety and Increase of Penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false SF 1415 (Rev. 7/93) Consent of Surety and Increase of Penalty. 53.301-1415 Section 53.301-1415 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms...

  3. Livestock Waste Management in a Quality Environment. Circular 1074.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedele, D. G., Ed.

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of livestock operations. It discusses a systematic approach to resolving problems through feedlot runoff control, liquid manure handling, hauling and lagooning, and ditching. (CS)

  4. Supersonic flow around circular cones at angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio

    1951-01-01

    The properties of conical flow without axial symmetry are analyzed. The flow around cones of circular cross section at small angles of attack is determined by correctly considering the effect of the entropy gradients in the flow.

  5. Graphene circular polarization analyzer based on unidirectional excitation of plasmons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bofeng; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Wu, Beilei; Wan, Chenglong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2015-12-14

    In this paper we propose a method of unidirectional excitation of graphene plasmons via metal nanoantenna arrays and reveal its application in a circular polarization analyzer. For nanoantenna pairs with orthogonal orientations, the graphene plasmons are excited through antenna resonances with the direction of propagation can be controlled by incident polarization. On the other hand, based on the spiral shape distribution of antenna arrays, a circular polarization analyzer can be obtained via the interaction of geometric phase effect of antenna arrays and the chirality carried by incident polarization. By utilizing the unidirectional excitation of plasmons, the extinction ratio of analyzer can be improved to over 103, which is at least an order of magnitude larger than the result of antenna pairs with same orientations or antenna arrays with closed circular shape formation. The proposed analyzer may find applications in analyzing chiral molecules using different circularly polarized waves.

  6. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of circular dorsal ruffle formation

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Toshiki; Hasegawa, Junya

    2013-01-01

    Growth factor stimulations induce dynamic changes in the cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane. Among them is the formation of membrane ruffles organized in a circular array, called ‘circular dorsal ruffles’ (CDRs). Physiological functions of CDRs include downregulation of cell growth by desensitizing the signalling from growth factor receptors as well as rearrangement of adhesion sites at the onset of cell migration. For the formation of CDRs, not only the activators of actin polymerization, such as N-WASP and the Arp2/3-complex, but also membrane deforming proteins with BAR/F-BAR domains are necessary. Small GTPases are also involved in the formation of CDRs by controlling intracellular trafficking through endosomes. Moreover, recent analyses of another circular cytoskeletal structure, podosome rosettes, have revealed common molecular features shared with CDRs. Among them, the roles of PI3-kinase and phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase may hold the key to the induction of these circular structures. PMID:23175656

  7. Recent progress in circular high-power overmoded waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huting, William A.; Warren, Jeffery W.; Krill, Jerry A.

    1991-03-01

    To support future combat system requirements, the use of circular TE(01) mode 'overmoded' waveguide technology has been investigated. A circular TE(01) mode overmoded waveguide of a sheathed-helix design has been optimized for application to microwave bands subject to high-power and low-attenuation objectives and to bend and cross-sectional size constraints. New circular TE(01) mode components, such as the multiple-port rectangular TE(10) to circular TE(01) mode waveguide transition, the mode-transitioning elbow, and a mode filter, provide further design flexibility for high-power waveguide systems. An application of the technology under consideration to a combat system element has been successfully demonstrated in the Cooperative Engagement Capability developed under APL technical direction.

  8. 29. CIRCULAR WASH BASIN, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CIRCULAR WASH BASIN, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Circular, explosion-proof lamp provides uniform illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Circular explosion-proof fluorescent lamp is fitted around a TV camera lens to provide shadowless illumination with a low radiant heat flux. The lamp is mounted in a transparent acrylic housing sealed with clear silicone rubber.

  10. 27. VIEW OF THE CIRCULAR ENTRANCE DRIVE AND CENTER BED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF THE CIRCULAR ENTRANCE DRIVE AND CENTER BED, LOOKING OUT A SECOND-STORY WINDDOW. (NOTE: REPAIRED RUSTIC STONE WALKWAY AND CURB ON LEFT). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  11. SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF CIRCULAR DICHROISM AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION ANISOTROPY.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2002-01-19

    Circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy are important tools for characterizing biomolecular systems. Both are used extensively in kinetic experiments involving stopped- or continuous flow systems as well as titrations and steady-state spectroscopy. This paper presents the theory for determining circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy simultaneously, thus insuring the two parameters are recorded under exactly the same conditions and at exactly the same time in kinetic experiments. The approach to measuring circular dichroism is that used in almost all conventional dichrographs. Two arrangements for measuring fluorescence polarization anisotropy are described. One uses a single fluorescence detector and signal processing with a lock-in amplifier that is similar to the measurement of circular dichroism. The second approach uses classic ''T'' format detection optics, and thus can be used with conventional photon-counting detection electronics. Simple extensions permit the simultaneous measurement of the absorption and excitation intensity corrected fluorescence intensity.

