Science.gov

Sample records for administrative control level

  1. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amigud, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public…

  2. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  3. Modulation of GLUT4 expression by oral administration of Mg(2+) to control sugar levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Haniah; Soltani, Nepton; MaleKzadeh, Kianoosh; Sohrabipour, Shahla; Zhang, Nina; Nasri, Sema; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-06-01

    It has been previously shown that oral magnesium administration decreases the levels of glucose in the plasma. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of GLUT4 on plasma glucose levels by orally administering magnesium sulfate to diabetic rats. Animals were distributed among 4 groups (n = 10 rats per group): one group served as the non-diabetic control, while the other groups had diabetes induced by streptozotocin (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection). The diabetic rats were either given insulin by i.p. injection (2.5 U·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)), or magnesium sulfate in their drinking water (10 g·L(-1)). After 8 weeks of treatment, we conducted an i.p. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), measured blood glucose and plasma magnesium levels, and performed in-vitro and in-vivo insulin level measurements by radioimmunoassay. Gastrocnemius (leg) muscles were isolated for the measurement of GLU4 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Administration of magnesium sulfate improved IPGTT and lowered blood glucose levels almost to the normal range. However, the insulin levels were not changed in either of the in-vitro or in-vivo studies. The expression of GLU4 mRNA increased 23% and 10% in diabetic magnesium-treated and insulin-treated groups, respectively. Our findings suggest that magnesium lowers blood glucose levels via increased GLU4 mRNA expression, independent to insulin secretion.

  4. Modulation of GLUT4 expression by oral administration of Mg(2+) to control sugar levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Haniah; Soltani, Nepton; MaleKzadeh, Kianoosh; Sohrabipour, Shahla; Zhang, Nina; Nasri, Sema; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-06-01

    It has been previously shown that oral magnesium administration decreases the levels of glucose in the plasma. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of GLUT4 on plasma glucose levels by orally administering magnesium sulfate to diabetic rats. Animals were distributed among 4 groups (n = 10 rats per group): one group served as the non-diabetic control, while the other groups had diabetes induced by streptozotocin (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection). The diabetic rats were either given insulin by i.p. injection (2.5 U·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)), or magnesium sulfate in their drinking water (10 g·L(-1)). After 8 weeks of treatment, we conducted an i.p. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), measured blood glucose and plasma magnesium levels, and performed in-vitro and in-vivo insulin level measurements by radioimmunoassay. Gastrocnemius (leg) muscles were isolated for the measurement of GLU4 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Administration of magnesium sulfate improved IPGTT and lowered blood glucose levels almost to the normal range. However, the insulin levels were not changed in either of the in-vitro or in-vivo studies. The expression of GLU4 mRNA increased 23% and 10% in diabetic magnesium-treated and insulin-treated groups, respectively. Our findings suggest that magnesium lowers blood glucose levels via increased GLU4 mRNA expression, independent to insulin secretion. PMID:24821133

  5. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000 based on results from the Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings indicate that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  6. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    The Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures gathered information on median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000. Among detailed findings, the survey concluded that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  7. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stanley J; Kearns, David N; Cohn, Scott I; Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V

    2003-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that set the occasion wherein drugs are acquired can "trigger" drug-related behavior. Investigating the stimulus control of drug self-administration in laboratory animals should help us better understand this aspect of human drug abuse. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration was generated here for the first time using multiple and chained schedules with short, frequently-alternating components--like those typically used to study food-maintained responding. The procedures and results are presented along with case histories to illustrate the strategies used to produce this stimulus control. All these multicomponent schedules contained variable-interval (VI) components as well as differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) or extinction components. Schedule parameters and unit dose were adjusted for each rat to produce stable, moderate rates in VI components, with minimal postreinforcement (infusion) pausing, and response cessation in extinction and DRO components. Whole-body drug levels on terminal baselines calculated retrospectively revealed that all rats maintained fairly stable drug levels (mean, 2.3 to 3.4 mg/kg) and molar rates of intake (approximately 6.0 mg/kg/hr). Within this range, no relation between local VI response rates and drug level was found. The stimulus control revealed in cumulative records was indistinguishable from that achieved with food under these schedules, suggesting that common mechanisms may underlie the control of cocaine- and food-maintained behavior.

  8. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stanley J; Kearns, David N; Cohn, Scott I; Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V

    2003-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that set the occasion wherein drugs are acquired can "trigger" drug-related behavior. Investigating the stimulus control of drug self-administration in laboratory animals should help us better understand this aspect of human drug abuse. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration was generated here for the first time using multiple and chained schedules with short, frequently-alternating components--like those typically used to study food-maintained responding. The procedures and results are presented along with case histories to illustrate the strategies used to produce this stimulus control. All these multicomponent schedules contained variable-interval (VI) components as well as differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) or extinction components. Schedule parameters and unit dose were adjusted for each rat to produce stable, moderate rates in VI components, with minimal postreinforcement (infusion) pausing, and response cessation in extinction and DRO components. Whole-body drug levels on terminal baselines calculated retrospectively revealed that all rats maintained fairly stable drug levels (mean, 2.3 to 3.4 mg/kg) and molar rates of intake (approximately 6.0 mg/kg/hr). Within this range, no relation between local VI response rates and drug level was found. The stimulus control revealed in cumulative records was indistinguishable from that achieved with food under these schedules, suggesting that common mechanisms may underlie the control of cocaine- and food-maintained behavior. PMID:12696744

  9. How to Control Administrative Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    1991-01-01

    Growth in college administration has increased costs and bureaucracy. Rather than wait for fiscal crisis or consumer revolt, academic leaders, including faculty and administrators, should initiate change by simplifying activities and procedures and rewarding consolidation. The challenge is to use resources more effectively and efficiently in a…

  10. Significant increase of salivary testosterone levels after single therapeutic transdermal administration of testosterone: suitability as a potential screening parameter in doping control.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Rautenberg, Claudia; Grosse, Joachim; Schoenfelder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The legally defensible proof of the abuse of endogenous steroids in sports is currently based on carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), i.e. a comparison between (13)C/(12)C ratios of diagnostic precursors and metabolites of testosterone. The application of this technique requires a chromatographic baseline separation of respective steroids prior to IRMS detection and hence laborious sample pre-processing of the urinary steroid extracts including clean up by solid-phase extraction and/or liquid chromatography. Consequently, an efficient pre-selection of suspicious control urine samples is essential for appropriate follow up confirmation by IRMS and effective doping control. Two single transdermal administration studies of testosterone (50 mg Testogel® and Testopatch® at 3.8 mg in 16 h, respectively) were conducted and resulting profiles of salivary testosterone and urinary steroid profiles and corresponding carbon isotope ratios were determined. Conventional doping control markers (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, threshold concentrations of androsterone, etiocholanolone, or androstanediols) did not approach or exceed critical thresholds. In contrast to these moderate variations, the testosterone concentration in oral fluid increased from basal values (30-142 pg/mg) to peak concentrations above 1000 pg/mg. It is likely that this significant increase in oral fluid is due to a pulsatile elevation of free (protein unbound) circulating testosterone after transdermal administration and may be assumed to represent a more diagnostic marker for transdermal testosterone administration.

  11. 75 FR 64216 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise AGENCY: Occupational Safety... affordable engineering and administrative controls to reduce noise levels. The Occupational Safety and...

  12. Individual Innovativeness Levels of Educational Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2012-01-01

    In the present study carried out with 190 educational administrators, the individual innovativeness of educational administrators was examined. As a result of the study, it was found out that the educational administrators considered themselves as early adaptors. It was also revealed that professional seniority was not important in terms of…

  13. The issue of control. An administrator's mirage?

    PubMed

    James, A E

    1989-02-01

    The administration of each discipline has a unique ethos that can characterize the human relationships intrinsic to that specialty. A common trait among leaders is that they have an intense desire to feel that they have the proper measure of control; control of the means to affect solutions to the responsibilities they have and some measure of control of their own destiny. The discipline of Radiology and Radiological Sciences has inherent complexities and natural administrative arrangements that make it very difficult to accommodate a feeling of control.

  14. Automatic level control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, P. C.; Mccarthy, D. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic level control circuit for an operational amplifier for minimizing spikes or instantaneous gain of the amplifier at a low period wherein no signal is received on the input is provided. The apparatus includes a multibranch circuit which is connected between an output terminal and a feedback terminal. A pair of zener diodes are connected back to back in series with a capacitor provided in one of the branches. A pair of voltage dividing resistors are connected in another of the branches and a second capacitor is provided in the remaining branch of controlling the high frequency oscillations of the operational amplifier.

  15. Strategies of Administrative Control and Organizational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Bernard C.; Negandhi, Anant R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of 30 manufacturing firms in India indicated that the most effective organizations tended to choose a unidimensional strategy of administrative control. This strategy consisted of the use of formalized procedures to control decentralized decision-making with respect to both human and material resources. (Author)

  16. Building a Research Administration Infrastructure at the Department Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Maria B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the current economic crisis, research administrators at public universities are grappling with declining state funding and are faced with identifying other potential sources of revenue to support operations. Research administrators at all levels are forced to do more with less. Department level research administrators must be innovative…

  17. Visual operations control in administrative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, M.L.; Levine, L.O.

    1995-03-01

    When asked what comes to mind when they think of ``controlling work`` in the office, people may respond with ``overbearing boss,`` ``no autonomy,`` or ``Theory X management.`` The idea of controlling work in white collar or administrative environments can have a negative connotation. However, office life is often chaotic and miserable precisely because the work processes are out of control, and managers must spend their time looking over people`s shoulders and fighting fires. While management styles and structures vary, the need for control of work processes does not. Workers in many environments are being reorganized into self-managed work teams. These teams are expected to manage their own work through increased autonomy and empowerment. However, even empowered work teams must manage their work processes because of process variation. The amount of incoming jobs vary with both expected (seasonal) and unexpected demand. The mixture of job types vary over time, changing the need for certain skills or knowledge. And illness and turnover affect the availability of workers with needed skills and knowledge. Clearly, there is still a need to control work, whether the authority for controlling work is vested in one person or many. Visual control concepts provide simple, inexpensive, and flexible mechanisms for managing processes in work teams and continuous improvement administrative environments.

  18. Liquid level controller

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  19. The Sources of Administrative Training in the Preparation of Building Level Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soranno, Kimberly A.; Schmitt, Donna M.

    Administrators draw on prior experiences when negotiating, implementing new curricula, and resolving conflicts. This study attempted to determine whether building level administrators included graduate study, union leadership roles, coaching experiences, and school committee leadership as part of their career development prior to assuming…

  20. TV Video-Level Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravitz, M.; Freedman, L. A.; Fredd, E. H.; Denef, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Constant output maintained, though luminance varies by 5 million to 1. Three means of normalizing video output utilized in video-level controller: iris adjustment, tube voltage adjustment, and automatic gain control. With aid of automatic light control and gain control, television camera accommodates maximum light level 5 million times greater than lowest light level, while outputting constant 3-V peak signal to processing circuitry.

  1. Increased brain nitric oxide levels following ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Niall; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Klamer, Daniel; Lowry, John; Pålsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous messenger molecule, which at elevated concentrations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Its role in oxidative stress, attributed in particular to the formation of peroxynitrite, proceeds through its high affinity for the superoxide radical. Alcoholism has recently been associated with the induction of oxidative stress, which is generally defined as a shift in equilibrium between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant species in the direction of the former. Furthermore, its primary metabolite acetaldehyde, has been extensively associated with oxidative damage related toxic effects following alcohol ingestion. The principal objective of this study was the application of long term in vivo electrochemistry (LIVE) to investigate the effect of ethanol (0.125, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde (12.5, 50 and 200 mg kg(-1)) on NO levels in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Systemic administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde resulted in a dose-dependent increases in NO levels, albeit with very differing time courses. Subsequent to this the effect on accumbal NO levels, of subjecting the animal to different drug combinations, was also elucidated. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde sequestering agent D-penicillamine (50 mg kg(-1)) both attenuated the increase in NO levels following ethanol (1 g kg(-1)) administration. Conversely, the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (25 mg kg(-1)) and catalase inhibitor sodium azide (10 mg kg(-1)) potentiated the increase in NO levels following ethanol administration. Finally, dual inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase by cyanamide (25 mg kg(-1)) caused an attenuation of ethanol effects on NO levels. Taken together these data highlight a robust increase in brain NO levels following systemic alcohol administration which is dependent on NO synthase activity and may involve both alcohol- and acetaldehyde

  2. 10. Control Area, Administration Building, interior view of former day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Control Area, Administration Building, interior view of former day room VIEW SOUTHEAST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  3. 9. Control Area, Administration Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Control Area, Administration Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  4. 11. Control Area, Administration Building, interior view of former offices ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Control Area, Administration Building, interior view of former offices VIEW NORTHEAST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  5. 78 FR 16127 - Administration of Reformed Export Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... HOUSE, Washington, March 8, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-05967 Filed 3-12-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... March 13, 2013 Part III The President Executive Order 13637--Administration of Reformed Export Controls... of March 8, 2013 Administration of Reformed Export Controls By the authority vested in me...

  6. The administration`s arms control agenda: Gaining ground under fire

    SciTech Connect

    Holum, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    Its perhaps too easy to forget that Russia is still one country that could inflict overwhelming nuclear devastation on the United States. Russia`s Dumas elections and presidential elections speaks of changes in Russia, but this transformation will take many years and requires our consistent engagement and steady support. The author examines the Clinton Administration`s arms control agenda.

  7. The administration`s non-proliferation and export control policy

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    On September 27, during his speech to the United Nations, President Bill Clinton outlined his administration`s arm control policies, urging tighter restraints on international export control policies and measures to enhance nuclear non-proliferation. That same day, the White House released a fact sheet summarizing the framework for U.S. efforts to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles that deliver them.

  8. 77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing number not listed, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. Stress and Educational Administration: Variations in Stress Factors across Administrative Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Cynthia R.; Fraas, John W.

    Factors and perceptions of stress in educational administration are examined in this report. A survey of 86 administrators in Richland County, Ohio, in which the Administrative Stress Index was used to explore causes of stress and to rate the severity of each stressor, yielded a 97 percent response rate. Results were statistically analyzed for…

  12. The Administrative Control System of Substance Abuse Managed Care

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael R

    2005-01-01

    Objective This article searches for the dimensions of the administrative structures in outpatient substance abuse managed care that control the behavior of agency providers. It also ascertains how these dimensions, and several financial mechanisms, affect key aspects of the providers services: the average number of sessions of care that are delivered, the rate of completion of care, and the (estimated) rate at which clients control their substance use. Data Sources The data were collected in 1999 for this investigation. Study Design These data come from a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of individual contracts between outpatient drug treatment providers and the Behavioral Health Managed Care Organizations (BHMCOs) that are empowered to regulate the delivery of services. Provider responses are analyzed here. Data Collection Methods Factor analyses at a contract level examine the structural dimensions of the control system. Multivariate analyses at the same level rely on generalized linear models to predict the dependent variables by the structural dimensions and financial mechanisms. Findings The factor analyses suggest that there are six multiple variable structural dimensions. The multivariate analyses suggest that the dimension that mandates follow-up of discharged clients tends to relate to more sessions of care and perhaps a higher rate of service completion. Most other dimensions are found to relate to fewer sessions of care, lower rates of service completion, or lower rates of control of substance abuse. No structural dimension relates to all dependent variables. Financial mechanisms evince varying relations to the sessions of care. They rarely relate to the other dependent variables. Conclusion The results generally suggest that providers, payers, or policymakers might affect service provision by selecting BHMCOs that stress particular structural dimensions and financial mechanisms. However, managed care contracts most heavily rely on

  13. Issues of medication administration and control in Iowa schools.

    PubMed

    Farris, Karen B; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W; Clay, Daniel; Gross, Jami N

    2003-11-01

    Who is responsible for medication administration at school? To answer this question, a descriptive, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 850 school principals in Iowa. The eight-page, 57-item, anonymous survey was mailed first class, and a follow-up reminder post card was mailed two weeks later. Descriptive analyses were conducted, with type of respondent (principal versus school nurse), grade level, and size of school examined to explore differences. A 46.6% response rate was obtained; 97% of respondents indicated their schools had written guidelines for medication administration. Principals (41%) and school nurses (34%) reported that they have the ultimate legal responsibility for medication administration. Policies for medication administration on field trips were available in schools of 73.6% of respondents. High schools were more likely to allow self-medication than other grade levels. "Missed dose" was the most common medication error. The main reasons contributing to medication administration errors included poor communication among school, family, and healthcare providers, and the increased number of students on medication. It remains unclear who holds ultimate responsibility for medication administration in schools. Written policies typically exist for medication administration at school, but not field trips. Communicating medication changes to schools, and ensuring medications are available at school, likely can reduce medication administration errors.

  14. A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Randomized Trial to Assess the Impact of a Monthly Administration of 50,000 IU of Vitamin D3 for 6 Months on Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, E.; Schnitzler, M.; Foidart-Dessalle, M.; Souberbielle, J. C.; Cavalier, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this double blind, unicentre, randomized, placebo controlled study, we evaluated the changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels in 150 young Belgian adults (18–30 years), monthly supplemented with 50,000 IU of vitamin D (VTD) or placebo for 6 months, from November 2010 to May 2011. At T0, 30% of the population presented 25(OH)D serum levels below 20 ng/mL. In the VTD-treated group, mean serum levels increased from 21.2 ± 8.2 to 30.6 ± 8.8 ng/mL (P < 0.001) at T3mo and to 36.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL (P < 0.001) at T6mo. Despite documented VTD intake, no changes in serum levels were, however, observed in 10% of the treated group. In the placebo group, mean 25(OH)D serum levels decreased from 22.8 ± 8.5 to 14.0 ± 6.9 ng/mL at T3mo (P < 0.001) but returned to values not significantly different from those observed at T0 (23.5 ± 8.6 ng/mL) at T6mo. No difference between serum calcium levels was observed between the groups throughout the study. In conclusion, monthly supplementation with 50,000 UI of VTD in winter can warrant serum 25(OH)D levels above 20 ng/mL in 96.2% of those healthy young adults without inducing unacceptably high 25(OH)D concentration. This supplementation is safe and may be proposed without 25(OH)D testing. PMID:24324493

  15. Oxytocin administration enhances controlled social cognition in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, J.D.; Chuang, B.; Lam, O.; Lai, W.; O’Donovan, A.; Rankin, K.P.; Mathalon, D.H.; Vinogradov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. Methods We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58) = 8.75; p = 0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Discussion Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of

  16. Corticosterone levels determine individual vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, P V; Maccari, S; Deminière, J M; Le Moal, M; Mormède, P; Simon, H

    1991-01-01

    Individual vulnerability to the reinforcing properties of drugs appears to be an essential characteristic predisposing humans to addiction. In animals, a greater behavioral reactivity to a mild stress, such as exposure to a novel environment, is an index of the vulnerability to acquire amphetamine self-administration. Biological responses to stress as well as behavioral reactivity may predict such a vulnerability. In the present study, rats with a longer duration of corticosterone secretion after exposure to novelty showed facilitation of acquisition of amphetamine self-administration. Furthermore, corticosterone administration in nonpredisposed individuals increased the reinforcing value of the drug and facilitated the acquisition of amphetamine self-administration. These results indicate that the stress-related activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction. PMID:2006148

  17. 75 FR 77798 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise AGENCY: Occupational Safety... Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise... Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational...

  18. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of administrative requirements. 700.106 Section 700.106 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  19. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of administrative requirements. 700.106 Section 700.106 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  20. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of administrative requirements. 700.106 Section 700.106 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  1. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of administrative requirements. 700.106 Section 700.106 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  2. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  3. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  4. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  5. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  6. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  7. Enhancing Effective Administration at Faculty Level through Shared Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afful, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    We live in the world of knowledge, and knowledge keeps increasing in shape and complexity. As a result, no single individual has the repository of knowledge required to effectively manage an organisation all alone to affect organisational performance positively. This explains why administration is explained as doing things through the efforts of…

  8. Leptin levels are reduced by intravenous ghrelin administration and correlated with cue-induced alcohol craving.

    PubMed

    Haass-Koffler, C L; Aoun, E G; Swift, R M; de la Monte, S M; Kenna, G A; Leggio, L

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the role of appetite-regulating pathways, including ghrelin and leptin, in alcoholism. This study tested the hypothesis that intravenous exogenous ghrelin administration acutely decreases endogenous serum leptin levels, and that changes in leptin levels negatively correlate with alcohol craving. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study. Non-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent, heavy drinkers (n=45) were randomized to receive intravenous ghrelin or placebo, followed by a cue-reactivity procedure, during which participants were exposed to neutral (juice) and alcohol trial cues. There was a main effect for intravenous ghrelin administration, compared with placebo, in reducing serum leptin levels (P<0.01). Post hoc analysis showed significant differences in serum leptin levels at the alcohol trial (P<0.05) that persisted at the end of the experiment (P<0.05). By contrast, there were no significant differences in serum leptin levels at the juice trial (P=not significant (NS)). The change of serum leptin level at the alcohol trial correlated with the increase in alcohol urge (P<0.05), whereas urge to drink juice was not correlated with the leptin change at the juice trial (P=NS). These findings provide preliminary evidence of ghrelin-leptin cross-talk in alcoholic individuals and suggest that their relationship may have a role in alcohol craving.

  9. Progesterone inhibits behavioral responses and estrogen increases corticosterone levels after acute cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Niyomchai, Tipyamol; Russo, Scott J; Festa, Eugene D; Akhavan, Alaleh; Jenab, Shirzad; Quiñones-Jenab, Vanya

    2005-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that estrogen and progesterone contribute to the sexually dimorphic behavioral response to cocaine. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that varying the level of estrogen or progesterone affects cocaine-induced locomotive behavior in female rats. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats received estrogen (0, 5, 10, 20, or 50 microg) 48 h or progesterone (0, 50, 100, 250, or 500 microg) 24 h before acute saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg) administration. Although estrogen did not affect cocaine-induced ambulatory and rearing behaviors, it affected stereotypic behaviors regardless of cocaine administration (animals receiving 50 microg had higher stereotypic counts than did the OVX group). In contrast, progesterone affected rearing activity dose-dependently: 50 and 500 microg of progesterone inhibited, whereas 100 microg and 250 microg stimulated, rearing in response to cocaine. That estrogen and progesterone did not affect overall baseline behavioral activity suggests their effects are mediated in part through interactions with cocaine. Progesterone administration did not affect corticosterone levels in saline- or cocaine-treated rats. Estrogen administration, however, affected levels of corticosterone both at baseline and after cocaine treatment. After accounting for baseline differences, we found that rats receiving 5 or 10 microg of estrogen and cocaine had higher percentage increases in serum corticosterone levels than did the control group that did not receive estrogen. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that progesterone fluctuations during the estrous cycle impact cocaine-induced behavioral responses, whereas estrogen may affect activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Thus, dose-dependent effects of gonadal hormones may underlie some of the reported sex differences and reproductive cycle effects of cocaine.

  10. Construal Levels and Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Kentaro; Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira; Levin-Sagi, Maya

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose that self-control involves making decisions and behaving in a manner consistent with high-level versus low-level construals of a situation. Activation of high-level construals (which capture global, superordinate, primary features of an event) should lead to greater self-control than activation of low-level construals (which capture local, subordinate, secondary features). In 6 experiments using 3 different techniques, the authors manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on self-control and underlying psychological processes. High-level construals led to decreased preferences for immediate over delayed outcomes, greater physical endurance, stronger intentions to exert self-control, and less positive evaluations of temptations that undermine self-control. These results support a construal-level analysis of self-control. PMID:16594824

  11. Exogenous t-PA Administration Increases Hippocampal Mature BDNF Levels. Plasmin- or NMDA-Dependent Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling. PMID:24670989

  12. Exogenous t-PA administration increases hippocampal mature BDNF levels. plasmin- or NMDA-dependent mechanism?

    PubMed

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling.

  13. Factors Affecting the Career Mobility of Upper-Level Hispanic School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Brigido. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationship between personal, professional, and situational factors in the career mobility of 94 Hispanic upper-level school administrators in Texas, examined the administrators' attitudes, and identified a framework to explain career mobility. Findings confirm the underrepresentation of Hispanics in administrative posts and give…

  14. Altered prefrontal connectivity after acute heroin administration during cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Borgwardt, Stefan; Gerber, Hana; Schmid, Otto; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Smieskova, Renata; Lang, Undine E; Rubia, Katya; Walter, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies have reported reduced activity in a broad network of brain regions during response inhibition in heroin-dependent patients. However, how heroin in an acute dose modulates the neural correlates of response inhibition and the underlying brain connectivity has not yet been investigated. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether acute heroin administration changed whole brain activity during response inhibition in 26 heroin-dependent patients. We then applied dynamic causal modelling to investigate the effect of an acute dose of heroin on the functional interactions between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFG). Heroin acutely reduced dACC activity, as well as the inhibition-induced modulation of connectivity from the dACC to the right IFG compared with placebo. Furthermore, dACC activity was positively related to false alarm rates after placebo but not heroin administration. These results suggest that acute heroin administration impairs cognitive control in dependent patients by reducing the activity in the dACC activity and the functional connectivity from the dACC to the right IFG.

  15. The Life Cycles and Career Stages of Senior-Level Administrative Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Patricia H.; Donohue, Wyveta G.

    Women's opportunities for becoming senior-level administrators at 4-year, coeducational, state-supported colleges were assessed in 1979 in relation to age-related and other factors. Attention was also directed to whether there was a consistent career pattern for women attaining senior-level administrative positions. Biographical data and data…

  16. Rising to the Top: Career Progression of Women Senior-Level Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Devan

    2014-01-01

    Women account for over half of the populations of enrolled students and employed staff and administrators in higher education. In student affairs, women current accounts for over 60% of employees at the entry and mid-levels of administration, but less than half of all senior-level executive positions are filled by women. Furthermore, the majority…

  17. Task-level control for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid

    1994-01-01

    Task-level control refers to the integration and coordination of planning, perception, and real-time control to achieve given high-level goals. Autonomous mobile robots need task-level control to effectively achieve complex tasks in uncertain, dynamic environments. This paper describes the Task Control Architecture (TCA), an implemented system that provides commonly needed constructs for task-level control. Facilities provided by TCA include distributed communication, task decomposition and sequencing, resource management, monitoring and exception handling. TCA supports a design methodology in which robot systems are developed incrementally, starting first with deliberative plans that work in nominal situations, and then layering them with reactive behaviors that monitor plan execution and handle exceptions. To further support this approach, design and analysis tools are under development to provide ways of graphically viewing the system and validating its behavior.

  18. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  19. Gender Differences among Mid-Level Administrators. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Sandra F.

    Gender differences among mid-level administrators in higher education is considered, based on a review of research. Attention is directed to research in three areas: (1) socialization of women and men to work and career patterns, (2) characteristics of higher education administrators, and (3) characteristics of the institutional climate and its…

  20. Control system maintains selected liquid level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, R. L.; Schuck, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Single-sensor control system maintains liquid hydrogen at a preselected desired level within a tank, regardless of boiloff. It calibrates output in percentage. Thus, when the fuel is at the desired level, the system output will indicate 100 percent regardless of what percent of tank capacity the fuel has reached.

  1. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  2. Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S), Revision 3, Database Administrator`s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    O`Callaghan, P.B.; Nelson, R.A.; Grambihler, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    This document provides a guide for database administration and specific information for the Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S). As a guide, this document discusses required database administration functions for the set up of database tables and for users of the system. It is assumed that general and user information has been obtained from the Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S), Revision 3, User`s Information (WHC 1994).

  3. Television camera video level control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravitz, M.; Freedman, L. A.; Fredd, E. H.; Denef, D. E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A video level control system is provided which generates a normalized video signal for a camera processing circuit. The video level control system includes a lens iris which provides a controlled light signal to a camera tube. The camera tube converts the light signal provided by the lens iris into electrical signals. A feedback circuit in response to the electrical signals generated by the camera tube, provides feedback signals to the lens iris and the camera tube. This assures that a normalized video signal is provided in a first illumination range. An automatic gain control loop, which is also responsive to the electrical signals generated by the camera tube 4, operates in tandem with the feedback circuit. This assures that the normalized video signal is maintained in a second illumination range.

  4. Neural control of blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Niijima, A

    1986-01-01

    All of the experimental results described above can be categorized as follows: the relationship between glucose levels and pancreatic and adrenal nerve activities; innervations of the liver and their role in the regulation of blood glucose level; central integration of blood glucose level; glucose-sensitive afferent nerve fibers in the liver and regulation of blood glucose; oral and intestinal inputs involved in reflex control of blood glucose level. We showed that an increase in blood glucose content produced an increase in the activity of the pancreatic branch of the vagus nerve, whereas it induced a decrease in the activity of the adrenal nerve. It was also shown that a decrease in blood glucose activated the sympatho-adrenal system and suppressed the vago-pancreatic system. It seems rational that these responses are involved in the maintenance of blood glucose level. Studies on the innervation of the liver led us to a conclusion that sympathetic innervation of the liver might play a role in eliciting a prompt hyperglycemic response through liberation of norepinephrine from the nerve terminals, and that the vagal innervation synergically worked with the humoral factor (insulin) for glycogen synthesis in the hyperglycemic condition. The glucose-sensitive afferents from the liver seem to initiate a reflex control of blood glucose level. The gustatory information on EIR response, reported by STEFFENS, is supported by the electrophysiological observations. MEI's reports also indicated the importance of information from the intestinal glucoreceptors in the reflex control of insulin secretion. The role of integrative functions of the hypothalamus and brainstem through neuronal networks on neural control of blood glucose levels is also evident. A schematic diagram of the nervous networks involved in the regulation of the blood glucose levels is shown in Fig. 3. PMID:3550186

  5. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    PubMed

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution.

  6. Pontine Reticular Formation (PnO) Administration of Hypocretin-1 Increases PnO GABA Levels and Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christopher J.; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: GABAergic transmission in the oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) increases wakefulness. The hypothalamic peptide hypocretin-1 (orexin A) promotes wakefulness, and the PnO receives hypocretinergic input. The present study tested the hypothesis that PnO administration of hypocretin-1 increases PnO GABA levels and increases wakefulness. This study also tested the hypothesis that wakefulness is either increased or decreased, respectively, by PnO administration of drugs known to selectively increase or decrease GABA levels. Design: A within-subjects design was used for microdialysis and microinjection experiments. Setting: University of Michigan. Patients or Participants: Experiments were performed using adult male Crl:CD® (SD)IGS BR (Sprague-Dawley) rats (n = 46). Interventions: PnO administration of hypocretin-1, nipecotic acid (a GABA uptake inhibitor that increases extracellular GABA levels), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (a GABA synthesis inhibitor that decreases extracellular GABA levels; 3-MPA), and Ringer solution (vehicle control). Measurements and Results: Dialysis administration of hypocretin-1 to the PnO caused a statistically significant, concentration-dependent increase in PnO GABA levels. PnO microinjection of hypocretin-1 or nipecotic acid caused a significant increase in wakefulness and a significant decrease in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. Microinjecting 3-MPA into the PnO caused a significant increase in NREM sleep and REM sleep and a significant decrease in wakefulness. Conclusions: An increase or a decrease in PnO GABA levels causes an increase or decrease, respectively, in wakefulness. Hypocretin-1 may promote wakefulness, at least in part, by increasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO. Citation: Watson CJ; Soto-Calderon H; Lydic R; Baghdoyan HA. Pontine reticular formation (PnO) administration of hypocretin-1 increases PnO GABA levels and wakefulness. SLEEP 2008;31(4):453-464. PMID:18457232

  7. Quality Control in the Administration of Sport Management Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Dennie Ruth

    2004-01-01

    The quality of an intern's learning experience is the joint responsibility of the academic internship coordinator, the administrator of the sport management program, and the agency supervisor. The purpose of this article is to identify the areas of administrative concern in the three major components of an internship: the institution granting…

  8. Administration of docosahexaenoic acid influences behavior and plasma catecholamine levels at times of psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, T; Sawazaki, S; Nagasawa, T; Nagao, Y; Kanagawa, Y; Yazawa, K

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to clarify the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake on behavior and plasma catecholamines (CA). In Study 1, 42 students took either DHA-rich oil capsules containing 1.5-1.8 g DHA/d or control oil capsules containing 97% soybean oil plus 3% of another fish oil for 3 mon in a double-blind fashion. They took a psychological test (PF Study) at the start and end of the study. This study started at the end of summer vacation and ended just before the final exams. In the control group, external aggression (aggression against others) in PF Study was significantly increased at the end of the study as compared with that measured at the start (+8.9%), whereas it was not significantly changed in the DHA group (-1.0%). In a similar double-blind study (Study 2), we measured external aggression under nonstressful conditions. External aggression slightly decreased in the control group, whereas there were no significant changes in the DHA group. In Study 3 with 14 students, plasma CA were measured at the start and end of capsule administration period of 2 mon. Subjects were under continuous stress of the final exams that lasted throughout the whole study period. The ratio of plasma epinephrine to norepinephrine concentrations was significantly increased in the DHA group (78%), whereas it stayed at the same level in the control group. In Study 4, mice were fed either DHA-deficient diet or -sufficient diet for 4 wk, and their rearing frequency (an anxiety index) was measured. In the DHA-sufficient group, the rearing frequency was significantly less than in the other group. These effects of DHA intake may be applied to people in an attempt to ameliorate stress-related diseases. PMID:10419086

  9. Biochemical and histopathological effects of administration various levels of Pomposia (Syzygium cumini) fruit juice as natural antioxidant on rat health.

    PubMed

    El-Anany, Ayman M; Ali, Rehab F M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm) of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid were conducted. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the liver and kidney tissue of rats administrated tested substances. The biochemical results indicated that the administration of polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any significant (p ≥ 0.05) changes in the biochemical parameters whereas the administration of BHT at 200 ppm caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the activities of enzymes relevant to the functions of liver and kidney. Microscopically examinations of liver and kidney of rat administered various levels of pomposia juice had the same character as that of control rats (this means that the polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any adverse affect in liver and kidney), in contrast the administration of 200 ppm of BHT caused marked pathological changes in liver and kidney of rats. The results of the current investigation suggest using pomposia juice as safe food grade substance. PMID:24425943

  10. The argument for integrating vector control with multiple drug administration campaigns to ensure elimination of lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Burkot, TR; Durrheim, DN; Melrose, WD; Speare, R; Ichimori, K

    2006-01-01

    Background There is a danger that mass drug administration campaigns may fail to maintain adequate treatment coverage to achieve lymphatic filariasis elimination. Hence, additional measures to suppress transmission might be needed to ensure the success of the Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. Discussion Vector control successfully eliminated lymphatic filariasis when implemented alone or with mass drug administration. Challenges to lymphatic filariasis elimination include uncertainty of the exact level and duration of microfilarial suppression required for elimination, the mobility of infected individuals, consistent non-participation of some infected individuals with mass drug administration, the possible development of anti-filarial drug resistance and treatment strategies in areas co-endemic with loasis. Integration of vector control with mass drug administration can address some of these challenges. The potential benefits of vector control would include: (1) the ability to suppress filariasis transmission without the need to identify all individual 'foci of infection'; (2) minimizing the risk of reestablishment of transmission from imported microfilaria positive individuals; and (3) decreasing the risk of dengue or malaria transmission where, respectively, Aedes or Anopheles are lymphatic filariasis vectors. Summary With adequate sustained treatment coverage, mass drug administration should meet the criteria for elimination of lymphatic filariasis. However, it may be difficult to sustain sufficiently high mass drug administration coverage to achieve lymphatic filariasis elimination in some areas, particularly, where Aedes species are the vectors. Since vector control was effective in controlling and even eliminating lymphatic filariasis transmission, integration of vector control with mass drug administration will ensure the sustainability of transmission suppression and thereby better ensure the success of national filariasis

  11. Marketing--A Controllable Tool for Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendell C.

    1980-01-01

    Educational marketing is now becoming legitimized. Marketing techniques such as cost benefit analysis and the selection of a mix of promotional methods are tools that educational administrators should understand and use. (SK)

  12. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... directive or a tasking will result in imposition of additional administrative requirements on commands not within the chain of command or the issuing authority, the first common superior of the commands...

  13. Population-level control of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevozhay, Dmitry; Adams, Rhys; van Itallie, Elizabeth; Bennett, Matthew; Balazsi, Gabor

    2011-03-01

    Gene expression is the process that translates genetic information into proteins, that determine the way cells live, function and even die. It was demonstrated that cells with identical genomes exposed to the same environment can differ in their protein composition and therefore phenotypes. Protein levels can vary between cells due to the stochastic nature of intracellular biochemical events, indicating that the genotype-phenotype connection is not deterministic at the cellular level. We asked whether genomes could encode isogenic cell populations more reliably than single cells. To address this question, we built two gene circuits to control three cell population-level characteristics: gene expression mean, coefficient of variation and non-genetic memory of previous expression states. Indeed, we found that these population-level characteristics were more predictable than the gene expression of single cells in a well-controlled environment. This research was supported by the NIH Director's New Innovator Award 1DP2 OD006481-01 and Welch Foundation Grant C-1729.

  14. Robust closed-loop control of propofol administration using WAVCNS index as the controlled variable.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Jin-Oh; Dumont, Guy A; Ansermino, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a robust closed-loop strategy for control of depth of hypnosis. The proposed method regulates the electroencephalogram (EEG)-derived WAVCNS index as a hypnosis measure by manipulating intravenous propofol administration. In contrast to many existing closed-loop methods, the control design presented in this paper produces stability and robustness against uncertainty by explicitly accounting for the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) variability between different individuals, as well as unpredictable surgical stimuli that the closed-loop control is required to tolerate. This closed-loop control was evaluated using simulated surgical procedures in 44 patient models whose PK and PD were identified from real clinical data. The controller can deliver consistent and acceptable closed-loop induction and maintenance phase responses for patients with wide-ranging PK and PD differences. PMID:21097118

  15. Vascular endothelial dysfunction associated with elevated serum homocysteine levels in rat adjuvant arthritis: effect of vitamin E administration.

    PubMed

    Can, Cenk; Cinar, Mehtap G; Koşay, Sezen; Evinç, Akgün

    2002-06-14

    We aimed to study the alterations in serum homocysteine levels and endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular relaxant responses in adjuvant-induced arthritis of the rat and to determine the effects of vitamin E administration on these changes. Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of Freund's complete adjuvant into the paw. 26 days after the induction of arthritis, serum homocysteine levels and relaxant responses to acetylcholine and sodiumnitroprusside in thoracic aortas were evaluated. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine were decreased in aortas from arthritic rats, whereas the responses to sodiumnitroprusside were not significantly different when compared to the aortas from control rats. A significant increase was observed in serum homocysteine levels of the arthritic rats in comparison to those of controls. Vitamin E administration (100 mg/kg/day, i.m. for 26 days) to arthritic rats resulted in a significant increase in endothelium-dependent aortic responses to acetylcholine and a significant decrease in serum homocysteine levels with respect to the non-treated arthritic rats. However, in healthy rats, vitamin E treatment significantly decreased the acetylcholine-induced relaxant responses. We conclude that adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat is associated with increased serum homocysteine levels and this is accompanied by a reduction in endothelium-dependent vascular responses in the thoracic aortas. Vitamin E treatment leads to normalization of the increased serum homocysteine levels and improves the endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in this experimental model. PMID:12044840

  16. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  17. Levels of Stress among Secondary School Administrators and Its Implication in Education Management in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngari, S. M.; Ndungu, A.; Mwonya, R.; Ngumi, O.; Mumiukha, C.; Chepchieng, M.; Kariuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress significantly affects performance and service delivery of workers. Given the important role that education plays in the society, coupled with the dynamic nature of the education sector there has been an increased social pressure on the education system in general and school administrators in particular. This influences their levels of…

  18. The Effectiveness Level of School Administrator's Coaching Characteristic on School's Being Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egmir, Eray; Yoruk, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness level of the coaching skills of school administrators on the school becoming a learning organization. The population of the study consists of teachers who are working at public and private secondary schools affiliated to Ministry of National Education, Kutahya Province National Education…

  19. Building-Level Administrators' Perceptions of the Roles and Functions of Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDomenico-Sorrento, Tara M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this survey research study is to describe and analyze how building-level high school administrators (BLAB) view the roles and functions of professional school counselors (PSCs), particularly as they relate to the National Model of the American Counseling Association (ASCA) that was developed from the ASCA's National Standards. Online…

  20. Translating Policies into Practice: The Role of Middle-Level Administrators in Language Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    This study explores middle-level administrators' perceptions of the implementation of English as a foreign language curriculum policies in the Chinese tertiary context. Drawing on data collected from interviews with the department heads of six universities in a north-western city in China, the article examines their perspectives on the national…

  1. Career Development of Latinas in Mid-Level Community College Administration: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-De Jesus, Naydeen Tyffane

    2012-01-01

    Glass ceilings have been identified by scholars throughout the past 20 years as barriers to the upward career mobility of women and of people of color. There is an indication that glass ceiling barriers exist in the higher education sector. Latinas, as a subgroup of women of color, occupy many of the mid-level administrative positions in community…

  2. Colorado Special Education Administrative Decisions: Impartial Hearing Officer Decisions; State Level Review Decisions; Federal Complaint Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This volume of Colorado special education administrative decisions contains all Impartial Hearing Officer Decisions, State Level Review Decisions, and Complaint Findings issued since 1988. The full text of each decision or finding is preceded by a case summary which includes a listing of key topics, a statement of the issues, the decision, and…

  3. Research Administration Training and Compliance at the Department Level for a Predominantly Undergraduate Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temples, Beryline; Simons, Paula; Atkinson, Timothy N.

    2012-01-01

    By providing training from the Central Sponsored Programs Office (SPO), departments, and colleges at Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) can increase compliance with grant requirements. PUIs usually do not focus on department- or college-level grants administration and lack monetary resources to support this function. However, at the…

  4. Career Experiences and Intentions of Women in Senior Level Intercollegiate Athletic Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraldo, Cynthia Miller

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in the most senior level administrative positions in intercollegiate athletics. This qualitative study is an analysis of the professional lives of nine women who hold Senior Associate AD positions in Division I intercollegiate athletics. They were interviewed about their career experiences and their intentions to pursue…

  5. [Problem of controls in physiology and pharmacology: psychophysiological and morphofunctional effects of chronic saline administration].

    PubMed

    Kondashevskaia, M V; Nikol'skaia, K A

    2008-01-01

    The psychophysiological and morphofunctional effects of chronic administration of saline, which is commonly used as an active control, to Wistar rats were analyzed at different levels. The active control proved to be complicated by signs of stress manifested as increased corticosterone levels, changes in the homeostatic system, blood cytometric indices, morphofunctional states of the thymus and spleen, sharp suppression of the cognitive activity, and decrease in the motivational and locomotor activities. Pain expectation developed in animals after the second saline injection in the tail-flick test--pain sensitivity sharply increased in the session prior to the injection. These signs of stress should be taken into account for interpretation of the effects in drug tests.

  6. Alterations in serum osmolality, sodium, and potassium levels after repeated mannitol administration.

    PubMed

    Seo, WhaSook; Oh, HyunSoo

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether significant alterations in serum osmolality, [Na+], and [K+] occur after the repeated dosing of mannitol and whether these imbalances increased accordingly with the progress of mannitol application. This study was conducted by performing a retrospective medical record review of brain injury patients who were admitted to the neurological intensive care units of a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Data on intracranial pressure and serum [Na+], [K+], and osmolality levels were collected from the first to the seventh day of mannitol administration. Our results showed that the highest rate of hyperosmolality occurred on the first day of mannitol administration and that subsequently its rate reduced, although it still maintained high (70-77%). Regarding the serum [Na+], hypernatremia was observed in 10% of the subjects on the first day of mannitol administration and in 10-21% throughout the 7-day mannitol administration period. In this study, hyponatremia was observed in 12.2% of our subjects on the first day of mannitol administration and in 9-24% throughout the 7-day period. In addition, no statistical differences were found between changes in the rates of hypernatremia and hyponatremia throughout the 7-day administration period. The most notable finding was the high rates of hypokalemia observed during mannitol administration. Hypokalemia was observed in 22% of subjects on the first day and continuously increased to 52.3%, and this increase was significant. On the other hand, the rate of hyperkalemia was almost negligible. Our findings appear to provide clear evidence of electrolyte imbalances after repeated mannitol administration. Accordingly, careful monitoring of electrolyte status is essential when repeated doses of mannitol are given. We recommend that the practice of administering repeated dose of mannitol for prophylactic purposes be reevaluated.