  12. Procedure for Detecting Outliers in a Circular Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Rambli, Adzhar; Abuzaid, Ali H. M.; Mohamed, Ibrahim Bin; Hussin, Abdul Ghapor

    2016-01-01

    A number of circular regression models have been proposed in the literature. In recent years, there is a strong interest shown on the subject of outlier detection in circular regression. An outlier detection procedure can be developed by defining a new statistic in terms of the circular residuals. In this paper, we propose a new measure which transforms the circular residuals into linear measures using a trigonometric function. We then employ the row deletion approach to identify observations that affect the measure the most, a candidate of outlier. The corresponding cut-off points and the performance of the detection procedure when applied on Down and Mardia’s model are studied via simulations. For illustration, we apply the procedure on circadian data. PMID:27064566

  13. 79. Interior detail of circular forebay showing valve for sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Interior detail of circular forebay showing valve for sluice gate No. 2, looking north. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. 77. East facade of circular forebay showing overflow well. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. East facade of circular forebay showing overflow well. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  15. 78. Interior of circular forebay showing valves for operating sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. Interior of circular forebay showing valves for operating sluice gates, looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  16. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  17. Molecular photoelectron holography with circularly polarized laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weifeng; Sheng, Zhihao; Feng, Xingpan; Wu, Miaoli; Chen, Zhangjin; Song, Xiaohong

    2014-02-10

    We investigate the photoelectron momentum distribution of molecular-ion H2+driven by ultrashort intense circularly polarized laser pulses. Both numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) and a quasiclassical model indicate that the photoelectron holography (PH) with circularly polarized pulses can occur in molecule. It is demonstrated that the interference between the direct electron wave and rescattered electron wave from one core to its neighboring core induces the PH. Moreover, the results of the TDSE predict that there is a tilt angle between the interference pattern of the PH and the direction perpendicular to the molecular axis. Furthermore, the tilt angle is sensitively dependent on the wavelength of the driven circularly polarized pulse, which is confirmed by the quasiclassical calculations. The PH induced by circularly polarized laser pulses provides a tool to resolve the electron dynamics and explore the spatial information of molecular structures.

  18. Resolution of Multimeric Forms of Circular Plasmids and Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Crozat, Estelle; Fournes, Florian; Cornet, François; Hallet, Bernard; Rousseau, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    One of the disadvantages of circular plasmids and chromosomes is their high sensitivity to rearrangements caused by homologous recombination. Odd numbers of crossing-over occurring during or after replication of a circular replicon result in the formation of a dimeric molecule in which the two copies of the replicon are fused. If they are not converted back to monomers, the dimers of replicons may fail to correctly segregate at the time of cell division. Resolution of multimeric forms of circular plasmids and chromosomes is mediated by site-specific recombination, and the enzymes that catalyze this type of reaction fall into two families of proteins: the serine and tyrosine recombinase families. Here we give an overview of the variety of site-specific resolution systems found on circular plasmids and chromosomes.

  19. 11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX CARS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF CIRCULAR BRONZE ROLLER GATE POSITION GAUGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF CIRCULAR BRONZE ROLLER GATE POSITION GAUGE, ROLLER GATE PIER HOUSE, TYPE 2A, DAM - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 11, Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  1. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P.; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by “fishbone” gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  2. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A; Linfield, Edmund H; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-30

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by "fishbone" gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed.

  3. Solar concentrating properties of truncated hexagonal, pyramidal and circular cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhard, D. G.; Strobel, G. L.; Shealy, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The solar concentrating properties of specularly reflecting truncated pyramidal, hexagonal, and circular cones are evaluated. Pyramidal and hexagonal configurations are discussed with reference to the concentration factor as a function of half apex angle and the length of the side over the width, and to the irradiance distribution. Expressions are derived for the concentration factor and the irradiance at the base of a circular cone when the sunlight is incident normal to the aperture and for oblique incidence.

  4. Circular dichroism beamline B23 at the Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well established technique in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline, dedicated to circular dichroism, at Diamond Light Source Ltd, a third-generation synchrotron facility in south Oxfordshire, UK, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein the main characteristics of the B23 SRCD beamline, the ancillary facilities available for users, and some of the recent advances achieved are summarized.

  5. Entropic derivation of F=ma for circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Michael; Singleton, Douglas; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2011-11-01

    We examine the entropic picture of Newton's second law for the case of circular motion. It is shown that one must make modifications to the derivation of F = ma due to a change in the effective Unruh temperature for circular motion. These modifications present a challenge to the entropic derivation of Newton's second law, but also open up the possibility to experimentally test and constrain this model for large centripetal accelerations. (Phys. Lett. B 703 (2011) 516-518)

  6. Entropic derivation of F = m a for circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Michael; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Singleton, Douglas

    2011-09-01

    We examine the entropic picture of Newton's second law for the case of circular motion. It is shown that one must make modifications to the derivation of F = ma due to a change in the effective Unruh temperature for circular motion. These modifications present a challenge to the entropic derivation of Newton's second law, but also open up the possibility to experimentally test and constrain this model for large centripetal accelerations.

  7. Circular electrode geometry metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, James A. (Inventor); Towe, Elias (Inventor); Bishop, William L. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a high speed, metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector which comprises a pair of generally circular, electrically conductive electrodes formed on an optically active semiconductor layer. Various embodiments of the invention include a spiral, intercoiled electrode geometry and an electrode geometry comprised of substantially circular, concentric electrodes which are interposed. These electrode geometries result in photodetectors with lower capacitances, dark currents and lower inductance which reduces the ringing seen in the optical pulse response.

  8. Circular electrode geometry metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaddo, James A. (Inventor); Towe, Elias (Inventor); Bishop, William L. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention comprises a high speed, metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector which comprises a pair of generally circular, electrically conductive electrodes formed on an optically active semiconductor layer. Various embodiments of the invention include a spiral, intercoiled electrode geometry and an electrode geometry comprised of substantially circular, concentric electrodes which are interposed. These electrode geometries result in photodetectors with lower capacitances, dark currents and lower inductance which reduces the ringing seen in the optical pulse response.

  9. Electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Lebon, France; Tommasini, Matteo

    2012-09-01

    Apomorphine is a chiral drug molecule; notwithstanding its extraordinary importance, little attention has been paid to the characterization of its chiroptical properties. Here we report on its electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, recorded in methanol and water, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have allowed us to interpret the spectra and to evaluate the role of possible conformations, charge-states and interactions with counter ions.

  10. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C.; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400–800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72–24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally. PMID:25568813

  11. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-12-02

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400-800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72-24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally.

  12. Experimental circular quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber network.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ke-Jin; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hui

    2013-07-15

    We present a robust single photon circular quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme with phase encoding over 50 km single mode fiber network using a circular QSS protocol. Our scheme can automatically provide a perfect compensation of birefringence and remain stable for a long time. A high visibility of 99.3% is obtained. Furthermore, our scheme realizes a polarization insensitive phase modulators. The visibility of this system can be maintained perpetually without any adjustment to the system every time we test the system.

  13. [Integrated evaluation of circular agriculture system: a life cycle perspective].

    PubMed

    Liang, Long; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    For the point of view that recycling economy system is one of ways to achieve the low-carbon economy, we have made an evaluation on a typical circular agriculture duck industry in Hunan Province, China, through improving the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA). The analysis indicated that the consumption of non-renewable resources, land and water were 48.629 MJ, 2.36 m2 and 1 321.41 kg, while the potential greenhouse gas (GHGs), acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity were 11 543.26 g (CO2 eq), 52.36g (SO2eq), 25.83g (PO4eq), 1.26, 60.74 and 24.65 g (1,4-DCBeq), respectively. The potential damage of aquatic eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity was more serious than that of GHGs. Main results were following: i. the circular agricultural chain promoted the principle of "moderate circulation", which based on the traditional production methods; ii. circular agriculture could not blindly pursue low carbon development. Instead, soil and biological carbon sequestration should be considered, in addition to reducing carbon emissions; iii. circular economy and circular agriculture should take other potential environmental impacts into account such as acidification, eutrophication and ecotoxicity,with the exception to carbon emissions,to developed integrated system assessment; iv. LCA could provide a comprehensive assessment of circular agriculture, and it was worth of further study.

  14. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  15. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  16. Rehabilitation Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...

  17. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  18. In Vitro Metabolic Studies of REV-ERB Agonists SR9009 and SR9011

    PubMed Central

    Geldof, Lore; Deventer, Koen; Roels, Kris; Tudela, Eva; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    SR9009 and SR9011 are attractive as performance-enhancing substances due to their REV-ERB agonist effects and thus circadian rhythm modulation activity. Although no pharmaceutical preparations are available yet, illicit use of SR9009 and SR9011 for doping purposes can be anticipated, especially since SR9009 is marketed in illicit products. Therefore, the aim was to identify potential diagnostic metabolites via in vitro metabolic studies to ensure effective (doping) control. The presence of SR9009 could be demonstrated in a black market product purchased over the Internet. Via human liver microsomal metabolic assays, eight metabolites were detected for SR9009 and fourteen metabolites for SR9011 by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS). Structure elucidation was performed for all metabolites by LC–HRMS product ion scans in both positive and negative ionization mode. Retrospective data analysis was applied to 1511 doping control samples previously analyzed by a full-scan LC–HRMS screening method to verify the presence of SR9009, SR9011 and their metabolites. So far, the presence of neither the parent compound nor the metabolites could be detected in routine urine samples. However, to further discourage use of these potentially harmful compounds, incorporation of SR9009 and SR9011 into screening methods is highly recommended. PMID:27706103