  7. Conducting Randomized Controlled Trials with Offenders in an Administrative Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlin, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation research conducted in agencies that sanction law violators is often challenging and due process may preclude evaluators from using experimental methods in traditional criminal justice agencies such as police, courts, and corrections. However, administrative agencies often deal with the same population but are not bound by due process…

  8. Trust and Control: Public Administration and Risk Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyer, Hans Christian; Wood, Elin Marit

    2011-01-01

    Today we live in a society with many choices and possibilities which were absent just a few decades ago. Knowledge is seen as temporary, and many paradoxes are experienced in the flow of information surrounding us. A basic insecurity can be seen as a consequence of this development. This paper re-thinks the consequences at the administrational and…

  9. Authority Control at the National Archives and Records Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Lydia J. E.; Simmons, C. Jerry

    2007-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) launched the Archival Research Catalog (ARC) in 2002. ARC was the first centralized system for describing materials held throughout NARA's nationwide system of archival repositories. ARC's complicated development involved the entire agency, as staff wrestled with years of distinct descriptive…

  10. High level intelligent control of telerobotics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James

    1988-01-01

    A high level robot command language is proposed for the autonomous mode of an advanced telerobotics system and a predictive display mechanism for the teleoperational model. It is believed that any such system will involve some mixture of these two modes, since, although artificial intelligence can facilitate significant autonomy, a system that can resort to teleoperation will always have the advantage. The high level command language will allow humans to give the robot instructions in a very natural manner. The robot will then analyze these instructions to infer meaning so that is can translate the task into lower level executable primitives. If, however, the robot is unable to perform the task autonomously, it will switch to the teleoperational mode. The time delay between control movement and actual robot movement has always been a problem in teleoperations. The remote operator may not actually see (via a monitor) the results of high actions for several seconds. A computer generated predictive display system is proposed whereby the operator can see a real-time model of the robot's environment and the delayed video picture on the monitor at the same time.

  11. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-5 - Administratively controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... personal property, which includes such items as those controlled for calibration or maintenance purposes, contaminated property, tool crib items, and equipment pool items. Various control records can be employed to... check-outs, loss and theft reports, calibration records, disposal records, and other similar...

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-5 - Administratively controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personal property, which includes such items as those controlled for calibration or maintenance purposes, contaminated property, tool crib items, and equipment pool items. Various control records can be employed to... check-outs, loss and theft reports, calibration records, disposal records, and other similar...

  13. How Does Skype, as an Online Communication Software Tool, Contribute to K-12 Administrators' Level of Self-Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakidis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    How does Skype, as an online communication tool, contribute to school and district administrators' reported level of self-efficacy? A sample of n = 39 participants of which 22 were school administrators and 17 were district administrators was purposefully selected to use Skype in their offices with a webcam and microphone to communicate with other…

  14. [Ejaculatory disorder caused by doxazosin administration for blood pressure control in patient with pheochomocytoma].

    PubMed

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Imao, Tetsuya; Takemae, Katsuro; Yamauchi, Keishi

    2009-06-01

    A 29-year-old man had been treated for hypertension for 10 years. He suffered from speech disturbance caused by cerebral infarction, and further examinations were performed. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left adrenal tumor 6 cm in size. The radioisotope (MIBG) accumulated in the left adrenal gland. The serum noradrenalin levels were high. Thus, the diagnosis of pheochomocytoma in left adrenal tumor was made. He noticed ejaculation disturbance 5 days after starting administration of doxazosin at the dose of 3 mg/day for pre-operative blood pressure control. Sperm was observed in the urine sampling obtained after masturbation, thus his ejaculation disturbance was considered to be retrograde ejaculation. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. After the operation, his blood pressure normalized and the administration of doxazosin has not been necessary. He could perform ejaculation without any trouble after stopping doxazosin intake. The bladder neck conditions measured by ultrasonography were the same before and after the administration of doxazosin. The present case is a very rare case of ejaculation disturbance caused by non-selective alpha 1 blocker doxazosin.

  15. Elevations of nucleus accumbens dopamine and DOPAC levels during intravenous heroin self-administration.

    PubMed

    Wise, R A; Leone, P; Rivest, R; Leeb, K

    1995-10-01

    Extracellular dopamine and DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) levels in nucleus accumbens were sampled by microdialysis and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography during intravenous heroin self-administration sessions in rats. Dopamine levels in 10 and 20 min samples were elevated following the first injection of each session, reaching a plateau of elevation within the first two or three injections and falling back toward baseline only when drug access was terminated. Elevations were in the range of 150-300% when unit dosages of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg were given. Increasing the work requirement from FR-1 to FR-10 did not appear to alter the degree of elevation of dopamine levels, and dopamine levels fell during extinction while lever-pressing rates increased 20-fold. While animals compensated for unit dose changes between 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg/injection, adjusting their response rate such that the same hourly drug intake and the same asymptotic dopamine levels were maintained across these conditions, at 0.4 mg/kg/injection hourly drug intake and asymptotic dopamine levels were elevated beyond the levels sustained by the lower doses. These findings confirm that self-administered doses of intravenous heroin are sufficient to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system and suggest that significant heroin "craving" can emerge when dopamine levels are still moderately elevated, long before the development of dopamine depletion associated with opiate withdrawal.

  16. Barriers and Facilitators to Career Advancement by Top-Level, Entry-Level and Non-Administrative Women in Public School Districts: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Eman Ibrahim El-Desouki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to career advancement among women administrators occupying top-level positions, those occupying entry-level positions and those in non-administrative positions in both rural and urban public school districts in central Pennsylvania. The need to increase the awareness of the…

  17. Experiences of a Merger: The Perspective of Mid-Level Administrators in Merged Kansas Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohman, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand the phenomenology of mid-level administrators employed at Kansas community or technical colleges/schools who experienced the merger process. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine individual life experiences. Eight mid-level administrators were interviewed for this study. …

  18. Changes in endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain structures following cocaine self-administration and extinction training.

    PubMed

    Bystrowska, Beata; Smaga, Irena; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-04-01

    Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that drugs of abuse alter the levels of lipid-based signalling molecules, including endocannabinoids (eCBs) and N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), in the rodent brain. In addition, several drugs targeting eCBs and/or NAEs are implicated in reward and/or seeking behaviours related to the stimulation of dopamine systems in the brain. In our study, the brain levels of eCBs (anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)) and NAEs (oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)) were analyzed via an LC-MS/MS method in selected brain structures of rats during cocaine self-administration and after extinction training according to the "yoked" control procedure. Repeated (14days) cocaine (0.5mg/kg/infusion) self-administration and yoked drug delivery resulted in a significant decrease (ca. 52%) in AEA levels in the cerebellum, whereas levels of 2-AG increased in the frontal cortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum and decreased in the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. In addition, we detected increases (>150%) in the levels of OEA and PEA in the limbic areas in both cocaine treated groups, as well as an increase in the tissue levels of OEA in the dorsal striatum in only the yoked cocaine group and increases in the tissue levels of PEA in the dorsal striatum (both cocaine groups) and the nucleus accumbens (yoked cocaine group only). Compared to the yoked saline control group, extinction training (10days) resulted in a potent reduction in AEA levels in the frontal cortex, the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens and in 2-AG levels in the hippocampus, the dorsal striatum and the cerebellum. The decreases in the limbic and subcortical areas were more apparent for rats that self-administered cocaine. Following extinction, there was a region-specific change in the levels of NAEs in rats previously injected with cocaine; a potent increase (ca. 100%) in the levels of OEA and PEA was detected in the prefrontal cortex and the

  19. From Managerialism to Communicative Competence: Control and Consensus in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Traditional approaches to educational administration have generally reflected a managerial perspective based partly on scientific management principles developed by Frederick W. Taylor. Concerns with efficiency and administrative control have masked inequities and ideologies comprising organizational structure. Habermas's critique may help expose…

  20. Direct Digital Control Liquid Level Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adb-El-Bary, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment to give students exposure to digital control widely used in industry but not given much attention in most undergraduate process control curricula. Students write their own control programs and experimentally determine the transfer functions for all system components. Also describes experimental apparatus used in the…

  1. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  2. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  3. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  4. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Sharon E.; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets at three spatial resolutions – zip code, street, and parcel. We achieve high geocoding rates at all three resolutions, with statewide street geocoding rates of 88.0% for births and 93.2% for deaths. We observe differences in geocoding rates across demographics and health outcomes, with lower geocoding rates in disadvantaged populations and the most dramatic differences occurring across the urban-rural spectrum. Our results suggest highly resolved spatial data architectures for population-level datasets are viable through geocoding individual street addresses. We recommend routinely geocoding administrative datasets to the highest spatial resolution feasible, allowing public health researchers to choose the spatial resolution used in analysis based on an understanding of the spatial dimensions of the health outcomes and exposures being investigated. Such research, however, must acknowledge how disparate geocoding success across subpopulations may affect findings. PMID:25383017

  5. Controlled Release Pulmonary Administration of Curcumin Using Swellable Biocompatible Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.

    2012-01-01

    This study involves a promising approach to achieve sustained pulmonary drug delivery. Dry powder particulate carriers were engineered to allow simultaneous aerosol lung delivery, evasion of macrophage uptake, and sustained drug release through a controlled polymeric architecture. Chitosan grafted with PEG was synthesized and characterized (FTIR, EA, DSC and 2D-XRD). Then, a series of respirable amphiphilic hydrogel microparticles were developed via spray drying of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with chitosan-grafted-PEG or chitosan. The nano and microparticles were fully characterized using an array of physicochemical analytical methods including particle size, surface morphology, dynamic swelling, density, moisture content and biodegradation rates. The PLGA nanoparticles and the hydrogel microspheres encapsulating the curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed average size of (221-243 nm) and (3.1-3.9 μm), respectively. The developed carriers attained high swelling within a few minutes, showed low moisture content as dry powders (0.9-1.8%), desirable biodegradation rates, high drug loading (up to 97%), and good sustained release. An aerosolization study was conducted using a next generation impactor and promising aerosolization characteristics were shown. In vitro macrophage uptake studies, cytotoxicity and in-vitro TNF-α assays were performed for the investigated particles. These assays revealed promising bio-interactions for the respirable/swellable nano-micro particles developed in this study as potential carriers for sustained pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:22136259

  6. Controlled release pulmonary administration of curcumin using swellable biocompatible microparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2012-02-01

    This study involves a promising approach to achieve sustained pulmonary drug delivery. Dry powder particulate carriers were engineered to allow simultaneous aerosol lung delivery, evasion of macrophage uptake, and sustained drug release through a controlled polymeric architecture. Chitosan grafted with PEG was synthesized and characterized (FTIR, EA, DSC and 2D-XRD). Then, a series of respirable amphiphilic hydrogel microparticles were developed via spray drying of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with chitosan-grafted-PEG or chitosan. The nanoparticles and microparticles were fully characterized using an array of physicochemical analytical methods including particle size, surface morphology, dynamic swelling, density, moisture content and biodegradation rates. The PLGA nanoparticles and the hydrogel microspheres encapsulating the curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed average size of 221-243 nm and 3.1-3.9 μm, respectively. The developed carriers attained high swelling within a few minutes and showed low moisture content as dry powders (0.9-1.8%), desirable biodegradation rates, high drug loading (up to 97%), and good sustained release. An aerosolization study was conducted using a next generation impactor, and promising aerosolization characteristics were shown. In vitro macrophage uptake studies, cytotoxicity and in vitro TNF-α assays were performed for the investigated particles. These assays revealed promising biointeractions for the respirable/swellable nano-micro particles developed in this study as potential carriers for sustained pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:22136259

  7. Purified fibronectin administration to patients with severe abdominal infections. A controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Lundsgaard-Hansen, P; Doran, J E; Rubli, E; Papp, E; Morgenthaler, J J; Späth, P

    1985-01-01

    Subnormal plasma fibronectin (Fn) levels are found in patients with severe abdominal infections (SAI). The repletion of Fn has been postulated to have therapeutic benefit by virtue of its opsonic, reticuloendothelial system (RES) stimulating effects. A controlled, prospective trial of Fn administration was performed in patients with SAI to assess its use as an adjunct to standard procedures of intensive care. Thirty-three SAI patients were given daily doses of 0.8 g of purified Fn on days 1-5 following admission to the ICU, whereas 34 control patients received no Fn. All patients received the clinical care, antibiotics, and pharmacologic agents appropriate to their individual needs. The admission status and laboratory profiles of the two patient groups (+ and -Fn) were comparable on admission to the study. No side effects of the Fn preparation were observed. As judged by subgroup averages, the Fn replacement regimen was effective in elevating Fn levels to within normal range from day 2 onwards, as measured by immunological and functional assays. The estimated intravascular recovery of Fn averaged 82% in those patients who survived, yet only 52% in the nonsurvivors. Ultimate hospital mortality was 9/33 (27.3%) in the +Fn group versus 13/34 (38.2%) in the -Fn group (p = 0.244, Fisher's exact test). Although ultimate mortality was not significantly changed by the administration of Fn, the Fn treated patients appeared to survive longer than did the control patients. This trend was confirmed through the analysis of expected survival curves (D = 3.12, 0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). When compared to the survivors, the ultimate nonsurvivors entered the study with statistically higher group averages of bilirubin and creatinine concomitant with lower averages of Fn, antithrombin III, C4, C3, C3b-INH, and transferrin. These differences persisted throughout the 11-day monitoring period; differences between survivors and nonsurvivors with respect to platelets

  8. Cannabinoids in Exhaled Breath following Controlled Administration of Smoked Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Beck, Olof; Gorelick, David A.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), and cannabinol (CBN) were measured in breath following controlled cannabis smoking to characterize the time course and window of detection of breath cannabinoids. METHODS Exhaled breath was collected from chronic (≥4 times per week) and occasional (

  9. Fuzzy control for a nonlinear mimo-liquid level problem

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Parkinson, W. J. ,

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear systems are very common in the chemical process industries. Control of these systems, particularly multivariable systems, is extremely difficult. In many chemical plants, because of this difficulty, control is seldom optimal. Quite often, the best control is obtained in the manual mode using experienced operators. Liquid level control is probably one of the most common control problems in a chemical plant. Liquid level is important in heat exchanger control where heat and mass transfer rates can be controlled by the amount of liquid covering the tubes. Distillation columns, mixing tanks, and surge tanks are other examples where liquid level control is very important. The problem discussed in this paper is based on the simultaneous level control of three tanks connected in series. Each tank holds slightly less than 0.01 m{sup 3} of liquid. All three tanks are connected, Liquid is pumped into the first and the third tanks to maintain their levels. The third tank in the series drains to the system exit. The levels in the first and third tank control the level in the middle tank. The level in the middle tank affects the levels in the two end tanks. Many other chemical plant systems can be controlled in a manner similar to this three-tank system. For example, in any distillation column liquid level control problems can be represented as a total condenser with liquid level control, a reboiler with liquid level control, with the interactive column in between. The solution to the three-tank-problem can provide insight into many of the nonlinear control problems in the chemical process industries. The system was tested using the fuzzy logic controller and a proportional-integral (PI) controller, in both the setpoint tracking mode and disturbance rejection mode. The experimental results are discussed and comparisons between fuzzy controller and the standard PI controller are made.

  10. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL ROOM OF THE CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL ROOM OF THE CONTROL HOUSE LOCATED ON THE SOUTH END OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE CONTROL PANEL. - Big Tujunga Dam, Control House, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Assessing control strategies for ground level ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Neelesh Vijay

    2009-12-01

    Developing cost effective control strategies for ozone has been a challenge to air quality modelers. Conventionally, the control strategies are applied across-the board to the region. The main aim of this research was to develop a Decision-Making Framework (DMF) for evaluating and optimizing the selection of ozone control strategies. Conventional across-the-board reductions conduct emission reductions uniformly throughout the region and throughout the day. By contrast, this dissertation studied targeted reductions, in which emission sources of various types are reduced at various times and locations. The proposed DMF comprised of four phases: (1) Initialization, (2) Mining, (3) Metamodeling, and (4) Optimization. This DMF was tested on a DFW 2009 future case episode which was based on a 10-day episode from August 13-22, 1999. 612 emission variables were identified in three source categories viz. point, area (includes non-road) and line (on-road). The emission control regions and time periods along with ozone monitoring regions and time periods were defined. The control strategy emission reductions and costs were also identified in this stage. Initially a Latin hypercube experimental design was setup to organize 30 sets of emission reduction scenarios to be modeled using the photochemical model CAMx. Data mining reduced the number of variables to a maximum of 126. A second Latin hypercube was setup to organize another 30 emission reduction scenarios for the significant variables identified by data mining. Metamodels were developed for ozone from the 60 CAMx runs using linear regression models constructed with the stepwise model selection method. Stepwise regression further reduced the number of variables. The metamodels were implemented in optimization as a surrogate for time-intensive CAMx modeling. Appropriate constraints were calculated for each metamodel to ensure that it satisfied EPA's MAT. The optimization was formulated to find the most cost effective

  12. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  13. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration up-regulates dopamine transporter levels 72 hours after withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Christina; Luevano, Joe E; Miranda-Arango, Manuel; Pipkin, Joseph A; Jackson, Jonathan A; Castañeda, Eddie; Gosselink, Kristin L; O'Dell, Laura E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there are persistent changes in dopamine systems following withdrawal from methamphetamine (METH). This study examined changes in striatal dopamine transporter (DAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2) 72 h after withdrawal from METH intravenous self- administration (IVSA). Rats were given limited (1h) or extended (6h) access to METH IVSA (0.05 mg/kg/0.1 ml infusion) for 22 days. Controls did not receive METH IVSA. The rats given extended access to IVSA displayed higher METH intake during the first hour of drug access compared to rats given limited access. Extended access to METH also produced a concomitant increase in striatal DAT levels relative to drug-naïve controls. There were no changes in TH or D2 levels across groups. Previous studies have reported a decrease in striatal DAT levels during protracted periods (>7 days) of withdrawal from METH IVSA. This study extends previous work by showing an increase in striatal DAT protein expression during an earlier time point of withdrawal from this drug. These results are an important step toward understanding the dynamic changes in dopamine systems that occur during different time points of withdrawal from METH IVSA.

  14. Environmental Impact: Controlling the Overall Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westman, Walter E.; Gifford, Roger M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a rationing system designed to control environmental impact and degradation while maximizing personal choice. By assigning to every resource use and activity that causes environmental impact, a price in money-independent units (Natural Resource Units), a new system of environmental trade-offs can be established. (JR)

  15. HIGH-LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM IN C#

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Timossi, Chris; Portmann, Greg; Urashka, Michael.; Ikami, Craig; Beaudrow, M.

    2008-10-14

    We have started upgrading the control room programs for the injector at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We chose to program in C* exclusively on the .NET Framework to create EPICS client programs on Windows Vista PCs. This paper reports the status of this upgrade project.

  16. Rockefeller Foundation Program for Training Minority-Group School Administrators at the Superintendent Level: Perceptions of Skills and Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Hilbert Dennis

    The focus of this descriptive study was on the perceptions of participants in a program for Training Minority-Group School Administrators at the Superintendent Level (STP). The purpose of the study was to identify those administrative skills that program participants perceived to have developed; to identify some opinions of the value of the STP…

  17. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  18. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention... (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis...

  19. The differential effects of diestrous progestogen administration of proestrous gonadotrophin levels.

    PubMed

    Beattie, C W; Corbin, A

    1975-10-01

    Progesterone or d-norgestrel, a totally synthetic progestogen, administered subcutaneously at 1330 h on diestrus (Day 2) of 4-day cyclic rats, inhibited ovulation and increased the vaginal cycle length in a dose-related manner. d-norgestrel was at least 5 times as potent as inhibitor of ovulation as progesterone. The dose-related inhibition of ovulation was directly related to suppression of the proestrous serum LH surge. Proestrous serum FSH levels were not depressed at the minimum dose of d-norgestrel that produced both a 100% reduction in ovulation (MED100) and a significant decrease in proestrous serum LH. However, progesterone produced a significant decrease in proestrous serum FSH at its anti-ovulatory MED100. Progesterone and d-norgestrel were equipotent (100 mug/100 g BW) with respect to significant suppression of proestrous serum FSH levels. Follicular growth was retarded, but only at the higher doses of either progestogen which suppressed FSH and LH. These data suggest that a) the increase in acute anti-ovulatory potency of a synthetic non-estrogenic progestogen over progesterone lies in its ability to reduced selectively serum LH levels at low doses, b) the progestational block of ovulation takes place via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and not the ovary, and c) the retardation of follicular growth that accompanies ovulatory inhibition after diestrous administration of high doses of a progestogen takes place only when both serum FSH and LH are significantly reduced.

  20. Learning Switching Control: A Tank Level-Control Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasamontes, M.; Alvarez, J. D.; Guzman, J. L.; Berenguel, M.

    2012-01-01

    A key topic in multicontroller strategies is the mechanism for switching between controllers, depending on the current operating point. The objective of the switching mechanism is to keep the control action coherent. To help students understand the switching strategy involved in multicontroller schema and the relationship between the system…

  1. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C.; Vylet, Vashek; Walker, Lawrence S.; /SLAC

    2007-12-17

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a reference.

  2. The effect of oestrogen administration on plasma testosterone, FSH and LH levels in patients with Klinefelter's syndrome and normal men.

    PubMed

    Smals, A G; Kloppenborg, P W; Lequin, R M; Benraad, T J

    1974-12-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethinyl estradiol (15, 30, and 150 mcg/day for 7 days) on plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was evaluated in 6 patients (ages 18-38) with Klinefelter's syndrome and compared with the results obtained in 6 eugonadal males (ages 26-41). Mean pretreatment testosterone levels in the Klinefelter patients were significantly (p less than .05) lower than in the eugonadal patients, whereas LH and FSH levels in the Klinefelter patients were significantly higher (p less than .05). 3 of the Klinefelter patients had normal testosterone levels and elevated FSH and LH levels. A dose-dependent decrease of FSH and testosterone followed the estrogen administration in all subjects, whereas the LH decrease was only dose-dependent in the Klinefelter patients. Despite a significant testosterone decrease (p less than .05) after 30 and 150 mcg estrogen, LH and FSH in the Klinefelter patients remained supranormal. 15 mcg decreased LH and testosterone in normal males but not in Klinefelter patients. When human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was administered after 150 mcg estrogen/day for 7 days, testosterone decreased in the controls from 522 ng% to 111 ng% and in the Klinefelter patients from 324 to 141 ng%. It is concluded that small amounts of estrogens play a role in the pituitary-gonadal axis in normal males. In Klinefelter's syndrome the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal feedback is operative at a higher setting, comparable with that found in eugonadal males.

  3. A fuzzy logic controller for hormone administration using an implantable pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Wells, George H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements for a Fuzzy Logic Controller for the physiologic administration of hormones by means of a FDA-approved surgically implantable infusion pump. Results of a LabVIEW computer simulation for the administration of insulin for diabetic adult patients as well as human growth hormone for pediatric patients are presented. A VHS video tape of the simulation in action has been prepared and is available for viewing.

  4. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  5. Effects of oral acute administration and subchronic feeding of several levels of D-psicose in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Izumori, Ken; Suzuki, Hiroo

    2002-12-01

    The effects of oral acute administration and subchronic (34 d) feeding of several levels of D-psicose, a C3-epimer of D-fructose, were studied in rats. In the acute administration test, five groups of eight male Wistar rats (3 wk old) were orally given D-psicose in doses of 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 g/kg. Three rats receiving 14 g/kg, three rats receiving 17 g/kg and eight rats receiving 20 g/kg of D-psicose died within 2 d after administration. The calculated LD50 values were 16.3 g/kg by the Behrens-Karber method and 15.8 g/kg by the Litchfield-Wilcoxon method. In the subcronic feeding test, eight groups of seven male Wistar rats (3 wk old) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% for 34 d. One rat fed 30% D-psicose diet and five rats fed 40% D-psicose diet died during the experimental period. Body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency were more extensively suppressed by the higher D-psicose diets. The weights of heart, spleen and abdominal adipose tissue were smaller in the order of dietary D-psicose concentration. Cecal weight increased with increasing D-psicose concentration in the diets. Cecal hypertrophy was observed in rats fed 10-40% D-psicose diets. These results suggest that D-psicose differs in nutritional characteristics from D-glucose or D-fructose. The feeding of diets extremely high in D-psicose seems to be harmful to the intestinal tract.

  6. Electronic circuit provides automatic level control for liquid nitrogen traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turvy, R. R.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic circuit, based on the principle of increased thermistor resistance corresponding to decreases in temperature provides an automatic level control for liquid nitrogen cold traps. The electronically controlled apparatus is practically service-free, requiring only occasional reliability checks.

  7. Real-time scintigraphic assessment of intravenous radium-223 administration for quality control.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chadwick L; Monk, J Paul; Murrey, Douglas A; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223 ((223)Ra) dichloride is an approved intravenous radiotherapy for patients with osseous metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In addition to the therapeutic alpha radiation, there is additional (223)Ra radiation generated which produces photons that can be imaged with conventional gamma cameras. No studies have evaluated real-time and quality imaging during intravenous (223)Ra administration to verify systemic circulation and exclude (223)Ra extravasation at the injection site. A retrospective review was performed for fifteen (223)Ra administrations for CRPC patients which were imaged using a large field of view portable gamma camera (LFOVPGC) for the purposes of quality control and patient safety. Dynamic imaging of the chest was performed before, during, and after the (223)Ra administration to verify systemic circulation, per institutional clinical protocol. Before and after (223)Ra administration, a static image was obtained of the intravenous access site. Dynamic imaging of the chest confirmed systemic administration early during the 1-minute injection period for all patients. There were no cases of focal (223)Ra extravasation at the site of intravenous access. These results verify that systemic (223)Ra administrations can be quantified with real-time imaging using an LFOVPGC. This simple approach can confirm and quantify systemic circulation of (223)Ra early during injection and exclude focal extravasation for the purposes of quality control.

  8. Real-Time Scintigraphic Assessment of Intravenous Radium-223 Administration for Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Chadwick L.; Monk, J. Paul; Murrey, Douglas A.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223 (223Ra) dichloride is an approved intravenous radiotherapy for patients with osseous metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In addition to the therapeutic alpha radiation, there is additional 223Ra radiation generated which produces photons that can be imaged with conventional gamma cameras. No studies have evaluated real-time and quality imaging during intravenous 223Ra administration to verify systemic circulation and exclude 223Ra extravasation at the injection site. A retrospective review was performed for fifteen 223Ra administrations for CRPC patients which were imaged using a large field of view portable gamma camera (LFOVPGC) for the purposes of quality control and patient safety. Dynamic imaging of the chest was performed before, during, and after the 223Ra administration to verify systemic circulation, per institutional clinical protocol. Before and after 223Ra administration, a static image was obtained of the intravenous access site. Dynamic imaging of the chest confirmed systemic administration early during the 1-minute injection period for all patients. There were no cases of focal 223Ra extravasation at the site of intravenous access. These results verify that systemic 223Ra administrations can be quantified with real-time imaging using an LFOVPGC. This simple approach can confirm and quantify systemic circulation of 223Ra early during injection and exclude focal extravasation for the purposes of quality control. PMID:25789312

  9. Effects of repeated-low level sodium chlorate administration on ruminal and fecal coliforms in sheep.

    PubMed

    Arzola, Claudio; Copado, Ramon; Epps, Sharon V R P; Rodriguez-Almeida, Felipe; Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Rodriguez-Muela, Carlos; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Castillo-Castillo, Yamicela; Diaz-Plascencia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral sodium chlorate administration on reducing total coliform populations in ewes. A 30% sodium chlorate product or a sodium chloride placebo was administered to twelve lactating Dorper X Blackbelly or Pelibuey crossbred ewes averaging 65 kg body weight. The ewes were adapted to diet and management. Ewes were randomly assigned (4/treatment) to one of three treatments which were administered twice daily by oral gavage for five consecutive days: a control (TC) consisting of 3 g sodium chloride/animal/d, a T3 treatment consisting of 1.8 g of sodium chlorate/animal/d, and a T9 treatment consisting of 5.4 g sodium chlorate/animal/d; the latter was intended to approximate a lowest known effective dose. Ruminal samples collected by stomach tube and freshly voided fecal samples were collected daily beginning 3 days before treatment initiation and for 6 days thereafter. Contents were cultured quantitatively to enumerate total coliforms. There were no significant differences in total coliform numbers (log10 cfu/g) in the feces between treatments (P = 0.832). There were differences (P < 0.02) in ruminal coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) between treatments (4.1, 4.3 and 5.0 log10/mL contents in TC, T3 and T9 Treatments, respectively) which tended to increase from the beginning of treatment until the 5th day of treatment (P < 0.05). Overall, we did not obtain the expected results with oral administration of sodium chloride at the applied doses. By comparing the trends in coliform populations in the rumen contents in all treatments, there was an increase over the days. The opposite trend occurred in the feces, due mainly to differences among rumen contents and feces in ewes administered the T9 treatment (P = 0.06). These results suggest that the low chlorate doses used here were suboptimal for the control of coliforms in the gastrointestinal tract of ewes.

  10. Leaders for a Movement: Professional Preparation and Development of Middle Level Teachers and Administrators. The Handbook of Research in Middle Level Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, P. Gayle, Ed.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr., Ed.

    Papers included in this volume include: "Leaders for Movement: An Introduction to the Professional Preparation and Development of Middle Level Teachers and Administrators" (P. Gayle Andrews and Vincent A. Anfara, Jr.); (1) "Middle Level Teacher Preparation: Status, Progress, and Challenges" (C. Kenneth McEwin, Tracy W. Smith, and Thomas S.…

  11. 76 FR 44594 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Systems... Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Systems.'' This guidance document describes a...

  12. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels.

  13. Effects of monosodium-L-glutamate administration on serum levels of reproductive hormones and cholesterol, epididymal sperm reserves and testicular histomorphology of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ochiogu, Izuchukwu S; Ogwu, David; Uchendu, Chukwuka N; Okoye, Chidozie N; Ihedioha, John I; Mbegbu, Edmund C

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of administration of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) on serum gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone and total cholesterol (TC), cauda epididymal sperm reserves (CESR) and testicular histomorphology of adult male albino rats. Eighty-four rats, randomly assigned to 7 groups of 12 rats each, were used for the study. Varying low doses (0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 g/kg body weight) of MSG were administered orally or subcutaneously at 48-h intervals for six weeks. Serum GnRH, LH, testosterone and TC, and CESR were evaluated on days 14, 28 and 42 of MSG administration. Testicular histomorphology was evaluated on day 42. The results showed that the mean serum GnRH, LH and testosterone levels, and the CESR of all the treated groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the untreated control on days 14, 28 and 42 of MSG administration. The mean serum TC levels of all the treated groups were also significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the control group on days 14 and 28. No lesions were observed on sections of the testes. It was concluded that MSG administration for 14, 28 and 42 days led to significantly lower serum levels of GnRH, LH, testosterone and TC, and significantly lower CESR. PMID:25655420

  14. Outcomes of the Evidence-Based Pitocin Administration Checklist at a Tertiary-Level Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, Danuta M; Cowgill, Karen; Hoffman, Lindsay; Carlson, Hannah

    2014-09-01

    Pitocin, a synthetic form of the hormone oxytocin, is a high-alert medication that heightens patient harm when used incorrectly. This investigation examined the outcomes of an evidence-based Pitocin administration checklist used for labor augmentation at a tertiary-level hospital. Data came from patient records. Using the Perinatal Trigger Tool, N = 372 clinical records (n = 194 prior to and n = 178 following checklist implementation) were reviewed. Checklist implementation resulted in statistically significant reductions in the duration of hospitalization (1.72 vs. 2.02 days, p = .0005), presence of meconium (23.7% vs. 6.7%, p < .001), maternal fevers (7.2% vs. 2.3%, p = .030), and episiotomies (8.8% vs. 1.7%, p = .002), and clinically important reduction in APGAR scores < 7 at 5 min (3.6%-0.6%, p = .069) and instrumented deliveries (11.9%-8.4%, p = .307). A universal Pitocin checklist implementation can improve birth outcomes and costs of care.

  15. 77 FR 35310 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Training Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration's ongoing Export Control Reform Initiative, BIS published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (herein... 7, 2011, BIS published a rule (76 FR 68675) proposing several changes to the framework initially..., ``specially designed'' for military applications, it was identified in the new ECCNs proposed in this...

  16. 78 FR 45026 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    .... 78, No. 143 / Thursday, July 25, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of..., reducing incentives for foreign manufacturers to design out and avoid U.S.-origin content and services, and... Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control Reform'' (78 FR 22660, April 16,...

  17. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator. 112.4 Section 112.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for...

  18. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and Related Items the President Determines No... publishes this proposed rule that describes how military gas turbine engines and related articles that the... USML Category XIX the military gas turbine engines and related articles that would remain on the...

  19. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  20. Teaching Educational Administration Externally at Post-Graduate Level at the University of New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duignan, Patrick A.; Teather, David C. B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes North American origins and Australian development of the field of study of educational administration; explores links between the field's development and development of its study externally; considers University of New England's Master of Educational Administration degree; and discusses staff views on supervision of external students'…

  1. Intergovernmental Relations in Education: Professionalism and Policy Administration at the State Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Anthony M.

    1974-01-01

    An exploration of some of the relationships between organizational characteristics of a state education agency and the decision making process in federal program administration. The consequences of the structural characteristics of a professional organization for the administration of externally imposed policy are discussed, leading to some…

  2. Subchronic administration of riparin III induces antidepressive-like effects and increases BDNF levels in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Auriana S; Oliveira, Iris C M; Vidal, Laura T M; Rodrigues, Gabriel C; Gutierrez, Stanley J C; Barbosa-Filho, José M; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M; de França Fonteles, Marta M; Gaspar, Danielle M; de Sousa, Francisca C F

    2015-08-01

    Riparin III (Rip III) is an alcamide isolated from Aniba riparia that has presented effects of antidepressant and anxiolytic activities in acute stress behavioral models. The trial's goal was to investigate the activity of Rip III in mice exposed to corticosterone-induced chronic depression model. Swiss female mice, 22-25 g, were distributed in following experimental groups: control group (vehicle1: saline containing 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.1% Tween-80, SC+ vehicle 2: distilled water emulsified with 2% Tween-80, PO); stressed group (corticosterone, 20 mg/kg, SC, + vehicle 2, orally); Rip III group (50 mg/kg, orally); and fluvoxamine (Flu) group (50 mg/kg, orally). The mice were exposed to the behavioral tests, and posteriorly, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were assessed in hippocampal samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way anova, followed by Newman-Keuls test. Both administrations of Rip III and Flu significantly reduced the immobility time in tail suspension and forced swimming tests after 21 days without affecting locomotor function. There was also an increase in BDNF protein levels in the mice hippocampus. These findings further support the hypothesis that Rip III could be a new pharmacological target for the treatment of mood disorders.

  3. Characterization of total plasma glycosaminoglycan levels in healthy volunteers following oral administration of a novel antithrombotic odiparcil with aspirin or enoxaparin.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan L; Upreti, Vijay V; Khurana, Manoj; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-10-01

    Odiparcil is a novel, orally active beta-d-thioxyloside analog with antithrombotic activity associated with a reduced risk of adverse bleeding events. Its unique mechanism of action is postulated by means of an elevation in circulating endogenous chondroitin sulfate-related glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) levels. The purpose of these 2 separate clinical studies was to evaluate plasma GAG levels in healthy subjects administered odiparcil with either aspirin (ASA) or enoxaparin. Clinical plasma samples were processed and analyzed using validated HPLC bioassays that indirectly estimate GAG levels based on the simultaneous detection of the chondroitin disaccharide derivatives. The concomitant administration of odiparcil with or without ASA resulted in a significant elevation in GAG levels over baseline for both treatment groups. In the other clinical study, the concomitant administration of odiparcil with or without enoxaparin displayed significant increases in plasma DeltaDi-OS, DeltaDi-4S, and total disaccharide levels versus control group. Neither plasma GAG levels nor odiparcil plasma levels were correlated with a rise in hepatic transaminases, an adverse drug event observed in several subjects; and plasma odiparcil levels were indirectly correlated with plasma GAG levels. These clinical studies were proof of concept of preclinical rat studies indicating that chronic odiparcil treatment elevates endogenous GAG levels in human subjects. PMID:18757783

  4. Effect of acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine on nerve growth factor levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Scaini, Giselli; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Furlanetto, Camila B; Morais, Meline O; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Most inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism produce hypertyrosinemia. Neurological manifestations are variable and some patients are developmentally normal, while others show different degrees of developmental retardation. Considering that current data do not eliminate the possibility that elevated levels of tyrosine and/or its derivatives may have noxious effects on central nervous system development in some patients, the present study evaluated nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in hippocampus, striatum and posterior cortex of young rats. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed 1 h after a single intraperitoneal administration of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old); the rats were killed 12 h after the last injection. NGF levels were then evaluated. Our findings showed that acute administration of L-tyrosine decreased NGF levels in striatum of 10-day-old rats. In the 30-day-old rats, NGF levels were decreased in hippocampus and posterior cortex. On the other hand, chronic administration of L-tyrosine increased NGF levels in posterior cortex. Decreased NGF may impair growth, differentiation, survival and maintenance of neurons. PMID:23690230

  5. Effects of Gn-RH, TRH, and CRF administration on plasma leptin levels in lean and obese women.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, J; Jankiewicz-Wika, J; Stepień, H

    2000-04-01

    Leptin, a hormone which is produced by adipose tissue, has been shown to inhibit food intake, increase energy expenditure and influence the function of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal, -thyroid, and -adrenal systems. We have examined the association between leptin concentrations (RIA method) and levels of different hormones using standard Gn-RH, TRH and CRF tests (at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min) in regularly menstruating 10 lean and 10 obese premenopausal women in follicular phase. FSH, LH, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) concentrations in Gn-RH test; TSH, PRL, fT3, fT4 in TRH test; ACTH, DHEA-S, cortisol in CRF test were measured by RIA, ELISA or IRMA methods. The obese subjects had thicker four skinfolds, higher fat content in the body, and bigger BMI, compared to the lean females. Gn-RH test: We have noted higher basal leptin values in obese women than in lean subjects, which was stable during the Gn-RH test. In the same blood specimen, basal insulin concentrations did not differ between the tested groups of patients. There were no correlations between E(2), P, or gonadotropins and plasma leptin concentrations between both groups of patients. We have revealed the negative correlation between LH mobilization (maximal incremental values over basal levels; Delta%) and baseline leptin concentrations in all observed subjects. TRH test: In both groups of patients the leptin levels decreased at 120 min of TRH administration. We have noted diminished PRL and TSH mobilisation in obese subjects in comparison to the controls. In all females (n = 20) the correlations between TSH or PRL mobilization and BMI, skinfold thickness and the mass of body fat in kg were negative. In obese subjects only we observed the positive correlations between fT(3)concentrations at 60 and 120 min of the test or Delta% of fT(3)and leptin levels. CRF test: In obese females, we noted higher basal ACTH and cortisol concentrations with decreased mobilization (Delta%) of ACTH or cortisol, as compared to

  6. Glucocorticoids and behavioral effects of psychostimulants. II: cocaine intravenous self-administration and reinstatement depend on glucocorticoid levels.

    PubMed

    Deroche, V; Marinelli, M; Le Moal, M; Piazza, P V

    1997-06-01

    Observations suggest that corticosterone, the principal glucocorticoid hormone in the rat, can modulate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. In this report, the influence of corticosterone on intravenous self-administration of cocaine was studied. In the first experiment, cocaine intravenous self-administration in adrenalectomized rats and in adrenalectomized rats receiving corticosterone replacement treatments was studied as a function of corticosterone concentrations and as a function of cocaine doses (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg/infusion). In a second experiment, we tested, in intact rats, the effect of different doses of corticosterone (0.09, 0.18, 0.37, 0.58, 0.75 mg/kg) on the reinstatement of an extinguished cocaine self-administration behavior. It is reported that adrenalectomy markedly shifts the cocaine self-administration dose-effect curve downward. This effect was dose-dependently reversed by corticosterone; a complete restoration being obtained for corticosterone levels in the range of those induced by stress. Corticosterone administration also precipitated dose-dependently the reinstatement of cocaine self-administration. The maximal effect was obtained for a dose of corticosterone producing an increase in plasma levels similar to the increase produced by an intense stress. In conclusion, our results show that glucocorticoids facilitate the reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the hypothesis that glucocorticoids are one of the biological factors determining vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:9190876

  7. Aspartame administration to the infant monkey: hypothalamic morphology and plasma amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W A; Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Renn, E

    1980-09-01

    Infant monkeys received 2 gm/kg body weight of aspartame (APM) or 2 gm/kg body weight APM plus 1 gm/kg body weight monosodium glutamate (MSG) by gastric tube. Blood samples were obtained at intervals over the ensuing 4 hours and analyzed for amino acid levels. At this time, each infant was perfused with glutaraldehyde. The hypothalamus was embedded in plastic and then serially sectioned at 1 mu. Hypothalamic morphology was normal in all eight infants given 2 gm/kg body weight APM and in the six infants given 2 gm/kg body weight APM plus 1 gm/kg body weight MSG. By light microscopy, no pycnotic nuclei, neuronal degeneration, or dendritic swelling was noted. In both experimental and control brains, localized areas of poor perfusion exhibited abnormal morphology. Elevated plasma levels of aspartate, glutamate, and phenylalanine indicated that the test compounds were administered and absorbed. Variable rates of absorption were evident, probably due to the necessity of administering APM as a slurry, due to its low solubility. On the basis of blood absorption curves, it appears that infant monkeys metabolize aspartate and glutamate and phenylalanine somewhat more rapidly than man. It is concluded that APM given alone or with MSG, in large acute doses, does not result in hypothalamic damage in the newborn monkey.

  8. Automatic reference level control for an antenna pattern recording system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipin, R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Automatic gain control system keeps recorder reference levels within 0.2 decibels during operation. System reduces recorder drift during antenna radiation distribution determinations over an eight hour period.

  9. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  10. Levels of steering control: Reproduction of steering-wheel movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godthelp, H.

    1982-01-01

    A schematic description of the steering control process is presented. It is shown that this process can be described in terms of levels of control. Level of control will depend on driver's skill in making use of 'clever' strategies which may be related to knowledge about the path to follow (input) and/or the vehicle under control. This knowledge may be referred to as an internal model of a particular task element. Internal information, as derived from these internal models will probably be used together with proprioceptive feedback. It is hypothesized that the efficiency of the higher levels of control will be dependent on the accuracy of both the internal and proprioceptive information. Based on this research philosophy a series of experiments is carried out. Two primary experiments were done in order to analyse subjects' ability to reproduce steering-wheel positions and movements without visual feedback. Steering-wheel angle amplitude, steering force and movement frequency were involved as independent variables.

  11. Effectiveness of different corticosterone administration methods to elevate corticosterone serum levels, induce depressive-like behavior, and affect neurogenesis levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kott, J M; Mooney-Leber, S M; Shoubah, F A; Brummelte, S

    2016-01-15

    High levels of chronic stress or stress hormones are associated with depressive-like behavior in animal models. However, slight elevations in corticosterone (CORT) - the major stress hormone in rodents - have also been associated with improved performances, albeit in a sex-dependent manner. Some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the effects of high CORT levels may be due to different administrations methods. The current study aims to compare the effects of ∼40mg/kg given either via subcutaneous injection, through an implanted pellet, or in the drinking water, for ∼21days on CORT serum levels, depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), and neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult female rats. We found that animals exposed to the daily injections showed elevated CORT levels throughout the administration period, while the pellet animals showed only a transient increase, and drinking water animals revealed no elevation in CORT in serum. In addition, only the injection group exhibited higher levels of immobility in the FST. Interestingly, animals receiving CORT via injection or drinking water had lower numbers of doublecortin-positive cells in the ventral DG one week after the last CORT administration compared to animals implanted with a CORT pellet. These results will contribute to the growing literature on the effects of chronic CORT exposure and may help to clarify some of the discrepancies among previous studies, particularly in females.

  12. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction of Teachers and the Level of Servant Leadership of Their Campus Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' job satisfaction and their campus administrator's level of servant leadership. Although Greenleaf's (1977) seminal work on servant leadership has led to the connection between servant leadership and education, minimal research has been done to…

  13. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Display Levels of the Teachers at Secondary Schools According to the Perceptions of the School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Soner

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine in what level the teachers at secondary schools display organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) according to the perceptions of the school administrators. The data of this study, which is descriptive, were collected via the "the scale of OCB" which was developed by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman and…

  14. Trailblazers: An Examination of Community College Black Women in Senior Level Administrator Roles--Their Stories through Their Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Bruce, Tameka Lazette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how Black women who work in senior level administrative positions at community colleges were able to establish successful career paths. The literature review draws from the theoretical framework of critical race theory, the Black feminist thought, and critical race feminism. The use of counter-stories establishes a platform for…

  15. Handbook of Entry Level Jobs. A Guide for Occupational Investigation for Administrators, Counselors, Vocational and Special Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Lawrence T.

    This handbook is intended to provide administrators, vocational counselors, and teachers with a convenient reference of entry-level jobs. The handbook organizes information on over 3,000 jobs into the nine occupational clusters that have been identified by the Department of Labor in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). Jobs are organized…

  16. Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-10-01

    Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ≤ 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation.