  19. Effect of nacelle on the wake meandering in Horns Rev wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Foti, Daniel; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    Turbine wake meandering has considerable effects on the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity in the wake. However, the mechanism for wake meandering is still not well understood and low-order models cannot take into account the wake meandering effects accurately. A recent work by Kang, Yang and Sotiropoulos showed that the nacelle has a significant effect on the wake meandering of a hydrokinetic turbine. To examine the nacelle contributions to wake meandering and wake interactions in utility-scale wind farms, we simulate the atmospheric turbulent flow over the Horns Rev wind farm using large-eddy simulation with actuator type models. In a preliminary simulation on a coarse grid using actuator line model for turbine blades without a nacelle model, the computed power shows overall good agreement with field measurements. Fine grid simulations using an actuator surface model for turbine blades with and without a nacelle model are being carried out. The corresponding results will be presented with analysis on wake meandering dynamics using the technique proposed by Horward et al. and Foti et al.. This work was supported by DOE (DE-AC04-94AL85000), Xcel Energy (Grant RD4-13) and Sandia National Laboratories. Computational resources were provided by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  20. Modeling RNA-ligand interactions: the Rev-binding element RNA-aminoglycoside complex.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, F; Cedergren, R

    1998-01-15

    An approach to the modeling of ligand-RNA complexes has been developed by combining three-dimensional structure-activity relationship (3D-SAR) computations with a docking protocol. The ability of 3D-SAR to predict bound conformations of flexible ligands was first assessed by attempting to reconstruct the known, bound conformations of phenyloxazolines complexed with human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) RNA. Subsequently, the same 3D-SAR analysis was applied to the identification of bound conformations of aminoglycosides which associate with the Rev-binding element (RBE) RNA. Bound conformations were identified by parsing ligand conformational data sets with pharmacophores determined by the 3D-SAR analysis. These "bioactive" structures were docked to the receptor RNA, and optimization of the complex was undertaken by extensive searching of ligand conformational space coupled with molecular dynamics computations. The similarity between the bound conformations of the ligand from the 3D-SAR analysis and those found in the docking protocol suggests that this methodology is valid for the prediction of bound ligand conformations and the modeling of the structure of the ligand-RNA complexes.

  1. Dynamical mechanism of Bmal 1 / Rev- erbα loop in circadian clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zengrong

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, the circadian clock is driven by multiple integrated transcriptional feedback loops involving three kinds of central clock-controlled elements (CCEs): E-boxes, D-boxes and ROR-elements. With the aid of CCEs, the concentrations of the active proteins are approximated by the delayed concentrations of mRNAs, which simplifies the circadian system drastically. The regulatory loop composed by BMAL1 and REV-ERB- α plays important roles in circadian clock. With delay differential equations, we gave a mathematical model of this loop and investigated its dynamical mechanisms. Specially, we theoretically provided the sufficient conditions for sustained oscillation of the loop with Hopf bifurcation theory. The total of delays determines the emergence of oscillators, which explains the crucial roles of delays in circadian clock revealed by biological experiments. Numerically, we studied the amplitude and period against the variations of delays and the degradation rates. The different sensitivities of amplitude and period on these factors provide ideas to adjust the amplitude or period of circadian oscillators.

  2. In Vivo Monitoring Program Manual, PNL-MA-574, Rev 5.1

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2011-09-12

    The following sections provide an overview of the administration for the In Vivo Monitoring Program (IVMP) for Hanford. This includes the organizational structure and program responsibilities; coordination of in vivo measurements; scheduling measurements; performing measurements; reporting results; and quality assurance.

  3. Legal and Administrative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  4. Women in Administration 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. Office of Communications Services.

    In a survey by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC), women are shown to hold 2,905 of the 13,638 administrative positions reported by 106 major U.S. public universities--slightly more than 21 percent of the administrators at state and land-grant universities. The median number of women administrators at…

  5. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  6. n-Nucleotide circular codes in graph theory.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-13

    The circular code theory proposes that genes are constituted of two trinucleotide codes: the classical genetic code with 61 trinucleotides for coding the 20 amino acids (except the three stop codons {TAA,TAG,TGA}) and a circular code based on 20 trinucleotides for retrieving, maintaining and synchronizing the reading frame. It relies on two main results: the identification of a maximal C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code X in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel 2015 J. Theor. Biol. 380, 156-177. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.04.009); Arquès & Michel 1996 J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58. (doi:10.1006/jtbi.1996.0142)) and the finding of X circular code motifs in tRNAs and rRNAs, in particular in the ribosome decoding centre (Michel 2012 Comput. Biol. Chem. 37, 24-37. (doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2011.10.002); El Soufi & Michel 2014 Comput. Biol. Chem. 52, 9-17. (doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2014.08.001)). The univerally conserved nucleotides A1492 and A1493 and the conserved nucleotide G530 are included in X circular code motifs. Recently, dinucleotide circular codes were also investigated (Michel & Pirillo 2013 ISRN Biomath. 2013, 538631. (doi:10.1155/2013/538631); Fimmel et al. 2015 J. Theor. Biol. 386, 159-165. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.08.034)). As the genetic motifs of different lengths are ubiquitous in genes and genomes, we introduce a new approach based on graph theory to study in full generality n-nucleotide circular codes X, i.e. of length 2 (dinucleotide), 3 (trinucleotide), 4 (tetranucleotide), etc. Indeed, we prove that an n-nucleotide code X is circular if and only if the corresponding graph [Formula: see text] is acyclic. Moreover, the maximal length of a path in [Formula: see text] corresponds to the window of nucleotides in a sequence for detecting the correct reading frame. Finally, the graph theory of tournaments is applied to the study of dinucleotide circular codes. It has full equivalence between the combinatorics

  7. Circular-polarization ratios for aggregates of spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkki, A.; Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.

    2012-04-01

    A basic strategy for observing a small solar-system object using radar is to measure the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency for a circularly polarized transmitted wave, in the same and opposite senses of circular polarization. The measurement can be repeated for differing orientations and plane-of-sky directions of the object. The circular-polarization ratio μ is the ratio of the echo power in the same circular-polarization state (SC) to that in the opposite circular-polarization state (OC). The ratio μ is often the most important physical observable with the radar technique, as it provides the best indications for wavelength-scale complexity of the surface. At the typical transmitter frequencies of 2380 MHz or 8495 MHz, the wavelengths are 12.6 cm or 3.5 cm, respectively. We model electromagnetic scattering from closely-packed random aggregates of spheres imitating the structure of an asteroid's regolith. Both scattering and absorption of the electromagnetic wave are treated. The Multiple-Sphere T -Matrix Method computer software (MSTM; D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, JQSRT 112, 1282, 2011) is utilized to study how different parameters affect the circular-polarization ratio, e.g., the size distribution and electric permittivities of the spherical particles forming the different aggregates. Our primary goal is to see if the computed circular-polarization ratios can be linked to the observational data of asteroids detected with radar. The results of the simulations show striking structure for the circular-polarization ratio as a function of the size parameter and the electric permittivity of the medium. Also differences between aggregates of monodisperse and polydisperse spheres clearly exist: the aggregates consisting of polydisperse spherical particles, and hence, showing more complex structure and surface, result in circular-polarization ratios higher than the aggregates of monodisperse spherical particles, probably due to the

  8. Rev1 promotes replication through UV lesions in conjunction with DNA polymerases η, ι, and κ but not DNA polymerase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jeseong; Conde, Juan; Wakamiya, Maki; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases (Pols) promote replication through DNA lesions; however, little is known about the protein factors that affect their function in human cells. In yeast, Rev1 plays a noncatalytic role as an indispensable component of Polζ, and Polζ together with Rev1 mediates a highly mutagenic mode of TLS. However, how Rev1 functions in TLS and mutagenesis in human cells has remained unclear. Here we determined the role of Rev1 in TLS opposite UV lesions in human and mouse fibroblasts and showed that Rev1 is indispensable for TLS mediated by Polη, Polι, and Polκ but is not required for TLS by Polζ. In contrast to its role in mutagenic TLS in yeast, Rev1 promotes predominantly error-free TLS opposite UV lesions in humans. The identification of Rev1 as an indispensable scaffolding component for Polη, Polι, and Polκ, which function in TLS in highly specialized ways opposite a diverse array of DNA lesions and act in a predominantly error-free manner, implicates a crucial role for Rev1 in the maintenance of genome stability in humans. PMID:26680302

  9. Public Data Set: Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Bongard, Michael W.; Schlossberg, David J.; Winz, Gregory R.

    2016-07-18

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in M.G. Burke et al., 'Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)],' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 079902 (2016).

  10. Rev1 is essential in generating G to C transversions downstream of the Ung2 pathway but not the Msh2+Ung2 hybrid pathway.