  17. Changes in Urinary and Serum Levels of Novel Biomarkers after Administration of Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mawad, Habib; Laurin, Louis-Philippe; Naud, Jean-François; Leblond, François A.; Henley, Nathalie; Vallée, Michel; Pichette, Vincent; Leblanc, Martine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of our study is to describe the changes in urinary and serum levels of novel biomarkers after gadolinium contrast administration in patients with normal renal function. METHODS We measured four biomarkers in 28 volunteers: interleukin-18 (IL-18), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and cystatin C. Urinary and serum samples were collected at 0, 3, and 24 hours following gadolinium administration. RESULTS Baseline serum creatinine was 57.8 ± 34.5 µmol/L and remained stable. Urinary IL-18 levels increased significantly at three hours (10.7 vs. 7.3 ng/mg creatinine; P < 0.05). Similarly, urinary NAG levels increased significantly at three hours (3.9 vs. 2.2 IU/mg creatinine; P < 0.001). For both these markers, the difference was no longer significant at 24 hours. No statistically significant differences were observed for urinary and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels and for serum cystatin C levels. CONCLUSIONS Urinary IL-18 and NAG levels increased transiently after administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with normal renal function. PMID:27398022

  18. The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.C.; Butler, P.L.; Glassell, R.L.; Herndon, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Using Computers To Write Comprehensive Examinations: A Study of Doctoral Level Examinations in Educational Administration Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fansler, A. Gigi; And Others

    Comprehensive examinations, long a bastion in many doctoral programs, are one of many customs under scrutiny for possible change in a movement towards more authentic means of educational assessment. This preliminary study surveyed chairs of departments of educational administration from universities across the United States to learn how computers…

  20. Examining Professional Development at the Organizational Level through the Lens of Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluative case study was to explore teachers' and administrators' perceptions of the organizational capacity during an initial implementation of a systemic change in professional development at a K-8 school. Educational reform acts such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 pressure public school systems to increase student…

  1. What Academic Administrators Should Know To Attract Senior Level Faculty Members to Online Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannoni, D. L.; Tesone, Dana V.

    2003-01-01

    Presents findings of a focus group study used to design a survey instrument for applications in future studies to determine factors of influence that inspire senior faculty members to participate in course delivery through online learning environments (OLE). Concludes with discussion points to encourage academic administrators to consider the…

  2. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  3. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  4. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  5. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  6. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  7. Very-high-level neutral-beam control system

    SciTech Connect

    Elischer, V.; Jacobson, V.; Theil, E.

    1981-10-01

    As increasing numbers of neutral beams are added to fusion machines, their operation can consume a significant fraction of a facility's total resources. LBL has developed a very high level control system that allows a neutral beam injector to be treated as a black box with just 2 controls: one to set the beam power and one to set the pulse duration. This 2 knob view allows simple operation and provides a natural base for implementing even higher level controls such as automatic source conditioning.

  8. Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Adaptive control is presently one of the methods available which may be used to control plants with poorly modelled dynamics or time varying dynamics. Although many variations of adaptive controllers exist, a common characteristic of all adaptive control schemes, is that input/output measurements from the plant are used to adjust a control law in an on-line fashion. Ideally the adjustment mechanism of the adaptive controller is able to learn enough about the dynamics of the plant from input/output measurements to effectively control the plant. In practice, problems such as measurement noise, controller saturation, and incorrect model order, to name a few, may prevent proper adjustment of the controller and poor performance or instability result. In this work we set out to avoid the inadequacies of procedurally implemented safety nets, by introducing a two level control scheme in which an expert system based 'supervisor' at the upper level provides all the safety net functions for an adaptive controller at the lower level. The expert system is based on a shell called IPEX, (Interactive Process EXpert), that we developed specifically for the diagnosis and treatment of dynamic systems. Some of the more important functions that the IPEX system provides are: (1) temporal reasoning; (2) planning of diagnostic activities; and (3) interactive diagnosis. Also, because knowledge and control logic are separate, the incorporation of new diagnostic and treatment knowledge is relatively simple. We note that the flexibility available in the system to express diagnostic and treatment knowledge, allows much greater functionality than could ever be reasonably expected from procedural implementations of safety nets. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections. In section 1.1 we give a detailed review of the literature in the area of supervisory systems for adaptive controllers. In particular, we describe the evolution of safety nets from simple ad hoc techniques, up

  9. Phosphate Control and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Administration in Preventing Experimental Renal Osteodystrophy in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, W. E.; Bordier, P.; Marie, P.; Hruska, K.; Harter, H.; Greenwalt, A.; Blondin, J.; Haddad, J.; Bricker, N.; Slatopolsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with chronic renal disease may occur, at least in part, as a consequence of the need for progressive adaptation in renal phosphorus (P) excretion that occurs as glomerular filtration rate falls. However, the studies were of relatively short duration. Moreover, no information emerged regarding a potential role of calcium malabsorption in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The short duration of the protocol did not lend itself to the study of the effect of P control or the administration of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy. In the present studies, 14 dogs with experimental chronic renal disease were studied serially for a period of 2 yr. Each animal was studied first with two normal kidneys on an intake of P of 1,200 mg/day. Then, renal insufficiency was produced by 5/6 nephrectomy. The dogs then were divided into three groups. In group I, 1,200 mg/day P intake was administered for the full 2 yr. In group II, P intake was reduced from the initial 1,200 mg/day, in proportion to the measured fall in glomerular filtration rate, in an effort to obviate the renal adaptation in P excretion. In group III, “proportional reduction” of P intake also was employed; but in addition, 20 μg of 25(OH)D3 were administered orally three times a week. In group I, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels rose throughout the 2-yr period reaching a final concentration of 557±70 U (normal 10-60). In group II, values for PTH remained normal throughout the 1st yr, increased modestly between the 12th and the 18th mo, but then did not rise after the 18th mo. In group III, no elevation of PTH levels was observed at any time; however, these animals were hypercalcemic. Histomorphologic analyses of the ribs of these dogs were performed serially throughout the 2-yr period. A linear relationship was obtained between the osteoclastic resorption surface and the concentration

  10. Antibiotic Administration Routes Significantly Influence the Levels of Antibiotic Resistance in Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Yang; Buckley, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of oral exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic administration methods on antibiotic resistance (AR) gene pools and the profile of resistant bacteria in host gastrointestinal (GI) tracts using C57BL/6J mice with natural gut microbiota. Mice inoculated with a mixture of tet(M)-carrying Enterococcus spp. or blaCMY-2-carrying Escherichia coli were treated with different doses of tetracycline hydrochloride (Tet) or ampicillin sodium (Amp) and delivered via either feed or intravenous (i.v.) injection. Quantitative PCR assessment of mouse fecal samples revealed that (i) AR gene pools were below the detection limit in mice without prior inoculation of AR gene carriers regardless of subsequent exposure to corresponding antibiotics; (ii) oral exposure to high doses of Tet and Amp in mice inoculated with AR gene carriers led to rapid enrichment of corresponding AR gene pools in feces; (iii) significantly less or delayed development of AR in the GI tract of the AR carrier-inoculated mice was observed when the same doses of antibiotics were administered via i.v. injection rather than oral administration; and (iv) antibiotic dosage, and maybe the excretion route, affected AR in the GI tract. The shift of dominant AR bacterial populations in the gut microbiota was consistent with the dynamics of AR gene pools. The emergence of endogenous resistant bacteria in the gut microbiota corresponding to drug exposure was also observed. Together, these data suggest that oral administration of antibiotics has a prominent effect on AR amplification and development in gut microbiota, which may be minimized by alternative drug administration approaches, as illustrated by i.v. injection in this study and proper drug selection. PMID:23689712

  11. Process control plan for tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation

    SciTech Connect

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-06-29

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within the past year or so, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. The Process Control Plan (PCP), HNF-4264, was written to translate high-level guidance and regulatory criteria and express it in terms of operating instructions for the waste transfer system. These controls include: (1) Tank Farm Operations Administrative Controls developed in response to DOE-ORP direction reg,arding supplemental controls placed upon tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation activities specifically involving waste transfer activities. (2) Authorization Basis controls (Basis for Interim Operation (BIO)/Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs)) and supplemental DOE direction. (3) Environmental, Industrial Hygiene and Safety controls. (4) Operating Specification Document (OSD) controls. (5) Good operating practices. Included in the document are descriptions of tank conditions, waste conditions, major equipment, and a high-level overview of the system and the line-ups in which it operates. Primarily, the PCP addresses how the waste transfer will be managed, defining the monitoring and control methods including material balances to determine the progress and to define completion criteria for the transfer. The actual plant modifications and waste transfer will be authorized and controlled by plant procedures.

  12. Effects of administration of subtoxic doses of acetaminophen on liver and blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Durgul; Aksu, Ilkay; Baykara, Basak; Ates, Mehmet; Sisman, Ali Riza; Kiray, Muge; Buyuk, Arzu; Uysal, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is widely used in the treatment of pain. Toxic doses of APAP cause acute liver failure, but therapeutic doses are believed to be safe. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of administration of subtoxic doses of APAP on liver and blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in rats. Low dose (100 mg/kg) and high dose (250 mg/kg) of APAP were intraperitoneally injected into Wistar albino rats. Following administration of therapeutic doses of APAP, there were no significant changes in serum transaminases and liver glutathione levels. Both doses of APAP induced a decrease in liver and blood levels of IGF-1 when compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in liver IGF-1 levels between the high-dose and low-dose APAP groups; however, there was a significant difference in blood IGF-1 levels between both the groups. The histological examination showed that low dose of APAP induced mild degree of structural change, while high dose of APAP induced severe structural damage. In conclusion, these results suggest that blood IGF-1 levels may have a value in predicting hepatic damage resulting from therapeutic doses of APAP.

  13. An empirical evaluation of devolving administrative control to Costa Rican hospital and clinic directors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theodore; McKee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, Costa Rica implemented comprehensive reforms of its health care system, including devolving administrative power from the central government to some providers that remain part of the national system. In this article, we evaluate how this aspect of the reform affected clinic efficiency and population health by analyzing administrative data on regional providers and mortality rates in local areas. We compare changes in outcomes across time between areas that signed performance contracts with the central government and received limited budgetary control to those that continued to be managed directly by the central government. We believe the reform created opportunities for providers to become more efficient and effective. Our results suggest that the reform significantly decreased costs without adversely affecting quality of care or population health.

  14. An empirical evaluation of devolving administrative control to Costa Rican hospital and clinic directors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theodore; McKee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, Costa Rica implemented comprehensive reforms of its health care system, including devolving administrative power from the central government to some providers that remain part of the national system. In this article, we evaluate how this aspect of the reform affected clinic efficiency and population health by analyzing administrative data on regional providers and mortality rates in local areas. We compare changes in outcomes across time between areas that signed performance contracts with the central government and received limited budgetary control to those that continued to be managed directly by the central government. We believe the reform created opportunities for providers to become more efficient and effective. Our results suggest that the reform significantly decreased costs without adversely affecting quality of care or population health. PMID:25813506

  15. Inhibition of serum androgen levels by chronic intranasal and subcutaneous administration of a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist in adult men.

    PubMed

    Faure, N; Labrie, F; Lemay, A; Bélanger, A; Gourdeau, Y; Laroche, B; Robert, G

    1982-03-01

    The effect of chronic treatment with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist Buserelin (Hoechst AG, Frankfurt/Main, West Germany) ([D-Ser(TBU)6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LH-RH ethylamide) administrered by nasal spray (200 or 500 micrograms, twice daily) or subcutaneously (50 micrograms daily) for periods of 1 to 8 months was studied on serum sex steroids and LH levels in 18 patients with cancer of the prostate. Basal serum testosterone concentration decreases to 71.1 +/- 18.3 (NS) and 28.6 +/- 9.3%, (P less than 0.01) of control in patients receiving the 200-micrograms and 500-micrograms dose by nasal spray, respectively. In patients treated subcutaneously, a more rapid inhibition of serum testosterone levels to 19.6 +/- 6.4% of control (P less than 0.01) is observed. The finding of decreased levels of 17-OH-progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone in the presence of unchanged pregnenolone concentration indicates that the decrease in androgen biosynthesis induced by Buserelin treatment is due to a blockage at the level of 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-desmolase activities. The present data indicate that chronic administration of Buserelin could be a safe and effective means of reducing serum androgens in patients with cancer of the prostate.

  16. Diet, physical exercise and Orlistat administration increase serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Vosnakis, Christos; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Rousso, David; Mavromatidis, Georgios; Katsikis, Ilias; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mamali, Irene; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigates the combined effect of diet, physical exercise and Orlistat for 24 weeks, on serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in overweight and obese controls. Sixty-one (61) selected women with PCOS and 20 overweight and obese controls followed an energy-restricted diet, physical exercise plus Orlistat administration (120 mg, 3 times per day) for 24 weeks. At baseline, week 12 and week 24, serum levels of AMH, FSH, LH, PRL, androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), glucose, and insulin were measured and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and Insulin Resistance (IR) indices were calculated. In PCOS women, serum AMH levels increased after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks LH and SHBG were increased, while Testosterone decreased. After 12 and 24 weeks, FAI was decreased and all indices of IR were significantly improved. We concluded that in overweight and obese women with PCOS Orlistat administration, combined with diet and physical exercise, for 24 weeks, resulted in significant weight loss, improvement of hyperandrogenism and insulin sensitivity, and increased serum AMH levels.

  17. Experimental object-level strategic control with cooperating manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the high-level control module and user interface of the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperating Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory. In addition to cooperative dynamic control, DASCCOM incorporates real-time vision-ased feedback, a novel strategic programming technique, and an iconic 'object-only' graphical user interface. By focusing on the vertical integration problem, we are examining not only these subsystems, but also their interfaces and interactions. The control system implements a multilevel hierarchical structure interconnected via a real-time network. At the highest level, a mouse-driven graphical user interface allows an operator to direct the activities of the system conceptually. Strategic command is provided by an event-driven finite state machine. This methodology provides a powerful yet flexible technique for managing concurrent system interactions. The dynamic controller implements object impedance control - an extension of Neville Hogan's impedance control concept to cooperative multiple-arm manipulation of a single object. This article concentrates on user interfacing techniques and strategic programming capabilities. These modules allow the user to directly specify conceptual object relationships. Experimental results are presented, showing the system locating and identifying a moving object, 'catching' it, and performing a simple cooperative assembly. Each of these operations is executed autonomously, with only object-level task-specification direction from a remote operator.

  18. Chronic cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys: impact on associative learning, cognitive control, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jessica N; Olsen, Adam S; Gurnsey, Kate; Dugan, Brian P; Jedema, Hank P; Bradberry, Charles W

    2011-03-30

    Cocaine users display a wide range of cognitive impairments. Because treatment outcome is dependent on baseline cognitive ability, it is clinically important to understand the underlying neurobiology of these deficits. Therefore, it is crucial to determine whether cocaine exposure by itself is an etiological factor and, if so, to determine the overall nature of cognitive deficits associated with cocaine use. This will help to guide therapeutic approaches that address cognitive components of cocaine use to improve treatment outcome. We used rhesus monkeys in a longitudinal study in which 14 animals were characterized before assignment to matched control (n = 6) and cocaine self-administration (n = 8) groups. Self-administration took place on 4 consecutive days/week over 9 months, with a maximum (and typical) daily cumulative intake of 3.0 mg/kg. Weekly cognitive assessments (total of 36) were conducted after a 72 h drug-free period. We used a stimulus discrimination task with reversal to evaluate associative learning and the cognitive control/flexibility needed to adapt to changes in reward contingencies. After extended self-administration, initial accuracy on the stimulus discrimination indicated intact associative learning. However, animals were impaired at maintaining high levels of accuracy needed to reach criterion and initiate the reversal. Increasing the reward contrast between stimuli permitted evaluation of reversal performance and revealed striking deficits in the cocaine group. Impairments in visual working memory were also observed using a delayed match-to-sample task. These results suggest a combination of generalized, possibly attentional, impairments, along with a more specific cognitive control impairment implicating orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction. PMID:21451031

  19. Effect of N-acetylcysteine administration on homocysteine level, oxidative damage to proteins, and levels of iron (Fe) and Fe-related proteins in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Romuk, Ewa; Rykaczewska-Czerwińska, Monika; Pawlas, Natalia; Birkner, Ewa

    2016-09-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) could be included in protocols designed for the treatment of lead toxicity. Therefore, in this study, we decided to investigate the influence of NAC administration on homocysteine (Hcy) levels, oxidative damage to proteins, and the levels of iron (Fe), transferrin (TRF), and haptoglobin (HPG) in lead (Pb)-exposed workers. The examined population (n = 171) was composed of male employees who worked with Pb. They were randomized into four groups. Workers who were not administered any antioxidants, drugs, vitamins, or dietary supplements were classified as the reference group (n = 49). The remaining three groups consisted of workers who were treated orally with NAC at three different doses (1 × 200, 2 × 200, or 2 × 400 mg) for 12 weeks. After the treatment, blood Pb levels significantly decreased in the groups receiving NAC compared with the reference group. The protein concentration was not affected by NAC administration. In contrast, Hcy levels significantly decreased or showed a strong tendency toward lower values depending on the NAC dose. Levels of the protein carbonyl groups were significantly decreased in all of the groups receiving NAC. Conversely, glutamate dehydrogenase activity was significantly elevated in all of the groups receiving NAC, while the level of protein thiol groups was significantly elevated only in the group receiving 200 mg of NAC. Treatment with NAC did not significantly affect Fe and TRF levels, whereas HPG levels showed a tendency toward lower values. Treatment with NAC normalized the level of Hcy and decreased oxidative stress as measured by the protein carbonyl content; this effect occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, small doses of NAC elevated the levels of protein thiol groups. Therefore, NAC could be introduced as an alternative therapy for chronic Pb toxicity in humans. PMID:25731901

  20. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored.

  1. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored. PMID:10483077

  2. Gain, Level, And Exposure Control For A Television Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Geoffrey J.; Hetherington, Rolfe W.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic-level-control/automatic-gain-control (ALC/AGC) system for charge-coupled-device (CCD) color television camera prevents over-loading in bright scenes using technique for measuring brightness of scene from red, green, and blue output signals and processing these into adjustments of video amplifiers and iris on camera lens. System faster, does not distort video brightness signals, and built with smaller components.

  3. Postmortem Propofol Levels: A Case of Residual Detection Long After Administration.

    PubMed

    George, Alan A; Hargrove, Veronica M; Molina, D Kimberley

    2016-03-01

    Propofol has gained notoriety in recent years because of its involvement in high-profile deaths and has increasingly become a drug of misuse and abuse particularly by health care personnel with easy access to it. In addition, propofol has also been used for more nefarious purposes such as murder and suicide. These, coupled with the drug's routine use for both major and minor medical procedures, provide ample opportunities for it to be implicated as a cause of death or contributing factor. In such instances, forensic investigators may be faced with the task of not only detecting the presence of propofol on postmortem toxicology screening, but also determining if it was indeed responsible for the decedent's demise. While propofol has a high volume of distribution, it is thought to equilibrate and be eliminated rapidly and not show significant tissue accumulation. However, this article presents a case illustrating that propofol can accumulate in the tissues and may be found up to a week after administration. This capacity to accumulate implies that postmortem detection does not necessarily confirm administration near the time of death, and further investigation needs to be undertaken to determine the timeline of events in order to rule out other factors, such as recent medical interventions, before attributing the cause of death to the presence of the drug.

  4. Levels of autonomy control approach for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorehead, Stewart J.

    2003-09-01

    Increasingly mobile robots are finding applications in the military, mining, nuclear and agriculture industries. These fields require a robot capable of operating in a highly unstructured and changing environment. Current autonomous control techniques are not robust enough to allow successful operation at all times in these environments. Teleoperation can help with many tasks but causes operator fatigue and negates much of the economic advantages of using robots by requiring one person per robot. This paper introduces a control system for mobile robots based on the concept of levels of autonomy. Levels of autonomy recognizes that control can be shared between the operator and robot in a continuous fashion from teleoperation to full autonomy. By sharing control, the robot can benefit from the operator's knowledge of the world to help extricate it from difficult situations. The robot can operate as autonomously as the situation allows, reducing operator fatigue and increasing the economic benefit by allowing a single operator to control multiple robots simultaneously. This paper presents a levels of autonomy control system developed for use in exploration or reconnaissance tasks.

  5. Uptake of Mass Drug Administration Programme for Schistosomiasis Control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bagonza, James; Kiracho, Elizabeth Ekirapa; Yeka, Adoke; Elliott, Alison M.; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA) programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda. Methods In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012) MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers. Results Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615), 95% confidence interval (CI) 40.8–48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6%) reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22–2.81) and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67–9.65). Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands. Conclusions Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education

  6. Controlled release of thyrotropin releasing hormone from microspheres: evaluation of release profiles and pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Heya, T; Mikura, Y; Nagai, A; Miura, Y; Futo, T; Tomida, Y; Shimizu, H; Toguchi, H

    1994-06-01

    The drug-release kinetics of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) containing copoly(dl-lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The drug was encapsulated in PLGA using an in-water drying method through a water in oil in water emulsion. The drug release from the PLGA microspheres in vitro correlated well with that in vivo, and pseudo-zero-order release kinetics were observed. The pharmacokinetics of TRH following administration of this controlled-release parenteral dosage form have been also examined in rats. Following a transient increase in the plasma level due to an initial burst, steady-state plasma levels were observed. The duration of drug release estimated from the plasma level was comparable with the results in the in vitro and in vivo release studies. The steady-state plasma levels correlated well with the levels predicted from the pharmacokinetic parameters following a single subcutaneous or intravenous injection of TRH solution. The results of this study confirm the previously reported in vivo sustained release of TRH achieved with this drug-delivery system. PMID:9120809

  7. Derived Intervention Levels for Tritium Based on Food and Drug Administration Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-12-21

    In 1998, the FDA released it recommendations for age-dependent derived intervention levels for several radionuclides involved in nuclear accidents. One radionuclide that is not included in that document is tritium.

  8. Circadian plasma level profile of lisuride in rats and mice after continuous administration via the diet.

    PubMed

    Krause, W; Reissmann, F; Kühne, G; Schöbel, C

    1995-01-01

    Lisuride (Dopergin, CAS 18016-80-3), a dopamine D2 agonist, was administered to male and female rats and mice continuously via the diet for 14 days. The doses were 0.2 mg/kg/d in mice and 1 mg/kg/d in mice and rats. Plasma level profiles (0-22 or 24 h) were determined by measuring lisuride concentrations by radioimmunoassay. At all doses a plateau-like plasma level of lisuride was observed. A clear circadian rhythm of lisuride concentrations (highs during night, low levels during day) was found for male rats (1 mg/kg/d) and for male mice (0.2 mg/kg/d). Female animals did not show this phenomenon as pronounced. At the same dose of 1 mg/kg/d rats showed higher plasma levels than mice. For males the ratio of total AUCs was 1.9 and for female animals 8.6.

  9. VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL (RIGHT) AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL (RIGHT) AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL AND SIDE OF THE MISSILE TUBE (FOREGROUND). VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 42. Upper level, electronic racks, left to rightguidance and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Upper level, electronic racks, left to right--guidance and control coupler rack, programmer group, status command message processing group, UHF radio - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  11. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile administration restores luteinizing hormone pulsatility and normal testosterone levels in males with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, P; Lagoguey, M; Brailly, S; Schaison, G

    1985-02-01

    Hyperprolactinemia in men is frequently associated with hypogonadism. Normalization of serum PRL levels is generally associated with an increase in serum testosterone (T) to normal. To determine the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of hyperprolactinemia on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, we studied the effect of intermittent pulsatile GnRH administration on LH pulsatility and T levels in four men with prolactinomas. All patients had high PRL values (100-3000 ng/ml), low LH (mean +/- SEM, 2.2 +/- 0.1 mIU/ml), and low T values (2.3 +/- 0.3 ng/ml), with no other apparent abnormality of pituitary function. GnRH was administered iv using a pump delivering a bolus dose of 10 micrograms every 90 min for 12 days. No LH pulses were detected before treatment. Pulsatile GnRH administration resulted in a significant increase in basal LH levels (6.7 +/- 0.6 mIU/ml; P less than 0.001) and restored LH pulsatility. In addition, T levels increased significantly to normal values in all patients (7.8 +/- 0.4 ng/ml; P less than 0.001) and were normal or supranormal as long as the pump was in use, although PRL levels remained elevated. These data, therefore, suggest that hyperprolactinemia produces hypogonadism primarily by interfering with pulsatile GnRH release.

  13. Repeated Administration of a Mutant Cocaine Esterase: Effects on Plasma Cocaine Levels, Cocaine-Induced Cardiovascular Activity, and Immune Responses in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; Brim, Remy L.; Noon, Kathleen R.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the capacity of a long-acting mutant form of a naturally occurring bacterial double mutant cocaine esterase (DM CocE) to antagonize the reinforcing, discriminative, convulsant, and lethal effects of cocaine in rodents and reverse the increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) produced by cocaine in rhesus monkeys. This study was aimed at characterizing the immunologic responses to repeated dosing with DM CocE and determining whether the development of anti-CocE antibodies altered the capacity of DM CocE to reduce plasma cocaine levels and ameliorate the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. Under control conditions, intravenous administration of cocaine (3 mg/kg) resulted in a rapid increase in the plasma concentration of cocaine (n = 2) and long-lasting increases in MAP and HR (n = 3). Administration of DM CocE (0.32 mg/kg i.v.) 10 min after cocaine resulted in a rapid hydrolysis of cocaine with plasma levels below detection limits within 5 to 8 min. Elevations in MAP and HR were significantly reduced within 25 and 50 min of DM CocE administration, respectively. Although slight (10-fold) increases in anti-CocE antibodies were observed after the fourth administration of DM CocE, these antibodies did not alter the capacity of DM CocE to reduce plasma cocaine levels or ameliorate cocaine's cardiovascular effects. Anti-CocE titers were transient and generally dissipated within 8 weeks. Together, these results suggest that highly efficient cocaine esterases, such as DM CocE, may provide a novel and effective therapeutic for the treatment of acute cocaine intoxication in humans. PMID:22518021

  14. Repeated administration of a mutant cocaine esterase: effects on plasma cocaine levels, cocaine-induced cardiovascular activity, and immune responses in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Brim, Remy L; Noon, Kathleen R; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the capacity of a long-acting mutant form of a naturally occurring bacterial double mutant cocaine esterase (DM CocE) to antagonize the reinforcing, discriminative, convulsant, and lethal effects of cocaine in rodents and reverse the increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) produced by cocaine in rhesus monkeys. This study was aimed at characterizing the immunologic responses to repeated dosing with DM CocE and determining whether the development of anti-CocE antibodies altered the capacity of DM CocE to reduce plasma cocaine levels and ameliorate the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. Under control conditions, intravenous administration of cocaine (3 mg/kg) resulted in a rapid increase in the plasma concentration of cocaine (n = 2) and long-lasting increases in MAP and HR (n = 3). Administration of DM CocE (0.32 mg/kg i.v.) 10 min after cocaine resulted in a rapid hydrolysis of cocaine with plasma levels below detection limits within 5 to 8 min. Elevations in MAP and HR were significantly reduced within 25 and 50 min of DM CocE administration, respectively. Although slight (10-fold) increases in anti-CocE antibodies were observed after the fourth administration of DM CocE, these antibodies did not alter the capacity of DM CocE to reduce plasma cocaine levels or ameliorate cocaine's cardiovascular effects. Anti-CocE titers were transient and generally dissipated within 8 weeks. Together, these results suggest that highly efficient cocaine esterases, such as DM CocE, may provide a novel and effective therapeutic for the treatment of acute cocaine intoxication in humans. PMID:22518021

  15. Selection of area-level variables from administrative data: an intersectional approach to the study of place and child development.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Paul; Forer, Barry

    2010-05-01

    Given data limitations, neighborhood effects scholarship relies heavily on administrative data to measure area-level constructs. We provide new evidence to guide the selection of indicators from routinely collected sources, focusing on effects on early child development. Informed by an analytic paradigm attuned to the intersection of race, class, and sex, along with population-level data in British Columbia, Canada, our findings signal the need for greater precision when choosing variables in place of the now dominant approaches for measuring constructs like income/wealth, employment, family structure and race/ethnicity. We also provide new evidence about which area-level variables associate with the different domains of child development, as well as how area-level associations vary across urban and rural contexts. PMID:20089438

  16. Effect of long-term administration of arsenic (III) and bromine with and without selenium and iodine supplementation on the element level in the thyroid of rat.

    PubMed

    Kotyzová, Dana; Eybl, Vladislav; Mihaljevic, Martin; Glattre, Eystein

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of arsenic and bromine exposure with or without iodine and selenium supplementation on the element level in the thyroid of rats. Four major groups of Wistar female rats were fed with respective diets: group A - standard diet, group B - iodine rich diet (10 mg I/kg food), group C - selenium rich diet (1 mg Se/kg) and group D - iodine and selenium rich diet (as in group B and C). Each group was divided into four subgroups per 7 animals each receiving either NaAsO(2) ip (6.5 mg.kg(-1) twice a week for two weeks and 3.25 mg.kg(-1) for six weeks) or KBr in drinking water (58.8 mg.l(-1)) for 8 weeks or combined administration of both substances. Remaining subgroup served as controls. After 8 weeks thyroid glands were analyzed by ICP-MS for As, Br, Se, and I content. The exposition of rat to arsenic or bromine causes the accumulation of these elements in the thyroid gland ( approximately 18 ppm of As, approximately 90 ppm of Br) and significantly affects iodine and selenium concentration in the thyroid. In iodine and/or selenium supplemented rats the bromine intake into the thyroid was lowered to approximately 50% of the level in unsupplemented animals. Also selenium thyroid level elevated due to KBr administration was lowered by iodine supplementation in the diet. The accumulation of arsenic in the thyroid was not influenced by selenium or iodine supplementation; however, As(III) administration increased iodine thyroid level and suppressed selenium thyroid level in selenium or iodine supplemented group of animals.

  17. Cardiac troponin I in isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury in the Hanover Wistar rat: studies on low dose levels and routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sally; York, Malcolm; Scudamore, Cheryl; Williams, Thomas; Griffiths, William; Turton, John

    2010-02-01

    The current studies demonstrate the effect of low-dose intraperitoneal (IP) administration of isoprotenerol (ISO) and subcutaneous (SC) versus IP routes of administration of ISO on serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels in female Hanover Wistar rats, providing additional evidence to support acceptance of cTnI as a cardiac biomarker. At 2 hr postdosing with 0-500 microg/kg ISO, mean serum cTnI levels were increased in a dose-related fashion at > or =10 microg/kg with no evidence of cardiac pathology. At 24 h, cTnI concentrations were generally at control levels, but histologic cardiomyocyte injury was evident in a proportion of the animals given > or =10 microg/kg. In a second experiment, rats given SC ISO at 5,000 microg/kg and necropsied at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hr postdosing had higher levels of serum cTnI than animals given the same dose IP.

  18. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2014-03-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been monitored using the forced swim test. Rats treated with Nigella sativa L. oil exhibited a significant increase in struggling time after oral administration of Nigella sativa L. oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) for four weeks. Nigella sativa L. oil increased brain 5-HT levels and decreased 5-HT turnover (5-HT/5-HIAA ratio). Levels of tryptophan increased significantly in the brain and plasma following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil. Nigella sativa L. oil showed a potential antidepressant-like effect.

  19. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

  20. The Way Ahead for Finnish Comprehensive School? Examining State-Level School Administrators' Theory of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salonen-Hakomäki, Sanna-Mari; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    A significant body of evidence shows that the goals of educational reforms are seldom fully achieved. Some research suggests that the problem lies in state-level curriculum reform work that lacks a sufficient understanding of the educational reality. However, views and perceptions among the central architects of the reforms have not been…

  1. Administrative Strategies for Preparing Teaching Candidates to Be Building-Level Technology Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Teacher education graduates in their early years of service are ill-prepared to act as building-level change agents who can advocate for the enhanced use of technology in the classroom. In this study, a group of experienced teachers seeking the M.Ed. in Educational Technology suggest that the lack of confidence which new teachers show in relation…

  2. Accountability Narratives of Rural School Superintendents and Administrators: Moving from Two- to Three-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, David; Ylimaki, Rose M.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the broader political sphere as it affects superintendents and other constituents of rural districts. The current landscape of education reform focuses on accountability--particularly at the policy level of both state and federal education agencies. This article draws on the literature and an empirical study that examined…

  3. Controlling low-level image properties: the SHINE toolbox.

    PubMed

    Willenbockel, Verena; Sadr, Javid; Fiset, Daniel; Horne, Greg O; Gosselin, Frédéric; Tanaka, James W

    2010-08-01

    Visual perception can be influenced by top-down processes related to the observer's goals and expectations, as well as by bottom-up processes related to low-level stimulus attributes, such as luminance, contrast, and spatial frequency. When using different physical stimuli across psychological conditions, one faces the problem of disentangling the contributions of low- and high-level factors. Here, we make available the SHINE (spectrum, histogram, and intensity normalization and equalization) toolbox for MATLAB, which we have found useful for controlling a number of image properties separately or simultaneously. The toolbox features functions for specifying the (rotational average of the) Fourier amplitude spectra, for normalizing and scaling mean luminance and contrast, and for exact histogram specification optimized for perceptual visual quality. SHINE can thus be employed for parametrically modifying a number of image properties or for equating them across stimuli to minimize potential low-level confounds in studies on higher level processes.

  4. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  5. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  6. 76 FR 22708 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and... related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services...

  7. Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles.

    PubMed

    Yokogoshi, H; Roberts, C H; Caballero, B; Wurtman, R J

    1984-07-01

    Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanylmethyl ester; 200 mg/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and tyrosine, and enhanced the increments caused by the aspartame, nearly doubling the rise in brain phenylalanine. Each animal's brain phenylalanine or tyrosine levels were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.99, respectively) with its plasma phenylalanine or tyrosine ratios, affirming that aspartame's effects on the brain amino acids result from the changes it produces in plasma composition. As described previously, glucose consumption increased brain tryptophan levels, and consequently, brain levels of the 5-hydroxyindoles serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Aspartame alone had no effect on these compounds but completely blocked the changes in 5-hydroxyindoles caused by glucose. Each animal's brain level of tryptophan (r = 0.89) and 5-hydroxyindoles (r = 0.74) was also significantly correlated with its plasma tryptophan ratio, affirming that the effects of glucose or aspartame on these brain constituents also result from the changes they produce in plasma composition. The aspartame-glucose combination also reduced brain levels of leucine, isoleucine, and valine to a significantly greater extent than aspartame or glucose alone. These observations indicate that high aspartame doses can generate major neurochemical changes in rats, especially when consumed along with carbohydrate-containing foods. However, they should not in any way be interpreted as demonstrating that aspartame significantly affects the human brain.

  8. Infection control in physicians' offices. Academy of Pediatrics. The American Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    Infection control is an integral part of pediatric practice in outpatient settings as well as in hospitals. All employees should be educated regarding the routes of transmission and techniques used to prevent transmission of infectious agents. Policies for infection control and prevention should be written, readily available, updated annually, and enforced. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention standard precautions for hospitalized patients with modifications from the American Academy of Pediatrics are appropriate for most patient encounters. As employers, pediatricians are required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to take precautions to protect staff likely to be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials while on the job. Key principles of infection control include the following: hand-washing before and after every patient contact, separation of infected, contagious children from uninfected children, safe handling and disposal of needles and other sharp medical devices, appropriate use of personal protection equipment such as gloves, appropriate sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis, and judicious use of antibiotics.

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  10. Effect of chronic D-fenfluramine administration on rat hypothalamic serotonin levels and release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of administering to rats (in doses of 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days) of an anorectic agent, D-fenfluramine, on the serotonin levels in hypothalamic tissue and on the in vitro release of serotonin by hypothalamic slices was investigated in rats which were sacrificed six days after the end of treatment. It was found that D-fenfuramine had no effect on tissue serotonin in doses from 1.25 to 5 mg/kg. However, given at 10 mg/kg level, serotonin led to a 22 percent decrease. The release of serotonin was found to be not affected by D-fenfluramine.

  11. Oral fluid cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-03-01

    Limited oral fluid (OF) pharmacokinetic data collected with commercially available collection devices after controlled cocaine administration hinder OF result interpretations. Ten cocaine-using adults provided OF, collected with Oral-Eze(®) (OE) and StatSure Saliva Sampler™ (SS) devices, an hour prior to and up to 69 h after 25mg intravenous (IV) cocaine administration. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) were quantified by a validated 2D-GC-MS method. Large inter-subject variability was observed. Cocaine was detected in OF in the first 0.17 h sample after IV administration, with much more rapid elimination than BE. OE observed Cmax median (range) concentrations were 932 (394-1574)μg/L for cocaine and 248 (96.9-953)μg/L for BE. SS observed cocaine and BE Cmax median (range) concentrations trended lower at 732 (83.3-1892)μg/L and 360 (77.2-836)μg/L, respectively. OE and SS cocaine OF detection times were 12.5 and 6.5h and for BE 30.5 and 28.0 h, respectively at 1 μg/L. There were no significant pharmacokinetic differences between OE and SS OF collection devices, except cocaine half-life was significantly shorter in SS OF specimens. This difference could be attributed to differences in stabilizing buffers present in OF collection devices, which may affect cocaine stability in OF specimens, or decreased recovery from collection pads. Both OE and SS OF collection devices were effective in monitoring cocaine and metabolite concentrations with similar detection windows. Furthermore, we demonstrated that different confirmatory OF cutoffs can be selected to produce shorter or longer cocaine and metabolite detection windows to address specific needs of clinical and forensic drug testing programs. PMID:26851651

  12. Hypertonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Frank M P; Sleigh, James; Boerma, E Christiaan; La Pine, Mary; Bahr, Mohamed; Pickkers, Peter; van der Hoeven, Johannes G

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of hypertonic fluid versus isotonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock. This was a double-blind, prospective randomized controlled trial in a 15-bed intensive care unit. Twenty-four patients with septic shock were randomized to receive 250 mL 7.2% NaCl/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HT group) or 500 mL 6% hydroxyethyl starch (IT group). Hemodynamic measurements included mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), central venous pressure, stroke volume index, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index, gastric tonometry, and sublingual microcirculatory flow as assessed by sidestream dark field imaging. Systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities of the medial mitral annulus were measured using echocardiography to assess left ventricular contractility. Log transformation of the ratio MAP divided by the norepinephrine infusion rate (log MAP/NE) quantified the combined effect on both parameters. Compared with the IT group, hypertonic solution treatment resulted in an improvement in log MAP/NE (P = 0.008), as well as an increase in systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities (P = 0.03) and stroke volume index (P = 0.017). No differences between the groups were found for preload parameters (central venous pressure, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index) or for afterload parameters (systemic vascular resistance index, MAP). Hypertonic solution treatment decreased the need for ongoing fluid resuscitation (P = 0.046). No differences between groups were observed regarding tonometry or the sublingual microvascular variables. In patients with septic shock, hypertonic fluid administration did not promote gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion or sublingual microcirculatory blood flow in comparison to isotonic fluid. Independent of changes in preload or afterload, hypertonic fluid administration improved the cardiac contractility and vascular tone compared with isotonic fluid. The need for ongoing fluid

  13. Multi-level overlay techniques for improving DPL overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Charlie; Pai, Y. C.; Yu, Dennis; Pang, Peter; Yu, Chun Chi; Wu, Robert (Hsing-Chien); Huang, Eros (Chien Jen); Chen, Marson (Chiun-Chieh); Tien, David; Choi, Dongsub

    2012-03-01

    Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in semiconductor manufacturing, especially in light of the accelerated pace of device node shrinks. This reality will be especially evident at 20nm node where DPL and multi-layer overlay will require 4nm or less in overlay control across many critical layers in order to meet device yield entitlements. The motivation for this paper is based on improving DPL overlay control in face of the high complexity involved with multi-layer overlay requirements. For example, the DPL-2nd-litho layer will need to achieve tight registration with the DPL-1st-litho layer, and at the same time, it will need to achieve tight overlay to the reference-litho layer, which in some cases can also be a DPL layer. Of course, multi-level overlay measurements are not new, but the combination of increased complexity of multi-DPL layers and extremely challenging overlay specifications for 20nm node together will necessitate a better understanding of multi-level overlay control, specifically in terms of root cause analysis of multi-layer related overlay errors and appropriate techniques for improvement In this paper, we start with the identification of specific overlay errors caused by multi-layer DPL processing on full film stack product wafers. After validation of these findings with inter-lot and intra-lot controlled experiments, we investigate different advanced control techniques to determine how to optimize overlay control and minimize both intra-lot and inter-lot sources of error. A new approach to overlay data analysis will also be introduced that combines empirical data with target image quality data to more accurately determine and better explain the root cause error mechanism as well as provide effective strategies for improved overlay control.

  14. Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Hordyjewska, Anna; Boguszewska, Anna; Lewandowska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different doses of lithium on magnesium concentration in plasma and tissues of rats. For a period of eight weeks rats had been provided with aqueous solutions of Li(2)CO(3) whose concentrations were established as follows: 0.7; 1.4; 2.6; 3.6; 7.1; 10.7 mmol Li(+)/l. Magnesium concentration was determined in plasma and tissue supernatants. Lithium caused no changes in magnesium concentration in plasma, whereas Mg concentration in tissues was found to be enhanced, although the degree of the increment depended on the studied tissue. In the liver, brain and heart muscle, the increase was statistically insignificant vs. control. In the kidney, the higher Li doses were required to result in the significant Mg enhancement, whereas in femoral muscle all the used doses caused well-marked Mg increase vs. control. Positive correlations between average daily Li intake and tissue Mg concentration in the kidney (r = 0.650) and femoral muscle (r = 0.696) were found. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different Li doses disturbed tissue homeostasis of magnesium. The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability.

  15. Cocaine and metabolite concentrations in DBS and venous blood after controlled intravenous cocaine administration

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Concheiro, Marta; Anizan, Sebastien; Barnes, Allan J; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-01-01

    Background: DBS are an increasingly common clinical matrix. Methods & results: Sensitive and specific methods for DBS and venous blood cocaine and metabolite detection by LC–HRMS and 2D GC–MS, respectively, were validated to examine correlation between concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration. Linear ranges from 1 to 200 µg/l were achieved, with acceptable bias and imprecision. Authentic matched specimens’ (392 DBS, 97 venous blood) cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations were qualitatively similar, but DBS had much greater variability (21.4–105.9 %CV) and were lower than in blood. Conclusion: DBS offer advantages for monitoring cocaine intake; however, differences between capillary and venous blood and DBS concentration variability must be addressed. PMID:26327184

  16. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide. PMID:11137350

  17. Pharmacokinetics of the individual enantiomer S-(+)-ketoprofen after intravenous and oral administration in dogs at two dose levels.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Rodríguez, J M; Serrano, J M; Rodríguez, J Morgaz; Machuca, M M Granados; Gómez-Villamandos, R J; Navarrete-Calvo, R

    2014-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic of the individual S-(+)-enantiomer of ketoprofen, S-(+)-ketoprofen, after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration was determined in six dogs at 1 and 3 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The concentration-time curves were analyzed by non-compartmental methods. Steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) and clearance (Cl) of S-(+)-ketoprofen after IV administration were 0.22 ± 0.07 and 0.19 ± 0.03 L/kg, and 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.01 L/h/kg, at 1 and 3 mg/kg, respectively. Following PO administration, S-(+)-ketoprofen achieved maximum plasma concentrations of 4.91 ± 0.76 and 12.47 ± 0.62 μg/ml, at two dose levels, respectively. The absolute bioavailability after PO route was 88.66 ± 12.95% and 85.36 ± 13.90%, respectively.

  18. Differential Control of Cocaine Self-Administration by GABAergic and Glutamatergic CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Elena; Bourgoin, Lucie; Cathala, Adeline; Kasanetz, Fernando; Mondesir, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Rodriguez, Ana; Reguero, Leire; Fiancette, Jean-François; Grandes, Pedro; Spampinato, Umberto; Maldonado, Rafael; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) modulates numerous neurobehavioral processes and is therefore explored as a target for the treatment of several mental and neurological diseases. However, previous studies have investigated CB1 by targeting it globally, regardless of its two main neuronal localizations on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. In the context of cocaine addiction this lack of selectivity is critical since glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal transmission is involved in different aspects of the disease. To determine whether CB1 exerts different control on cocaine seeking according to its two main neuronal localizations, we used mutant mice with deleted CB1 in cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1) or in forebrain GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1). In Glu-CB1, gene deletion concerns the dorsal telencephalon, including neocortex, paleocortex, archicortex, hippocampal formation and the cortical portions of the amygdala. In GABA-CB1, it concerns several cortical and non-cortical areas including the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, thalamic, and hypothalamic nuclei. We tested complementary components of cocaine self-administration, separating the influence of primary and conditioned effects. Mechanisms underlying each phenotype were explored using in vivo microdialysis and ex vivo electrophysiology. We show that CB1 expression in forebrain GABAergic neurons controls mouse sensitivity to cocaine, while CB1 expression in cortical glutamatergic neurons controls associative learning processes. In accordance, in the nucleus accumbens, GABA-CB1 receptors control cocaine-induced dopamine release and Glu-CB1 receptors control AMPAR/NMDAR ratio; a marker of synaptic plasticity. Our findings demonstrate a critical distinction of the altered balance of Glu-CB1 and GABA-CB1 activity that could participate in the vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction. Moreover, these novel insights advance our understanding of CB1 neuropathophysiology.