    PubMed

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; Wit, Niek; van den Berk, Paul Cornelius Maria; de Wind, Niels; Jacobs, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes are initiated by the enzymatic deamination of cytosine (C) to uracil (U). Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (Ung2) converts uracils into apyrimidinic (AP) sites, which is essential for the generation of transversions (TVs) at G/C basepairs during SHM and for efficient DNA break formation during CSR. Besides Ung2, the mismatch repair protein Msh2 and the translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase (Pol) Rev1 are implicated in SHM and CSR. To further unravel the role of Rev1, we studied WT, Rev1-deficient, Msh2-deficient, and Rev1, Msh2 double-deficient B cells. Loss of Rev1 only slightly reduced CSR. During SHM G/C to C/G TVs are generated in both Ung2- and Ung+Msh2-dependent fashions. We found that Rev1 is essential for the Msh2-independent generation of these TVs downstream of Ung2-induced AP sites. In the Ung+Msh2 hybrid pathway, Rev1 is not essential and can be substituted by an alternative TLS Pol, especially when Rev1 is lacking.

  11. Dominant negative mutants of human T-cell leukemia virus type I Rex and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev fail to multimerize in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, H; Greene, W C

    1993-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Rex and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev are essential gene products required for the replication of these two pathogenic human retroviruses. Both Rex and Rev act at a posttranscriptional level by binding to highly structured RNA-response elements, the Rex-response element in HTLV-I and the Rev-response element in HIV-1. Using a sensitive in vivo assay of protein-protein interaction, we now demonstrate that the HTLV-I Rex and HIV-1 Rev proteins readily form homomultimeric complexes in the absence of their cognate RNA-response elements yet fail to form heteromultimeric complexes with each other. Dominant negative mutations have been identified in both the rex and rev genes which presumably specify a critical activation or effector domain in each of these viral transactivators. Surprisingly, these dominant negative mutants of Rex and Rev fail to interact in vivo. These findings raise the possibility that the binding of nonfunctional monomers rather than functional multimers underlies the transdominant phenotype of these Rex and Rev mutants. Further, it seems likely that the assembly of functional and stable multimers of Rex and Rev in vivo may depend not only on the intrinsic multimerization domains of these proteins but also on the binding of a bridging cellular cofactor to the related activation domains present in each viral transactivator. Images PMID:8474155

  12. Circular dichroism and magnetic circular dichroism of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I.

    PubMed

    Stephens, P J; Jensen, G M; Devlin, F J; Morgan, T V; Stout, C D; Martin, A E; Burgess, B K

    1991-04-02

    Room temperature circular dichroism (CD) and low temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of air-oxidized and dithionite-reduced Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I (FdI), a [( 4Fe-4S]2+/1+, [3Fe-4S]1+/0) protein, are reported. Unlike the CD of oxidized FdI, the CD of dithionite-reduced FdI exhibits significant pH dependence, consistent with protonation-deprotonation at or near the cluster reduced: the [3Fe-4S] cluster. The MCD of reduced FdI, which originates in the paramagnetic reduced [3Fe-4S]0 cluster, is also pH-dependent. Detailed studies of the field dependence and temperature dependence of the MCD of oxidized and reduced FdI, in the latter case at pH 6.0 and 8.3, are reported. The low-field temperature dependence of the MCD of oxidized FdI, which originates in the paramagnetic oxidized [3Fe-4S]1+ cluster, establishes the absence of a significant population of excited electronic states of this cluster up to 60 K. The low-field temperature dependence of the MCD of reduced FdI establishes that the ground-state manifold of the reduced [3Fe-4S]0 cluster possesses S greater than or equal to 2 at both pH 6.0 and 8.3. Analysis, assuming S = 2 and an axial zero-field splitting Hamiltonian, leads to D = -2.0 and -3.5 cm-1 at pH 6.0 and 8.3, respectively. The site of the (de)protonation affecting the spectroscopic properties of the [3Fe-4S] cluster remains unknown.

  13. Circular dichroism and magnetic circular dichroism of reduced molybdenum-iron protein of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase.

    PubMed

    Stephens, P J; McKenna, C E; McKenna, M C; Nguyen, H T; Devlin, F

    1981-05-12

    Studies of the circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of the dithionite-reduced molybdenum-iron protein of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase (Av1) are reported. CD and MCD are measurable at room temperature across a wide spectral range, from the near-UV to the near-IR. The visible-near-UV CD is insignificantly affected by moderate variations in pH, temperature, ionic strength, and buffer, providing evidence against conformational change in the range studied. Mg2+ and ATP also cause no observable change in the visible-near-UV CD. Both CD and MCD in the visible-near-UV are unaffected by 30% inactivation by O2. However, the CD and MCD spectra of uncrystallized Av1 differ very significantly from those of crystallized Av1; in particular, the MCD spectrum is very sensitive to the presence of heme impurities. The identicality in both CD and MCD spectra of the reduced molybdenum-iron proteins from Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella pneumoniae shows that these proteins contain metal clusters, identical in number, structure, and protein environment. While the absorption, CD, and MCD spectra of reduced Av1 are typical in many respects of simpler iron-sulfur proteins and are most similar to the [Fe4S4(SR)4]3- clusters found in reduced bacterial ferredoxins, significant differences exist. It is concluded, therefore, that the clusters present are not identical with those previously characterized, a conclusion earlier arrived at from electron paramagnetic resonance, Mössbauer, and EXAFS spectroscopies.

  14. Circularization of tidally disrupted stars around spinning supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Stone, Nicholas; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    We study the circularization of tidally disrupted stars on bound orbits around spinning supermassive black holes by performing 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with post-Newtonian corrections. Our simulations reveal that debris circularization depends sensitively on the efficiency of radiative cooling. There are two stages in debris circularization if radiative cooling is inefficient: first, the stellar debris streams self-intersect due to relativistic apsidal precession; shocks at the intersection points thermalize orbital energy and the debris forms a geometrically thick, ring-like structure around the black hole. The ring rapidly spreads via viscous diffusion, leading to the formation of a geometrically thick accretion disc. In contrast, if radiative cooling is efficient, the stellar debris circularizes due to self-intersection shocks and forms a geometrically thin ring-like structure. In this case, the dissipated energy can be emitted during debris circularization as a precursor to the subsequent tidal disruption flare. The circularization time-scale is remarkably long in the radiatively efficient cooling case, and is also sensitive to black hole spin. Specifically, Lense-Thirring torques cause dynamically important nodal precession, which significantly delays debris circularization. On the other hand, nodal precession is too slow to produce observable signatures in the radiatively inefficient case. Since the stellar debris is optically thick and its photon diffusion time is likely longer than the time-scale of shock heating, our inefficient cooling scenario is more generally applicable in eccentric tidal disruption events (TDEs). However, in parabolic TDEs for MBH ≳ 2 × 106 M⊙, the spin-sensitive behaviour associated with efficient cooling may be realized.

  15. Remote Sensing of Life using Circular Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagdimunov, L.; Kolokolova, L.; Sparks, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    An emerging interest in circular polarization (CP) has developed over the last fifteen years in astronomy, stimulated by the discovery of high CP in the Orion nebula, and its possible connection to prebiotic chemistry. Traditionally, CP was thought to be rarely present in astronomy, and has been technically difficult to measure. Nevertheless, CP has now been reliably measured in planets, interstellar dust, molecular clouds, stars, protoplanetary disks, and comets. Several effects can produce CP in such objects: multiple scattering in asymmetric media, scattering by aligned particles, and scattering by intrinsically asymmetric particles; the later effect is of particular interest to this study. One of the most widespread and intriguing intrinsic asymmetries is homochirality, which is the dominance of one handedness of chiral organic molecules that exist in two mirror-symmetric forms. Homochirality is a property shared by all terrestrial life, and the presence of this microscopic asymmetry has the potential to have macroscopic consequences by introducing CP in scattered light. Recently this effect has been studied in the lab by Sparks et al [2009, PNAS, 7816], who found that light scattered by photosynthesizing organisms (such as macroscopic vegetation or microscopic bacteria), has a significant degree of CP with a peculiar and possibly unique spectral pattern. Non-homochiral aggregates do not display any detectable CP. To further investigate CP induced by homochirality, we modeled light scattering by biological objects, representing them as aggregates of spheres since aggregated structure is typical for many biological objects, e.g. chlorophyll in leaves and colonies of bacteria. Our computations were based on the T-matrix code recently updated to treat chiral materials [Mackowski et al, 2011, JQSRT 112, 1726]. Results of our computations replicated the lab measurements. They showed that inside the absorption band, CP experienced a dramatic change in slope, which

  16. Mapping Wind Farm Loads and Power Production - A Case Study on Horns Rev 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinos, Christos; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Larsen, Torben J.; Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Kurt S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a wind turbine (WT) component lifetime fatigue load variation map within an offshore wind farm. A case study on the offshore wind farm Horns Rev I is conducted with this purpose, by quantifying wake effects using the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) method, which has previously been validated based on CFD, Lidar and full scale load measurements. Fully coupled aeroelastic load simulations using turbulent wind conditions are conducted for all wind directions and mean wind speeds between cut-in and cut-out using site specific turbulence level measurements. Based on the mean wind speed and direction distribution, the representative 20-year lifetime fatigue loads are calculated. It is found that the heaviest loaded WT is not the same when looking at blade root, tower top or tower base components. The blade loads are mainly dominated by the wake situations above rated wind speed and the highest loaded blades are in the easternmost row as the dominating wind direction is from West. Regarding the tower components, the highest loaded WTs are also located towards the eastern central location. The turbines with highest power production are, not surprisingly, the ones facing a free sector towards west and south. The power production results of few turbines are compared with SCADA data. The results of this paper are expected to have significance for operation and maintenance planning, where the schedules for inspection and service activities can be adjusted to the requirements arising from the varying fatigue levels. Furthermore, the results can be used in the context of remaining fatigue lifetime assessment and planning of decommissioning.