  19. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  20. Vision-based level control for beverage-filling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Dietmar; Braune, Ingolf

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a vision-based on-line level control system which is used in beverage filling machines. Motivation for the development of this sensor system was the need for an intelligent filling valve, which can provide constant filling levels for all container/product combinations (i.e. juice, milk, beer, water, etc. in glass or PET bottles with various transparency and shape) by using a non-tactile and completely sterile measurement method. The sensor concept being presented in this paper is based on several CCD-cameras imaging the moving containers from the outside. The stationary lighting system illuminating the bottles is located within the filler circle. The field of view covers between 5 and 8 bottles depending on the bottle diameter and the filler partitioning. Each filling element's number is identified by the signals of an angular encoder. The electro-pneumatic filling valves can be opened and closed by computer control The cameras continuously monitor the final stages of the filling process, i.e. after the filling height has reached the upper half of the bottle. The sensor system measures the current filling height and derives the filling speed. Based on static a priori- knowledge and dynamic process knowledge the sensor system generates a best estimate of the particular time when the single valve is to be closed. After every new level measurement the system updates the closing time. The measurement process continues until the result of the next level calculation would be available after the estimated closing time would have been passed. The vision-based filling valve control enables the filling machine to adapt the filling time of each valve to the individual bottle shape. Herewith a standard deviation between 2 and 4 mm (depending on the slew rate in the bottle neck) can be accomplished, even at filling speed > 70.000 bottles per hour. 0

  1. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building Oakland, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-01

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be build at Oakland, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  2. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Las Vegas, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Las Vegas, Nevada by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  3. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao

    2007-03-01

    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased. PMID:17331341

  4. Risk Assessment Using the Three Dimensions of Probability (Likelihood), Severity, and Level of Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Clifford C.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional hazard analysis techniques utilize a two-dimensional representation of the results determined by relative likelihood and severity of the residual risk. These matrices present a quick-look at the Likelihood (Y-axis) and Severity (X-axis) of the probable outcome of a hazardous event. A three-dimensional method, described herein, utilizes the traditional X and Y axes, while adding a new, third dimension, shown as the Z-axis, and referred to as the Level of Control. The elements of the Z-axis are modifications of the Hazard Elimination and Control steps (also known as the Hazard Reduction Precedence Sequence). These steps are: 1. Eliminate risk through design. 2. Substitute less risky materials for more hazardous materials. 3. Install safety devices. 4. Install caution and warning devices. 5. Develop administrative controls (to include special procedures and training.) 6. Provide protective clothing and equipment. When added to the two-dimensional models, the level of control adds a visual representation of the risk associated with the hazardous condition, creating a tall-pole for the least-well-controlled failure while establishing the relative likelihood and severity of all causes and effects for an identified hazard. Computer modeling of the analytical results, using spreadsheets and three-dimensional charting gives a visual confirmation of the relationship between causes and their controls.

  5. Risk Assessment Using the Three Dimensions of Probability (Likelihood), Severity, and Level of Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    Traditional hazard analysis techniques utilize a two-dimensional representation of the results determined by relative likelihood and severity of the residual risk. These matrices present a quick-look at the Likelihood (Y-axis) and Severity (X-axis) of the probable outcome of a hazardous event. A three-dimensional method, described herein, utilizes the traditional X and Y axes, while adding a new, third dimension, shown as the Z-axis, and referred to as the Level of Control. The elements of the Z-axis are modifications of the Hazard Elimination and Control steps (also known as the Hazard Reduction Precedence Sequence). These steps are: 1. Eliminate risk through design. 2. Substitute less risky materials for more hazardous materials. 3. Install safety devices. 4. Install caution and warning devices. 5. Develop administrative controls (to include special procedures and training.) 6. Provide protective clothing and equipment. When added to the twodimensional models, the level of control adds a visual representation of the risk associated with the hazardous condition, creating a tall-pole for the least-well-controlled failure while establishing the relative likelihood and severity of all causes and effects for an identified hazard. Computer modeling of the analytical results, using spreadsheets and threedimensional charting gives a visual confirmation of the relationship between causes and their controls

  6. SUPPORT FOR POPULATION LEVEL TOBACCO CONTROL POLICIES IN HUNGARY

    PubMed Central

    Paulik, Edit; Maróti-Nagy, Ágnes; Nagymajtényi, László; Rogers, Todd; Easterling, Doug

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Smoking is the leading, preventable risk factor for premature death and disability in Hungary. The objective of this paper was to assess the social acceptability of and the predictors of holding favourable attitudes toward tobacco control policies among the Hungarian population. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was carried out among individuals aged 16–70 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess whether support for the ten tobacco control policies varies as a function of age, sex, educational level, and smoking status. Results The majority of the respondents supported the studied tobacco control measures. Over 90 percent of the sample supported: fines for retailers selling tobacco products to minors (92.3%), stricter enforcement of restrictions on selling tobacco products to minors (90.5%), and a ban on smoking in health care institutions (91.4%). The lowest levels of support were for bans on sponsorship by the tobacco industry (52.8%) and price increases on tobacco products (54.9%). For each measure, support was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers. Age and education were significantly related to support for some but not all measures. Conclusions Strong majorities of Hungarians support the enactment and enforcement of a wide range of tobacco control measures, a fact that was acknowledged by Parliament’s passage of the 2011 Anti-Smoking Law. Advocacy efforts to encourage the acceptance of tobacco control policies should focus not only on smokers, but also on younger and less educated non-smokers. PMID:22571024

  7. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak.

  8. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak. PMID:26062511

  9. Female and Male Psychologists in Academic Administration: Resource Control and Perceived Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined male and female psychologists in academic administrative positions with regard to their perceptions of their own power and their actual power within the administrative hierarchies in which they work. In the past, researchers have compared women and men in academic administrative positions with regard to parity of numbers,…

  10. Control levels of acetylcholinesterase expression in the mammalian skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Grubic, Z; Zajc-Kreft, K; Brank, M; Mars, T; Komel, R; Miranda, A F

    1999-05-14

    Protein expression can be controled at different levels. Understanding acetylcholinesterase (EC. 3.1.1.7, AChE) expression in the living organisms therefore necessitates: (1) determination and mapping of control levels of AChE metabolism; (2) identification of the regulatory factors acting at these levels; and (3) detailed insight into the mechanisms of action of these factors. Here we summarize the results of our studies on the regulation of AChE expression in the mammalian skeletal muscle. Three experimental models were employed: in vitro innervated human muscle, mechanically denervated adult fast rat muscle, and the glucocorticoid treated fast rat muscle. In situ hybridization of AChE mRNA, combined with AChE histochemistry, revealed that different distribution patterns of AChE, observed during in vitro ontogenesis and synaptogenesis of human skeletal muscle, reflect alterations in the distribution of AChE mRNA (Z. Grubic, R. Komel, W.F. Walker, A.F. Miranda, Myoblast fusion and innervation with rat motor nerve alter the distribution of acetylcholinesterase and its mRNA in human muscle cultures, Neuron 14 (1995) 317-327). To study the mechanisms of AChE mRNA loss in denervated adult rat skeletal muscle, we exposed deproteinated AChE mRNA to various subcellular fractions in vitro. Fractions were isolated from the normal and denervated rat sternomastoideus muscle. We found significantly increased, but non-specific AChE mRNA degradation capacities in the three fractions studied, suggesting that increased susceptibility of muscle mRNA to degradation might be at least partly responsible for the decreased AChE mRNA observed under such conditions (K. Zajc-Kreft, S. Kreft, Z. Grubic, Degradation of AChE mRNA in the normal and denervated rat skeletal muscle, Book of Abstracts, The Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases, La Jolla, CA, March 20-24, 1998, p. A3.). In adult fast rat muscle, treated chronically with glucocorticoids, we found the fraction of early

  11. 75 FR 78997 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and...

  12. 76 FR 28688 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for... entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus spp. Detection.'' This draft guidance document describes means by which in vitro diagnostic devices for...

  13. Incorporation of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair following controlled oral methamphetamine administration

    PubMed Central

    Polettini, Aldo; Cone, Edward J.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although hair testing is well established for the assessment of past drug exposure, uncertainties persist about mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair and interpretation of results. The aim of this study was to administer methamphetamine (MAMP) under controlled conditions as a model drug to investigate drug incorporation into human hair. Material and Methods Seven volunteers with a history of stimulant use received 4×10 mg (low) doses of sustained release S-(+)-MAMP HCl within one week, with weekly head hair samples collected by shaving. 3 weeks later, 4 of them received 4×20 mg (high) doses. After extensive isopropanol/phosphate buffer washing of the hair, MAMP and its metabolite amphetamine (AMP) concentrations were determined in all weekly hair samples by LC-MS-MS in selected reaction monitoring mode with the undeca- and deca-deuterated drugs, respectively, as internal standards (LLOQ, 0.005 ng/mg). Results MAMP Tmax occurred from 1 to 2 weeks after both doses, with Cmax ranging from 0.6–3.5 ng/mg after the low and 1.2–5.3 ng/mg after the high MAMP doses. AMP Cmax in hair was 0.1–0.3 ng/mg and 0.2–0.5 ng/mg, respectively, for low and high doses. Highly dose–related concentrations within subjects, but large variability between subjects were observed. MAMP concentrations were above the 0.2 ng/mg cutoff for at least two weeks following administration of both low and high doses. The overall AMP/MAMP ratio ranged from 0.07 to 0.37 with a mean value of 0.15±0.07, and a median of 0.13. The percentage of MAMP and AMP removed with the washing procedure decreased with time after administration. A strong correlation was found between area under the curve of MAMP (r2=0.90, p=0.00) and AMP (r2=0.94, p=0.00) concentrations calculated for the 3-week period following administration and the total melanin concentration in hair. Significant correlations were observed also between Cmax and melanin. Conclusions This study demonstrated that despite large

  14. Complement and immunoglobulin levels in athletes and sedentary controls.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Tan, S A; Lee, J W; Berk, L S

    1989-04-01

    Eleven marathon runners (42.7 +/- 2.1 yrs, 54.2 +/- 1.8 ml.kg-1.min-1) and nine sedentary controls (44.2 +/- 1.2 yrs, 33.3 +/- 1.1 ml.kg-1.min-1) were studied during 30 min of rest, a graded maximal treadmill test using the Balke protocol, and 45 min of recovery to determine the effects of training and acute exercise on complement and immunoglobulin levels. Three baseline and five recovery blood samples were obtained in addition to repeated 5-min samples during exercise. Data for the exercise period were analyzed using a multiple regression approach to repeated measures ANOVA to allow comparison between groups on a percent VO2max basis. Groups did not differ during any of the three phases for IgG, IgA, or IgM. Resting levels of complement C3 (0.89 +/- 0.05 vs 1.27 +/- 0.10 g/L, P less than 0.001) and C4 (0.19 +/- 0.02 vs 0.29 +/- 0.03 g/L, P less than 0.001) were significantly lower in athletes than in controls. Exercise complement C3 [F(1,18) = 14.1, P = 0.001] and C4 [F(1,18) = 7.6, P = 0.013], and recovery complement [F(1,18) = 19.4, P less than 0.001] and C4 [F(1,18) = 13.5, P = 0.002] were also lower in the athletes than in sedentary controls. Acute increases during exercise were not associated with changes in catecholamines or cortisol. These data suggest that blood concentrations of C3 and C4, but not IgG, IgA, or IgM, are decreased during rest, graded maximal exercise, and recovery in marathon runners in comparison with sedentary controls.

  15. Red and Infrared Low-Level Laser Therapy Prior to Injury with or without Administration after Injury Modulate Oxidative Stress during the Muscle Repair Process

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Muscle injury is common among athletes and amateur practitioners of sports. Following an injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs, which can harm healthy muscle fibers (secondary damage) and delay the repair process. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) administered prior to or following an injury has demonstrated positive and protective effects on muscle repair, but the combination of both administration times together has not been clarified. Aim To evaluate the effect of LLLT (660 nm and 780 nm, 10 J/cm², 40 mW, 3.2 J) prior to injury with or without the administration after injury on oxidative stress during the muscle repair process. Methods Wistar rats were divided into following groups: control; muscle injury alone; LLLT 660 nm + injury; LLLT 780 nm + injury; LLLT 660 nm before and after injury; and LLLT 780 nm before and after injury. The rats were euthanized on days 1, 3 and 7 following cryoinjury of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, which was then removed for analysis. Results Lipid peroxidation decreased in the 660+injury group after one day. Moreover, red and infrared LLLT employed at both administration times induced a decrease in lipid peroxidation after seven days. CAT activity was altered by LLLT in all periods evaluated, with a decrease after one day in the 780+injury+780 group and after seven days in the 780+injury group as well as an increase in the 780+injury and 780+injury+780 groups after three days. Furthermore, increases in GPx and SOD activity were found after seven days in the 780+injury+780 group. Conclusion The administration of red and infrared laser therapy at different times positively modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduces stress markers during the muscle repair process. PMID:27082964

  16. Controls on Precambrian sea level change and sedimentary cyclicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Catuneanu, O.; Nelson, D. R.; Popa, M.

    2005-04-01

    Although uniformitarianism applies in a general sense to the controls on relative and global sea level change, some influences thereon were more prominent in the Precambrian. Short-term base level change due to waves and tides may have been enhanced due to possibly more uniform circulation systems on wide, low gradient Precambrian shelves. The lack of evidence for global glacial events in the Precambrian record implies that intraplate stresses and cyclic changes to Earth's geoid were more likely explanations for third-order sea level change than glacio-eustasy. Higher heat flow in the earlier Precambrian may have led to more rapid tectonic plate formation, transport and destruction, along with an increased role for hot spots, aseismic ridges and mantle plumes (superplumes), all of which may have influenced cyclic sedimentation within the ocean basins. A weak cyclicity in the occurrence of plume events has an approximate duration comparable to that of first-order (supercontinental cycle) sea level change. Second-order cyclicity in the Precambrian largely reflects the influences of thermal epeirogeny, changes to mid-ocean ridge volume as well as to ridge growth and decay rates, and cratonic marginal downwarping concomitant with either sediment loading or extensional tectonism. Third-order cycles of sea level change in the Precambrian also reflected cyclic loading/unloading within flexural foreland basin settings, and filling/deflation of magma chambers associated with island arc evolution. The relatively limited number of studies of Precambrian sequence stratigraphy allows some preliminary conclusions to be drawn on duration of the first three orders of cyclicity. Archaean greenstone basins appear to have had first- and second-order cycle durations analogous to Phanerozoic equivalents, supporting steady state tectonics throughout Earth history. In direct contrast, however, preserved basin-fills from Neoarchaean-Palaeoproterozoic cratonic terranes have first- and

  17. Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results.

  18. Morphine and Codeine Concentrations in Human Urine following Controlled Poppy Seeds Administration of Known Opiate Content

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45g oral poppy seed doses 8h apart, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2,000 and 300μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA® Heroin Metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6AM) and Lin-Zhi 6AM immunoassays with 10μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2,000 and 300μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7,522μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5,239μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2,000μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2,000μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

  19. Single session of cocaine intravenous self-administration shapes goal-oriented behaviours and up-regulates Arc mRNA levels in rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Fabio; Franchi, Carlotta; Caffino, Lucia; Racagni, Giorgio; Riva, Marco A; Cervo, Luigi

    2009-04-01

    To separate the direct pharmacological effects of cocaine from those associated with active drug self-administration we employed a yoked control-operant paradigm and investigated the expression of well established markers of the rapid action of cocaine, i.e. the inducible early genes Arc and Zif268 and trophic factors, i.e. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), in rats after a single intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration session. Animals self-administering cocaine (SA, 0.25 mg/0.1 ml saline per infusion, 2-h session) did more active lever-presses than yoked-cocaine (YC) and yoked-vehicle (YV) animals. This goal-oriented behaviour was accompanied by a selective increase in Arc mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). There were no changes in the expression of the other genes in this brain region. mRNA levels of Arc and Zif268 in striatum and Zif268 in the nucleus accumbens markedly increased both in SA and YC animals; but there was no change in the expression of FGF-2 and BDNF. No changes were observed in hippocampus, hypothalamus, frontal cortex, and midbrain in SA and YC animals compared to YV animals in any of the genes. These findings demonstrate that a single session of cocaine i.v. self-administration is sufficient to shape rat behaviour towards goal-directed behaviours and selectively up-regulate Arc expression in mPFC (of SA animals), providing the first evidence that the mPFC's function is already profoundly influenced by the first voluntary cocaine exposure.

  20. Porcupine controls hippocampal AMPAR levels, composition and synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Erlenhardt, Nadine; Yu, Hong; Abiraman, Kavitha; Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Tomita, Susumu; Bredt, David S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY AMPAR (AMPAR) complexes contain auxiliary subunits that modulate receptor trafficking and gating. In addition to the transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) and cornichons (CNIH-2/3), recent proteomic studies identified a diverse array of additional AMPAR-associated transmembrane and secreted partners. We systematically surveyed these and found that PORCN and ABHD6 increase GluA1 levels in transfected cells. Knockdown of PORCN in rat hippocampal neurons, which express it in high amounts, selectively reduces levels of all tested AMPAR complex components. Regulation of AMPARs is independent of PORCN’s membrane-associated O-acyl transferase activity. PORCN knockdown in hippocampal neurons decreases AMPAR currents and accelerates desensitization, and leads to depletion of TARP γ-8 from AMPAR complexes. Conditional PORCN knockout mice also exhibit specific changes in AMPAR expression and gating that reduce basal synaptic transmission, but leave long-term potentiation intact. These studies define additional roles for PORCN in controlling synaptic transmission by regulating the level and composition of hippocampal AMPAR complexes. PMID:26776514

  1. High-Level software requirements specification for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-09-23

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is an as-built document that presents the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Controlled Baseline Database (TCBD) in its current state. It was originally known as the Performance Measurement Control System (PMCS). Conversion to the new system name has not occurred within the current production system. Therefore, for simplicity, all references to TCBD are equivalent to PMCS references. This SRS will reference the PMCS designator from this point forward to capture the as-built SRS. This SRS is written at a high-level and is intended to provide the design basis for the PMCS. The PMCS was first released as the electronic data repository for cost, schedule, and technical administrative baseline information for the TAAS Program. During its initial development, the PMCS was accepted by the customer, TARS Business Management, with no formal documentation to capture the initial requirements.

  2. Urinary pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine and its metabolite, amphetamine following controlled oral administration to humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Insook; Oyler, Jonathan M; Moolchan, Eric T; Cone, Edward J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2004-12-01

    Methamphetamine is widely abused for its euphoric effects. Our objectives were to characterize the urinary pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine and amphetamine after controlled methamphetamine administration to humans and to improve the interpretation of urine drug test results. Participants (n = 8) received 4 daily 10-mg (low) oral doses of sustained-release (d)-methamphetamine hydrochloride within 7 days. After 4 weeks, 5 participants received 4 daily 20-mg (high) oral doses. All urine specimens were collected during the study. Methamphetamine and amphetamine were measured by GC-MS/PCI. Maximum excretion rates ranged from 403 to 4919 microg/h for methamphetamine and 59 to 735 microg/h for amphetamine with no relationship between dose and excretion rate. The mean molar percentage of dose in the urine as total methamphetamine and amphetamine were 57.5 +/- 21.7% (low dose) and 40.9 +/- 8.5% (high dose). Mean urinary terminal elimination half-lives across doses were 23.6 +/- 6.6 hours for methamphetamine and 20.7 +/- 7.3 hours for amphetamine. Methamphetamine renal clearance across doses was 175 +/- 102 mL/min. The mean amphetamine/methamphetamine percentage ratio based on the area under the urinary excretion-time curve increased over time from 13.4 +/- 6.5% to 35.7 +/- 26.6%. Slow urinary excretion results in drug accumulation and increases in detection time windows. Our findings also support the presence of an active renal excretion mechanism for methamphetamine.

  3. Political, economic, and administrative resources available for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    Reid, R S

    1989-01-01

    The harnessing of broad social mobilization with immunization appears to be the only feasible way of controlling the vaccine-preventable diseases and of achieving universal immunization by 1990. Burkina Faso, Colombia, Nigeria, Syria, and Turkey have marshalled national forces to assist the health sector, with the result that sizeable gains in immunization have been made in the past three years. In these countries effective use has been made of the personal involvement of top political leaders, beginning with presidents and prime ministers. The media has been used to deliver a single message: get your child vaccinated. This message has been reinforced through coalitions involving religious leaders, primary teachers, village heads, policemen, soldiers, and truck drivers. Support has been gathered from nongovernmental organizations and individuals, ranging from Rotary International to actors, comedians, and sports figures. These political, economic, and administrative resources constitute a low-cost, elastic, permanently renewable resource base that can aid health ministers not only in beginning immunization coverage but also in maintaining it.

  4. Vibriocidal activity, immune globulin producing cells and immune globulin levels in Theropithecus gelada after administration of a Vibrio cholerae antigen

    PubMed Central

    Felsenfeld, Oscar; Greer, William E.

    1968-01-01

    Geladas were fed or injected with an antigen that contained Burrows' type 2 cholera toxin. Rising agglutinin and vibriocidal titres were observed in the serum, peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and lymphatic tissue of the upper intestine. Oral administration stimulated a more intensive vibriocidal activity in the mesenteric lymphatic nodes and intestinal lymphatic tissue, and within a shorter time than parenteral injection of the same antigen. Immune globulin synthesis paralleled largely the number of immunologically active cells. The agglutinin titres reflected the level of immune globulins and the numbers of globulin producing cells, whereas vibriocidal titres appeared independent of both. In terms of antibody site serum IgG was weight for weight more vibriocidal than serum IgM. PMID:4170509

  5. Effects of oral tetrachlorvinphos fly control (Equitrol) administration in horses: physiological and behavioural findings.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Valdez, S; Puschner, B; Leutenegger, C M; Gardner, I A; Madigan, J E

    2008-01-01

    Highly reactive horses may pose risks to humans involved in equestrian activities. Among the factors that may affect horses' reactivity to external stimuli are pesticides used for fly control in equine facilities. The organophosphorus (OP) insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is used as a feed-through larvicide to prevent completion of the fly larval life cycle in horse manure. TCVP exerts its effect by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AChE) in synapses of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of whole-blood ChE levels associated with feeding a commercially available product (Equitrol, Farnam Companies, Inc.) to horses for fly control. A second aim was to report neurological, physiological and behavioural findings in addition to profiles of selected immune markers (IFN-gamma, IL-12p40 and COX-2) and serum thyroid hormones during and after a 30-day treatment period of TCVP feeding. The results indicated significant decreases in whole-blood ChE activity and concomitant behavioural alterations, manifested as increased reactivity and decreased controllability in treated horses. No changes were detected in physiological or neurological parameters, immune markers or thyroid hormones in treated (n=6) or control (n=4) horses during the course of the study.

  6. Changes in levels of 8-hydroxyguanine in DNA, its repair and OGG1 mRNA in rat lungs after intratracheal administration of diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Tsurudome, Y; Hirano, T; Yamato, H; Tanaka, I; Sagai, M; Hirano, H; Nagata, N; Itoh, H; Kasai, H

    1999-08-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), an environmental pollutant, are known to induce lung cancer in experimental animals. To clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in its carcinogenic mechanism, we examined the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua), its total repair and the repair enzyme OGG1 mRNA in female Fischer 344 rat lungs, as markers of the response to ROS, after DEP was intratracheally instilled. The 8-OH-Gua levels in both DEP-treated groups (2 and 4 mg) were increased during the 2-8 h following exposure to DEP. The 8-OH-Gua repair activities in the DEP-treated groups decreased during the period from 2 h to 2 days following DEP exposure and then recovered to the level of the control group at 5 days after exposure. OGG1 mRNA was induced in rats treated with 4 mg DEP for 5-7 days after administration. In conclusion, the 8-OH-Gua level in rat lung DNA increases markedly at an early phase after DEP exposure, by the generation of ROS and the inhibition of 8-OH-Gua repair activity, and induction of OGG1 mRNA is also a good marker of cellular oxidative stress during carcinogenesis. PMID:10426809

  7. Ethanol and Acetaldehyde After Intraperitoneal Administration to Aldh2-Knockout Mice-Reflection in Blood and Brain Levels.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Ito, Asuka; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, on the analysis of ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (AcH) concentrations in the blood and brains of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) and C57B6/6J (WT) mice. Animals were administrated EtOH (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg) or 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP, 82 mg/kg) plus AcH (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. During the blood tests, samples from the orbital sinus of the eye were collected. During the brain tests, dialysates were collected every 5 min (equal to a 15 µl sample) from the striatum using in vivo brain microdialysis. Samples were collected at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 min intervals post-EtOH and -AcH injection, and then analyzed by head-space GC. In the EtOH groups, high AcH levels were found in the blood and brains of Aldh2-KO mice, while only small traces of AcH were seen in the blood and brains of WT mice. No significant differences in EtOH levels were observed between the WT and the Aldh2-KO mice for either the EtOH dose. EtOH concentrations in the brain were comparable to the EtOH concentrations in the blood, but the AcH concentrations in the brain were four to five times lower compared to the AcH concentrations in the blood. In the AcH groups, high AcH levels were found in both WT and Aldh2-KO mice. Levels reached a sharp peak at 5 min and then quickly declined for 60 min. Brain AcH concentrations were almost equal to the concentrations found in the blood, where the AcH concentrations were approximately two times higher in the Aldh2-KO mice than in the WT mice, both in the blood and the brain. Our results suggest that systemic EtOH and AcH administration can cause a greater increase in AcH accumulation in the blood and brains of Aldh2-KO mice, where EtOH concentrations in the Aldh2-KO mice were comparable to the EtOH concentrations in the WT mice. Furthermore, detection of EtOH and AcH in the blood and brain was found to be dose-dependent in both genotypes. PMID:26646001

  8. Hematological changes and nitric oxide levels accompanying high-dose artemether-lumefantrine administration in male guinea pigs: Effect of unsweetened natural cocoa powder

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Antwi-Boasiako, Charles; Oppong, Seth; Arthur, Stella; Sarkodie, Joseph Edusei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, is a common beverage in Ghana. It possesses antimalarial prophylactic property and has a beneficial effect on blood components. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether regular dietary supplement of UNCP mitigates high-dose (HD) artemether-lumefantrine (A-L)-induced hematological disorders and to determine the effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels. Materials and Methods: Adult male guinea pigs (300 g - 350 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 guinea pigs each. Among the 5 groups, 3 groups were treated with UNCP (300, 900, and 1500 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. A-L (75 mg/kg) was administered from the 12th to 14th day. One of the remaining 2 groups received distilled water only, i.e., vehicle control group (VCG) while the other received 75 mg/kg A-L only, i.e., negative control group (NCG). Blood samples from all groups were obtained by cardiac puncture (day 15) followed by hematological and NO analysis. Results: A-L reduced white blood cells (WBC) by 31.87%, lymphocyte count by 45.99%, hemoglobin by 11.72%, hematocrit by 18.56%, and platelet count by 33.08% in the NCG. Administration of various doses of UNCP increased WBC and lymphocyte count (P > 0.05) compared to the NCG. UNCP and A-L combination caused an increase in NO levels when compared to the VCG. Conclusion: Regular consumption of UNCP by guinea pigs increases plasma NO and restores some hematological disorders induced by a 3-day HD A-L administration. PMID:27757264

  9. Controllable interaction of counterpropagating solitons in three-level media

    SciTech Connect

    Pusch, Andreas; Hamm, Joachim M.; Hess, Ortwin

    2010-08-15

    We examine the dynamics of counterpropagating self-induced transparency solitons in three-level media. In a multilevel system, self-induced transparency gives rise to soliton solutions if the propagation is unidirectional, but the collision of counterpropagating pulses destroys the integrability of the underlying equations. We consider the collision of a rightward and a leftward moving self-induced transparency solitary wave by solving the full Maxwell-Bloch equations numerically using a finite-difference time-domain approach. Depending on pulse duration, amplitude and relative polarizations of the initial solitary waves we observe different regimes of interaction. For high group velocities and orthogonal polarizations, secondary solitary waves are born during the interaction, whereas the collision of solitary waves with the same polarization never produces secondary solitary waves but leaves behind a population grating in the interaction region. Because the crucial parameters can be controlled, an experimental confirmation of the predicted interaction regimes should be feasible.

  10. Ultrastructural changes in granulosa cells and plasma steroid levels after administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the Western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, A Y; Mahmoud, Y; Woller, M J

    2001-08-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of treatment by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on the morphology and steroid release of ovarian tissues in the Western painted turtle, (Chrysemys picta). In Experiment I, four adult female turtles were injected with synthetic mammalian LHRH (i.p., 500 pg/g bodyweight) and four with saline 2-3 weeks prior to ovulation. Granulosa cells from LHRH-treated turtles vs controls contained both preovulatory follicles (16-20 mm in diameter) and small follicles (0.5-1.00mm in diameter) with increased RER, free ribosomes and mitochondria with swollen cristae. An increase in the amount of cytoskeletal material (microfilaments) was observed in granulosa cells of the experimental turtles compared to the controls. Cytoplasmic extensions of the oocyte and granulosa cells were longer in the small follicles of treated animals, accounting for the observed increase in the thickness of the zona pellucida (ZP) over the controls. In Experiment II, administration of LHRH (i.p.) to 10 turtles during the same period triggered a substantial increase in plasma progesterone and estradiol-17beta levels over the 10 saline-injected controls. This supports the idea that in this species, as in mammals, steroidogenic activity in the ovarian follicles are under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The ultrastructure and hormonal levels of the experimental animals were typical of untreated turtles just prior to ovulation. In this species the development of follicles and steroidogenesis can be stimulated prematurely by a releasing hormone from a nonreptilian origin.

  11. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P

    2008-03-03

    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  12. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use; Availability...: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document describes a means by which low level laser systems for aesthetic use may comply with the requirement of special controls for class...

  13. Controlling ethylene responses in flowers at the receptor level.

    PubMed

    Serek, M; Woltering, E J; Sisler, E C; Frello, S; Sriskandarajah, S

    2006-01-01

    For a vast number of ornamental species, blocking the plant's response to ethylene is an efficient strategy to enhance the longevity of the flowers. The most effective ways to conduct such interference will be reviewed in this paper. A large number of chemical compounds have been evaluated for their effects on ethylene production and perception. Among these are a range of strained olefines. This has resulted in the discovery that cyclopropenes, among them 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and a number of other substituted cyclopropenes effectively block ethylene responses at the receptor level. A lot of testing remains to be done to uncover the full potential of these compounds, but they do offer promising new ways to extend the postharvest life of ornamentals. Also genetic modification appears to be a very effective way in controlling of ethylene synthesis and perception. Attempts to use both a reduced endogenous ethylene production and a reduced sensitivity to ethylene will be reviewed. Among these the use of the mutant ethylene receptor gene, etr1-1, from Arabidopsis seems most promising, especially when it is expressed under the control of a flower specific promoter.

  14. Ecosystem-level controls on root-rhizosphere respiration.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Francesca; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A; Flower, Charles E; Lynch, Douglas J; Czimczik, Claudia; Tang, Jianwu; Subke, Jens-Arne

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in the partitioning of autotrophic from heterotrophic respiration processes in soils in conjunction with new high temporal resolution soil respiration data sets offer insights into biotic and environmental controls of respiration. Besides temperature, many emerging controlling factors have not yet been incorporated into ecosystem-scale models. We synthesize recent research that has partitioned soil respiration into its process components to evaluate effects of nitrogen, temperature and photosynthesis on autotrophic flux from soils at the ecosystem level. Despite the widely used temperature dependence of root respiration, gross primary productivity (GPP) can explain most patterns of ecosystem root respiration (and to some extent heterotrophic respiration) at within-season time-scales. Specifically, heterotrophi crespiration is influenced by a seasonally variable supply of recent photosynthetic products in the rhizosphere. The contribution of stored root carbon (C) to root respiratory fluxes also varied seasonally, partially decoupling the proportion of photosynthetic C driving root respiration. In order to reflect recent insights, new hierarchical models, which incorporate root respiration as a primary function of GPP and which respond to environmental variables by modifying Callocation belowground, are needed for better prediction of future ecosystem C sequestration. PMID:23943914

  15. Ecosystem-level controls on root-rhizosphere respiration.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Francesca; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A; Flower, Charles E; Lynch, Douglas J; Czimczik, Claudia; Tang, Jianwu; Subke, Jens-Arne

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in the partitioning of autotrophic from heterotrophic respiration processes in soils in conjunction with new high temporal resolution soil respiration data sets offer insights into biotic and environmental controls of respiration. Besides temperature, many emerging controlling factors have not yet been incorporated into ecosystem-scale models. We synthesize recent research that has partitioned soil respiration into its process components to evaluate effects of nitrogen, temperature and photosynthesis on autotrophic flux from soils at the ecosystem level. Despite the widely used temperature dependence of root respiration, gross primary productivity (GPP) can explain most patterns of ecosystem root respiration (and to some extent heterotrophic respiration) at within-season time-scales. Specifically, heterotrophi crespiration is influenced by a seasonally variable supply of recent photosynthetic products in the rhizosphere. The contribution of stored root carbon (C) to root respiratory fluxes also varied seasonally, partially decoupling the proportion of photosynthetic C driving root respiration. In order to reflect recent insights, new hierarchical models, which incorporate root respiration as a primary function of GPP and which respond to environmental variables by modifying Callocation belowground, are needed for better prediction of future ecosystem C sequestration.

  16. In vitro analysis of a novel controlled release system designed for intratympanic administration of N-acetylcysteine: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Zafer; Deniz, Mahmut; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Ciftci, Halide Gunes; Sirin, Duygu Yasar; Gultekin, Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in-vitro experimental study was to design a novel drug delivery system that may permit controlled release of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) following intratympanic administration. The system was composed of two different solutions that attained a hydrogel form within seconds after getting into contact with each other. The authors performed swelling, pH and temperature tests and analysis of controlled release of NAC from this novel controlled release system. For the structure and porosity analysis of the hydrogel, an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used. The diameter of designed hydrogel showed an increase when pH was increased. In addition, in comparison to acidic values, the pore diameter of the hydrogel increased significantly especially in physiological level. The increase in the pore diameter was also directly proportional to the increase in temperature. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that the amount of NAC released into the medium was statistically significant (p=0.038, t=-2.18, 95% CI; DF: 27). SEM analysis of the samples revealed a smooth surface topography and numerous porous structures. The authors are of the opinion that the designed hydrogel may be used as an alternative method for intratympanic delivery of NAC for otoprotective purposes. The disadvantages of intratympanic injection of the drug in its liquid form, including leakage through eustachian tube, restraining the patient in an uncomfortable position, necessity for repetitive injections and dose dependent inflammation of the middle ear epithelium, may also be avoided. Further in vivo studies should be conducted to assess its tolerability and effectivity. PMID:26545472

  17. Soluble levels of cytosolic tubulin regulate ciliary length control

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neeraj; Kosan, Zachary A.; Stallworth, Jannese E.; Berbari, Nicolas F.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2011-01-01

    The primary cilium is an evolutionarily conserved dynamic organelle important for regulating numerous signaling pathways, and, as such, mutations disrupting ciliogenesis result in a variety of developmental abnormalities and postnatal disorders. The length of the cilium is regulated by the cell through largely unknown mechanisms. Normal cilia length is important, as either shortened or elongated cilia have been associated with disease and developmental defects. Here we explore the importance of cytoskeletal dynamics in regulating cilia length. Using pharmacological approaches in different cell types, we demonstrate that actin depolymerization or stabilization and protein kinase A activation result in a rapid elongation of the primary cilium. The effects of pharmacological agents on cilia length are associated with a subsequent increase in soluble tubulin levels and can be impaired by depletion of soluble tubulin with taxol. In addition, subtle nocodazole treatment was able to induce ciliogenesis under conditions in which cilia are not normally formed and also increases cilia length on cells that have already established cilia. Together these data indicate that cilia length can be regulated through changes in either the actin or microtubule network and implicate a possible role for soluble tubulin levels in cilia length control. PMID:21270438

  18. LOWER LEVEL INFERENCE CONTROL IN STATISTICAL DATABASE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, D.L.; Wong, H.K.T.

    1984-02-01

    An inference is the process of transforming unclassified data values into confidential data values. Most previous research in inference control has studied the use of statistical aggregates to deduce individual records. However, several other types of inference are also possible. Unknown functional dependencies may be apparent to users who have 'expert' knowledge about the characteristics of a population. Some correlations between attributes may be concluded from 'commonly-known' facts about the world. To counter these threats, security managers should use random sampling of databases of similar populations, as well as expert systems. 'Expert' users of the DATABASE SYSTEM may form inferences from the variable performance of the user interface. Users may observe on-line turn-around time, accounting statistics. the error message received, and the point at which an interactive protocol sequence fails. One may obtain information about the frequency distributions of attribute values, and the validity of data object names from this information. At the back-end of a database system, improved software engineering practices will reduce opportunities to bypass functional units of the database system. The term 'DATA OBJECT' should be expanded to incorporate these data object types which generate new classes of threats. The security of DATABASES and DATABASE SySTEMS must be recognized as separate but related problems. Thus, by increased awareness of lower level inferences, system security managers may effectively nullify the threat posed by lower level inferences.

  19. Fast wafer-level detection and control of interconnect reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Sean; Molyneaux, James; Mathewson, Alan

    2000-08-01

    Many of the technological advances in the semiconductor industry have led to dramatic increases in device density and performance in conjunction with enhanced circuit reliability. As reliability is improved, the time taken to characterize particular failure modes with traditional test methods is getting substantially longer. Furthermore, semiconductor customers expect low product cost and fast time-to-market. The limits of traditional reliability testing philosophies are being reached and new approaches need to be investigated to enable the next generation of highly reliable products to be tested. This is especially true in the area of IC interconnect, where significant challenges are predicted for the next decade. A number of fast, wafer level test methods exist for interconnect reliability evaluation. The relative abilities of four such methods to detect the quality and reliability of IC interconnect over very short test times are evaluated in this work. Four different test structure designs are also evaluated and the results are bench-marked against conventional package level Median Time to Failure results. The Isothermal test method combine with SWEAT-type test structures is shown to be the most suitable combination for defect detection and interconnect reliability control over very short test times.

  20. Serum Insulin Levels Are Reduced by Intravenous Ghrelin Administration but Do Not Correlate with Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Giovenco, Danielle E.; Lee, Mary R.; Zywiak, William H.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports a role for appetite-regulating pathways like ghrelin, insulin, and leptin in alcoholism. We previously reported that intravenous (i.v.) exogenous ghrelin increases alcohol craving. We also reported i.v. ghrelin reduces endogenous serum leptin, whose levels, in turn, negatively correlated with alcohol craving. Exogenous ghrelin administration decreases insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This study tested the hypothesis that i.v. ghrelin may also decrease endogenous serum insulin levels in alcoholic individuals. Additionally, we explored possible correlations between serum insulin and alcohol craving, since a correlation between insulin and alcohol craving was previously reported. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study (n=43). Non-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent, heavy drinkers were randomized to receive i.v. ghrelin or placebo, followed by an alcohol cue-reactivity procedure. Results: There was a main effect for i.v. ghrelin, compared to placebo in reducing serum insulin (P<.05). There was also a time effect (P<.001) but not ghrelin x time interaction (P>.05). We did not find a correlation between the reduction of serum insulin and alcohol craving (P>.05). The change in serum insulin was consistent with a parallel reduction in serum connective-peptide in the ghrelin group compared with placebo, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=.076). No similar effects were found for other glucose-regulating hormones analyzed i.e. glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and gastric inhibitory peptide (Ps>.05). Conclusions: These findings indicate i.v. ghrelin administration has an effect on reducing serum insulin in alcohol-dependent individuals; however, the reduction of insulin did not correlate with changes in alcohol cue-elicited craving. We speculate that, unlike for leptin, the interactions between ghrelin and insulin relationship are limited at

  1. Modifications in rat testicular morphology and increases in IFN-gamma serum levels by the oral administration of subtoxic doses of mercuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Penna, Salvador; Pocino, Marisol; Marval, Maria Josefina; Lloreta, José; Gallardo, Luis; Vila, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Mercury induces structural and functional damage in several organs, however the effects of subtoxic doses of the metal on the male reproductive system are not well defined. In order to analyze testicular and epididymal morphological alterations and changes in IL-4 or IFN-gamma serum levels, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 microg/ml of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) in deionized water for 1 to 7 months by oral route. Controls received deionized water alone. Twenty rats, separated in four groups of five animals each, were used per time of exposure. Progressive degenerative lesions consisting of lack of germ cell cohesion and desquamation, arrest at spermatocyte stage and hypospermatogenesis were observed in seminiferous epithelium by light and electron microscopy. Leydig cells showed cytoplasmic vacuolation and nuclear signs of cell death. Loss of peritubular cell aggregation was evidenced in the epididymis. Mercury accumulation was detected in both organs by mass spectroscopy. Rats showed enhanced IFN-gamma serum levels as compared to controls but only reached significance after 7 months of mercury administration. Subtoxic doses of inorganic mercury could lead to reproductive and immunological alterations. The results demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride are enough to induce morphological and ultrastructural modifications in male reproductive organs. These contribute to functional alterations of spermatogenesis with arrest at spermatocyte stage, hypospermatogenesis and possibly impaired steroidogenesis which together could affect male fertility. PMID:19462287

  2. Optimizing Intradermal Administration of Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Strauss, Kathy; Adams, Matthew; Billingsley, Peter F.; James, Eric; Manoj, Anita; Chakravarty, Sumana; Plowe, Christopher V.; Li, Ming Lin; Ruben, Adam; Edelman, Robert; Green, Michael; Dube, Tina J.; Kim Lee Sim, B.; Hoffman, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate malaria vaccine and prophylactic drug efficacy. Until recently CHMI was only carried out by the bite of infected mosquitoes. A parenteral method of CHMI would standardize Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) administration, eliminate the need for expensive challenge facility infrastructure, and allow for use of many P. falciparum strains. Recently, intradermal (ID) injection of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ was shown to induce P. falciparum malaria; however, 100% infection rates were not achieved by ID injection. To optimize ID PfSPZ dosing so as to achieve 100% infection, 30 adults aged 18–45 years were randomized to one of six groups composed of five volunteers each. The parameters of dose (1 × 104 versus 5 × 104 PfSPZ total dose per volunteer), number of injections (two versus eight), and aliquot volume per ID injection (10 μL versus 50 μL) were studied. Three groups attained 100% infection: 1 × 104 PfSPZ in 50 μL/2 doses, 1 × 104 PfSPZ in 10 μL/2 doses, and 5 × 104 PfSPZ in 10 μL/8 doses. The group that received 5 × 104 PfSPZ total dose in eight 10 μL injections had a 100% infection rate and the shortest prepatent period (mean of 12.7 days), approaching the prepatent period for the current CHMI standard of five infected mosquitoes. PMID:26416102

  3. Optimizing Intradermal Administration of Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Controlled Human Malaria Infection.

    PubMed

    Lyke, Kirsten E; Laurens, Matthew B; Strauss, Kathy; Adams, Matthew; Billingsley, Peter F; James, Eric; Manoj, Anita; Chakravarty, Sumana; Plowe, Christopher V; Li, Ming Lin; Ruben, Adam; Edelman, Robert; Green, Michael; Dube, Tina J; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2015-12-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate malaria vaccine and prophylactic drug efficacy. Until recently CHMI was only carried out by the bite of infected mosquitoes. A parenteral method of CHMI would standardize Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) administration, eliminate the need for expensive challenge facility infrastructure, and allow for use of many P. falciparum strains. Recently, intradermal (ID) injection of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ was shown to induce P. falciparum malaria; however, 100% infection rates were not achieved by ID injection. To optimize ID PfSPZ dosing so as to achieve 100% infection, 30 adults aged 18-45 years were randomized to one of six groups composed of five volunteers each. The parameters of dose (1 × 10(4) versus 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ total dose per volunteer), number of injections (two versus eight), and aliquot volume per ID injection (10 μL versus 50 μL) were studied. Three groups attained 100% infection: 1 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 50 μL/2 doses, 1 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 10 μL/2 doses, and 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 10 μL/8 doses. The group that received 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ total dose in eight 10 μL injections had a 100% infection rate and the shortest prepatent period (mean of 12.7 days), approaching the prepatent period for the current CHMI standard of five infected mosquitoes.

  4. The Comparison of the Effects of Acute and Repeated Morphine Administration on Fast Synaptic Transmission in Magnocellular Neurons of Supraoptic Nucleus, Plasma Vasopressin Levels, and Urine Volume of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefpour, Mitra; Naderi, Nima; Mansouri, Zahra; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Alizadeh, Amir-Mohammad; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) is regulated by a variety of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Opioids are one of the important compounds that affect these inputs at SON synapses. In this study, whole-cell patch clamp recording of SON neurons was used to investigate the effect of acute and repeated morphine administration on spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory post synaptic currents (sIPSCs and sEPSCs) in MCNs. While acute bath application of morphine to brain slice of intact rat produced an increase in sEPSCs frequency and a decrease in sIPSCs frequency, repeated in-vivo administration of morphine produced opposite effect. Moreover, repetitive i.c.v. administration of morphine for three consecutive days caused significant increase in urine volume, but had no significant alteration in water consumption compared to control group. The increase in urine volume was consistent with a significant decrease in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels after repetitive i.p. morphine administration. The results suggest that acute administration of morphine stimulates whereas repeated administration of morphine inhibits the MCNs. Morphine-induced MCN inhibition could result in diminished plasma AVP levels and eventually an increase in urine volume of rats. PMID:25276199

  5. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281). PMID:26839476

  6. Overall Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival With Targeted and Standard Therapies in Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: US Food and Drug Administration Trial-Level and Patient-Level Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Gideon M.; Karuri, Stella W.; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Khozin, Sean; Kazandjian, Dickran; Tang, Shenghui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct analyses exploring trial-level and patient-level associations between overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) trials. Methods We identified 14 trials (N = 12,567) submitted to US Food and Drug Administration since 2003 of treatments for advanced NSCLC. Only randomized, active-controlled trials with more than 150 patients were included. Associations between trial-level PFS hazard ratio (HR), OS HR, and ORR odds ratio were analyzed using a weighted linear regression model. Patient-level responder analyses comparing PFS and OS between patients with and without an objective response were performed using pooled data from all studies. Results In the trial-level analysis, the association between PFS and ORR was strong (R2 = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98). There was no association between OS and ORR (R2 = 0.09; 95% CI, 0 to 0.33) and OS and PFS (R2 = 0.08; 95% CI, 0 to 0.31). In the patient-level responder analyses, patients who achieved a response had better PFS and OS compared with nonresponders (PFS: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.42; OS: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.43). Conclusion On a trial level, there is a strong association between ORR and PFS. An association between ORR and OS and between PFS and OS was not established, possibly because of cross-over and longer survival after progression in the targeted therapy and first-line trials. The patient-level analysis showed that responders have a better PFS and OS compared with nonresponders. A therapy in advanced NSCLC with a large magnitude of effect on ORR may have a large PFS effect. PMID:25667291

  7. Heroin self-administration experience establishes control of ventral tegmental glutamate release by stress and environmental stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; You, Zhi-Bing; Wise, Roy A

    2012-12-01

    Heroin and cocaine have very different unconditioned receptor-mediated actions; however, in the brain circuitry of drug-reward and motivation, the two drugs establish common conditioned consequences. A single experience with either drug can change the sensitivity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons to glutamatergic input. In the case of cocaine, repeated intravenous self-administration establishes de novo VTA glutamate release and dopaminergic activation in response to conditioned stimuli and mild footshock stress. Here we determined whether repeated self-administration of heroin would establish similar glutamate release and dopaminergic activation. Although self-administration of heroin itself did not cause VTA glutamate release, conditioned glutamate release was seen when rats expecting rewarding heroin were given nonrewarding saline in its place. Mild footshock stress also caused glutamate release in heroin-trained animals. In each case, the VTA glutamate release was accompanied by elevations in VTA dopamine levels, indicative of dopaminergic activation. In each case, infusion of the ionotropic glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid blocked the VTA dopamine release associated with VTA glutamate elevation. Although glutamate levels in the extinction and reinstatement tests were similar to those reported in cocaine studies, the effects of heroin self-administration itself were quite different from what has been seen during cocaine self-administration.

  8. Golfing skill level postural control differences: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, James S; Marclay, Samuel; Najafi, Bijan

    2012-01-01

    Golfers have better balance than their age-matched counterparts; however, it is uncertain if this persists during the swing as a function of skill level. The purpose of the study was to investigate dynamic postural control (center of mass (COM) motion) measured during different phases of the swing in golfers of varying proficiency. Eighteen healthy golfers were grouped by handicap: novice (no handicap, n = 7), intermediate (handicap 15-19, n = 7), and advanced (handicap 9-14, n = 4). Indoor testing was performed hitting 3 tee shots using a common driver. A five-camera (60 Hz) motion analysis system (9 markers) was used to extract kinematics data. There were no significant group differences in gender, age, or BMI. Advanced players had lower COM displacement with respect to address at the time of maximum arm speed (p = 0. 001) compared to intermediate (57%, p = 0.014) and novice (73%, p = 0.023). These changes persisted after COM distance and time normalization. Advanced golfers had improved COM linearity during the downswing (p < 0.001) compared to intermediate (30%, p = 0.029) and novice (51%, p < 0.001). Advanced players had decreased COM displacement at the time of maximum arm speed and a more linear COM path during the early downswing. Further study should focus on these changes during ball launch conditions. Key pointsStudies suggest that static and dynamic balance is important in golf. However, none have investigated dynamic postural control during the golf swing in golfers of varying proficiency.Our findings suggest advanced players demonstrated improved postural control at the point of maximum arm speed when compared to less skilled players. Furthermore, center of mass acceleration in advanced players is closer to impact than less-skilled players.We observed an increased center of mass linearity of trajectory during the early downswing for advanced players over novice players. We theorized this strategy may help advanced golfers to improve the economy of COM

  9. The control of chlorophyll levels in maturing kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Sarah M; Montefiori, Mirco; Jameson, Paula E; Allan, Andrew C

    2012-11-01

    Chlorophyll is present in many plant organs, including immature fruit where it is usually degraded during ripening. Mature green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) are an exception, with high concentrations of chlorophyll remaining in the fruit flesh. In gold-fleshed kiwifruit (A. chinensis), chlorophyll is degraded to colourless catabolites upon fruit ripening, leaving yellow carotenoids visible. We have identified candidate genes for the control of chlorophyll degradation in kiwifruit and examined the transcript levels of these genes in maturing kiwifruit using quantitative real-time PCR. Results indicate that the biosynthesis and degradation, or turnover, of chlorophyll is transcriptionally regulated in green- and gold-fleshed kiwifruit. Both species of kiwifruit were found to have two homologues of the stay-green gene (SGR), a small protein that is postulated to aid in the dismantling of the light-harvesting complex, allowing free chlorophyll to enter the degradation pathway. However, with the exception of very mature green fruit, where degreening was observed, SGR2 was more highly expressed in gold fruit, indicating a potential regulatory step of chlorophyll degradation. When the SGR genes were over-expressed in tobacco leaves, degreening was observed. Our results show that chlorophyll degradation is differentially regulated in kiwifruit, and suggest that gold kiwifruit transcribe more degradation genes, leading to earlier and more sustained chlorophyll degradation in this fruit than in green kiwifruit.

  10. Novice Administrators: Psychological and Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Novice school administrators find that demands for excellence have grown while budgets have shrunk. This paper reports on a study that examined the stress levels of beginning administrators. Two of the key questions for the study--Is the stress experienced by new school administrators manageable or out of control? and Does the job put beginning…

  11. Carnitine administration reduces cytokine levels, improves food intake, and ameliorates body composition in tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Laviano, Alessandro; Molfino, Alessio; Seelaender, Marilia; Frascaria, Teresa; Bertini, Giuseppe; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Bollea, Maria Rosa; Citro, Gennaro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    Increased cytokine expression contributes to the pathogenesis of cancer anorexia?cachexia syndrome. Carnitine may reduce inflammation in chronic diseases. We tested the effects of L-propionylcarnitine (PC group) or saline (C group) on food intake (FI), body composition, and inflammatory status of MCA-sarcoma-bearing rats. On tumor appearance, rats were randomly assigned to daily i.p. injection of L-propionylcarnitine (250 mg/kgBW/d; n = 8) or saline (equal volume; n = 8). FI and fat-free mass wasting improved in PC rats only (p < .01 vs. controls). Cytokines? levels decreased in PC rats vs. controls (p < .02). Results suggest that carnitine may ameliorate cancer anorexia?cachexia, via reduction of the inflammatory status.

  12. An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corral, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

  13. A Comparison of Mail and Telephone Administration of District-Level Questionnaires for the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006: Effects on Estimates and Data Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denniston, Maxine; Brener, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Background: The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national study periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. For SHPPS 2006, district-level questionnaires were designed for telephone administration, but mixed-mode data collection that also used…

  14. Educational Management Tools for the Practicing School Administrator. A Handbook for School Administrators Who Wish to Plan, Organize, Allocate Resources, and Control Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The purpose of this handbook is to describe selected management tools useful to elementary and secondary school administrators. It attempts to provide the administrator with knowledge that will stimulate the use of these tools in an educational environment. It is intended to enable the administrator to direct educational programs to a productive…

  15. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-26

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks

  16. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A.; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G.; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K.; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-01

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  17. Controlling periodontal bone levels with multiple LED irradiations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Chun; Wang, Chen-Ying; Chong, Li Yen

    2015-02-01

    Because a single exposure to light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation at 660 nm only demonstrated a 3-day biostimulatory effect in recovering periodontal bone level (PBL), this study sought to evaluate whether the periodontal effect could be extended through the use of multiple LED irradiations. Experimental periodontitis was developed unilaterally in 48 Sprague-Dawley rats after the placement of a silk ligature plus Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide injections. The animals were divided into four groups (no irradiation, a single irradiation, or two or three irradiations per week) and exposed to LED light irradiation at a wavelength of 660 ± 25 nm and energy density of 10 J/cm(2) after debridement and detoxification. The animals were euthanized after 7 or 14 days, and the effect of irradiation was evaluated using micro-computed tomography and histology. By day 7, PBL was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), with significantly reduced inflammation (p < 0.05) and gingival hyperplasia (p < 0.001), in the animals receiving three irradiations per week. At day 14, the reduction in gingival hyperplasia was still significant (p < 0.05), and collagen matrix deposition and realignment appeared to be accelerated in the animals receiving three irradiations per week, despite a lack of significant difference in PBL. The treatment regimen receiving three LED light irradiations per week apparently extended the effects in reducing PBL and inflammation to 7 days. The inclusion of additional inflammation control measures or the addition of bioactive signals to mediate the repairing process is necessary to maintain long-term periodontal stability.

  18. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-26

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  19. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) - FEMP Technical Assistance - Federal Aviation Administration - Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-28

    This report documents an energy audit performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Boise, Idaho. This report presents findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) followed by a site visit of the facility under construction. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  20. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building, Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted an energy audit on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Reno, Nevada. This report presents the findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) and completed a site visit. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  1. Canopy Level Solar Induced Fluorescence for Vegetation in Controlled Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva

    2007-01-01

    Solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) was retrieved from high resolution reflectance spectra acquired one meter above saplings of three deciduous tree species during springtime (three weeks after leaf flush) and in late summer when foliage was mature. SIF was determined by application of the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) Principal to above-canopy spectra acquired with an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec spectroradiometer (3.2 nm resolution with 1.2 nm sampling interval). SIF retrievals were made at the two atmospheric oxygen (O2) absorption features that occur in the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) region (660 -780 nm). These telluric features are 02V, the broader and deeper feature centered at 760 nm, but located on the shoulder of the far-red ChlF peak at 740 nm; and 023, a narrow feature centered at 688 nm that is positioned near the red ChlF peak at 685 nm. Supporting, coincident leaf level fluorescence, reflectance, photochemical and other measurements were also made. At the leaf level, these measurements included in situ photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) and light adapted total chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs') collected at steady state under high light and controlled chamber conditions (e.g., temperature, PAR, humidity, and COz); optical properties (reflectance, transmittance, absorptance); chlorophyll and carotenoid content; specific leaf mass; carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content; fluorescence emission spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths; the ChlF contribution to red (R) and far-red (FR) reflectance; fluorescence imagery; and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). The tree species examined were tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraczflua L.), and each had been provided four levels of N augmentation (0, 19, 37, and 75 kg Nhectare seasonally) to simulate atmospheric deposition from air pollution. Whole-plant SIF measurements of these species were compared with SIF

  2. 77 FR 25932 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Energetic Materials and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... rule (76 FR 41958) (herein ``the July 15 proposed rule'') that set forth a framework for how articles... Administration Regulations (EAR). On November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68675) (herein ``the November 7 proposed rule...), as extended by the Notice of August 12, 2011, 76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011), has continued the...

  3. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Administrative practice and procedure, Exports, Inventions and patents, Research science and technology. 15 CFR... identified in an existing ECCN. As BIS explained in the proposed rule issued on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41958... Initiative, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (herein...

  4. 3 CFR 13637 - Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013. Administration of Reformed Export Controls

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall consult with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. (k) Those under section 36(b)(1... relate to defense articles and defense services sold, leased, or transferred under the Foreign Military... Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals. (b) This order...

  5. Oral administration of piperine for the control of aflatoxin intoxication in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gagini, Thalita B.; Silva, Robson E.; Castro, Isabela S.; Soares, Breno A.; Lima, Marco E.F.; Brito, Marilene F.; Mazur, Carlos; Direito, Glória M.; Danelli, Maria das Graças M.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that have important toxic effects on human and animal health, even if consumed at low doses. The oral administration of piperine (1.12 mg/kg) during 23 days in rats seemingly interfered with the toxicity of aflatoxins, decreasing hepatic injuries and the leukocyte depletion in experimentally intoxicated animals. PMID:24031502

  6. Administration of University Athletic Programs: Internal Control and Excellence. An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, J. Wade; Hickey, Anthony A.

    The views of 65 university presidents about athletic programs, the administration of their athletic programs, and the impact of problems of athletic program on university leadership were studied in spring 1985. Ten of the presidents responding to the survey were from private institutions, while 55 were from public universities. On the average,…

  7. Increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in human newborn infants by administration of sardines and fish oil during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Lowensohn, R; Hatcher, L

    1996-03-01

    In rhesus monkeys, maternal n-3 fatty acid deficiency during pregnancy produces infant monkeys deficient in n-3 fatty acids at birth. These results stimulated current experiments to find out if n-3 fatty acids from fish in the diets of pregnant women would influence the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) in the newborn human infant. Fifteen healthy pregnant women were enrolled to receive a 9-wk dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from the 26th to the 35th wk of pregnancy. Sixteen pregnant women were not supplemented and served as controls. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation consisted of sardines and additional fish oil, which provided a total of 2.6 g of n-3 fatty acids per day (d) for the 9-wk period of supplementation. This included 1.01 g DHA. The end point of this study was the blood concentrations of DHA in the newborn infant. DHA in maternal red blood cells increased from 4.6% of total fatty acids to 7.15% at the end of the supplement period and at the time of delivery decreased (as expected) to 5.97% of total fatty acids. Maternal plasma showed a similar change from 2.12 to 3.51% of total fatty acids and then decreased to 2.35%. Levels of DHA in plasma and red blood cells of unsupplemented mothers did not change during the same time period. Levels of DHA in blood of newborn infants differed greatly in infants born from n-3-supplemented mothers compared with control infants. In red blood cells, DHA was 7.92% of total fatty acids compared with 5.86% (control infants). Plasma values showed a similar difference: 5.05% vs. 3.47% (controls). In n-3-supplemented infants, DHA concentrations were 35.2% higher than in control infants in red blood cells and 45.5% higher in plasma. These data indicate the importance of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids and, in particular, maternal dietary DHA in promoting higher concentrations of DHA in the blood of the newborn infant.

  8. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  9. A Novel Scheme for Optimal Control of a Nonlinear Delay Differential Equations Model to Determine Effective and Optimal Administrating Chemotherapy Agents in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, HR; Setayeshi, S; Akbari, ME

    2011-01-01

    Background Determining the optimal and effective scheme for administrating the chemotherapy agents in breast cancer is the main goal of this scientific research. The most important issue here is the amount of drug or radiation administrated in chemotherapy and radiotherapy for increasing patient's survival. This is because in these cases, the therapy not only kills the tumor cells, but also kills some of the healthy tissues and causes serious damages. In this paper we investigate optimal drug scheduling effect for breast cancer model which consist of nonlinear ordinary differential time-delay equations. Methods In this paper, a mathematical model of breast cancer tumors is discussed and then optimal control theory is applied to find out the optimal drug adjustment as an input control of system. Finally we use Sensitivity Approach (SA) to solve the optimal control problem. Results The goal of this paper is to determine optimal and effective scheme for administering the chemotherapy agent, so that the tumor is eradicated, while the immune systems remains above a suitable level. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of our proposed procedure. Conclusion In this paper a new scheme is proposed to design a therapy protocol for chemotherapy in Breast Cancer. In contrast to traditional pulse drug delivery, a continuous process is offered and optimized, according to the optimal control theory for time-delay systems. PMID:26322192

  10. Time-course of extracellular nicotine and cotinine levels in rat brain following administration of nicotine: effects of route and ethanol coadministration

    PubMed Central

    Katner, Simon N.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Smoker, Michael P.; Rodd, Zachary A.; McBride, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Nicotine and ethanol are commonly coabused drugs, and nicotine-laced ethanol products are growing in popularity. However, little is known about time-course changes in extracellular nicotine and cotinine levels in rat models of ethanol and nicotine coabuse. Objectives The objective of the present study was to determine the time-course changes in brain levels of nicotine and cotinine following subcutaneous (SC) and intragastric (IG) nicotine administration in alcohol-preferring (P) and Wistar rats. Methods In vivo microdialysis was used to collect dialysate samples from the nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) for nicotine and cotinine determinations, following SC administration of (−)-nicotine (0.18, 0.35, and 0.70 mg/kg) in female P and Wistar rats or IG administration of (−)-nicotine (0.35 and 0.70 mg/kg) in 15 % (v/v) ethanol or water in female P rats. Results SC nicotine produced nicotine and cotinine dialysate levels as high as 51 and 14 ng/ml, respectively. IG administration of 15 % EtOH + 0.70 mg/kg nicotine in P rats resulted in maximal nicotine and cotinine dialysate levels of 19 and 14 ng/ml, respectively, whereas administration of 0.70 mg/kg nicotine in water resulted in maximal nicotine and cotinine levels of 21 and 25 ng/ml, respectively. Nicotine and cotinine levels were detectable within the first 15 and 45 min, respectively, after IG administration. Conclusions Overall, the results of this study suggest that nicotine is rapidly adsorbed and produces relevant extracellular brain concentrations of nicotine and its pharmacologically active metabolite, cotinine. The persisting high brain concentrations of cotinine may contribute to nicotine addiction. PMID:25038869

  11. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  12. Individually dosed oral drug administration to socially-living transponder-tagged mice by a water dispenser under RFID control.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Ariane; Kaiser, Alexander; Winter, York

    2006-06-15

    The sensitivity of behavioral and physiological parameters to even mildly stressful experiences such as drug injections creates a need for alternative methods. We have established a method of stress-free administration of drugs via drinking water that allows multiple, individually specific and exact dosages, even for socially-housed animals. The drug solution is supplied by a dispenser with automated volume control. Animals are PIT microchip-tagged with RFID transponders and identified in realtime at the water port. Computer control permits preprogramming of individual reward quantities so that drug administration is terminated after an individual has collected its daily dose. For our experiments, the substance 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was given as a marker of proliferating cells that we quantified in the hippocampus of adult mice. Experimental groups received BrdU either via intraperitoneal injections or orally via the water dispensers. Immunohistochemical staining of BrdU-positive cells was of the same quality after oral administration as after injection. BrdU-positive cells did not differ statistically in cell numbers. Thus, water dispensers under transponder control allow the individual and stress-free application of drugs even to group-living animals without disturbing their behavior. This is useful where a complex temporal protocol of application is required, and for phenotyping experiments combining behavioral tests with neural, cellular or molecular analyses.

  13. Brain and plasma levels of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in lead-expose and cadmium-exposed rats following acute or chronic intraperitoneal administration of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Nation, J R; Wellman, P J; Livermore, C L; Miller, D K; Bratton, G R

    1997-06-16

    Previous investigations of metal/cocaine interactions have shown that chronic oral exposure to inorganic lead or cadmium attenuates the psychoactive effects of acute or repeated administration of cocaine. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the possibility that such interactive effects may derive from metal-induced disturbances in cocaine pharmacokinetics, i.e., delivery of cocaine to critical biologic sites may be disrupted by metal contamination. In this study, adult male rats were exposed to purified diets containing 250 ppm lead acetate (Group Lead), 100 ppm cadmium chloride (Group Cadmium), or unadulterated laboratory chow (Group Control); n = 48/exposure condition. Following ad libitum access to their respective diets in the home cage for 45 days, half the animals from each exposure regimen received single daily IP injections of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg cocaine HCl for a period of 7 days (n = 8/group). The remaining half the animals received repeated daily injections of saline during this pretreatment phase. On the day following pretreatment, animals previously receiving cocaine injections were administered a single cocaine test challenge at a dose equal to that received in pretreatment. Similarly, saline pretreatment animals received either 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg cocaine. The results of this investigation did not reveal reliable evidence of metal-related differences in brain levels of cocaine. Plasma cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) levels also were essentially the same for control and metal-exposed animals. The failure to show that lead or cadmium alters the disposition of cocaine in brain or plasma underscores the need to pursue alternative accounts of metal/cocaine interactions.

  14. 78 FR 42430 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2012 Missile Technology Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Annex that were agreed to by MTCR member countries at the October 2012... export control arrangement among 34 nations, including most of the world's advanced suppliers of missiles... countries implement in accordance with their national export controls. The MTCR seeks to limit the risk...

  15. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption. PMID:19255890

  16. 21 CFR 870.4340 - Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and... Devices § 870.4340 Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control is a device used to monitor and/or control the...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4340 - Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and... Devices § 870.4340 Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control is a device used to monitor and/or control the...

  18. Surface enhanced quantum control of a two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangan, Chitra; Mirzaee, Somayeh M. A.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the enhanced purification of the quantum state of a two-level system subject to a near-resonant driving field when in proximity to a gold nanoparticle. The quantum dynamics of the driven two-level system in the presence of decay is modelled by the Lindblad Master equation. The electrodynamics of the gold nanoparticle illuminated by the driving field and the field radiated by the atomic dipole is solved using a finite-difference time-domain method. We discover that the presence of a proximate gold nanoparticle enhances the purity of a driven two-level system even at short times.

  19. Predicting the operations alert levels for dengue surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kameshwaran; Dayama, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Operations alert level is a discrete measure that quantifies the severity of epidemic outbreak with respect to operational measures. The alert levels are ordered based on the amount of response operations required. In this paper, we develop multi-class classification models based on ordinal multinomial logistic regression for predicting the alert levels for dengue at twenty weeks in advance. The regression uses the dynamic lag non-linear models to account for the non-linearity of the dengue incidence, along with its lagged values. The performance of the models is tested for the dengue case count data of Singapore.

  20. Low level monitoring and control of nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.; Reneke, J.; Lenhart, S.; Protopopescu, V.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we propose a nonparametric method for monitoring and controlling nonlinear systems whose dynamics is, in general, unknown or only partially known. Our nonparametric method is based on the stochastic linearization of the underlying (unknown) nonlinear system.

  1. System level analysis and control of manufacturing process variation

    DOEpatents

    Hamada, Michael S.; Martz, Harry F.; Eleswarpu, Jay K.; Preissler, Michael J.

    2005-05-31

    A computer-implemented method is implemented for determining the variability of a manufacturing system having a plurality of subsystems. Each subsystem of the plurality of subsystems is characterized by signal factors, noise factors, control factors, and an output response, all having mean and variance values. Response models are then fitted to each subsystem to determine unknown coefficients for use in the response models that characterize the relationship between the signal factors, noise factors, control factors, and the corresponding output response having mean and variance values that are related to the signal factors, noise factors, and control factors. The response models for each subsystem are coupled to model the output of the manufacturing system as a whole. The coefficients of the fitted response models are randomly varied to propagate variances through the plurality of subsystems and values of signal factors and control factors are found to optimize the output of the manufacturing system to meet a specified criterion.

  2. Level of asthma control and healthcare utilization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gold, L S; Montealegre, F; Allen-Ramey, F C; Jardim, J; Smith, N; Sansores, R; Sullivan, S D

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether uncontrolled asthma was associated with healthcare outcomes among Latin American patients with asthma. We used data from 2168 patients with asthma who participated in the 2011 Latin America Asthma Insights and Management (AIM) survey. Using Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, patients were categorized as having asthma that was well-controlled, partly controlled, or uncontrolled. Overall, 7% of the patients surveyed had asthma that was classified as well-controlled. Patients whose asthma was not well-controlled were significantly more likely to report use of asthma medications (ORs ranging from 1.6-41) and to have had emergency healthcare visits or hospitalizations for their asthma in the previous year (ORs ranging from 2.1 to 5.9). They also reported decreases in their productivity compared to patients with well-controlled asthma. These associations suggest that emphasis on improving asthma control could have substantial effects on patient productivity and utilization of healthcare resources.

  3. Levels of Neural Progenitors in the Hippocampus Predict Memory Impairment and Relapse to Drug Seeking as a Function of Excessive Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Although NASA is currently considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain without a top-level roadmap to serve as a guide. This paper documents the process and results of an effort to define a roadmap for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) as well as enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro-gravity mission; 2) a long duration microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration partial gravity (surface) exploration mission. To organize the effort, a functional decomposition of ECLSS was completed starting with the three primary functions: atmosphere, water, and solid waste management. Each was further decomposed into sub-functions to the point that current state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies could be tied to the sub-function. Each technology was then assessed by NASA subject matter experts as to its ability to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types. When SOA capabilities were deemed to fall short of meeting the needs of one or more mission types, those gaps were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The result was a list of enabling and enhancing capability needs that can be used to guide future ECLSS development, as well as a list of existing hardware that is ready to go for exploration-class missions. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies intended to meet exploration needs

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Robert

    2011-01-01

    At present, NASA has considered a number of future human space exploration mission concepts . Yet, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain without a top-level roadmap to serve as a guide. This paper documents a roadmap for development of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) as well as enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro gravity mission; 2) a long duration transit microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration surface exploration mission. To organize the effort, ECLSS was categorized into three major functional groups (atmosphere, water, and solid waste management) with each broken down into sub-functions. The ability of existing state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types was then assessed by NASA subject matter experts. When SOA capabilities were deemed to fall short of meeting the needs of one or more mission types, those gaps were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The result was a list of enabling and enhancing capabilities needs that can be used to guide future ECLSS development, as well as a list of existing hardware that is ready to go for exploration-class missions. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies intended to meet exploration needs will, in many cases, directly benefit the ISS operational capability, benefit the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), and guide long-term technology

  6. Authority of the Food and Drug Administration to require data access and control use rights in the Sentinel data network.

    PubMed

    Evans, Barbara J

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) authorized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop a 100-million-person health data network known as the Sentinel system. When fully operational, the Sentinel network will offer a very rich, very large health data resource that has the potential to become one of history's most powerful engines of biomedical innovation and clinical translation of discoveries. Who controls this asset will be a matter of great scientific and commercial importance. This article explores two key questions--data access and use rights--that are under debate as various parties jostle for control of the network: First, does FDA have legal authority to require private healthcare data environments--such as insurers, healthcare providers, pharmacists and other entities that hold data in administrative and clinical databases--to make data available for inclusion in the network? Second, who will decide how the network is used, once it is built? The article explains why a neutral analysis of these questions is essential as FDA designs the governance framework for protecting the diverse stakeholders who will be touched by the Sentinel network. The conclusion describes threats to network operations, including federal and state constitutional claims and state legislative interventions, which could arise if FDA fails to devote timely attention to these issues.

  7. Differential effects of L-tryptophan and L-leucine administration on brain resting state functional networks and plasma hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Zanchi, Davide; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Suenderhauf, Claudia; Janach, Katharina; le Roux, Carel W.; Haller, Sven; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K.; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Depending on their protein content, single meals can rapidly influence the uptake of amino acids into the brain and thereby modify brain functions. The current study investigates the effects of two different amino acids on the human gut-brain system, using a multimodal approach, integrating physiological and neuroimaging data. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, L-tryptophan, L-leucine, glucose and water were administered directly into the gut of 20 healthy subjects. Functional MRI (fMRI) in a resting state paradigm (RS), combined with the assessment of insulin and glucose blood concentration, was performed before and after treatment. Independent component analysis with dual regression technique was applied to RS-fMRI data. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons. In comparison to glucose and water, L-tryptophan consistently modifies the connectivity of the cingulate cortex in the default mode network, of the insula in the saliency network and of the sensory cortex in the somatosensory network. L-leucine has lesser effects on these functional networks. L-tryptophan and L-leucine also modified plasma insulin concentration. Finally, significant correlations were found between brain modifications after L-tryptophan administration and insulin plasma levels. This study shows that acute L-tryptophan and L-leucine intake directly influence the brain networks underpinning the food-reward system and appetite regulation. PMID:27760995

  8. Ibuprofen administration attenuates serum TNF-{alpha} levels, hepatic glutathione depletion, hepatic apoptosis and mouse mortality after Fas stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cazanave, Sophie; Vadrot, Nathalie; Tinel, Marina; Berson, Alain; Letteron, Philippe; Larosche, Isabelle; Descatoire, Veronique; Feldmann, Gerard; Robin, Marie-Anne |; Pessayre, Dominique |

    2008-09-15

    Fas stimulation recruits neutrophils and activates macrophages that secrete tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), which aggravates Fas-mediated liver injury. To determine whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs modify these processes, we challenged 24-hour-fasted mice with the agonistic Jo2 anti-Fas antibody (4 {mu}g/mouse), and treated the animals 1 h later with saline or ibuprofen (250 mg/kg), a dual cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. Ibuprofen attenuated the Jo2-mediated recruitment/activation of myeloperoxidase-secreting neutrophils/macrophages in the liver, and attenuated the surge in serum TNF-{alpha}. Ibuprofen also minimized hepatic glutathione depletion, Bid truncation, caspase activation, outer mitochondrial membrane rupture, hepatocyte apoptosis and the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity 5 h after Jo2 administration, to finally decrease mouse mortality at later times. The concomitant administration of pentoxifylline (decreasing TNF-{alpha} secretion) and infliximab (trapping TNF-{alpha}) likewise attenuated the Jo2-mediated increase in TNF-{alpha}, the decrease in hepatic glutathione, and the increase in serum ALT activity 5 h after Jo2 administration. The concomitant administration of the COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560 (10 mg/kg) and the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (40 mg/kg) 1 h after Jo2 administration, also decreased liver injury 5 h after Jo2 administration. In contrast, SC-560 (10 mg/kg) or celecoxib (40 or 160 mg/kg) given alone had no significant protective effects. In conclusion, secondary TNF-{alpha} secretion plays an important role in Jo2-mediated glutathione depletion and liver injury. The combined inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 by ibuprofen attenuates TNF-{alpha} secretion, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial alterations, hepatic apoptosis and mortality in Jo2-treated fasted mice.

  9. Engaging, Retaining, and Advancing African Americans in Executive-Level Positions: A Descriptive and Trend Analysis of Academic Administrators in Higher and Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of repeated considerations and positive action to engage, retain and advance African Americans in executive positions, there are only a few African Americans in executive level administration posts in colleges and universities. An analysis of the status of African Americans in higher and post secondary education shows that legislation…

  10. Career Lines of Top-Level Two-Year College Administrators: Implications for Leadership in a New Era. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.

    Career lines leading to top-level administrative positions in two-year colleges were identified, based on data for 193 presidents, 271 chief academic officers, 221 chief student affairs officers, and 207 chief business officers. The analysis was based on internal labor market theory, and data were obtained from a 1984 national study of two-year…

  11. A Survey of Factors Affecting Workplace Performance and Career Advancement of Black Women Administrators in Middle and Upper Level Management Positions in Community Colleges. Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marguerite; And Others

    In 1991, a survey was conducted of 150 black female administrators at the department chair level and above at 65 community colleges in 19 states. The questionnaire solicited information on respondent characteristics, such as age, degrees, and salary, and their perceptions of the degree to which each of 20 variables positively or negatively…

  12. Beyond Declines in Student Body Diversity: How Campus-Level Administrators Understand a Prohibition on Race-Conscious Postsecondary Admissions Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Liliana M.; Cogburn, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Guided by a bottom-up policy implementation framework, this study draws from semi-structured interviews of 14 campus-level administrators charged with implementing diversity policy at the University of Michigan to investigate how an affirmative action ban (Proposal 2) influenced their efforts in support of racial/ethnic diversity at the…

  13. 78 FR 22659 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Determines No Longer Warrant Control under the United States Munitions List (USML) (76 FR 41958) (hereinafter... Retrospective Regulatory Review (77 FR 37524) (hereinafter ``June 21 (transition) rule''). That rule proposed... President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the United States Munitions List (USML), (, 76 FR...

  14. [Experience with a microcomputer-controlled blood bank administration system in the blood bank of the Hannover Medical University].

    PubMed

    Raufmann, W; Stangel, W

    1990-01-01

    During the last three years two components of a modular administration system were implemented in the blood bank of the Medical University of Hannover (MHH). Considering the integration of the blood bank system to the central hospital information system of the clinic the aspect of independence and self-controlling by the blood bank was the most important point. This goal was reached by a couple of PC's which are compounded by a local area network (LAN). This LAN can communicate with the host of the computer center of the MHH. By this way the short staff capacity was not stressed more than absolute necessary by taking over all parameters of the central data base. On the other hand all functions for administrating the blood bank were in self-responsibility of the department. This concept of different modules has the possibility of using single parts like donor- or storage-system in other blood banks without implementing the whole system.

  15. [The effect of repeated administration of carbetocin (Depotocin, Spofa) in the first days postpartum on levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone and on fertilization].

    PubMed

    Bekeová, E; Krajnicáková, M; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1992-07-01

    Application of new procedures in the sphere of the control of sexual functions requires an extension of present knowledge of postparturient endocrinium or endogenic factors comprised in postparturient physiology of sexual activity. According to recent data, oxytocin, besides its uterotonic and luteolytic activity, acts as an ovarian factor in the local intrafollicular regulation of stereidogenesis and as a modulator of uterine secretion of prostaglandines. Based on present knowledge of oxytocin effects, this study was aimed at investigation of the influence of repeated carbetocin (Depotocin inj. Spofa) administration on the dynamics of changes in thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) concentrations and their mutual correlations from the 36th hour till the 51st day after parturition. Simultaneous study of a possible delayed influence of applied carbetocin on conception of ewes after oestrus evocation on day 51 after lambing was carried out. Nineteen ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, lambed in the first decade of February, were assigned to the experimental (n = 9) and to the control group (n = 10). Experimental ewes were subjected to repeated postparturient carbetocin treatment at the dose 0.07 mg per animal. The first dose was applied i. m. in 24 hours, and the second in 72 hours after parturition. On day 51 oestrus was induced in nine ewes of each group by combined treatment with chlorsuperlutin (Agelin, vaginal pessaries, Spofa) and PMSG (500 I.U./animal). On the day of PMSG application ewes were housed together with rams for the period of the next six days. Samples of blood were taken 24 hours before parturition (-1st day), up to 36 h after parturition and on days 4, 7, 14, 17, 21, 25, 34, 42 and 51 after parturition. Concentrations of T4, T3, E2 and P4 were determined by commercial kits RIA-test-T4; RIA-test-T3; RIA-test-ESTRA and RIA-test-PROG (URVJT Kosice). Animal of the control group showed variations of T4

  16. Development and Implementation of a Pilot Program To Prepare Negro Administrators for Top Level Line Positions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Francis M.

    This report reviews and summarizes a pilot program in Tennessee to assist Negroes in obtaining administrative positions in integrated school systems within the State. Five trainees were involved in the 1-year program. The review covers activities related to developing the proposal, the program purposes, the publicity and recruitment efforts, and…

  17. Street-Level Bureaucracy Revisited: Frontline District Central-Office Administrators as Boundary Spanners in Education Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2006-01-01

    The designation of district central-office administrators to operate as boundary spanners among the central office, schools, and community agencies can help with the implementation of challenging policy demands. However, educational research teaches little about central-office boundary spanners in practice. This article addresses that gap with…

  18. High Level Learning by Design: The Nuts and Bolts of Assessment and Evaluation in a Doctorate of Business Administration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipu, Suzanne; Hill, Allison

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 two librarians at the University of Wollongong faced the challenge of designing and delivering a crucial subject in a pilot Doctorate of Business Administration program which sought to prepare a group of successful business leaders for the task of research. The focus was on developing the participants' information literacy skills and…

  19. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one

  20. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-03-31

    On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

  1. Control of Quaternary sea-level changes on gas seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboulot, Vincent; Thomas, Yannick; Berné, Serge; Jouet, Gwénaël.; Cattaneo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Gas seeping to the seafloor through structures such as pockmarks may contribute significantly to the enrichment of atmospheric greenhouse gases and global warming. Gas seeps in the Gulf of Lions, Western Mediterranean, are cyclical, and pockmark "life" is governed both by sediment accumulation on the continental margin and Quaternary climate changes. Three-dimensional seismic data, correlated to multi-proxy analysis of a deep borehole, have shown that these pockmarks are associated with oblique chimneys. The prograding chimney geometry demonstrates the syn-sedimentary and long-lasting functioning of the gas seeps. Gas chimneys have reworked chronologically constrained stratigraphic units and have functioned episodically, with maximum activity around sea level lowstands. Therefore, we argue that one of the main driving mechanisms responsible for their formation is the variation in hydrostatic pressure driven by relative sea level changes.

  2. Controlling the levels of airborne pollen: can heterogeneous photocatalysis help?

    PubMed

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2013-10-15

    Airborne pollen is a worldwide problem because is a very important allergenic agent; it can be altered only by certain microorganisms and by some oxidizers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, heterogeneous photocatalysis (HPC) arose as a promising technology for reducing the level of contaminants in the air, based on their degradation by the production of ROS. In this paper, study of the feasibility of HPC to diminish the counts of pollen is undertaken. The research has been carried out at different levels, from solutions to mortar specimens with the evidence that HPC is able to reduce the amount of pollen grains. This is a major breakthrough that opens the door to a whole field of research, already full of gaps, whose implications could be quite controversial.

  3. Aromatase activity after a short-course of letrozole administration in adult men at sea level and at high altitude (with or without excessive erythrocytosis).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Tapia, V; Gasco, M; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2012-02-01

    Men living at high altitudes in Peru compared to sea level counterparts have erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 16-21 g/dl) or excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin>21 g/dl). High testosterone (T) levels in men at high altitude (HA) were associated with excessive erythrocytosis. High androgen levels could be due to a low aromatase activity or to an elevated rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone. The aim of this study was to evaluate aromatase activity and rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone before and after administration of the aromatase enzyme inhibitor letrozole (5 mg/day) for a 5-day period to men at HA and at sea level (SL). The response to short term aromatase inhibition was assessed in 30 adult men living at sea level, 31 native men at HA with erythrocytosis (Hb 16-21 g/dl), and 35 men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis (Hb>21 g/dl). Serum hormone levels, estradiol/testosterone, testosterone/androstenedione, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ratios were measured. Men with erythrocytosis had lower basal serum T/androstenedione ratios than men with excessive erythrocytosis at HA and men at sea level. Men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis had higher T/DHEAS ratios than men with erythrocytosis and than those at sea level before and after letrozole administration. After letrozole administration, both groups of men at high altitude (with erythrocytosis or with excessive erythrocytosis) showed lower aromatase activities than those at sea level. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels in men with excessive erythrocytosis were associated with an increased rate of conversion from DHEAS to testosterone rather than to a lower aromatase activity.

  4. Intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in brain of young rats.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Miriam S W; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Zapelini, Hugo G; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy resulting from dysfunction of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-ketoacids. This disorder is clinically characterized by ketoacidosis, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. However, the effect of accumulating α-ketoacids in MSUD on neurotrophic factors has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the brains of young male rats. Ours results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of KIC decreased BDNF levels in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, without induce a detectable change in pro-BDNF levels. Moreover, NGF levels in the hippocampus were reduced after intracerebroventricular administration of KIC. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of KIC on demyelination and memory processes may be mediated by reduced trophic support of BDNF and NGF. Moreover, lower levels of BDNF and NGF are consistent with the hypothesis that a deficit in this neurotrophic factor may contribute to the structural and functional alterations of brain underlying the psychopathology of MSUD, supporting the hypothesis of a neurodegenerative process in MSUD.

  5. Intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in brain of young rats.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Miriam S W; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Zapelini, Hugo G; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy resulting from dysfunction of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-ketoacids. This disorder is clinically characterized by ketoacidosis, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. However, the effect of accumulating α-ketoacids in MSUD on neurotrophic factors has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the brains of young male rats. Ours results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of KIC decreased BDNF levels in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, without induce a detectable change in pro-BDNF levels. Moreover, NGF levels in the hippocampus were reduced after intracerebroventricular administration of KIC. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of KIC on demyelination and memory processes may be mediated by reduced trophic support of BDNF and NGF. Moreover, lower levels of BDNF and NGF are consistent with the hypothesis that a deficit in this neurotrophic factor may contribute to the structural and functional alterations of brain underlying the psychopathology of MSUD, supporting the hypothesis of a neurodegenerative process in MSUD. PMID:26586008

  6. Androgen control of secretory component mRNA levels in the rat lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Lambert, R W; Wickham, L A; Banting, G; Sullivan, D A

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the known gender-related differences in, and the endocrine control of, the production of secretory component (SC) by the rat lacrimal gland are associated with alterations in SC mRNA content. Levels of SC mRNA were measured in lacrimal tissues of intact, sham-operated, castrated, hypophysectomized, and testosterone-treated male and female adult rats by Northern blot procedures, which utilized a specific, [alpha-32P]-labelled rat SC cDNA probe. For control purposes, SC mRNA amounts were standardized to the beta-actin content in experimental blots. The location of SC mRNA in lacrimal glands was evaluated by in situ hybridization techniques, which involved exposure of tissue sections to sense or anti-sense [35S]-labelled SC RNA probes. Our results demonstrate that: (1) lacrimal glands of male rats contain a significantly greater amount of SC mRNA than those of female rats, and that this difference co-exists with distinct, gender-associated variations in the distribution of SC mRNA in lacrimal tissue; (2) orchiectomy or hypophysectomy, but not ovariectomy or sham surgery, leads to a marked decline in the lacrimal SC mRNA content; and (3) testosterone, but not placebo, administration to castrated male and female rats induces a significant increase in the SC mRNA levels in lacrimal tissue. Overall, these findings show that gender, androgens and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis exert a considerable influence on the SC mRNA content in the rat lacrimal gland.

  7. Options for water-level control in developed wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, J. R.; Laubhan, M. K.; Reid, F. A.; Wortham, J. S.; Fredrickson, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    Wetland habitats in the United States currently are lost at a rate of 260,000 acres/year (105,218 ha/year). Consequently, water birds concentrate in fewer and smaller areas. Such concentrations may deplete food supplies and influence behavior, physiology, and survival. Continued losses increase the importance of sound management of the remaining wetlands because water birds depend on them. Human activities modified the natural hydrology of most remaining wetlands in the conterminous United States, and such hydrologic alterations frequently reduce wetland productivity. The restoration of original wetland functions and productivity often requires the development of water distribution and discharge systems to emulate natural hydrologic regimes. Construction of levees and correct placement of control structures and water-delivery and water-discharge systems are necessary to (1) create soil and water conditions for the germination of desirable plants, (2) control nuisance vegetation, (3) promote the production of invertebrates, and (4) make foods available for wildlife that depends of wetlands (Leaflets 13.2.1 and 13.4.6). This paper provides basic guidelines for the design of wetlands that benefit wildlife. If biological considerations are not incorporated into such designs, the capability of managing wetlands for water birds is reduced and costs often are greater. Although we address the development of palustrine wetlands in migration and wintering areas, many of the discussed principles are applicable to the development of other wetland types and in other locations.

  8. Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-01

    Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the `excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.

  9. Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-07

    Highly efficient hot electron transport represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot electron capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the 'excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot electron transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot electron/hole transport efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.