  17. On electrostatically actuated NEMS/MEMS circular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruntu, Dumitru I.; Alvarado, Iris

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with electrostatically actuated micro and nano-electromechanical (MEMS/NEMS) circular plates. The system under investigation consists of two bodies, a deformable and conductive circular plate placed above a fixed, rigid and conductive ground plate. The deformable circular plate is electrostatically actuated by applying an AC voltage between the two plates. Nonlinear parametric resonance and pull-in occur at certain frequencies and relatively large AC voltage, respectively. Such phenomena are useful for applications such as sensors, actuators, switches, micro-pumps, micro-tweezers, chemical and mass sensing, and micro-mirrors. A mathematical model of clamped circular MEMS/NEMS electrostatically actuated plates has been developed. Since the model is in the micro- and nano-scale, surface forces, van der Waals and/or Casimir, acting on the plate are included. A perturbation method, the Method of Multiple Scales (MMS), is used for investigating the case of weakly nonlinear MEMS/NEMS circular plates. Two time scales, fast and slow, are considered in this work. The amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency response of the plate in the case of primary resonance are obtained and discussed.

  18. Lunar Maria and circular basins-a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart-Alexander, D. E.; Howard, K.A.

    1970-01-01

    Lunar Orbiter data make it possible to examine the distribution and relations of maria and large circular basins over the entire Moon. The restricted distribution and age of the maria are in marked contrast to the apparently random distribution in time and place of the circular basins, some of which contain mare fillings. The circular basins are believed to be impact scars, and the maria to be volcanic fills which in each case are younger than the structures they fill. Twenty-nine circular basins 300 km wide or wider are recognized. They are placed in an age sequence because successive stages of degradation can be recognized from the fresh Orientale basin to the almost obliterated basin containing Mare Australe. The maria were emplaced during a short span of lunar history, although some light plains of the highlands may be older maria lightened through age. The present maria are topographically low, tend to be associated with large circular basins, and lie in a crude global belt of regional concentrations; 94% are on the hemisphere facing the Earth. Possible explanations offered for these patterns of mare distribution include impact-induced volcanism, volcanic extrusion to a hydrostatic level, isostatic compensation, lateral heterogeneity in the lunar interior, subcrustal convection, and volcanism due to disruption by Earth's gravity. ?? 1970.

  19. Cone beam 3D reconstruction with double circular trajectory

    SciTech Connect

    Rizo, P. CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 . Lab. d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique); Grangeat, P.; Sire, P.; Lemasson, P. . Lab. d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique); Delageniere, S. )

    1990-11-01

    In x-ray cone beam tomography the only planar source trajectory which do not produce incomplete data is the infinite line. This kind of source trajectory is not experimentally doable. To ensure a complete data acquisition with cone beam radiographs, a set of non planar trajectory has been studied. Among the trajectories proposed in the literature a simple one is the set of 2 circular trajectories with intersection of the two circular trajectories with intersection of the two trajectory axis. The angle between the two axis is related to the maximum aperture of the cone beam. We propose here an exact method to perform this reconstruction using the 3D radon transform of the object. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of this algorithm remain identical to the MTF on the central slice of reconstruction with single circular trajectory. The density relative mean square error stays within 2% for an aperture of {plus minus}30{degree}. With single circular trajectory the relative mean square error may reach 20% at the same aperture. With double circular trajectory, horizontal artifacts are almost suppressed. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Circularly Polarized Light as a Communication Signal in Mantis Shrimps.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Templin, Rachel Marie; How, Martin John; Marshall, N Justin

    2015-12-07

    Animals that communicate using conspicuous body patterns face a trade-off between desired detection by intended receivers and undesired detection from eavesdropping predators, prey, rivals, or parasites. In some cases, this trade-off favors the evolution of signals that are both hidden from predators and visible to conspecifics. Animals may produce covert signals using a property of light that is invisible to those that they wish to evade, allowing them to hide in plain sight (e.g., dragonfish can see their own, otherwise rare, red bioluminescence). The use of the polarization of light is a good example of a potentially covert communication channel, as very few vertebrates are known to use polarization for object-based vision. However, even these patterns are vulnerable to eavesdroppers, as sensitivity to the linearly polarized component of light is widespread among invertebrates due to their intrinsically polarization sensitive photoreceptors. Stomatopod crustaceans appear to have gone one step further in this arms race and have evolved a sensitivity to the circular polarization of light, along with body patterns producing it. However, to date we have no direct evidence that any of these marine crustaceans use this modality to communicate with conspecifics. We therefore investigated circular polarization vision of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus and demonstrate that (1) the species produces strongly circularly polarized body patterns, (2) they discriminate the circular polarization of light, and (3) that they use circular polarization information to avoid occupied burrows when seeking a refuge.