  10. Relationship of plasma oxytocin levels to baseline symptoms and symptom changes during three weeks of daily oxytocin administration in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary R; Wehring, Heidi J; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared; Verbalis, Joseph G; Buchanan, Robert W; Strauss, Gregory P; Rubin, Leah H; Kelly, Deanna L

    2016-04-01

    Several clinical studies have found an inverse relationship between clinical symptoms and peripheral oxytocin (OT) levels in people with schizophrenia. As oxytocin is a putative treatment for schizophrenia, the effect of repeated dosing of OT on OT levels, clinical symptoms and the relationship between the two is of interest. In a, randomized, double blind, parallel group 3 week study (N=28) with daily administration of intranasal OT (20 IU twice daily) or placebo (PBO), we examined the effect of OT administration on the correlation between the change in peripheral OT levels and change in clinical symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in OT levels. There were no significant associations between baseline OT levels and any symptom measures. After 3 weeks of OT/PBO dosing, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of change in OT levels between the two treatment groups. Correlations between changes in peripheral OT levels and changes in the BPRS total and negative symptom scores were not different between treatment groups. Larger studies are needed to examine the effect of exogenous OT on peripheral OT levels and the relationship between the latter and clinical symptoms. Clinical Trials.gov=NCT00884897. PMID:26879587

  11. Renal excretion profiles of psilocin following oral administration of psilocybin: a controlled study in man.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Felix; Bourquin, Daniel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2002-09-01

    In a clinical study eight volunteers received psilocybin (PY) in psychoactive oral doses of 212+/-25 microg/kg body weight. To investigate the elimination kinetics of psilocin (PI), the first metabolite of PY, urine was collected for 24 h and PI concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Sample workup included protection of the unstable PI with ascorbic acid, freeze-drying, and extraction with methanol. Peak PI concentrations up to 870 microg/l were measured in urine samples from the 2-4 h collection interval. The PI excretion rate in this period was 55.5+/-33.8 microg/h. The limit of quantitation (10 microg/L) was usually reached 24 h after drug administration. Within 24 h, 3.4+/-0.9% of the applied dose of PY was excreted as free PI. Addition of beta-glucuronidase to urine samples and incubation for 5 h at 40 degrees C led to twofold higher PI concentrations, although 18+/-7% of the amount of unconjugated PI was decomposed during incubation. We conclude that in humans PI is partially excreted as PI-O-glucuronide and that enzymatic hydrolysis extends the time of detectability for PI in urine samples.

  12. 76 FR 80291 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Submersible Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... establish a new, unilateral control on submersibles ``specially designed'' for cargo transport that are not... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``the July 15 proposed... submersibles ``specially designed'' for cargo transport that are not currently subject to USML or CCL...

  13. 76 FR 41957 - Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Items the President...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... definitions of relevant terms, including ``specially designed,'' ``end items,'' ``parts,'' and ``components... Control List: Revising Descriptions of Items and Foreign Availability,'' 75 FR 76664 (Dec. 9, 2010); ``Revision to the United States Munitions List,'' 75 FR 76935 (Dec. 10, 2010). In addition, the...

  14. 76 FR 68675 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Aircraft and Related Items...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``the July 15 proposed rule'') that set forth a framework for how... result of differences in form and fit, ``specially designed'' for military applications, then it was... incentives for foreign companies to design out or avoid U.S.- origin ITAR-controlled content,...

  15. 75 FR 20520 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2009 Missile Technology Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... December 10, 2009 (74 FR 65662). DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective: April 20, 2010. Although... infiltrated tungsten, silver infiltrated tungsten, and tungsten alloys in solid ] form (including dimensional... MTCR Annex was modified to include new controls for solid tungsten and tungsten alloy billets for...

  16. Women in Educational Administration: Moving from a Paradigm of Power and Control to Empowerment and Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Francie

    Factors in the development of empowerment through ethical leadership are discussed in this paper, which draws on feminist and humanist theories. A review of literature describes the conditions in patriarchal societies that lead to and lessen the exaltation of power and control; conditions of temporary and permanent inequality; ways in which…

  17. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  18. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  19. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  20. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  1. 78 FR 31431 - Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ..., 2011 proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``July 15 (framework) rule'') setting up a structure to control in... with section 38(f) of the AECA. On November 7, 2011, BIS published a proposed rule (76 FR 68675.... On June 19, 2012, BIS published a proposed rule to define the term ``specially designed'' (77...

  2. Transformations in the Field of Symbolic Control and Their Implications for the Greek Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsatsaroni, Anna; Sifakakis, Polychronis; Sarakinioti, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    This paper theorises the field of symbolic control and reflects on the critical literature of policy studies, exploring the possibilities that the former might offer to the analysis of global policy discourses and their up-take in specific national and local contexts. Starting from the rapidly expanding literature on the "globalising"…

  3. U.S. military administration's malaria control activities (1945-1948).

    PubMed

    Yeo, In-Sok

    2015-04-01

    To prevent and control infectious diseases was one of the major concerns of U.S. military government when they stationed in Korea in 1945. It was because the spread of various infectious diseases can cause social unrest and they can also affect the U.S. military. Malaria was one of the most important infectious diseases to which the U.S. military had been paying special attention. The U.S. military received a severe damage during the Pacific war with Japan due to malaria. It was said that more soldiers were lost by malaria than by battle itself. The bitter experience they had during the war made them accumulate more systematic and practical knowledge against malaria. As a result, by the end of the war, the U.S. military could run more than hundreds of units specialized in controlling malaria. Thanks to such a preparation, they could immediately begin their anti-malaria activities in Korea soon after the World War II. Although the vivax malaria, which is the dominant type in Korea, is not as much a fatal type as that in the Pacific areas, it was damaging enough to the infected. The 207th Malaria Survey Detachment carried out collecting and identifying the kinds of mosquitos in Korea. In addition, they also surveyed the prevalence of malaria among school children in Seoul. In terms of controlling malaria, DDT played a decisive role. Vector control is the most effective and ideal measurements against malaria. Before the development of DDT, it was practically impossible to eradicate mosquitos which arise from extremely broad areas. However, DDT could not be used as it had been expected in the rural area, because spraying DDT in the rice paddies which is the breeding place of mosquitos kills rice. Despite such a limitation in anti-malaria activities of the US military government, it should be noted that a significant turn in controlling malaria was possible thanks to the development of DDT. PMID:25985777

  4. Sulfate threshold target to control methylmercury levels in wetland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, Ghinwa M; Dziuba, Catherine; Rivero, Rosanna G; Orem, William

    2011-05-01

    Sulfate contamination has a significant environmental implication through the stimulation of toxic hydrogen sulfide and methylmercury (MeHg) production. High levels of MeHg are a serious problem in many wetland ecosystems worldwide. In the Florida Everglades, it has been demonstrated that increasing MeHg occurrence is due to a sulfate contamination problem. A promising strategy of lowering the MeHg occurrence is to reduce the amount of sulfate entering the ecosystem. High surface water sulfate concentrations in the Everglades are mainly due to discharges from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) canals. Water and total sulfur mass balances indicated that total sulfur released by soil oxidation, Lake Okeechobee and agricultural application were the major sources contributing 49,169, 35,217 and 11,775mtonsyear(-1), respectively. Total sulfur loads from groundwater, levees, and atmospheric deposition contributed to a lesser extent: 4055; 5858 and 4229mtonsyear(-1), respectively. Total sulfur leaving the EAA into Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) through canal discharge was estimated at 116,360mtonsyear(-1), and total sulfur removed by sugarcane harvest accounted for 23,182mtonsyear(-1). Furthermore, a rise in the mineral content and pH of the EAA soil over time, suggested that the current rates of sulfur application would increase as the buffer capacity of the soil increases. Therefore, a site specific numeric criterion for sulfate of 1mgL(-1) was recommended for the protection of the Everglades; above this level, mercury methylation is enhanced. In parallel, sulfide concentrations in the EAA exceeded the 2μgL(-1) criterion for surface water already established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  5. Snail levels control the migration mechanism of mesenchymal tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    BELGIOVINE, CRISTINA; CHIESA, GIULIO; CHIODI, ILARIA; FRAPOLLI, ROBERTA; BONEZZI, KATIUSCIA; TARABOLETTI, GIULIA; D'INCALCI, MAURIZIO; MONDELLO, CHIARA

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells use two major types of movement: Mesenchymal, which is typical of cells of mesenchymal origin and depends on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and amoeboid, which is characteristic of cells with a rounded shape and relies on the activity of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). The present authors previously demonstrated that, during neoplastic transformation, telomerase-immortalized human fibroblasts (cen3tel cells) acquired a ROCK-dependent/MMP independent mechanism of invasion, mediated by the downregulation of the ROCK cellular inhibitor Round (Rnd)3/RhoE. In the present study, cen3tel transformation was also demonstrated to be paralleled by downregulation of Snail, a major determinant of the mesenchymal movement. To test whether Snail levels could determine the type of movement adopted by mesenchymal tumor cells, Snail was ectopically expressed in tumorigenic cells. It was observed that ectopic Snail did not increase the levels of typical mesenchymal markers, but induced cells to adopt an MMP-dependent mechanism of invasion. In cells expressing ectopic Snail, invasion became sensitive to the MMP inhibitor Ro 28–2653 and insensitive to the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, suggesting that, once induced by Snail, the mesenchymal movement prevails over the amoeboid one. Snail-expressing cells had a more aggressive behavior in vivo, and exhibited increased tumor growth rate and metastatic ability. These results confirm the high plasticity of cancer cells, which can adopt different types of movement in response to changes in the expression of specific genes. Furthermore, the present findings indicate that Rnd3 and Snail are possible regulators of the type of invasion mechanism adopted by mesenchymal tumor cells. PMID:27347214

  6. Sulfate threshold target to control methylmercury levels in wetland ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corrales, J.; Naja, G.M.; Dziuba, C.; Rivero, R.G.; Orem, W.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate contamination has a significant environmental implication through the stimulation of toxic hydrogen sulfide and methylmercury (MeHg) production. High levels of MeHg are a serious problem in many wetland ecosystems worldwide. In the Florida Everglades, it has been demonstrated that increasing MeHg occurrence is due to a sulfate contamination problem. A promising strategy of lowering the MeHg occurrence is to reduce the amount of sulfate entering the ecosystem. High surface water sulfate concentrations in the Everglades are mainly due to discharges from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) canals. Water and total sulfur mass balances indicated that total sulfur released by soil oxidation, Lake Okeechobee and agricultural application were the major sources contributing 49,169, 35,217 and 11,775mtonsyear-1, respectively. Total sulfur loads from groundwater, levees, and atmospheric deposition contributed to a lesser extent: 4055; 5858 and 4229mtonsyear-1, respectively. Total sulfur leaving the EAA into Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) through canal discharge was estimated at 116,360mtonsyear-1, and total sulfur removed by sugarcane harvest accounted for 23,182mtonsyear-1. Furthermore, a rise in the mineral content and pH of the EAA soil over time, suggested that the current rates of sulfur application would increase as the buffer capacity of the soil increases. Therefore, a site specific numeric criterion for sulfate of 1mgL-1 was recommended for the protection of the Everglades; above this level, mercury methylation is enhanced. In parallel, sulfide concentrations in the EAA exceeded the 2??gL-1 criterion for surface water already established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level.

    PubMed

    Skjerve, E; Lium, B; Nielsen, B; Nesbakken, T

    1998-12-22

    A higher herd prevalence of antibodies (ELISA) to Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 was found in conventional slaughter production (86.0% seropositive herds) than in conventional farrow-to-finish herds (53.1% seropositive herds). The herd prevalence of antibodies to Y. enterocolitica in multiplying herds (56.1%) was similar to the level in the conventional farrow-to-finish herds. An epidemiological study in conventional pig herds demonstrated that farrow-to-finish production (odds ratio, OR = 0.15) was an important protective factor. Using under-pressure ventilation (OR = 0.33) and manual feeding of slaughter pigs (OR = 0.44) also lowered the herd prevalence. The most expressed risk factor was using an own farm vehicle for transport of slaughter pigs to abattoirs (OR = 12.92). Separation between clean and unclean section in herds (OR = 2.67), daily observations of a cat with kittens on the farm (OR = 2.41) and using straw bedding for slaughter pigs (OR = 2.25) were other factors that increased the risk. In conclusion, the epidemiological data suggest that it is possible to reduce the herd prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 by minimising contact between infected herds and non-infected herds. Further, attempts to reduce the prevalence at the top levels of the breeding pyramids may be beneficial for the industry as a whole. The meat industry may use serological tests as a tool to lower the prevalence in the pig population by limiting the contact between seropositive and seronegative herds. However, because of the high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in pig herds, a strict slaughter hygiene will remain an important means to reduce carcass contamination with Y. enterocolitica O:3 as well as other pathogenic micro-organisms. PMID:9926996

  8. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  9. Relationship between progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration with outcomes of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Hajishafiha, Mahsomeh; Shahbazi, Zahra; Pakniyat, AbdolGhader; Oshnouei, Sima; Kiarang, Nazila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or antagonists are used in assisted reproductive technique cycles as premature luteinizing hormone secretion inhibition. Studies have been reported different and contradictory results on the serum progesterone effect on intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of serum progesterone level on the day of Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration on the intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome in infertile women. Materials and Methods: 249 infertile couples candidated for ICSI were enrolled in the study. Their serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration was measured and according to serum level, patients were divided into four groups of less than 0.9, 0.9-1.4, 1.5-1.9, and ≥2 ng/mL. The four groups were compared with each other regarding fertility outcomes. Results: Pregnancy rate was not significantly different among the four groups (p>0.05). Also, there was no significant difference among the groups regarding frequency of abortion and ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration does not have any significant effect on pregnancy outcomes, including abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing ICSI treatment. PMID:26494986

  10. Morphine and Codeine in Oral Fluid after Controlled Poppy Seed Administration

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programs. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only 2 addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3.1mg codeine, 8h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (1μg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n=459) were collected before and up to 32h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13h at Draeger 20μg/L morphine cutoff. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax) were 177 and 32.6μg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax) of 0.5-1h and 0.5-2.5h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24h for morphine and to 18h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1h with 40μg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cutoff, and 0.5h with 95μg/L cutoff, recently recommended by the Driving Under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1h after ingestion of 15.7mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending upon the cutoff employed. PMID:25345619

  11. Administration of Triclabendazole Is Safe and Effective in Controlling Fascioliasis in an Endemic Community of the Bolivian Altiplano

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Fidel; Angles, René; Barrientos, René; Barrios, Gary; Valero, María Adela; Hamed, Kamal; Grueninger, Heiner; Ault, Steven K.; Montresor, Antonio; Engels, Dirk; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background The Bolivian northern Altiplano is characterized by a high prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection. In order to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of large-scale administration of triclabendazole as an appropriate public health measure to control morbidity associated with fascioliasis, a pilot intervention was implemented in 2008. Materials and Methods Schoolchildren from an endemic community were screened for fascioliasis and treated with a single administration of triclabendazole (10 mg/kg). Interviews to assess the occurrence of adverse events were conducted on treatment day, one week later, and one month after treatment. Further parasitological screenings were performed three months after treatment and again two months later (following a further treatment) in order to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Results Ninety infected children were administered triclabendazole. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. No serious adverse events were reported. Observed cure rates were 77.8% after one treatment and 97.8% after two treatments, while egg reduction rates ranged between 74% and 90.3% after one treatment, and between 84.2% and 99.9% after two treatments. The proportion of high-intensity infections (≥400 epg) decreased from 7.8% to 1.1% after one treatment and to 0% after two treatments. Conclusion Administration of triclabendazole is a feasible, safe and efficacious public health intervention in an endemic community in the Bolivian Altiplano, suggesting that preventive chemotherapy can be applied to control of fascioliasis. Further investigations are needed to define the most appropriate frequency of treatment. PMID:22880138

  12. Multidimensional complexities of filariasis control in an era of large-scale mass drug administration programmes: a can of worms.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Hopkins, Adrian; Bradley, Mark H; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of control and elimination programmes by mass drug administration (MDA) targeting onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades has resulted in significantly reduced prevalence and intensity of infection, with some areas interrupting transmission. However, given that these infections are often co-endemic and the drugs (either ivermectin alone or combined with albendazole) also impact on soil transmitted helminths (STH), the importance of this, in terms of reaching the global goals has not been assessed. The additional problem posed by Loa loa, where ivermectin cannot be safely administered due to the risk of serious adverse events compounds this situation and has left populations drug naïve and an alternative strategy to eliminate LF is yet to be initiated at scale. Here, we present a series of operational research questions, which must be addressed if the effectiveness of integrated control of filarial and helminth infections is to be understood for the endgame. This is particularly important in the diverse and dynamic epidemiological landscape, which has emerged as a result of the long-term large-scale mass drug administration (or not). There is a need for a more holistic approach to address these questions. Different programmes should examine this increased complexity, given that MDA has multiple impacts, drugs are given over different periods, and programmes have different individual targets. PMID:25128408

  13. Use of a computer-assisted administrative control to enhance criticality safety in LLNL for fissile material disposition operations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Song T.; Lappa, D.A.; Chiao, Tang

    1997-04-01

    This paper deals primarily with the use of a two-person rule on the mass limit control. Main emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of a computer program to assist operators in carrying out mass control. An attempt will be exercised to compare the use of a mass control card system under a two-person rule with a computer-assist two-person system. The interface points relevant to criticality safety between computer and human operators will be identified. Features that will make a computer program useful in a multiple workstation application environment will be discussed along with the merits of the using the computer program. How such a computer-assist administrative control may be incorporated in the overall infrastructure for criticality safety will be analyzed. Suggestion of future development of using a computer program to enhance safety margin will also be made to stimulate further discussion on the application of computer technology for real-time criticality safety control.

  14. Relationship between Intracellular Magnesium Level, Lung Function, and Level of Asthma Control in Children with Chronic Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    SEIN, Htwe Htwe; Whye Lian, CHEAH; Juan Loong, KOK; SL NG, Josephine; RAHARDJAI, Andy; SULTAN, Mohamed Ameenudeen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the intracellular (red blood cell (RBC)) magnesium levels in children with chronic bronchial asthma and to determine the relationship between the magnesium level and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), type of asthma treatment, and level of asthma control. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Paediatric Clinic, Sarawak General Hospital. A total of 100 children, aged 6–12 years with chronic bronchial asthma, were recruited according to the study criteria. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure the intracellular (RBC) magnesium level using the GBC Avanta Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: Mean age was 8.57 (SD 1.18) years, and 63% of the participants were male. Mean duration of asthma was 62.2 (SD 32.3) months. A normal intracellular magnesium level was found in 95% of the participants, with a mean of 2.27 (SD 0.33) mmol/L. Two-thirds of the participants had a normal peak flow expiratory rate (> 80% of predicted value). About 85% were using both reliever and controller. Almost half of the participants (49%) had chronic asthma that was well-controlled. No significant relationship was found between magnesium level and age (r = –0.089, P = 0.379), gender (t = 0.64, P = 0.52), duration of asthma (r = –0.03, P = 0.74), PEFR (t = 0.41, P = 0.68), current level of asthma control (t = 0.02, P = 0.97), and current treatment (t = 0.414, P = 0.680). Conclusion: There was no significant intracellular magnesium deficiency in children with chronic bronchial asthma. There was no significant relationship between therapeutic medications used for treatment of children with chronic asthma and intracellular magnesium levels. PMID:25977631

  15. Systemic Administration of Glibenclamide Fails to Achieve Therapeutic Levels in the Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lahmann, Carolina; Kramer, Holger B.; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel cause neonatal diabetes (ND). Patients with severe mutations also suffer from neurological complications. Glibenclamide blocks the open KATP channels and is the treatment of choice for ND. However, although glibenclamide successfully restores normoglycaemia, it has a far more limited effect on the neurological problems. To assess the extent to which glibenclamide crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, we quantified glibenclamide concentrations in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue of rats, control mice, and mice expressing a human neonatal diabetes mutation (Kir6.2-V59M) selectively in neurones (nV59M mice). As only small sample volumes can be obtained from rodents, we developed a highly sensitive method of analysis, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry acquisition with pseudo-selected reaction monitoring, achieving a quantification limit of 10ng/ml (20nM) glibenclamide in a 30μl sample. Glibenclamide was not detectable in the CSF or brain of rats after implantation with subcutaneous glibenclamide pellets, despite high plasma concentrations. Further, one hour after a suprapharmacological glibenclamide dose was administered directly into the lateral ventricle of the brain, the plasma concentration was twice that of the CSF. This suggests the drug is rapidly exported from the CSF. Elacridar, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (major multidrug resistance transporters at the BBB), did not affect glibenclamide levels in CSF and brain tissue. We also identified a reduced sensitivity to volatile anaesthetics in nV59M mice and showed this was not reversed by systemic delivery of glibenclamide. Our results therefore suggest that little glibenclamide reaches the central nervous system when given systemically, that glibenclamide is rapidly removed across the BBB when given intracranioventricularly, and that any

  16. Morphine and codeine in oral fluid after controlled poppy seed administration.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-07-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programmes. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only two addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45 g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3.1 mg codeine, 8 h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (1 µg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n = 459) were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5 h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13 h at Draeger 20 µg/L morphine cut-off. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax ) were 177 and 32.6 µg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax ) of 0.5-1 h and 0.5-2.5 h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24 h for morphine and to 18 h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1 h with 40 µg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off, and 0.5 h with 95 µg/L cut-off, recently recommended by the Driving under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1 h after ingestion of 15.7 mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending on the cut-off employed. PMID:25345619

  17. Morphine and codeine in oral fluid after controlled poppy seed administration.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-07-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programmes. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only two addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45 g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3.1 mg codeine, 8 h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (1 µg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n = 459) were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5 h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13 h at Draeger 20 µg/L morphine cut-off. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax ) were 177 and 32.6 µg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax ) of 0.5-1 h and 0.5-2.5 h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24 h for morphine and to 18 h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1 h with 40 µg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off, and 0.5 h with 95 µg/L cut-off, recently recommended by the Driving under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1 h after ingestion of 15.7 mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending on the cut-off employed.

  18. Derived Intervention Levels for Tritium Based on Food and Drug Administration Methodology Using ICRP 56 Dose Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A

    1999-06-09

    In 1998, the FDA released its recommendations for age-dependent derived intervention levels for several radionuclides involved in nuclear accidents. One radionuclide that is not included in that document is tritium. Therefore an analysis is presented here using dose coefficients from ICRP 56 to develop Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) for tritium in two forms: water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT).

  19. An evaluation of the effects of acute and chronic L-tyrosine administration on BDNF levels and BDNF mRNA expression in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-04-01

    Tyrosinemia type II, which is also known as Richner-Hanhart syndrome, is an inborn error of metabolism that is due to a block in the transamination reaction that converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Because the mechanisms of neurological dysfunction in hypertyrosinemic patients are poorly known and the symptoms of these patients are related to the central nervous system, the present study evaluated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and bdnf mRNA expression in young rats and during growth. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed 1 h after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old), and the rats were killed 12 h after the last injection. The brains were rapidly removed, and we evaluated the BDNF levels and bdnf mRNA expression. The present results showed that the acute administration of L-tyrosine decreased both BDNF and bdnf mRNA levels in the striatum of 10-day-old rats. In the 30-day-old rats, we observed decreased BDNF levels without modifications in bdnf transcript level in the hippocampus and striatum. Chronic administration of L-tyrosine increased the BDNF levels in the striatum of rats during their growth, whereas bdnf mRNA expression was not altered. We hypothesize that oxidative stress can interact with the BDNF system to modulate synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. The present results enhance our knowledge of the pathophysiology of hypertyrosinemia. PMID:24091827

  20. An evaluation of the effects of acute and chronic L-tyrosine administration on BDNF levels and BDNF mRNA expression in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-04-01

    Tyrosinemia type II, which is also known as Richner-Hanhart syndrome, is an inborn error of metabolism that is due to a block in the transamination reaction that converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Because the mechanisms of neurological dysfunction in hypertyrosinemic patients are poorly known and the symptoms of these patients are related to the central nervous system, the present study evaluated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and bdnf mRNA expression in young rats and during growth. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed 1 h after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old), and the rats were killed 12 h after the last injection. The brains were rapidly removed, and we evaluated the BDNF levels and bdnf mRNA expression. The present results showed that the acute administration of L-tyrosine decreased both BDNF and bdnf mRNA levels in the striatum of 10-day-old rats. In the 30-day-old rats, we observed decreased BDNF levels without modifications in bdnf transcript level in the hippocampus and striatum. Chronic administration of L-tyrosine increased the BDNF levels in the striatum of rats during their growth, whereas bdnf mRNA expression was not altered. We hypothesize that oxidative stress can interact with the BDNF system to modulate synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. The present results enhance our knowledge of the pathophysiology of hypertyrosinemia.

  1. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug..., Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, rm. 4613, Silver Spring, MD...

  2. IPTAKALIM ATTENUATES SELF-ADMINISTRATION AND ACQUIRED GOAL-TRACKING BEHAVIOR CONTROLLED BY NICOTINE

    PubMed Central

    Charntikov, S.; Swalve, N.; Pittenger, S.; Fink, K.; Schepers, S.; Hadlock, G. C.; Fleckenstein, A. E.; Hu, G.; Li, M.; Bevins, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Iptakalim is an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, as well as an α4β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist. Pretreatment with iptakalim diminishes nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens. This neuropharmacological profile suggests that iptakalim may be useful for treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, we examined the effects of iptakalim in two preclinical models. First, the impact of iptakalim on the interoceptive stimulus effect of nicotine was evaluated by training rats in a discriminated goal-tracking task that included intermixed nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) and saline sessions. Sucrose was intermittently presented in a response-independent manner only on nicotine sessions. On intervening test days, rats were pretreated with iptakalim (10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IP). Results revealed that iptakalim attenuated nicotine-evoked responding controlled by the nicotine stimulus in a dose-dependent manner. In a separate study, the impact of iptakalim on the reinforcing effects of nicotine was investigated by training rats to lever-press to self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion). Results revealed that pretreatment with iptakalim (1, 3, 6 mg/kg, IV) decreased nicotine intake (i.e., less active lever responding). Neither behavioral effect was due to a non-specific motor effect of iptakalim, nor to an ability of iptakalim to inhibit DA transporter (DAT) or serotonin transporter (SERT) function. Together, these finding support the notion that iptakalim may be an effective pharmacotherapy for increasing smoking cessation and better understanding its action could contribute medication development. PMID:23916479

  3. Iptakalim attenuates self-administration and acquired goal-tracking behavior controlled by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Charntikov, S; Swalve, N; Pittenger, S; Fink, K; Schepers, S; Hadlock, G C; Fleckenstein, A E; Hu, G; Li, M; Bevins, R A

    2013-12-01

    Iptakalim is an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, as well as an α4β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist. Pretreatment with iptakalim diminishes nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens. This neuropharmacological profile suggests that iptakalim may be useful for treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, we examined the effects of iptakalim in two preclinical models. First, the impact of iptakalim on the interoceptive stimulus effect of nicotine was evaluated by training rats in a discriminated goal-tracking task that included intermixed nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) and saline sessions. Sucrose was intermittently presented in a response-independent manner only on nicotine sessions. On intervening test days, rats were pretreated with iptakalim (10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IP). Results revealed that iptakalim attenuated nicotine-evoked responding controlled by the nicotine stimulus in a dose-dependent manner. In a separate study, the impact of iptakalim on the reinforcing effects of nicotine was investigated by training rats to lever-press to self-administer nicotine (0.01 mg/kg/infusion) [Dosage error corrected]. Results revealed that pretreatment with iptakalim (1, 3, 6 mg/kg, IV) decreased nicotine intake (i.e., less active lever responding). Neither behavioral effect was due to a non-specific motor effect of iptakalim, nor to an ability of iptakalim to inhibit DA transporter (DAT) or serotonin transporter (SERT) function. Together, these finding support the notion that iptakalim may be an effective pharmacotherapy for increasing smoking cessation and a better understanding of its action could contribute to medication development.

  4. Administration of vaccinia virus complement control protein shows significant cognitive improvement in a mild injury model.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Kellaway, Laurie A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that traumatic mild brain injury in a rat model is accompanied by breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the accumulation of inflammatory cells. A therapeutic agent, vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), inhibits both the classic and the alternative pathways of the complement system and, in so doing, prevents cell death and inflammation. With the use of a rat mild injury model, the effects of VCP on spatial learning and memory were tested. Training in a Morris water maze consisted of a total of 16 trials over a 2-day period before rats were anesthetized and subjected to mild (1.0-1.1 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) 3.0 mm lateral to the sagittal suture and 4.5 mm posterior to bregma. Ten microl of VCP (1.7 mg/ml) was injected into the injury site immediately after FPI. Two weeks post-FPI the rats were assessed in the Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. Neurologic motor function tests were carried out after FPI for 14 consecutive days and again after 28 days. The Morris water maze data show that FPI plus saline-injected rats spent a significantly (P <0.05) larger amount of time in one of the incorrect quadrants than did the FPI plus VCP-injected group. Neurologic evaluations 24 hours postinjury revealed differences in sensorimotor function between groups. The results suggest that in a mild injury model, VCP influences neurologic outcome and offers some enhancement in spatial memory and learning.

  5. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics following Controlled Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Oromucosal Cannabis Extract Administration

    PubMed Central

    Karschner, Erin L.; Darwin, W. David; Goodwin, Robert S.; Wright, Stephen; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sativex®, a cannabis extract oromucosal spray containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is currently in phase III trials as an adjunct to opioids for cancer pain treatment, and recently received United Kingdom approval for treatment of spasticity. There are indications that CBD modulates THC’s effects, but it is unclear if this is due to a pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction. METHODS Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board–approved study. Participants received 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low-dose (5.4 mg THC and 5.0 mg CBD) and high-dose (16.2 mg THC and 15.0 mg CBD) Sativex, and placebo over 5 sessions. CBD, THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in plasma by 2-dimensional GC-MS. Lower limits of quantification were ≤0.25 μg/L. RESULTS Nine cannabis smokers completed all 5 dosing sessions. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) and areas under the curve from 0–10.5 h postdose (AUC0→10.5) for all analytes were found between low and high doses of synthetic THC and Sativex. There were no statistically significant differences in Cmax, time to maximum concentration or in the AUC0→10.5 between similar oral THC and Sativex doses. Relative bioavailability was calculated to determine the relative rate and extent of THC absorption; 5 and 15 mg oral THC bioavailability was 92.6% (13.1%) and 98.8% (11.0%) of low- and high-dose Sativex, respectively. CONCLUSION These data suggest that CBD modulation of THC’s effects is not due to a pharmacokinetic interaction at these therapeutic doses. PMID:21078841

  6. Object-based task-level control: A hierarchical control architecture for remote operation of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, H. D.; Miles, E. S.; Rock, S. J.; Cannon, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Expanding man's presence in space requires capable, dexterous robots capable of being controlled from the Earth. Traditional 'hand-in-glove' control paradigms require the human operator to directly control virtually every aspect of the robot's operation. While the human provides excellent judgment and perception, human interaction is limited by low bandwidth, delayed communications. These delays make 'hand-in-glove' operation from Earth impractical. In order to alleviate many of the problems inherent to remote operation, Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed the Object-Based Task-Level Control architecture. Object-Based Task-Level Control (OBTLC) removes the burden of teleoperation from the human operator and enables execution of tasks not possible with current techniques. OBTLC is a hierarchical approach to control where the human operator is able to specify high-level, object-related tasks through an intuitive graphical user interface. Infrequent task-level command replace constant joystick operations, eliminating communications bandwidth and time delay problems. The details of robot control and task execution are handled entirely by the robot and computer control system. The ARL has implemented the OBTLC architecture on a set of Free-Flying Space Robots. The capability of the OBTLC architecture has been demonstrated by controlling the ARL Free-Flying Space Robots from NASA Ames Research Center.

  7. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Rotunda, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  8. Oral administration of D-alanine in monkeys robustly increases plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels but experimental D-amino acid oxidase inhibitors had minimal effect.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Camilo; Alt, Jesse; Ator, Nancy A; Wilmoth, Heather; Rais, Rana; Hin, Niyada; DeVivo, Michael; Popiolek, Michael; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-09-01

    Hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is thought to exacerbate psychosis in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Consistent with this hypothesis, D-alanine, a co-agonist at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor, was shown to improve positive and cognitive symptoms when used as add-on therapy for schizophrenia treatment. However, D-alanine had to be administered at high doses (~7 g) to observe clinical effects. One possible reason for the high dose is that D-alanine could be undergoing oxidation by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) before it reaches the brain. If this is the case, the dose could be reduced by co-administration of D-alanine with a DAAO inhibitor (DAAOi). Early studies with rodents showed that co-administration of D-alanine with 5-chloro-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol (CBIO), a prototype DAAOi, significantly enhanced the levels of extracellular D-alanine in the frontal cortex compared with D-alanine alone. Further, the use of CBIO reduced the dose of D-alanine needed to attenuate prepulse inhibition deficits induced by dizocilpine. The objective of the work reported herein was to confirm the hypothesis that DAAO inhibition can enhance D-alanine exposure in a species closer to humans: non-human primates. We report that while oral D-alanine administration to baboons (10 mg/kg) enhanced D-alanine plasma and CSF levels over 20-fold versus endogenous levels, addition of experimental DAAOi to the regimen exhibited a 2.2-fold enhancement in plasma and no measurable effect on CSF levels. The results provide caution regarding the utility of DAAO inhibition to increase D-amino acid levels as treatment for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27287825

  9. Effects of intravenous benzo[a]pyrene dose administration on levels of exposure biomarkers, DNA adducts, and gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Marjory; Ouellet, Nathalie; Ayotte, Pierre; Bouchard, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) administration on biomarkers of exposure and early effects were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats intravenously injected with doses of 0.4, 4, 10, or 40 μmol BaP/kg . Blood, tissues, and excreta were collected 8 and 24 h posttreatment. BaP and several of its metabolites were simultaneously measured in blood, tissues and excreta by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)/fluorescence. DNA adducts of BaP diol epoxide (BaPDE) in lungs were quantified using an ultrasensitive immunoassay with chemiluminescence detection. Expression of selected genes in lungs of treated rats (lung RNA) compared to control rats was also assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was a dose-dependent increase in blood, tissue, and excreted levels of BaP metabolites. At 8 and 24 h postinjection, BaP and hydroxyBaP were found in higher concentrations in blood and tissues compared to other analytes. However, diolBaP were excreted in greater amounts in urine and apparently more rapidly than hydroxyBaP. Mean percentages (± SD) of injected dose excreted in urine as 4,5-diolBaP during the 0-8 h and 0-24 h period posttreatment were 0.16 ± 0.027% and 0.14 ± 0.083%, respectively. Corresponding values for 3-OHBaP were 0.0045 ± 0.0009% and 0.026 ± 0.014%. BaP-diones were not detectable in blood, tissues, and excreta; 7,8-diolBaP and BaPtetrol were found to be minor metabolites. There was also a dose-dependent increase in DNA adduct formation in lung. Analysis of gene expression further showed a modulation of Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, Nqo1, Nrf2, Fos, and Ahr expression at 10- and 40-μmol/kg doses, but not at the lower doses. This study provided a better assessment of the influence of absorbed BaP doses on biological levels of diolBaP and OHBaP exposure biomarkers and association of the latter with early biological alterations, such as DNA adducts and gene expression. PMID:25506633

  10. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  11. Hierarchical Control Using Networks Trained with Higher-Level Forward Models

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Greg; Abbott, L.F.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and develop a hierarchical approach to network control of complex tasks. In this approach, a low-level controller directs the activity of a “plant,” the system that performs the task. However, the low-level controller may only be able to solve fairly simple problems involving the plant. To accomplish more complex tasks, we introduce a higher-level controller that controls the lower-level controller. We use this system to direct an articulated truck to a specified location through an environment filled with static or moving obstacles. The final system consists of networks that have memorized associations between the sensory data they receive and the commands they issue. These networks are trained on a set of optimal associations that are generated by minimizing cost functions. Cost function minimization requires predicting the consequences of sequences of commands, which is achieved by constructing forward models, including a model of the lower-level controller. The forward models and cost minimization are only used during training, allowing the trained networks to respond rapidly. In general, the hierarchical approach can be extended to larger numbers of levels, dividing complex tasks into more manageable sub-tasks. The optimization procedure and the construction of the forward models and controllers can be performed in similar ways at each level of the hierarchy, which allows the system to be modified to perform other tasks, or to be extended for more complex tasks without retraining lower-levels. PMID:25058706

  12. Classical and modern control strategies for the deployment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.

    Formation flying consists of multiple spacecraft orbiting in a required configuration about a planet or through Space. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation is one of the proposed constellations to be launched in the year 2009 and provides the motivation for this investigation. The problem that will be researched here consists of three stages. The first stage contains the deployment of the satellites; the second stage is the reconfiguration process to transfer the satellites through different specific sizes of the NASA benchmark problem; and, the third stage is the station-keeping procedure for the tetrahedron constellation. Every stage contains different control schemes and transfer procedures to obtain/maintain the proposed tetrahedron constellation. In the first stage, the deployment procedure will depend on a combination of two techniques in which impulsive maneuvers and a digital controller are used to deploy the satellites and to maintain the tetrahedron constellation at the following apogee point. The second stage that corresponds to the reconfiguration procedure shows a different control scheme in which the intelligent control systems are implemented to perform this procedure. In this research work, intelligent systems will eliminate the use of complex mathematical models and will reduce the computational time to perform different maneuvers. Finally, the station-keeping process, which is the third stage of this research problem, will be implemented with a two-level hierarchical control scheme to maintain the separation distance constraints of the NASA Benchmark Tetrahedron Constellation. For this station-keeping procedure, the system of equations defining the dynamics of a pair of satellites is transformed to take in account the perturbation due to the oblateness of the Earth and the disturbances due to solar pressure. The control procedures used in this research will be transformed from a continuous

  13. Effect of mirabegron on plasma gonadotropic and steroidal hormone levels in rats after two weeks of oral administration.

    PubMed

    Yuno, Koichiro; Onishi, Yuko; Arima, Akihiro; Zaizen, Kinuko; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Soichi; Schneidkraut, Marlowe J; Miyamae, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    The effects of mirabegron on plasma gonadotropic and steroidal hormone levels in rats were investigated, when administered orally once daily for two weeks to male and female rats at doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day, in order to elucidate a potential mechanism for findings in the reproductive system observed in toxicity studies in rats. Significantly decreased body weight gain and food consumption were observed in males and females at 100 mg/kg/day on Days 1 to 4 of dosing. A significantly prolonged estrous interval was observed in females at 100 mg/kg/day and increased liver weights were noted in females at 30 mg/kg/day or greater. No histopathological changes were observed in the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, liver, testes, epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicle, ovaries, uterus, or vagina at any dose. In males, no treatment-related changes in levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were observed at any dose. Corticosterone levels in males increased in a dose-dependent manner at 30 mg/kg/day or greater. In females, no treatment-related changes in levels of LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, progesterone, or corticosterone were observed at any dose in any stage of the estrous cycle. Taken together, these results suggest that mirabegron has no effect on gonadotropic or sex steroidal hormone levels in either sex at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. In contrast, adrenocortical hormone levels were increased in males at mirabegron doses of 30 mg/kg/day or greater. PMID:24849685

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Cocaine and Metabolites in Human Oral Fluid and Correlation with Plasma Concentrations following Controlled Administration

    PubMed Central

    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Kolbrich Spargo, Erin A.; Kelly, Tamsin L.; Cone, Edward J.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral fluid is an attractive alternative matrix for drug testing, with a non-invasive and directly observed collection, but there are few controlled cocaine administration studies to guide interpretation. Materials and Methods While residing on a closed research unit for up to 10 weeks under constant medical supervision, 19 participants were administered 75 mg/70 kg subcutaneous cocaine and 14 received 150mg/70 kg. The disposition of cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME) into oral fluid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 0.08–48h after administration. Results In oral fluid collected by citric acid candy stimulated expectoration, cocaine first appeared in oral fluid 0.08–0.32h after dosing and was rapidly eliminated with half-lives of 1.1–3.8h. BE and EME were first detected 0.08–1.0h after dosing, with longer half-lives of 3.4–13.8 (BE) and 2.4–15.5h (EME) (p<0.05). Oral fluid and plasma concentrations were significantly correlated for cocaine, BE and EME (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in first and last detection times with the 8 μg/L cutoff proposed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration or the 10 μg/L cutoff from the European initiative, Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines. Metabolite:cocaine ratios increased after cocaine administration, potentially helpful for interpreting time of last use. Comparison of oral fluid collection via citric acid candy stimulated expectoration, citric acid treated Salivette® and neutral cotton Salivette® devices did not reveal significant differences between devices for areas under the curve for cocaine, BE or EME (p>0.05). Discussion and Conclusion These results provide additional evidence for interpreting cocaine and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid and oral fluid’s usefulness as an alternative matrix for drug testing. PMID:20814350

  15. Chiral Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its Phase I and II Metabolites following Controlled Administration to Humans.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Schmidhauser, Corina; Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Liechti, Matthias E; Kraemer, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Generally, pharmacokinetic studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in blood have been performed after conjugate cleavage, without taking into account that phase II metabolites represent distinct chemical entities with their own effects and stereoselective pharmacokinetics. The aim of the present study was to stereoselectively investigate the pharmacokinetics of intact glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of MDMA in blood plasma after a controlled single MDMA dose. Plasma samples from 16 healthy participants receiving 125 mg of MDMA orally in a controlled study were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy after chiral derivatization. Pharmacokinetic parameters of R- and S-stereoisomers were determined. Sulfates of 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA), and sulfate and glucuronide of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) were identified, whereas free phase I metabolites were not detected. Stereoselective differences in Cmax and AUC24 were observed with the following preferences: R>S for MDMA and DHMA 4-sulfate; S>R for 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), DHMA 3-sulfate, and HMMA glucuronide; and no preference in Cmax for HMMA sulfate. R/S ratios were >1 for all analytes after 24 hours, independent of the initial chiral preference. These are the first data on chiral pharmacokinetics of MDMA phase II metabolites in human plasma in vivo after controlled administration. The main human MDMA metabolites were shown to be sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. PMID:26395866

  16. The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on tissue and blood levels of benzene metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, R F; Sabourin, P J; Bechtold, W E; Griffith, W C; Medinsky, M A; Birnbaum, L S; Lucier, G W

    1989-01-01

    Studies were completed in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to determine the effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and rodent species on formation of total and individual benzene metabolites. Oral doses of 50 mg/kg or higher saturated the capacity for benzene metabolism in both rats and mice, resulting in an increased proportion of the administered dose being exhaled as benzene. The saturating air concentration for benzene metabolism during 6-hr exposures was between 130 and 900 ppm. At the highest exposure concentration, rats exhaled approximately half of the internal dose retained at the end of the 6-hr exposure as benzene; mice exhaled only 15% as benzene. Mice were able to convert more of the inhaled benzene to metabolites than were rats. In addition, mice metabolized more of the benzene by pathways leading to the putative toxic metabolites, benzoquinone and muconaldehyde, than did rats. In both rats and mice, the effect of increasing dose, administered orally or by inhalation, was to increase the proportion of the total metabolites that were the products of detoxification pathways relative to the products of pathways leading to putative toxic metabolites. This indicates low-affinity, high-capacity pathways for detoxification and high-affinity, low-capacity pathways leading to putative toxic metabolites. If the results of rodent studies performed at high doses were used to assess the health risk at low-dose exposures to benzene, the toxicity of benzene would be underestimated. PMID:2792053

  17. The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available. PMID:22022632

  18. Effect of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids Administration on Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood. Studies have indicated nutritional deficiencies, particularly Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) deficiency in these children and have suggested supplementation with PUFA for clinical improvement. Aim The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of PUFA administration in Indian children with ADHD. Settings and Design The study was conducted in the paediatrics and psychiatry departments of a tertiary care hospital. We conducted a prospective double blind randomized control trial on children aged 4-11 years, diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV TR criterias and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and lifetime version. Materials and Methods The study subjects were randomized into study and control groups. The control group was administered Atomoxetine, while the study group received Atomoxetine along with Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Both groups were followed up every 2 weeks over the next 4 months using Conner’s Parent Rating Scale - Revised (CPRS-R). Statistical Analysis The data was carefully analysed by SPSS (17th version) software with the help of a statistician. Confidence interval of 95% was used. The complete data was analysed using appropriate parametric and non parametric tests. Correlation was done between various socio-demographic and illness related parameters. For all analyses, probability of 5% or less was assumed to represent statistical significance. Results Fifty children diagnosed with ADHD were randomized to study group (n=25) and control group (n=25). The study group had greater reduction in ADHD scores as compared to the control group, although not statistically significant (p = 0.08). Improvement was more significant in male study subjects with combined type of ADHD. Conclusion It may be concluded that PUFA supplementation improves the symptoms of ADHD. However, the effect is not

  19. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  20. How an 8 path chordal ultrasonic flowmeter solves steam generator and reactor water level control problems

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada, H.; Hauser, E.

    2006-07-01

    The application of a chordal ultrasonic transit time flowmeter to reactor and steam generator water level control is described. Analyses show that the extremely high turndown of the ultrasonic instrument, when coupled with a linear steam demand signal, leads to water level control system performance far superior to that achieved with conventional flow instruments, particularly at very low power. The proposed control system is readily justified by reduced startup times, avoidance of reactor trips (scrams), and reduced feedwater pumping power requirements. (authors)

  1. Vasopressin, but not oxytocin, increases empathic concern among individuals who received higher levels of paternal warmth: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Benjamin A.; Meyer, Meghan L.; Castle, Elizabeth; Dutcher, Janine M.; Irwin, Michael R.; Han, Jung H.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy improves our ability to communicate in social interactions and motivates prosocial behavior. The neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and oxytocin play key roles in socioemotional processes such as pair bonding and parental care, which suggests that they may be involved in empathic processing. Methods We investigated how vasopressin and oxytocin affect empathic responding in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects study design. We also examined the moderating role of parental warmth, as reported in the early family environment, on empathic responding following vasopressin, oxytocin, or placebo administration. Results Among participants who reported higher levels of paternal warmth (but not maternal warmth), vasopressin (vs. placebo and oxytocin) increased ratings of empathic concern after viewing distressing and uplifting videos. No main or interaction effects were found for individuals who received oxytocin. Conclusions Vasopressin has a role in enhancing empathy among individuals who received higher levels of paternal warmth. Trial registration NCT01680718 PMID:25462898

  2. Plasma cinnarizine levels resulting from oral administration as capsule or tablet formulation investigated by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, P J; Bradbrook, I D; Rogers, H J

    1979-01-01

    1 A gas chromatographic assay for the estimation of therapeutic concentrations of cinnarizine in plasma is described. 2 Cinnarizine (75 mg) was administered orally to twelve healthy subjects in the form of capsules and tablets on two separate occasions. No difference was found in the plasma levels or absorption of cinnarizine from these formulations. 3 The mean plasma elimination half-life of cinnarizine was 3.24 h. PMID:444354

  3. Serum GDF-8 levels change dynamically during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in patients undergoing IVF/ICSI-ET

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8) is found in the human serum, follicular fluid and granulosa cells. Our previous studies have shown that the human cumulus expansion and steroidogenesis can be regulated by GDF-8. However, thus far, the expression profile of GDF-8 in serum and whether the level of serum GDF-8 influences pregnancy results for patients treated with in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) is totally unknown. In this study, we showed that GDF-8 had a dynamic trend during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) procedure. On human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration day, patients with a GDF-8 level higher than 4.7 ng/ml had lower progesterone levels and a higher pregnancy rate. From hCG day to oocyte pick-up day, patients with a GDF-8 decrease greater than 1.3 ng/ml had a higher progesterone increase and a higher pregnancy rate. Importantly, the levels of GDF-8 were negatively correlated with progesterone levels. Our findings provide evidences that GDF-8 plays an important role in ensuring successful pregnancy by regulating progesterone levels. PMID:27329327

  4. Variables Influencing Teacher Autonomy, Administrative Coordination, and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Caleb; Moore, Jana E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Schools often vary in how they balance teacher autonomy (TA) and administrative control, and research suggests that there may be several context-specific variables which may be influential. The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of program variables on the level of TA, administrative coordination, and administration-staff…

  5. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Manufacturers, International and Consumer Assistance, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and...

  6. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Administration (FDA) is correcting a notice that appeared in the Federal Register of April 25, 2011 (76 FR...

  7. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C. S. Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-07-01

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions.

  8. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-07-26

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions.

  9. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions. PMID:27456200

  10. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C. S. Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions. PMID:27456200

  11. Buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia: Axillary brachial plexus block versus intramuscular administration in a placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Deepali; Malde, Anila

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Peripheral administration of opioids has been suggested for prolongation of regional analgesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken to compare the effect of regional (axillary brachial plexus block [ABPB]) versus intramuscular (IM) buprenorphine (2 μg/kg) in adults. Material and Methods: Seventy-five adults undergoing upper limb surgery received ABPB with local anaesthetic (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, 15 ml 2% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:200,000, 9 ml normal saline [NS]). In addition, regional group RB (n = 25) received buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in ABPB and 1 ml NS IM. Systemic Group SB (n = 25) received 1 ml NS in ABPB and buprenorphine 2 μg/kg IM. Group C (n = 25) received 1 ml NS in ABPB and IM. Onset, duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic parameters, sedation score, pain scores using visual analog scale, duration of postoperative analgesia, rescue analgesic (RA) requirement, adverse events, and patient satisfaction were noted. Results: Demographics, onset and duration of sensory, motor block were similar. RB group had longest duration of analgesia (20.61 ± 1.33 h) compared to SB (10.91 ± 0.90 h) and control group (5.86 ± 0.57 h) (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C). RA requirement was highest in the control group and least in RB group (P = 0.000 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C). SB group had a maximum number of side effects (P = 0.041, SB vs. RB/C). Patient satisfaction was highest with group RB (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C, and P = 0.06 SB vs. C). Conclusion: Buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in axillary plexus block provides significantly prolonged analgesia with less RA requirement and greater patient satisfaction compared to IM administration. This is highly suggestive of action on peripheral opioid receptors. PMID:26330716

  12. Vitamin E levels in sheep tissues at various times after a single oral administration of d-alpha-tocopherol acetate.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglou, M

    1987-01-01

    Five groups, each of 5 sheep of 40-45 kg body weight were used. One group acted as control (killed at 0 time, no vitamin E dose) while the other four groups were given a single oral dose of d-alpha-tocopherol acetate (100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24, 48, 72 and 240 h after dosing. Samples of adrenal, adipose, heart, liver, kidney, lung, muscle, pancreas and spleen were taken from all 25 sheep and were analyzed for their vitamin E content. In the control sheep the tocopherol concentration in some tissues such as pancreas and adrenal were substantially higher than in the other tissues. Muscle and adipose tissue contained the lowest tocopherol concentrations among the various tissues. Tissues responded differently to the vitamin E dosing. Liver was characterized by a rapid accumulation of alpha-tocopherol at 24 h followed by a progressive loss. In the adrenal and lung the peak occurred 48 h after vitamin E loading. The variable pattern in tocopherol concentrations in the various sheep tissues following vitamin E dosing was considered a reflection of their different metabolic activities.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for octapeptide analogs of somatostatin: Measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Vaccarella, M.; Horvath, J.; Redding, T.W.; Groot, K.; Orsolini, P.; Schally, A.V. )

    1988-08-01

    The development of a long-acting delivery system for D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Trp-NH{sub 2} (RC-160), an octapeptide analog of somatostatin, required the establishment of a method for determining the concentration of this analog in serum during treatment. A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for RC-160 was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of this peptide from microcapsules of poly(DL-lactide-coglycolide). Antibodies were generated in a rabbit against RC-160 conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. At an antiserum dilution of 1:100,000, the antibodies bound approximately 25% of added radiolabeled RC-160. Somatostatin octapeptide analogs that had a disulfide bridge showed crossreactivity with the antiserum, but analogs without the disulfide bridge and other peptides tested did not crossreact. The minimum detectable dose of RC-160 was 10 pg. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 9.1% to 12.8% and from 14% to 30%, respectively. The RIA was suitable for direct determination of RC-160 in serum. Eleven prototype batches of microcapsules were tested in rats, and the rate of release of the analog from the microcapsules was followed. An improved batch of microcapsules made from RC-160 pamoate maintained high serum levels of RC-160 for more than 30 days after intramuscular injection. The RIA should be of value for monitoring levels of this analog in serum during long-term therapy.

  14. Radioimmunoassay for octapeptide analogs of somatostatin: measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations.

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Garcia, M; Vaccarella, M; Horvath, J; Redding, T W; Groot, K; Orsolini, P; Schally, A V

    1988-01-01

    The development of a long-acting delivery system for D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Trp-NH2 (RC-160), an octapeptide analog of somatostatin, required the establishment of a method for determining the concentration of this analog in serum during treatment. A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for RC-160 was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of this peptide from microcapsules of poly(DL-lactide-coglycolide). Antibodies were generated in a rabbit against RC-160 conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. At an antiserum dilution of 1:100,000, the antibodies bound approximately 25% of added radiolabeled RC-160. Somatostatin octapeptide analogs that had a disulfide bridge showed crossreactivity with the antiserum, but analogs without the disulfide bridge and other peptides tested did not crossreact. The minimum detectable dose of RC-160 was 10 pg. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 9.1% to 12.8% and from 14% to 30%, respectively. The RIA was suitable for direct determination of RC-160 in serum. Eleven prototype batches of microcapsules were tested in rats, and the rate of release of the analog from the microcapsules was followed. An improved batch of microcapsules made from RC-160 pamoate maintained high serum levels of RC-160 for more than 30 days after intramuscular injection. The RIA should be of value for monitoring levels of this analog in serum during long-term therapy. PMID:2899894

  15. Hydromorphone levels and pain control in patients with severe chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Reidenberg, M M; Goodman, H; Erle, H; Gray, G; Lorenzo, B; Leipzig, R M; Meyer, B R; Drayer, D E

    1988-10-01

    To better understand the use of narcotic analgesics, the hydromorphone concentration was measured in serum samples from 43 patients with chronic severe pain who were receiving this drug. At the time of blood sampling, pain intensity, mood, and cognitive performance were assessed. There was large individual variation in the dose-drug level relationship. Seven patients with bone or soft tissue pain and drug levels of greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml had good pain control, whereas 10 did not. None of 15 patients with levels less than 4 ng/ml had pain control, despite drug doses similar to those given patients with higher levels. Thus 60% of the patients without control of their pain had hydromorphone levels below the lowest level that produced pain control. No patient with pain from nerve infiltration or compression had good pain control, irrespective of the drug level or dose. Poor mood correlated with high pain intensity and low drug level. Impaired cognitive performance was not related to drug level. Knowing that there is a low concentration of narcotic in the blood of a patient with chronic severe pain who is receiving high drug doses and who shows lack of both efficacy and side effects may reassure health care professionals that further narcotic dosage escalation is appropriate.

  16. Neurophysiological effects of acute oxytocin administration: systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Wigton, Rebekah; Radua, Jocham; Allen, Paul; Averbeck, Bruno; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) plays a prominent role in social cognition and may have clinical applications for disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety. The neural basis of its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of placebo-controlled imaging studies using OXT as a pharmacological manipulator of brain activity. Results We identified a total of 21 studies for inclusion in our review, and after applying additional selection criteria, 11 of them were included in our fMRI voxel-based meta-analysis. The results demonstrate consistent alterations in activation of brain regions, including the temporal lobes and insula, during the processing of social stimuli, with some variation dependent on sex and task. The meta-analysis revealed significant left insular hyperactivation after OXT administration, suggesting a potential modulation of neural circuits underlying emotional processing. Limitations This quantitative review included only a limited number of studies, thus the conclusions of our analysis should be interpreted cautiously. This limited sample size precluded a more detailed exploration of potential confounding factors, such as sex or other demographic factors, that may have affected our meta-analysis. Conclusion Oxytocin has a wide range of effects over neural activity in response to social and emotional processing, which is further modulated by sex and task specificity. The magnitude of this neural activation is largest in the temporal lobes, and a meta-analysis across all tasks and both sexes showed that the left insula demonstrated the most robust activation to OXT administration. PMID:25520163

  17. Knowledge-based adaptive neural control of drum level in a boiler system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Nishith; Tran, Michael; VanLandingham, Hugh

    1995-11-01

    A boiler system is an integral component of a thermal power plant, and control of the water level in the drum of the boiler system is a critical operational consideration. For the drum level control, a 3-element proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control is a popular conventional approach. This scheme works satisfactorily in the absence of any process disturbances. However, when there are significant process disturbances, the 3-element PID control scheme does not perform well because of lack of knowledge of proper controller gains to cope with such disturbances. Inevitably over time and use, PID controllers get detuned. Hence, there is good motivation to investigate alternatives to this control scheme. Multivariable control of drum boiler systems has been studied by many researchers. However, these approaches assume some process model equations (to a more or less extent) to design a controller. This paper presents a model-free approach in the sense that no plant equations are assumed. Only data is used to gain knowledge about the process, and the performance of the existing PID control scheme is observed. Based on this process knowledge, an intelligent control technique is developed, (artificial) neural network control (NNC). The technique proposed in this paper was tested on a process simulator. This paper shows that an intelligent control scheme such as NNC gives better performance in rejecting process disturbances when compared to 3-element PID control scheme.

  18. Effects of aspartame and carbohydrate administration on human and rat plasma large neutral amino acid levels and rat brain amino acid and monoamine levels.

    PubMed

    Romano, M; Casacci, F; De Marchi, F; Pacei, T; Esteve, A; Lomuscio, G; Mennini, T; Salmona, M

    1989-01-01

    Thirty fasted human volunteers were given 0.83 and 8.3 mg aspartame/kg body weight alone, as part of a basal low carbohydrate meal (648 kcal, 10% carbohydrate) or as part of a high energy carbohydrate-rich meal (1290 kcal, 34% carbohydrate). Amino acid concentrations in plasma were determined before and 30, 60 and 180 min after the consumption of aspartame. Under these conditions, which mimic realistic aspartame consumption, aspartame had no significant effect on plasma concentration of any amino acid. In addition, the effect of aspartame alone or with carbohydrates on plasma and brain amino acid levels was studied in rats after acute or subacute (14 d) oral treatment. In subacute dosing experiments aspartame was included in the diet. Brain monoamine concentrations were also measured in the same animals. Plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids were modified under acute conditions. In contrast, after subacute treatment no significant differences in plasma or brain amino acid concentrations or in brain monoamine concentrations were observed.

  19. Prevalence and Costs of Multimorbidity by Deprivation Levels in the Basque Country: A Population Based Study Using Health Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Orueta, Juan F.; García-Álvarez, Arturo; García-Goñi, Manuel; Paolucci, Francesco; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a major challenge for healthcare systems. However, currently, its magnitude and impact in healthcare expenditures is still mostly unknown. Objective To present an overview of the prevalence and costs of multimorbidity by socioeconomic levels in the whole Basque population. Methods We develop a cross-sectional analysis that includes all the inhabitants of the Basque Country (N = 2,262,698). We utilize data from primary health care electronic medical records, hospital admissions, and outpatient care databases, corresponding to a 4 year period. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases out of a list of 52 of the most important and common chronic conditions given in the literature. We also use socioeconomic and demographic variables such as age, sex, individual healthcare cost, and deprivation level. Predicted adjusted costs were obtained by log-gamma regression models. Results Multimorbidity of chronic diseases was found among 23.61% of the total Basque population and among 66.13% of those older than 65 years. Multimorbid patients account for 63.55% of total healthcare expenditures. Prevalence of multimorbidity is higher in the most deprived areas for all age and sex groups. The annual cost of healthcare per patient generated for any chronic disease depends on the number of coexisting comorbidities, and varies from 637 € for the first pathology in average to 1,657 € for the ninth one. Conclusion Multimorbidity is very common for the Basque population and its prevalence rises in age, and unfavourable socioeconomic environment. The costs of care for chronic patients with several conditions cannot be described as the sum of their individual pathologies in average. They usually increase dramatically according to the number of comorbidities. Given the ageing population, multimorbidity and its consequences should be taken into account in healthcare policy, the organization of care and medical research

  20. Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While many randomised controlled trials have been conducted on multivitamins, to our knowledge no qualitative research exploring the subjective experience of taking a multivitamin during a clinical trial has been reported. Methods Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16), three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers) was employed to ensure methodological rigour. Participant’s experiences were categorised as “positive” or “negative” and a Chi Square analysis was then applied to each of the experiential themes, to compare experiences between the multivitamin and placebo groups, (subdividing the groups by gender). Usual experiences were categorised and discussed separately. Results Of the 182 participants enrolled, 116 completed the study and qualitative data were available from 114 participants. Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022) and enhanced mood (p=.027). The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin group having minor

  1. Efficacy of different dosage levels and administration routes of tilmicosin in a natural outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Gustavo C; Piscitelli, Hernán G; Perez-Monti, Hernán; Stobbs, Larry A; Zimmermann, Alan G

    2002-01-01

    A total of 120 purebred Hereford cattle were selected from a herd on a ranch in Argentina that had a severe outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK, pinkeye) caused by Moraxella bovis. The animals were separated into six treatment groups: a nonmedicated control group, a group that received oxytetracycline at 300 mg injected intrapalpebrally, and four groups that received tilmicosin (Micotil, Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN; one group injected intrapalpebrally at 300 mg and three groups injected subcutaneously at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively). Animals were individually observed for resolution of lesions associated with IBK (ocular discharge, blepharospasin, and corneal lesions) every 7 days for 3 weeks. Corneal improvement was significantly better (P< or = .05) for all doses and for either route of injection for tilmicosin compared with no treatment or treatment with oxytetracycline. Tilmicosin given subcutaneously demonstrated a significant (P < or = .05) dose response for overall improvement (one or more score improved, none worsened). Tilmicosin given subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg was significantly more effective than tilmicosin at 2.5 mg/kg, oxytetracycline, and no treatment. Results for tilmicosin at 5 mg/kg were numerically better than no treatment, and tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg was numerically better than the drug given by intrapalpebral injection. Tilmicosin given by subcutaneous injection at 5 or 10 mg/kg was effective against IBK under the conditions of this study.

  2. Development of a Robust Model-Based Water Level Controller for U-Tube Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Basher, A.M.H.

    2001-09-04

    Poor control of steam generator water level of a nuclear power plant may lead to frequent nuclear reactor shutdowns. These shutdowns are more common at low power where the plant exhibits strong non-minimum phase characteristics and flow measurements at low power are unreliable in many instances. There is need to investigate this problem and systematically design a controller for water level regulation. This work is concerned with the study and the design of a suitable controller for a U-Tube Steam Generator (UTSG) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) which has time varying dynamics. The controller should be suitable for the water level control of UTSG without manual operation from start-up to full load transient condition. Some preliminary simulation results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The development of the complete control algorithm includes components such as robust output tracking, and adaptively estimating both the system parameters and state variables simultaneously. At the present time all these components are not completed due to time constraints. A robust tracking component of the controller for water level control is developed and its effectiveness on the parameter variations is demonstrated in this study. The results appear encouraging and they are only preliminary. Additional work is warranted to resolve other issues such as robust adaptive estimation.

  3. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of psychopathy relative to lower levels, both as a function of primary and secondary psychopathy and particularly their shared variance. These novel findings provide support for the idea that motor control systematically varies by psychopathy, in a basic manner, consistent with views of psychopathy emphasizing lesser control. PMID:25419045

  4. Direct power control of grid connected PV systems with three level NPC inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Martinez, Jaime; Eloy-Garcia, Joaquin; Arnaltes, Santiago

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents the control of a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) voltage source inverter for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. The control method used is the Extended Direct Power Control (EDPC), which is a generic approach for Direct Power Control (DPC) of multilevel inverters based on geometrical considerations. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms, that allow maximal power conversion into the grid, have been included. These methods are capable of extracting maximum power from each of the independent PV arrays connected to each DC link voltage level. The first one is a conventional MPPT which outputs DC link voltage references to EDPC. The second one is based on DPC concept. This new MPPT outputs power increment references to EDPC, thus avoiding the use of a DC link voltage regulator. The whole control system has been tested on a three-level NPC voltage source inverter connected to the grid and results confirm the validity of the method. (author)

  5. Liver, plasma and erythrocyte levels of thiamine and its phosphate esters in rats with acute ethanol intoxication: a comparison of thiamine and benfotiamine administration.

    PubMed

    Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Vannucchi, Helio; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2013-03-12

    Thiamine and benfotiamine are vitamin B1 and pro-vitamin B1 substances, respectively. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in energy metabolism, and its deficiency leads to neurologic and cardiovascular pathologies, as seen in alcoholics. This study presents new data about the effects of thiamine hydrochloride or benfotiamine treatment given to rats with acute alcohol intoxication, on the distribution of thiamine and its phosphate esters in liver, plasma and erythrocytes. The treatments were effective in increasing thiamine levels in plasma, erythrocytes and liver cells. The benfotiamine-treated group had its total plasma thiamine increased by 100%. In erythrocytes, thiamine levels were 4- and 25-fold higher in the groups treated with thiamine and benfotiamine, respectively, compared with the untreated groups. Liver thiamine was increased by 60% in the treated groups compared with the untreated groups. Thus, we verified the high bioavailability especially of benfotiamine within 6h of ethanol administration.

  6. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. Methods This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. Results A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P < 0.01). The rate of successful glucose control (blood glucose level < 150 mg/dl maintained for 6 days or longer) decreased with increase in blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P < 0.01). The blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions High blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control. PMID:22494810

  7. Higher level application of ADP: a next phase for the control field?

    PubMed

    Lendaris, George G

    2008-08-01

    Two distinguishing features of humanlike control vis-à-vis current technological control are the ability to make use of experience while selecting a control policy for distinct situations and the ability to do so faster and faster as more experience is gained (in contrast to current technological implementations that slow down as more knowledge is stored). The notions of context and context discernment are important to understanding this human ability. Whereas methods known as adaptive control and learning control focus on modifying the design of a controller as changes in context occur, experience-based (EB) control entails selecting a previously designed controller that is appropriate to the current situation. Developing the EB approach entails a shift of the technologist's focus "up a level" away from designing individual (optimal) controllers to that of developing online algorithms that efficiently and effectively select designs from a repository of existing controller solutions. A key component of the notions presented here is that of higher level learning algorithm. This is a new application of reinforcement learning and, in particular, approximate dynamic programming, with its focus shifted to the posited higher level, and is employed, with very promising results. The author's hope for this paper is to inspire and guide future work in this promising area.

  8. INTERIM ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF HIGH-LEVEL EVIDENCE FOR DENGUE VECTOR CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Horstick, Olaf; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2015-01-01

    This interim analysis reviews the available systematic literature for dengue vector control on three levels: 1) single and combined vector control methods, with existing work on peridomestic space spraying and on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; further work is available soon on the use of Temephos, Copepods and larvivorous fish; 2) or for a specific purpose, like outbreak control, and 3) on a strategic level, as for example decentralization vs centralization, with a systematic review on vector control organization. Clear best practice guidelines for methodology of entomological studies are needed. There is a need to include measuring dengue transmission data. The following recommendations emerge: Although vector control can be effective, implementation remains an issue; Single interventions are probably not useful; Combinations of interventions have mixed results; Careful implementation of vector control measures may be most important; Outbreak interventions are often applied with questionable effectiveness. PMID:26506739

  9. 40 CFR 63.924 - Standards-Container Level 3 controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that is vented inside an enclosure which is exhausted through a closed-vent system to a control device... container, enclosure, closed-vent system, or control device used to comply with this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards-Container Level 3...

  10. 40 CFR 63.924 - Standards-Container Level 3 controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that is vented inside an enclosure which is exhausted through a closed-vent system to a control device... container, enclosure, closed-vent system, or control device used to comply with this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards-Container Level 3...

  11. 40 CFR 63.924 - Standards-Container Level 3 controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that is vented inside an enclosure which is exhausted through a closed-vent system to a control device... container, enclosure, closed-vent system, or control device used to comply with this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards-Container Level 3...

  12. LOFT. Interior detail in basement level of control building (TAN630). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Interior detail in basement level of control building (TAN-630). Entrance to personnel tunnel which connects control and hangar (TAN-629) buildings. Camera facing southeast. Compare with construction photo nos. ID-33-E-381 and ID-33-E-382. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-39-13-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Assessing cerebral blood flow control from variability in blood pressure and arterial CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Dragana; Birch, Anthony A; Panerai, Ronney B; Simpson, David M

    2015-08-01

    Blood flow to the brain is controlled by a number of physiological mechanisms that respond to changes in arterial blood pressure, arterial CO2 levels and many other factors. Assessing the integrity of this control system is a major challenge. We report on repeatability of measures based on single and multiple input models during spontaneous and enhanced fluctuations in blood pressure.

  14. Prescription opioids. III. Disposition of oxycodone in oral fluid and blood following controlled single-dose administration.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; DePriest, Anne Z; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Oxycodone (OC) is recommended to be included as an analyte tested in the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA's) Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs using Oral Fluid (OF) Specimens. This study demonstrates the time course of OC and metabolites, noroxycodone (NOC), oxymorphone (OM) and noroxymorphone (NOM), in near-simultaneous paired OF and whole blood (BL) specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) (limit of detection = 1 ng/mL OF, 5 ng/mL BL). A single dose of OC 20 mg controlled-release was administered to 12 healthy subjects followed by specimen collections for 52 h. Analyte prevalence was as follows: OF, OC > NOC > OM; and BL, OC > NOC > NOM. OC and NOC were frequently detected within 15-30 min in OF and 30 min to 2 h in BL. NOM and OM appeared between 1.5-5 h post-dose. The mean OF-to-BL (OF:BL) ratios and correlations were 5.4 for OC (r = 0.719) and 1.0 for NOC (r = 0.651). The period of detection for OF exceeded BL by ∼2-fold at similar cutoff concentrations. At a 1 ng/mL cutoff for OF, the mean detection time was 34 h for OC and NOC. These data provide new information that should facilitate interpretation of OC test results.

  15. The Effects of Control for Ability Level on EFL Reading of Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to examine how EFL learners of English reacted to graded readers in terms of reading strategy use, comprehension, speed, and attitude as well as motivation when control for ability level was determined. Eighty Thai high school students placed into their own reading level of graded readers by the scores gained from the graded…

  16. Readable English for Hearing-Impaired Students: Multi-Level Guidelines for Linguistically Controlled Reading Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Nan; And Others

    Developed by the Multi-level Captioning Project, the manual provides guidelines for linguistically controlling reading materials for the deaf. An introduction describes the three proposed reading levels based on difficulty of vocabulary, syntax, and inference. Chapter 1, on vocabulary, considers word list sources, guidelines for controlling…

  17. COMMUNITY MEMBERS' PERCEPTIONS OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION FOR CONTROL OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN RURAL AND URBAN TANZANIA.

    PubMed

    Kisoka, William J; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowsky; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Mushi, Declare L

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of several neglected tropical diseases with severely disabling and stigmatizing manifestations that are referred to as 'neglected diseases of poverty'. It is a mosquito-borne disease found endemically and exclusively in low-income contexts where, concomitantly, general public health care is often deeply troubled and fails to meet the basic health needs of impoverished populations. This presents particular challenges for the implementation of mass drug administration (MDA), which currently is the principal means of control and eventual elimination. Several MDA programmes face the dilemma that they are unable to attain and maintain the required drug coverage across target groups. In recognition of this, a qualitative study was conducted in the Morogoro and Lindi regions of Tanzania to gain an understanding of community experiences with, and perceptions of, the MDA campaign implemented in 2011 by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme. The study revealed a wide variation of perceptions and experiences regarding the aim, rationale and justification of MDA. There were positive sentiments about the usefulness of the drugs, but many study participants were sceptical about the manner in which MDA is implemented. People were particularly disappointed with the limited attempts by implementers to share information and mobilize residents. In addition, negative sentiments towards MDA for lymphatic filariasis reflected a general feeling of desertion and marginalization by the health care system and political authorities. However, the results suggest that if the communities are brought on board with genuine respect for their integrity and informed self-determination, there is scope for major improvements in community support for MDA-based control activities. PMID:25790081

  18. Effect of vanadate administration on blood glucose and insulin levels as well as on the exocrine pancreatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bendayan, M; Gingras, D

    1989-08-01

    In the present study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with their corresponding controls, were treated orally with sodium metavanadate. A gradual increase of the vanadate concentration up to 0.8 mg/ml in the drinking water, lowered the blood glucose levels of the diabetic animals to normal values without changing the insulin levels. On the other hand, vanadate did not affect the blood glucose levels of the non-diabetic animals; it did however induce lower levels of circulating insulin in these animals. The lowering of the glycaemic values of the diabetic animals was closely related to the consumption of vanadate. When the treatment was ceased, the blood glucose levels rose rapidly. The diabetic animals responded to the vanadate treatment with two sensitivities; while the large majority of the diabetic animals displayed stable normoglycaemic values, others had fluctuating values. Amylase content in the exocrine pancreas of these two subgroups of animals was studied separately and compared to that from the non-treated control and diabetic animals. The presence of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells was assessed by the protein A-gold immunocytochemical approach and biochemical determinations. Amylase was found to be very low in the non-treated diabetic animals. Lowering of the blood glucose levels induced by the vanadate treatment restored the amylase to levels similar to those of the controls. However, vanadate-treated diabetic animals with fluctuating levels of blood glucose, demonstrated only a partial recovery of amylase. Thus, vanadate treatment was found to have a normalizing effect on blood glucose levels in diabetic animals as well as restoring amylase content in the pancreas of diabetic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. EFFECTS OF ADMINISTRATION ROUTE, DIETARY CONDITION, AND BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL ON KINETICS AND UPTAKE OF 18F-FDG IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dietary condition and blood glucose level on the kinetics and uptake of 18F-FDG in mice were systematically investigated using intraperitoneal and tail-vein injection. Methods Dynamic PET was performed for 60 min on 23 isoflurane-anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice after intravenous (n = 11) or intraperitoneal (n = 12) injection of 18F-FDG. Five and 6 mice in the intravenous and intraperitoneal groups, respectively, were kept fasting overnight (18 ± 2 h), and the others were fed ad libitum. Serial blood samples were collected from the femoral artery to measure 18F-FDG and glucose concentrations. Image data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with CT-based attenuation correction. The standardized uptake value (SUV) was estimated from the 45- to 60-min image. The metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlu) and 18F-FDG uptake constant (Ki) were derived by Patlak graphical analysis. Results In the brain, SUV and Ki were significantly higher in fasting mice with intraperitoneal injection, but MRGlu did not differ significantly under different dietary states and administration routes. Cerebral Ki was inversely related to elevated blood glucose levels, irrespective of administration route or dietary state. In myocardium, SUV, Ki, and MRGlu were significantly lower in fasting than in nonfasting mice for both routes of injection. Myocardial SUV and Ki were strongly dependent on the dietary state, and Ki did not correlate with the blood glucose level. Similar results were obtained for skeletal muscle, although the differences were not as pronounced. Conclusions Intraperitoneal injection is a valid alternative route, providing pharmacokinetic data equivalent to data from tail-vein injection for small-animal 18F-FDG PET. Cerebral Ki varies inversely with blood glucose level, but the measured cerebral MRGlu does not correlate with blood glucose level or dietary condition. Conversely, the Ki values of the myocardium and skeletal muscle are strongly dependent on

  20. Credibility theory based dynamic control bound optimization for reservoir flood limited water level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Ping; Ji, Changming; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic control operation of reservoir flood limited water level (FLWL) can solve the contradictions between reservoir flood control and beneficial operation well, and it is an important measure to make sure the security of flood control and realize the flood utilization. The dynamic control bound of FLWL is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir dynamic control operation. In order to optimize the dynamic control bound of FLWL by considering flood forecasting error, this paper took the forecasting error as a fuzzy variable, and described it with the emerging credibility theory in recent years. By combining the flood forecasting error quantitative model, a credibility-based fuzzy chance constrained model used to optimize the dynamic control bound was proposed in this paper, and fuzzy simulation technology was used to solve the model. The FENGTAN reservoir in China was selected as a case study, and the results show that, compared with the original operation water level, the initial operation water level (IOWL) of FENGTAN reservoir can be raised 4 m, 2 m and 5.5 m respectively in the three division stages of flood season, and without increasing flood control risk. In addition, the rationality and feasibility of the proposed forecasting error quantitative model and credibility-based dynamic control bound optimization model are verified by the calculation results of extreme risk theory.

  1. Hierarchical Control and Skilled Typing: Evidence for Word-Level Control over the Execution of Individual Keystrokes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Matthew J. C.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2010-01-01

    Routine actions are commonly assumed to be controlled by hierarchically organized processes and representations. In the domain of typing theories, word-level information is assumed to activate the constituent keystrokes required to type each letter in a word. We tested this assumption directly using a novel single-letter probe technique. Subjects…

  2. Environmental factors, health-related habits, and serum selenium levels in cancer patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Backović, D; Marinković, J; Jorga, J; Pavlica, M; Maksimović, Z; Nikolić, M

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Yugoslavia indicated that the concentration of selenium in soil, food items, and serum of the population is very low. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible relationship among environmental, health-related habits, nutrition, and selenium serum levels in cancer patients and the healthy population. The case-control study included a group of cancer patients and a matched group of healthy controls: 57 cancer patients and 41 healthy controls living in Stari Grad (an urban area of Belgrade), as well as 17 cancer patients and 13 healthy controls living in Barajevo (a rural community in the vicinity of Belgrade). The healthy controls were matched to cancer patients in sex and age; they were not blood related. The selenium serum levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Health-related habits and relevant dietary factors ("food frequency" method) that may influence the selenium serum levels were assessed by questionnaires. The differences in average values of selenium serum levels between the cancer patients and healthy controls were not significantly different, but both were below the lowest recorded in referential studies. A significant difference between the values obtained from urban and rural subgroups was noted. The most important factors that influenced the level of selenium included the residence place in the region with selenium deficiency (Barajevo), age, associated chronic diseases, and some dietary factors potentially related to the intake of selenium. The results obtained in this investigation pointed out that use of selenium supplementation in this area should be seriously considered.

  3. Developmental kinesiology: three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system.

    PubMed

    Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Three levels of sensorimotor control within the central nervous system (CNS) can be distinguished. During the neonatal stage, general movements and primitive reflexes are controlled at the spinal and brain stem levels. Analysis of the newborn's spontaneous general movements and the assessment of primitive reflexes is crucial in the screening and early recognition of a risk for abnormal development. Following the newborn period, the subcortical level of the CNS motor control emerges and matures mainly during the first year of life. This allows for basic trunk stabilization, a prerequisite for any phasic movement and for the locomotor function of the extremities. At the subcortical level, orofacial muscles and afferent information are automatically integrated within postural-locomotor patterns. Finally, the cortical (the highest) level of motor control increasingly becomes activated. Cortical control is important for the individual qualities and characteristics of movement. It also allows for isolated segmental movement and relaxation. A child with impaired cortical motor control may be diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder. Human ontogenetic models, i.e., developmental motor patterns, can be used in both the diagnosis and treatment of locomotor system dysfunction.

  4. Socioeconomic variation in the burden of chronic conditions and health care provision – analyzing administrative individual level data from the Basque Country, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are posing an increasing challenge to society, with the associated burden falling disproportionally on more deprived individuals and geographical areas. Although the existence of a socioeconomic health gradient is one of the main concerns of health policy across the world, health information systems commonly do not have reliable data to detect and monitor health inequalities and inequities. The objectives of this study were to measure the level of socioeconomic-related inequality in prevalence of chronic diseases and to investigate the extent and direction of inequities in health care provision. Methods A dataset linking clinical and administrative information of the entire population living in the Basque Country, Spain (over 2 million individuals) was used to measure the prevalence of 52 chronic conditions and to quantify individual health care costs. We used a concentration-index approach to measure the extent and direction of inequality with respect to the deprivation of the area of residence of each individual. Results Most chronic diseases were found to be disproportionally concentrated among individuals living in more deprived areas, but the extent of the imbalance varies by type of disease and sex. Most of the variation in health care utilization was explained by morbidity burden. However, even after accounting for differences in morbidity, pro-poor horizontal inequity was present in specialized outpatient care, emergency department, prescription, and primary health care costs and this fact was more apparent in females than males; inpatient costs exhibited an equitable distribution in both sexes. Conclusions Analyses of comprehensive administrative clinical information at the individual level allow the socioeconomic gradient in chronic diseases and health care provision to be measured to a level of detail not possible using other sources. This frequently updated source of information can be exploited to monitor trends and evaluate

  5. A supersulfated low-molecular-weight heparin (IK-SSH) increases plasma levels of free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, B; Glusa, E; Hoppensteadt, D A; Breddin, H K; Amiral, J; Fareed, J

    1998-09-01

    Unfractionated as well as low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are known to cause an increase in blood levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To study the effect of a newly developed supersulfated LMWH (IK-SSH, Iketon Farmaceutici) on TFPI concentrations in human plasma, the compound was injected into volunteers at doses of 0.14, 0.33 and 0.66 mg/kg intravenously or 0.33, 0.66 and 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. At certain known times blood was drawn and plasma levels of both total and free TFPI were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Baseline plasma concentrations of TFPI were 72.2+/-3.1 ng/ml for total and 10.8+/-0.8 ng/ml for free TFPI. Intravenous or subcutaneous injection of IK-SSH led to a strong and long-lasting rise in TFPI levels which were increased more than 5-fold for total TFPI and more than 30-fold for free TFPI. Maximum TFPI levels were reached 5-10 min after intravenous and 60 min after subcutaneous administration. IK-SSH caused prolongation of ex-vivo clotting times in the APTT and Heptest assay, whereas thrombin time was not affected. Anticoagulant actions of IK-SSH showed a significant correlation to plasma concentrations of TFPI and they are thought to be based at least partially on the release of TFPI from vascular sites.

  6. HIV controllers with different viral load cut-off levels have distinct virologic and immunologic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Gonzalo; Teixeira, Sylvia LM; Vorsatz, Carla; Babic, Dunja; Sharkey, Mark; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea; Stevenson, Mario; Morgado, Mariza G

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanisms behind natural control of HIV replication are still unclear, and several studies pointed that elite controllers are a heterogeneous group. Methods We performed analyses of virologic, genetic and immunologic parameters of HIV-1 controllers groups: 1) Elite Controllers (EC; VL <80 copies/mL); 2) Ebbing Elite Controllers (EEC; transient viremia/blips); and Viremic Controllers (VC; detectable viremia <5,000 copies/mL). Untreated non-controllers (NC), patients under suppressive HAART and HIV-1 negative individuals were analyzed as controls. Results Total and integrated HIV-1 DNA for EC were significantly lower than for NC and HAART groups. 2-LTR circles were detected in EEC (3/5) and VC (6/7) but not in EC. While EC and EEC maintain normal T cell counts over time, some VC displayed negative CD4+ T cells slopes. VC and EEC showed a higher percentage of activated CD8+ T cells and microbial translocation than HIV-1 negative controls. EC displayed a weaker Gag/Nef IFN-γ T cell response and a significantly lower proportion of anti-HIV IgG antibodies than EEC, VC and NC groups. Conclusion Transient/persistent low level viremia in HIV controllers may have an impact on immunologic and virologic profiles. Classify HIV controllers patients taking into account their virologic profile may decrease the heterogeneity of HIV controllers cohorts, which may help to clarify the mechanisms associated to the elite control of HIV. PMID:25564106

  7. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller.

  8. Increased CD4+ T cell levels during IL-7 administration of antiretroviral therapy-treated simian immunodeficiency virus-positive macaques are not dependent on strong proliferative responses.

    PubMed

    Leone, Amanda; Rohankhedkar, Mukta; Okoye, Afam; Legasse, Alfred; Axthelm, Michael K; Villinger, Francois; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Assouline, Brigitte; Morre, Michel; Picker, Louis J; Sodora, Donald L

    2010-08-01

    CD4(+) T cell depletion is a fundamental component of HIV infection and AIDS pathogenesis and is not always reversed following antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, the SIV-infected rhesus macaque model was used to assess recombinant simian IL-7 in its glycosylated form (rsIL-7gly) to enhance regeneration of CD4(+) T cells, particularly the crucial central memory compartment, after ART. We assessed the impact of rsIL-7gly administration as single injections and as a cluster of three doses. Irrespective of the dosing strategy used, the rsIL-7gly administration transiently increased proliferation of both central memory and naive cells, in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets, without increasing SIV levels in the blood. Administration of rsIL-7gly at intervals of 4-6 wk maximized the proliferative response to therapy but resulted in only transient increases in peripheral blood T cell counts. Although more frequent rsIL-7gly "clustered" dosing (three times weekly with 2 wk of rest and then repeat) induced only an initial proliferative burst by CD4(+) T cells, this dosing strategy resulted in sustained increases in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell counts. The clustered rsIL-7gly treatment regimen was shown to increase the half-life of a BrdU label among memory T cells in the blood when compared with that of macaques treated with ART alone, which is consistent with enhanced cell survival. These results indicate that dosing intervals have a major impact on the response to rsIL-7gly in SIV-positive ART-treated rhesus macaques and that optimum dosing strategies may be ones that induce CD4(+) T cell proliferation initially and provide increased CD4(+) T cell survival.

  9. Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.

    PubMed

    Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Rafiq, Sahar; Tariq, Sumayya; Batool, Tuba Sharf; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nutrients may play a vital role in protecting the brain from age-related memory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts including almonds have shown potential to combat age-associated brain dysfunction. These nuts are an important source of essential nutrients, such as tocopherol, folate, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. These components have shown promise as possible dietary supplements to prevent or delay the onset of age-associated cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) task. Cholinergic function was determined in terms of hippocampal and frontal cortical acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study suggest that almond administration for 28 days significantly improved memory retention. This memory enhancing effect of almond was also observed in scopolamine induced amnesia model. Present study also suggests a role of acetylcholine in the attenuation of scopolamine induced amnesia by almond.

  10. Neural network controller development and implementation for spark ignition engines with high EGR levels.

    PubMed

    Vance, Jonathan Blake; Singh, Atmika; Kaul, Brian C; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Drallmeier, James A

    2007-07-01

    Past research has shown substantial reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) concentrations by using 10%-25% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition (SI) engines (see Dudek and Sain, 1989). However, under high EGR levels, the engine exhibits strong cyclic dispersion in heat release which may lead to instability and unsatisfactory performance preventing commercial engines to operate with high EGR levels. A neural network (NN)-based output feedback controller is developed to reduce cyclic variation in the heat release under high levels of EGR even when the engine dynamics are unknown by using fuel as the control input. A separate control loop was designed for controlling EGR levels. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is given and the boundedness of the control input is demonstrated by relaxing separation principle, persistency of excitation condition, certainty equivalence principle, and linear in the unknown parameter assumptions. Online training is used for the adaptive NN and no offline training phase is needed. This online learning feature and model-free approach is used to demonstrate the applicability of the controller on a different engine with minimal effort. Simulation results demonstrate that the cyclic dispersion is reduced significantly using the proposed controller when implemented on an engine model that has been validated experimentally. For a single cylinder research engine fitted with a modern four-valve head (Ricardo engine), experimental results at 15% EGR indicate that cyclic dispersion was reduced 33% by the controller, an improvement of fuel efficiency by 2%, and a 90% drop in NOx from stoichiometric operation without EGR was observed. Moreover, unburned hydrocarbons (uHC) drop by 6% due to NN control as compared to the uncontrolled scenario due to the drop in cyclic dispersion. Similar performance was observed with the controller on a different engine.

  11. IL-10 administration reduces PGE-2 levels and promotes CR3-mediated clearance of Escherichia coli K1 by phagocytes in meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Goth, Kerstin; Bonnet, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Ineffectiveness of antibiotics in treating neonatal Escherichia coli K1 meningitis and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains evidently warrants new prevention strategies. We observed that administration of interleukin (IL)-10 during high-grade bacteremia clears antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant E. coli from blood of infected mice. Micro-CT studies of brains from infected animals displayed gross morphological changes similar to those observed in infected human neonates. In mice, IL-10, but not antibiotic or anti-TNF antibody treatment prevented brain damage caused by E. coli. IL-10 administration elevated CR3 expression in neutrophils and macrophages of infected mice, whereas infected and untreated mice displayed increased expression of FcγRI and TLR2. Neutrophils or macrophages pretreated with IL-10 ex vivo exhibited a significantly greater microbicidal activity against E. coli compared with cells isolated from wild-type or IL-10−/− mice. The protective effect of IL-10 was abrogated when CR3 was knocked-down in vivo by siRNA. The increased expression of CR3 in phagocytes was caused by inhibition of prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels, which were significantly increased in neutrophils and macrophages upon E. coli infection. These findings describe a novel modality of IL-10–mediated E. coli clearance by diverting the entry of bacteria via CR3 and preventing PGE-2 formation in neonatal meningitis. PMID:20498022

  12. Effect of oral administration of unfractionated heparin (UFH) on coagulation parameters in plasma and levels of urine and fecal heparin in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Malathi; Hiebert, Linda M.; Carr, Anthony P.; Stickney, Jocelyn D.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of heparin administration, by the oral route, were evaluated in dogs. In single and multiple dose studies (single 7.5 mg/kg, multiple 3 × 7.5 mg/kg per 48 h), plasma, urine, and fecal samples were collected at various times up to 120 h after oral administration of unfractionated heparin. Changes in plasma and urine anti-Xa activity, plasma and urine anti-IIa activity, plasma activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and antithrombin (ATIII), and chemical heparin in urine and feces were examined with time. There was support for heparin absorption, with significant differences in APTT, heparin in plasma as determined by anti-Xa activity (Heptest) in the single dose study and plasma anti-Xa activity, anti-IIa activity and ATIII; and chemical heparin in urine in the multiple dose study. No clinical evidence of bleeding was detected in any dog during the studies. Oral heparin therapy may be applicable for thromboembolic disease in animals. Further studies are warranted to determine the effects of oral heparin at the endothelial level in the dog. PMID:24982550

  13. IL-10 administration reduces PGE-2 levels and promotes CR3-mediated clearance of Escherichia coli K1 by phagocytes in meningitis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rahul; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Goth, Kerstin; Bonnet, Richard; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2010-06-01

    Ineffectiveness of antibiotics in treating neonatal Escherichia coli K1 meningitis and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains evidently warrants new prevention strategies. We observed that administration of interleukin (IL)-10 during high-grade bacteremia clears antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant E. coli from blood of infected mice. Micro-CT studies of brains from infected animals displayed gross morphological changes similar to those observed in infected human neonates. In mice, IL-10, but not antibiotic or anti-TNF antibody treatment prevented brain damage caused by E. coli. IL-10 administration elevated CR3 expression in neutrophils and macrophages of infected mice, whereas infected and untreated mice displayed increased expression of FcgammaRI and TLR2. Neutrophils or macrophages pretreated with IL-10 ex vivo exhibited a significantly greater microbicidal activity against E. coli compared with cells isolated from wild-type or IL-10-/- mice. The protective effect of IL-10 was abrogated when CR3 was knocked-down in vivo by siRNA. The increased expression of CR3 in phagocytes was caused by inhibition of prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels, which were significantly increased in neutrophils and macrophages upon E. coli infection. These findings describe a novel modality of IL-10-mediated E. coli clearance by diverting the entry of bacteria via CR3 and preventing PGE-2 formation in neonatal meningitis. PMID:20498022

  14. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  15. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718. PMID:27053769

  16. Optimising the controlled release of dexamethasone from a new generation of PLGA-based microspheres intended for intravitreal administration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villanueva, Javier; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Molina Martínez, Irene Teresa; Guzmán Navarro, Manuel

    2016-09-20

    Successful therapy for chronic diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye requires sustained drug concentrations at the site of action for extended periods of time. To achieve this, it is necessary to use high systemic doses or frequent intraocular injections, both associated with serious adverse effects. In order to avoid these complications and improve patient's quality of life, an experimental study has been conducted on the preparation of a new generation of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50) (PLGA) polymer microspheres (MSs) loaded with Dxm, vitamin E and/or human serum albumin (HSA). Particles were prepared according to a S/O/W encapsulation method and the 20-40μm fraction was selected. This narrow size distribution is suitable for minimally invasive intravitreal injection by small calibre needles. Characterisation of the MSs showed high Dxm loading and encapsulation efficiency (> 90%) without a strong interaction with the polymer matrix, as revealed by DSC analysis. MSs drug release studies indicated a small burst effect (lower than 5%) during the first five hours and subsequently, drug release was sustained for at least 30days, led by diffusion and erosion mechanisms. Dxm release rate was modulated when solid state HSA was incorporated into MSs formulation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the protein maintained its integrity during the encapsulation process, as well as for the release study. MSs presented good tolerance and lack of cytotoxicity in macrophages and HeLa cultured cells. After 12months of storage under standard refrigerated conditions (4±1°C), MSs retained appropriate physical and chemical properties and analogous drug release kinetics. Therefore, we conclude that these microspheres are promising pharmaceutical systems for intraocular administration, allowing controlled release of the drug.

  17. Optimising the controlled release of dexamethasone from a new generation of PLGA-based microspheres intended for intravitreal administration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villanueva, Javier; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Molina Martínez, Irene Teresa; Guzmán Navarro, Manuel

    2016-09-20

    Successful therapy for chronic diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye requires sustained drug concentrations at the site of action for extended periods of time. To achieve this, it is necessary to use high systemic doses or frequent intraocular injections, both associated with serious adverse effects. In order to avoid these complications and improve patient's quality of life, an experimental study has been conducted on the preparation of a new generation of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50) (PLGA) polymer microspheres (MSs) loaded with Dxm, vitamin E and/or human serum albumin (HSA). Particles were prepared according to a S/O/W encapsulation method and the 20-40μm fraction was selected. This narrow size distribution is suitable for minimally invasive intravitreal injection by small calibre needles. Characterisation of the MSs showed high Dxm loading and encapsulation efficiency (> 90%) without a strong interaction with the polymer matrix, as revealed by DSC analysis. MSs drug release studies indicated a small burst effect (lower than 5%) during the first five hours and subsequently, drug release was sustained for at least 30days, led by diffusion and erosion mechanisms. Dxm release rate was modulated when solid state HSA was incorporated into MSs formulation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the protein maintained its integrity during the encapsulation process, as well as for the release study. MSs presented good tolerance and lack of cytotoxicity in macrophages and HeLa cultured cells. After 12months of storage under standard refrigerated conditions (4±1°C), MSs retained appropriate physical and chemical properties and analogous drug release kinetics. Therefore, we conclude that these microspheres are promising pharmaceutical systems for intraocular administration, allowing controlled release of the drug. PMID:26987610

  18. Constrained control landscape for population transfer in a two-level system.

    PubMed

    Moore Tibbetts, Katharine; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-02-01

    The growing success of controlling the dynamics of quantum systems has been ascribed to the favorable topology of the quantum control landscape, which represents the physical observable as a function of the control field. The landscape contains no suboptimal trapping extrema when reasonable physical assumptions are satisfied, including that no significant constraints are placed on the control resources. A topic of prime interest is understanding the effects of control field constraints on the apparent landscape topology, as constraints on control resources are inevitable in the laboratory. This work particularly explores the effects of constraining the control field fluence on the topology and features of the control landscape for pure-state population transfer in a two-level system through numerical simulations, where unit probability population transfer in the system is only accessible in the strong coupling regime within the model explored here. With the fluence and three phase variables used for optimization, no local optima are found on the landscape, although saddle features are widespread at low fluence values. Global landscape optima are found to exist at two disconnected regions of the fluence that possess distinct topologies and structures. Broad scale connected optimal level sets are found when the fluence is sufficiently large, while the connectivity is reduced as the fluence becomes more constrained. These results suggest that seeking optimal fields with constrained fluence or other resources may encounter complex landscape features, calling for sophisticated algorithms that can efficiently find optimal controls. PMID:25515970

  19. A therapeutic combination of metyrapone and oxazepam increases brain levels of GABA-active neurosteroids and decreases cocaine self-administration in male rats.

    PubMed

    Schmoutz, Christopher D; Guerin, Glenn F; Runyon, Scott P; Dhungana, Suraj; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2015-09-15

    In rodents, the behavioral and neurochemical effects resulting from the pharmacological blockade of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are unclear. Metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, has been demonstrated to reduce cocaine-related behaviors, especially in a low-dose combination with oxazepam, a benzodiazepine. Although this combination therapy (MET/OX) also reduces drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in both rodents and cocaine-dependent humans, these effects are not correlated with plasma glucocorticoid levels. In this brief report, we present data demonstrating that this MET/OX combination enhances brain levels of the GABA-active steroid metabolites, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) and allopregnanolone. Male rats, trained to self-administer cocaine or that received yoked-saline infusions, were pretreated with MET/OX, at doses that reduced cocaine-motivated responding, or vehicle. Allopregnanolone and THDOC were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala in the brains from these rats. THDOC levels were enhanced following MET/OX pretreatment in both brain regions, regardless of cocaine self-administration experience. However, allopregnanolone was selectively enhanced in the rats that self-administered cocaine, but not in rats in the yoked-saline group. Thus, the MET/OX combination increased neurosteroid content in brain regions important for drug addiction. These neurosteroids have been shown to reduce cocaine-related behaviors and may contribute to the behavioral effects of MET/OX combination therapy. PMID:26003946

  20. Alterations in brain extracellular dopamine and glycine levels following combined administration of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor Org-24461 and risperidone.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Katalin; Marko, Bernadett; Zsilla, Gabriella; Matyus, Peter; Pallagi, Katalin; Szabo, Geza; Juranyi, Zsolt; Barkoczy, Jozsef; Levay, Gyorgy; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2010-12-01

    The most dominant hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have focused primarily upon hyperfunctional dopaminergic and hypofunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The therapeutic efficacy of all atypical antipsychotics is explained in part by antagonism of the dopaminergic neurotransmission, mainly by blockade of D(2) dopamine receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia can be reversed by glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitors, which regulate glycine concentrations at the vicinity of NMDA receptors. Combined drug administration with D(2) dopamine receptor blockade and activation of hypofunctional NMDA receptors may be needed for a more effective treatment of positive and negative symptoms and the accompanied cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. To investigate this type of combined drug administration, rats were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone together with the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org-24461. Brain microdialysis was applied in the striatum of conscious rats and determinations of extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, glycine, glutamate, and serine concentrations were carried out using HPLC/electrochemistry. Risperidone increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine but failed to influence those of glycine or glutamate measured in microdialysis samples. Org-24461 injection reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations and elevated extracellular glycine levels but the concentrations of serine and glutamate were not changed. When risperidone and Org-24461 were added in combination, a decrease in extracellular dopamine concentrations was accompanied with sustained elevation of extracellular glycine levels. Interestingly, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate were also enhanced. Our data indicate that coadministration of an antipsychotic with a GlyT-1 inhibitor may normalize hypofunctional NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission with reduced

  1. An Analysis of Editorial Freedom and Administrative Control of the Student Newspaper in the Four-Year Colleges and Universities in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howells, Ronald Frederick

    The study was designed to investigate judicial decisions of state and federal courts concerning editorial freedom of the college and university student press to determine emerging legal rules, precedents, and trends in judicial decisions and to analyze the extent of editorial freedom and administrative control of the student press as perceived by…

  2. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level.

  3. Multi-level manual and autonomous control superposition for intelligent telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirai, Shigeoki; Sato, T.

    1989-01-01

    Space telerobots are recognized to require cooperation with human operators in various ways. Multi-level manual and autonomous control superposition in telerobot task execution is described. The object model, the structured master-slave manipulation system, and the motion understanding system are proposed to realize the concept. The object model offers interfaces for task level and object level human intervention. The structured master-slave manipulation system offers interfaces for motion level human intervention. The motion understanding system maintains the consistency of the knowledge through all the levels which supports the robot autonomy while accepting the human intervention. The superposing execution of the teleoperational task at multi-levels realizes intuitive and robust task execution for wide variety of objects and in changeful environment. The performance of several examples of operating chemical apparatuses is shown.

  4. U.S. Food and Drug Administration perspective of the inclusion of effects of low-level exposures in safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, D W; Bolger, P M; Schwetz, B A

    1998-02-01

    A brief overview is provided of some of the general safety and risk assessment procedures used by the different centers of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) to evaluate low-level exposures. The U.S. FDA protects public health by regulating a wide variety of consumer products including foods, human and animal drugs, biologics, and medical devices under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The diverse legal and regulatory standards in the act allow for the consideration of benefits for some products (e.g., drugs) but preclude them from others (e.g., food additives). When not precluded by statutory mandates (e.g., Delaney prohibition), the U.S. FDA considers both physiologic adaptive responses and beneficial effects. For the basic safety assessment paradigm as presently used, for example in the premarket approval of food additives, the emphasis is on the identification of adverse effects and no observed adverse effect level(s) (NOAEL). Generally, the NOAEL is divided by safety factors to establish an acceptable exposure level. This safety assessment paradigm does not preclude the consideration of effects whether they are biologically adaptive or beneficial at lower dose levels. The flexibility to consider issues such as mechanisms of action and adaptive and beneficial responses depends on the product under consideration. For carcinogenic contaminants and radiation from medical devices, the U.S. FDA considers the potential cancer risk at low exposure levels. This generally involves downward extrapolation from the observed dose-response range. The consideration of adverse effects of other toxicologic end points (e.g., reproductive, immunologic, neurologic, developmental) associated with low exposure levels is also becoming more of a reality (e.g., endocrine disrupters). The evaluation of the biologic effects of low-level exposures to toxic substances must include whether the effect is adverse or a normal physiologic adaptive response and also

  5. Bedside charting of pain levels in hospitalized patients with cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, R L; Delafield, J P; Hays, R D; Drazin, R; Conolly, M

    1996-02-01

    Despite advances in the technology of cancer pain assessment and control, cancer pain often remains undertreated even in hospital settings. To determine whether a graphical display of cancer patients' pain levels might improve their treatment, the investigators conducted a randomized controlled trial. Patients assigned to the intervention group (N = 40) had periodic pain assessments by study staff, who graphically recorded their reported pain-intensity levels on bedside wall charts. Control group patients (N = 38) had periodic pain assessments by study staff but did not have this information displayed. The results failed to show a significant beneficial effect of the intervention on pain control, sleep, cancer-related symptoms, or analgesic dosing, but confidence intervals were broad. More research is needed to improve the quality of care for inpatients with cancer-related pain. PMID:8907138

  6. [Sense of personal control and the level of occupational stress and related effects].

    PubMed

    Dudek, B; Merecz, D; Makowska, Z

    2001-01-01

    There is opinion that the sense of personal control at workplace is an important factor determining the occupational stress and related effects. The group of 160 policemen were studied to verify empirically the above-mentioned opinion. The subjects assessed their level of sense of personal control, occupational stress, burnout and mental health. Statistical analysis revealed following significant correlation coefficients between the sense of personal control and stress (r = -0.33); job satisfaction (r = -0.44); emotional exhaustion (r = -0.28); depersonalization (r = -0.26); and feeling of personal accomplishment (r = -0.25); total score in GHQ-28 (r = -0.16). The results of the study let us draw a practical conclusion. In order to diminish the level of job stress it is required to introduce proper organizational changes enhancing the sense of personal control among workers. PMID:11928675

  7. Effect of mode of hydrocortisone administration on glycemic control in patients with septic shock: a prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Loisa, Pekka; Parviainen, Ilkka; Tenhunen, Jyrki; Hovilehto, Seppo; Ruokonen, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Low-dose hydrocortisone treatment is widely accepted therapy for the treatment of vasopressor-dependent septic shock. The question of whether corticosteroids should be given to septic shock patients by continuous or by bolus infusion is still unanswered. Hydrocortisone induces hyperglycemia and it is possible that continuous hydrocortisone infusion would reduce the fluctuations in blood glucose levels and that tight blood glucose control could be better achieved with this approach. Methods In this prospective randomized study, we compared the blood glucose profiles, insulin requirements, amount of nursing workload needed, and shock reversal in 48 septic shock patients who received hydrocortisone treatment either by bolus or by continuous infusion with equivalent dose (200 mg/day). Duration of hydrocortisone treatment was five days. Results The mean blood glucose levels were similar in the two groups, but the number of hyperglycemic episodes was significantly higher in those patients who received bolus therapy (15.7 ± 8.5 versus 10.5 ± 8.6 episodes per patient, p = 0.039). Also, more changes in insulin infusion rate were needed to maintain strict normoglycemia in the bolus group (4.7 ± 2.2 versus 3.4 ± 1.9 adjustments per patient per day, p = 0.038). Hypoglycemic episodes were rare in both groups. No difference was seen in shock reversal. Conclusion Strict normoglycemia is more easily achieved if the hydrocortisone therapy is given to septic shock patients by continuous infusion. This approach also reduces nursing workload needed to maintain tight blood glucose control. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN98820688 PMID:17306016

  8. Automated Liquid-Level Control of a Nutrient Reservoir for a Hydroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Boris; Asumadu, Johnson A.; Dogan, Numan S.

    1997-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system for control of the liquid level of a nutrient reservoir for a plant hydroponic growing system has been developed. The system uses an ultrasonic transducer to sense the liquid level or height. A National Instruments' Multifunction Analog and Digital Input/Output PC Kit includes NI-DAQ DOS/Windows driver software for an IBM 486 personal computer. A Labview Full Development system for Windows is the graphical programming system being used. The system allows liquid level control to within 0.1 cm for all levels tried between 8 and 36 cm in the hydroponic system application. The detailed algorithms have been developed and a fully automated microprocessor based nutrient replenishment system has been described for this hydroponic system.

  9. Double-control coherent absorption and transparency in a six-level optical gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Saswata; Mandal, Swapan

    2011-10-01

    The application of two coupling/pump fields to an M-type six-level atomic system in order to manipulate the probe response is suggested in this paper. With the inverted population condition the analytical formulation of the probe response is examined under the purview of coupling field-induced double-control quantum interference effects at different detunings. In particular, we report electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency via controlling the driving contribution of two coupling fields on different probe transitions. These driving contributions of the two coupling fields rely on lower-level hyperfine coherence, detuning and strength.

  10. Current Level of Mission Control Automation at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maks, Lori; Breed, Julie; Rackley, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is particularly concerned with reducing mission operations costs through increased automation. This paper examines the operations procedures within NASA Mission Control Centers in order to uncover the level of automation that currently exists within them. Based on an assessment of mission operations procedures within three representative control centers, this paper recommends specific areas where there is potential for mission cost reduction through increased automation.

  11. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels. PMID:27752492

  12. Minimum time control of a pair of two-level quantum systems with opposite drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Raffaele; D'Alessandro, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we solve two equivalent time optimal control problems. On one hand, we design the control field to implement in minimum time the SWAP (or equivalent) operator on a two-level system, assuming that it interacts with an additional, uncontrollable, two-level system. On the other hand, we synthesize the SWAP operator simultaneously, in minimum time, on a pair of two-level systems subject to opposite drifts. We assume that it is possible to perform three independent control actions, and that the total control strength is bounded. These controls either affect the dynamics of the target system, under the first perspective, or, simultaneously, the dynamics of both systems, in the second view. We obtain our results by using techniques of geometric control theory on Lie groups. In particular, we apply the Pontryagin maximum principle, and provide a complete characterization of singular and nonsingular extremals. Our analysis shows that the problem can be formulated as the motion of a material point in a central force, a well known system in classical mechanics. Although we focus on obtaining the SWAP operator, many of the ideas and techniques developed in this work apply to the time optimal implementation of an arbitrary unitary operator. Work supported by ARO MURI under Grant W911NF-11-1-0268.

  13. Noise levels from a model turbofan engine with simulated noise control measures applied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David G.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A study of estimated full-scale noise levels based on measured levels from the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) sub-scale model is presented. Testing of this model was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) estimates for the baseline configuration are documented, and also used as the control case in a study of the potential benefits of two categories of noise control. The effect of active noise control is evaluated by artificially removing various rotor-stator interaction tones. Passive noise control is simulated by applying a notch filter to the wind tunnel data. Cases with both techniques are included to evaluate hybrid active-passive noise control. The results for EPNL values are approximate because the original source data was limited in bandwidth and in sideline angular coverage. The main emphasis is on comparisons between the baseline and configurations with simulated noise control measures.

  14. A Qualitative Study of African-American Female Administrators in the Academy: Identification of Characteristics That Contribute to Their Advancement to Senior Level Positions of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Lee, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study explored the (a) self-identity and individual experiences of five African American female higher education administrators, (b) educational and background preparedness of each African American female administrator, (c) individual support mechanisms of each African American female administrator, (i.e., mentoring, community and…

  15. Dynamic control of flood limited water level for reservoir operation by considering inflow uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Chen, Guiya

    2010-09-01

    SummaryAccording to the Chinese Flood Control Act, reservoir water levels generally are not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season in order to offer adequate storage for flood prevention. However, the operation rules based on the current FLWL have neglected meteorological and real-time flood forecasting information and give too much priority to low probability floods. For floodwater utilization, dynamic control of reservoir FLWL is a valuable and effective methodology to compromise between flood control and conservation for reservoir operation during the flood season. The dynamic control bound is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir FLWL dynamic control operation. In this paper, a dynamic control operation model that considers inflow uncertainty, i.e. the inflow forecasting error and uncertainty of the flood hydrograph shape is proposed and developed. The model consists of three modules: the first one is a pre-release module, which is used to estimate the upper boundary of dynamic control bound on basis of inflow forecasting results; the second one is a refill operation module, which is used to retain recession flood, and the third one is a risk analysis module, which is used to assess flood risk. The acceptable flood control operation risk constraints and quantificational analysis methods are given, and the dynamic control bound of reservoir FLWL is estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. The China's three gorges reservoir (TGR) is selected as a case study. A multiple-input single-output linear systematic model is chosen for inflow forecasting of the TGR, and the future inflows are derived from gauged records by assuming that the inflow forecasting error follows a normal distribution. The application results show that the dynamic control of reservoir FLWL can effectively increase hydropower generation and the floodwater utilization rate without increasing flood control risk.

  16. Lithium-ion battery cell-level control using constrained model predictive control and equivalent circuit models

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, MA; Trimboli, MS

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel application of model predictive control (MPC) to cell-level charging of a lithium-ion battery utilizing an equivalent circuit model of battery dynamics. The approach employs a modified form of the MPC algorithm that caters for direct feed-though signals in order to model near-instantaneous battery ohmic resistance. The implementation utilizes a 2nd-order equivalent circuit discrete-time state-space model based on actual cell parameters; the control methodology is used to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints. Results show that MPC is well-suited to the dynamics of the battery control problem and further suggest significant performance improvements might be achieved by extending the result to electrochemical models. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Elastomer-based opto-thermo-mechanical actuation for autonomous, self-powered light level control.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Rabin; Kim, Jaeyoun

    2014-09-01

    We present an autonomous, self-powered solar light controller based on functional integration of a flexible cantilever light guide and a paraffin wax-based optothermal actuator. The controller utilizes the optothermally induced volume increase in the elastomer-encapsulated paraffin wax to produce pneumatic force, which subsequently actuates the cantilever light guide to control the level of frustrated total internal reflection. In its linear response regime, it demonstrated 33% reduction in light intensity fluctuation in terms of the root-mean-square value. PMID:25321367

  18. The impact of asthma control on salivary cortisol level in adult asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Liu, Jing Nan; Kim, Joo-Hee; Nam, Young-Hee; Choi, Gil Soon; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease causing psychological stress which leads to the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The purpose of this study is to compare morning salivary cortisol levels in persistent asthma patients according to their disease severities and control status. Total 206 adult asthma patients were recruited from four university hospitals. Spirometry, questionnaire of Asthma Quality of Life (AQOL) and Asthma Control Test (ACT) were completed, and saliva samples were collected prospectively to measure morning cortisol level. The mean patient age was 56.5±15.3 years with mean asthma duration of 9.1±11.1 years. Sixty five patents (31.6%) were classified as mild persistent asthma, and 141 patients (68.4%) were classified as moderate persistent asthma according to the Expert Panel Report 3. The mean predicted FEV1 was 88.8%±18.4%, and the methacholine PC20 was 9.6±8.5 mg/mL in all study population. The mean ACT score for all patients was 19.9±3.6, and there were 71 (34.5%) patients in poorly controlled and 135 (65.5%) in well controlled asthma. The poorly controlled asthma patients were characterized by significantly lower FEV1 (84.6%±17.6% vs 91.1%±18.5%, P=0.018), lower AQOL scores (46.0±13.9 vs 73.8±26.3, P<0.001), and lower salivary cortisol levels (0.14±0.08 vs 0.18±0.11 µg/dL, P=0.04) compared to well controlled asthma. The ACT score was significantly related to salivary cortisol levels (P=0.034) after adjusting for age. There was no significant difference in salivary cortisol levels (0.17±0.12 vs 0.16±0.08, P=0.725) when analyzed according to the dose of used corticosteroid and lung function. Asthma control status affects morning salivary cortisol level. Measuring the morning salivary cortisol level might be a simple and new way to assess asthma control status.

  19. Altered extracellular levels of DOPAC and HVA in the rat nucleus accumbens shell in response to sub-chronic nandrolone administration and a subsequent amphetamine challenge.

    PubMed

    Birgner, Carolina; Kindlundh-Högberg, Anna M S; Nyberg, Fred; Bergström, Lena

    2007-01-29

    Associated with acts of violence and polydrug use, abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is an increasing problem in society. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether sub-chronic treatment with the AAS nandrolone decanoate affects dopamine release and dopamine metabolism in the rat nucleus accumbens shell, before and after an amphetamine challenge. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received daily i.m. injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 days. On day 15, the animals were anaesthetized and a microdialysis probe was implanted into the nucleus accumbens shell. Extracellular fluid was collected 1h before and 3h after a single amphetamine injection (5 mg/kg). The samples were then analyzed regarding the content of dopamine, and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Two weeks of nandrolone decanoate administration caused a significant decrease of the basal DOPAC and HVA levels, which remained low during the first hour following the amphetamine challenge. Dopamine levels did not differ significantly between groups, neither after the nandrolone pre-treatment nor the amphetamine challenge. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that AAS alter the metabolism of dopamine in a brain region involved in the development of drug dependence.

  20. Correlations between the Memory-Related Behavior and the Level of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Mice Brain, Provoked by an Acute Administration of CB Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Slomka, Tomasz; Budzynska, Barbara; Biala, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptors, is involved in memory-related responses, as well as in processes that may affect cognition, like oxidative stress processes. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate the impact of CB1 and CB2 receptor ligands on the long-term memory stages in male Swiss mice, using the passive avoidance (PA) test, as well as the influence of these compounds on the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in the mice brain. A single injection of a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, AM 251, improved long-term memory acquisition and consolidation in the PA test in mice, while a mixed CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 impaired both stages of cognition. Additionally, JWH 133, a selective CB2 receptor agonist, and AM 630, a competitive CB2 receptor antagonist, significantly improved memory. Additionally, an acute administration of the highest used doses of JWH 133, WIN 55,212-2, and AM 630, but not AM 251, increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the brain. In turn, the processes of lipids peroxidation, expressed as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), were more advanced in case of AM 251. Thus, some changes in the PA performance may be connected with the level of oxidative stress in the brain. PMID:26839719

  1. Preprogrammed capillarity to passively control system-level sequential and parallel microfluidic flows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2013-06-01

    In microfluidics, capillarity-driven solution flow is often beneficial, owing to its inherently spontaneous motion. However, it is commonly perceived that, in an integrated microfluidic system, the passive capillarity control alone can hardly achieve well-controlled sequential and parallel flow of multiple solutions. Despite this common notion, we hereby demonstrate system-level sequential and parallel microfluidic flow processing by fully passive capillarity-driven control. After manual loading of solutions with a pipette, a network of microfluidic channels passively regulates the flow timing of the multiple solution menisci in a sequential and synchronous manner. Also, use of auxiliary channels and preprogramming of inlet-well meniscus pressure and channel fluidic conductance allow for controlling the flow direction of multiple solutions in our microfluidic system. With those components orchestrated in a single device chip, we show preprogrammed flow control of 10 solutions. The demonstrated system-level flow control proves capillarity as a useful means even for sophisticated microfluidic processing without any actively controlled valves and pumps.

  2. Model Predictive Wind Turbine Control with Move-Blocking Strategy for Load Alleviation and Power Leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassmann, U.; Dickler, S.; Zierath, J.; Hakenberg, M.; Abel, D.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution presents a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) with moveblocking strategy for combined power leveling and load alleviation in wind turbine operation with a focus on extreme loads. The controller is designed for a 3 MW wind turbine developed by W2E Wind to Energy GmbH and compared to a baseline controller, using a classic control scheme, which currently operates the wind turbine. All simulations are carried out with a detailed multibody simulation turbine model implemented in alaska/Wind. The performance of the two different controllers is compared using a 50-year Extreme Operation Gust event, since it is one of the main design drivers for the wind turbine considered in this work. The implemented MPC is able to level electrical output power and reduce mechanical loads at the same time. Without de-rating the achieved control results, a move-blocking strategy is utilized and allowed to reduce the computational burden of the MPC by more than 50% compared to a baseline MPC implementation. This even allows to run the MPC on a state of the art Programmable Logic Controller.

  3. Serum Chromium Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Its Association with Glycaemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, Senthil; Nair, Lal Devayanivasudevan; Karuthodiyil, Rajendran; Vijayarajan, Nikhilan; Gnanasekar, Rajiv; Kapil, Vivian V.; Mohamed, Azeem S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chromium is an essential micronutrient which is required for the normal functioning of insulin and regulation of blood sugar levels. It acts as a vital antioxidant for maintaining insulin homeostasis. In diabetes mellitus, the free radical production is increased and levels of antioxidants like chromium, vanadium, selenium and manganese are reduced. There have been previous studies to suggest that low serum levels of chromium are associated with poorer glycaemic control. Aim To study the level of serum chromium in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with glycaemic control. Materials and Methods Serum chromium concentration was determined by using inductively coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectophotometry in 42 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without any pre-existing complications. They were divided into 2 groups – well controlled (HbA1c ≤7.0%) and uncontrolled groups (HbA1c >7.0%). Results Mean serum chromium concentration measured in uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patients was significantly lower (0.065 ± 0.03 mcg/L vs 0.103 ± 0.04 mcg/L, p< 0.05). There was a statistically significant inverse linear correlation of the HbA1c values and the serum chromium concentration (r= -0.6514, p < 0.0001). There was also a decrease in chromium levels across both the groups with advancing age and the decrease being significant beyond 40 years of age (p<0.05). Conclusion The results of our study describes the relationship between serum chromium levels and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Significant reduction in chromium levels are probable indicators of metabolic response to oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further large scale studies relating serum chromium and type 2 diabetes mellitus may help to understand more about the exact relationship. PMID:26676175

  4. Synrift sedimentation in the Gulf of Suez rift controlled by eustatic sea level variations

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Laterally persistent stratigraphic variations in the southern Gulf of Suez rift indicate that eustatic variations in sea level predominate over local tectonic effects in controlling Neogene basin-fill sedimentation. Low sea level allows extensive erosion of tilt-block crests and rift shoulders, sending clastic aprons into the intervening subbasins and allowing evaporite deposition. High sea level minimizes clastic input, allowing marls and shales to build up off structure and reefs to form on and around tilt blocks. Thus variations in sediment character indicate relative sea level. Early rifting events in the upper Oligocene are marked by deposition of continental red beds. Overlying lowest Miocene clastics and evaporites are cut by a lower Burdigalian unconformity, indicating a minor transgression in the Aquitanian. Above a disconformity, laterally varying clastics and evaporites suggest regression followed by intermittent shallow-water conditions. A higher unconformity is overlain by thick cyclic evaporites representing periodic flooding and drying of the rift, a result of sea level remaining close to the height of the Suez sill to the north. A major Messinian unconformity cuts the section, indicating major regression, and is overlain by largely clastic sediments of both continental and marine affinities, showing rapid sea level fluctuations. Regional synrift sedimentation has been controlled more by eustatic sea level change, modified by the Suez sill to the north, than by tectonic movements within the rift.

  5. The selective dopamine uptake inhibitor, D-84, suppresses cocaine self-administration, but does not occasion cocaine-like levels of generalization.

    PubMed

    Batman, Angela M; Dutta, Aloke K; Reith, Maarten E A; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2010-12-01

    A successful replacement pharmacotherapy for treating cocaine dependency would likely reduce cocaine's abuse, support a low abuse liability, overlap cocaine's subjective effects, and have a long duration of action. Inhibitors with varying selectivity at the dopamine transporter (DAT) have approximated these properties. The objective of the present study was to characterize the behavioural effects of an extremely selective DAT inhibitor, (+) trans-4-(2-Benzhydryloxyethyl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl) piperadin-3-ol (D-84), a 3-hydroxy substituted piperidine derivative of GBR-12935, for its cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects, its effects on cocaine self-administration, and for its own self-administration. During cocaine discrimination tests, cocaine occasioned the 10 mg/kg cocaine training stimulus with an ED(50) value of 3.13 (1.54-6.34) mg/kg, and reduced response rates with an ED(50) value of 20.39 (7.24-57.44) mg/kg. D-84 incompletely generalized to the cocaine stimulus occasioning a maximal 76% cocaine-lever responding, while reducing response rates with lower potency than cocaine (ED(50)=30.94 (12.34-77.60) mg/kg). Pretreatment with D-84 (9.6-30.4 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced cocaine intake at 17.1 mg/kg D-84 when cocaine was self-administered at 0.5 mg/kg/infusion, and at 30.4 mg/kg D-84 when cocaine was self-administered at 0.1, 0.5 .and 1.0 mg/kg/infusion. During self-administration tests with D-84 (0.1-1 mg/kg/infusion), numbers of infusions significantly exceeded vehicle levels at 0.3 mg/kg/infusion. These results show that D-84 pretreatment can decrease cocaine intake especially when high doses of cocaine are being self-administered. This observation, combined with its incomplete generalization to the cocaine discriminative stimulus and its reported long duration of action, provides a profile consistent with a potential replacement therapy for treating cocaine-abusing patients.

  6. Radioimmunoassay for 6-D-tryptophan analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Vigh, S.; Comaru-Schally, A.M.; Redding, T.W.; Somogyvari-Vigh, A.; Horvath, J.; Schally, A.V.

    1985-03-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for (6-D-tryptophan)luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ((D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH) was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH from a long-acting delivery systems based on a microcapsule formulation. Rabbit antibodies were generated against (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. Crossreactivity with LH-RH was less than 1%; there was no significant cross-reactivity with other peptides. The minimal detectable dose of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH was 2 pg per tube. In tra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 8% and 10%, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was suitable for direct determination of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH in serum, permitting the study of blood levels of the analog after single injections into normal men and after one-a-month administration of microcapsules to rats. In men, 90 min after subcutaneous injection of 250 ..mu..g of the peptide, serum (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH rose to 6-12 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone was increased 90 min and 24 hr after the administration of the analog. Several batches of microcapsules were tested in rats and the rate of release of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH was followed. The improved batch of microcapsules of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH increased serum concentrations of the analog for 30 days or longer after intramuscular injection.

  7. Output-Level Control of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier by External Light Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morito, Ken

    2005-12-01

    A method of controlling the output level of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) that accepts a wide range of input power and delivers constant output power was experimentally studied. It is demonstrated that external light injection into SOAs could change the signal gain by varying the depth of gain saturation while retaining their saturation output power. This feature is very important in SOAs when amplifying signals modulated in the gigabit-per-second (Gb/s) range because the average output level of SOAs must be limited to a value several decibels lower than the saturation output power to prevent signal distortions due to the pattern effect. For signals modulated at 10 Gb/s in the nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) format, the upper limit for allowable signal input power increased by > 13.5 dB, while retaining good eye patterns in a signal-wavelength range between 1530 and 1560 nm. Consequently, output-level control with a constant output power of +10 dBm was demonstrated for a wide input dynamic range of 13.5 dB in the signal-wavelength range. This method of controlling the output level of SOAs is promising for equalizing the signal power in future photonic network systems because the short carrier lifetime of SOAs can provide extremely fast gain control.

  8. Salivary Biomarker Levels and Diurnal Variation: Associations with Medications Prescribed to Control Children's Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors and levels of, and diurnal variation in, salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva was collected in the morning, midday, and afternoon from 432 children ages 6-13 years. Relative to a no-medication…

  9. A low-level asbestos exposure case-control epidemiology study

    SciTech Connect

    Ocasio-Alvarex, A.

    1988-01-01

    The potential for low levels of airborne asbestos exposure in public schools and in public and commercial buildings in the United States has generated concern due to the large population at risk and the definite human carcinogenicity of asbestos at high levels. To assist in the clarification of the risk associated with low level asbestos exposure and in the decision-making in asbestos management in schools and in other buildings, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the risk relationship between low levels of asbestos exposure and pulmonary cancer among Indiana public school teachers. A total of 236 lung cancer cases and 154 controls to be used in this case-control study were identified from a previous proportionate mortality rate study which had examined over 8,000 teachers' death certificates. The controls were selected from teachers who died of chronic bronchitis, emphysema or a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The teachers' work history and their potential for asbestos exposure, as well as the reliability of the information obtained on the presence or absence of asbestos, was determined to calculate the odds ratio.

  10. Examining Perceived Control Level and Instability as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Hall, Nathan C.; Guay, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraindividual level and instability of perceived academic control (PC) among first-year college students, and their predictive effects on academic achievement. Two studies were conducted measuring situational (state) PC on different schedules: Study 1 (N = 242) five times over a 6-month period and…

  11. Influence of Emotion on the Control of Low-Level Force Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Coombes, Stephen A.; Cauraugh, James H.; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy and variability of a sustained low-level force contraction (2% of maximum voluntary contraction) was measured while participants viewed unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral images during a feedback occluded force control task. Exposure to pleasant and unpleasant images led to a relative increase in force production but did not alter the…

  12. Revealing List-Level Control in the Stroop Task by Uncovering Its Benefits and a Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2011-01-01

    Interference is reduced in mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent lists. Classic accounts of this list-wide proportion congruence effect assume that list-level control processes strategically modulate word reading. Contemporary accounts posit that reliance on the word is modulated poststimulus onset by item-specific information (e.g.,…

  13. Converging Evidence for Control of Color-Word Stroop Interference at the Item Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence…

  14. Learning Experiment: Determine Effectiveness of Controlling Environmental Distractions at the Student Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumter, Paul Edward

    The purpose of this study was to see if learning could be improved by controlling the environment at the individual student's level. A pretest, post-test, random choice design was chosen to obtain data from over 900 subjects of technical-vocational schools, area community colleges, and high schools of Iowa, with emphasis on grades 11 and 12 and…

  15. Digitally controlled pulse-level discriminator operates over wide voltage range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cancro, C. A.

    1966-01-01

    Low power drain discriminator circuit generates an output pulse when an input pulse exceeds a discrete digitally controlled threshold voltage. The discriminator operates over a wide linear or nonlinear range of threshold levels. It uses several amplifier stages ahead of a fixed-reference threshold detector.

  16. 40 CFR 63.922 - Standards-Container Level 1 controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards-Container Level 1 controls. 63.922 Section 63.922 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... on a roll-off box) or may be an integral part of the container structural design (e.g., a bulk...

  17. [Behavior of blood glucose level with the administration of micronutrients vitamin d3 and calcium in nondiabetic patients with hyperglycemia in adult intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Rueda Páez, Elsy Victoria; Moncada Parada, Esperanza; Figueroa Melgarejo, Jairo; Ascencio Higuera, Ana Airé

    2015-05-01

    La hiperglucemia sin antecedentes previos de diabetes mellitus (DM) se observa en un alto porcentaje en pacientes de unidades de cuidado intensivo (UCI). Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento de cifras de glucemia en pacientes no diabéticos con hiperglucemia mediante la administración de 2 micronutrientes. Metodología: se realizó un ensayo clínico a 32 pacientes, 16 en el grupo a intervenir y 16 en el grupo control. Al grupo intervenido se le administró desde su ingreso los micronutrientes vitamina D3 en dosis de 1.000 unidades internacionales (UI) y calcio en dosis de 1.000 mg cada 24 horas por un periodo de 72 horas. Resultados: no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la glucemia de ingreso entre los grupos intervenidos y control (152,6 y 153,3 mg/dl respectivamente (p= 0,922), sin embargo a las 72 horas el comportamiento de las glucemias disminuyó significativamente en el grupo intervenido comparado con el grupo control (98,41 y 141,66 mg/dl respectivamente p= < 0,000). Así mismo, se evidenció que la intervención con vitamina D3 y Calcio redujo el riesgo (47%) de desarrollo del evento indeseado (glucemia > 100 mg/dl), mostrando que se deben tratar 2.29 pacientes para disminuir el evento indeseable (NNT). Conclusión: la utilización de los micronutrientes analizados en pacientes críticos sin diagnóstico previo de diabetes requiere de más investigaciones que contemplen las limitaciones aquí planteadas. Dada la poca literatura encontrada de estudios similares, esta investigación proporcionaría otra alternativa en la disminución de la hiperglucemia de éstos pacientes.

  18. Neural Network with Local Memory for Nuclear Reactor Power Level Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uluyol, Oender; Ragheb, Magdi; Tsoukalas, Lefteri

    2001-02-15

    A methodology is introduced for a neural network with local memory called a multilayered local output gamma feedback (LOGF) neural network within the paradigm of locally-recurrent globally-feedforward neural networks. It appears to be well-suited for the identification, prediction, and control tasks in highly dynamic systems; it allows for the presentation of different timescales through incorporation of a gamma memory. A learning algorithm based on the backpropagation-through-time approach is derived. The spatial and temporal weights of the network are iteratively optimized for a given problem using the derived learning algorithm. As a demonstration of the methodology, it is applied to the task of power level control of a nuclear reactor at different fuel cycle conditions. The results demonstrate that the LOGF neural network controller outperforms the classical as well as the state feedback-assisted classical controllers for reactor power level control by showing a better tracking of the demand power, improving the fuel and exit temperature responses, and by performing robustly in different fuel cycle and power level conditions.

  19. Dual transcriptional-translational cascade permits cellular level tuneable expression control

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Rosa; Shankar, Jayendra; Robinson, Christopher J.; Halliwell, Samantha; Butler, Lisa; Upton, Mathew; Hay, Sam; Micklefield, Jason; Dixon, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce gene expression in a small molecule dependent manner has led to many applications in target discovery, functional elucidation and bio-production. To date these applications have relied on a limited set of protein-based control mechanisms operating at the level of transcription initiation. The discovery, design and reengineering of riboswitches offer an alternative means by which to control gene expression. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel tunable recombinant expression system, termed RiboTite, which operates at both the transcriptional and translational level. Using standard inducible promoters and orthogonal riboswitches, a multi-layered modular genetic control circuit was developed to control the expression of both bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and recombinant gene(s) of interest. The system was benchmarked against a number of commonly used E. coli expression systems, and shows tight basal control, precise analogue tunability of gene expression at the cellular level, dose-dependent regulation of protein production rates over extended growth periods and enhanced cell viability. This novel system expands the number of E. coli expression systems for use in recombinant protein production and represents a major performance enhancement over and above the most widely used expression systems. PMID:26405200

  20. Dual transcriptional-translational cascade permits cellular level tuneable expression control.

    PubMed

    Morra, Rosa; Shankar, Jayendra; Robinson, Christopher J; Halliwell, Samantha; Butler, Lisa; Upton, Mathew; Hay, Sam; Micklefield, Jason; Dixon, Neil

    2016-02-18

    The ability to induce gene expression in a small molecule dependent manner has led to many applications in target discovery, functional elucidation and bio-production. To date these applications have relied on a limited set of protein-based control mechanisms operating at the level of transcription initiation. The discovery, design and reengineering of riboswitches offer an alternative means by which to control gene expression. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel tunable recombinant expression system, termed RiboTite, which operates at both the transcriptional and translational level. Using standard inducible promoters and orthogonal riboswitches, a multi-layered modular genetic control circuit was developed to control the expression of both bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and recombinant gene(s) of interest. The system was benchmarked against a number of commonly used E. coli expression systems, and shows tight basal control, precise analogue tunability of gene expression at the cellular level, dose-dependent regulation of protein production rates over extended growth periods and enhanced cell viability. This novel system expands the number of E. coli expression systems for use in recombinant protein production and represents a major performance enhancement over and above the most widely used expression systems. PMID:26405200

  1. Bending Two-Dimensional Materials To Control Charge Localization and Fermi-Level Shift.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liping; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P

    2016-04-13

    High-performance electronics requires the fine control of semiconductor conductivity. In atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials, traditional doping technique for controlling carrier concentration and carrier type may cause crystal damage and significant mobility reduction. Contact engineering for tuning carrier injection and extraction and carrier type may suffer from strong Fermi-level pinning. Here, using first-principles calculations, we predict that mechanical bending, as a unique attribute of thin 2D materials, can be used to control conductivity and Fermi-level shift. We find that bending can control the charge localization of top valence bands in both MoS2 and phosphorene nanoribbons. The donor-like in-gap edge-states of armchair MoS2 ribbon and their associated Fermi-level pinning can be removed by bending. A bending-controllable new in-gap state and accompanying direct-indirect gap transition are predicted in armchair phosphorene nanoribbon. We demonstrate that such emergent bending effects are realizable. The bending stiffness as well as the effective thickness of 2D materials are also derived from first principles. Our results are of fundamental and technological relevance and open new routes for designing functional 2D materials for applications in which flexuosity is essential.

  2. The Prevalence and Determinants of Controlled Substance Discrepancies in a Level I Trauma Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Chukwuma; Egwim, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare institutions are often faced with challenges and accreditation requirements for improving treatment quality, reducing waste, and avoiding diversion of drugs, particularly controlled substances. Many automated systems have replaced manual systems but may be fraught with challenges, especially when multiple users are involved. Objective To describe the characteristics of controlled substance discrepancies observed in a Level I trauma hospital for Medicare. Methods Discrepancy data were captured for each user involved in a transaction for a controlled substance at the Level I trauma hospital (in Ben Taub Hospital, Houston, TX), and the information was stored in a computerized database repository. Data for the 1-year study period (from January 1 through December 31, 2013) were collected for Medicare beneficiaries, using an Excel 2013 spreadsheet, and were analyzed according to basic discrepancy characteristics and descriptive statistics. Results During the 12-month study period, 114,000 controlled substance discrepancies were found for 100,000 Medicare patients at this Level I trauma hospital. Vending activities accounted for the majority (52.6%) of these discrepancies. Discrepancies were most likely to occur on Wednesdays, and the medications involved most frequently were combination drugs of hydrocodone and acetaminophen. Conclusion Approximately 1 (1.14) discrepancy involving a controlled substance occurred for each Medicare patient treated at the study facility. Healthcare institutions need to improve their efforts to ensure high-quality care and prevent diversion of drugs. PMID:27606038

  3. Comparison of serum levels of copper and zinc among multiple sclerosis patients and control group

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Behnaz; Ebrahimi, Hossein Ali; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been several studies done on the role of metals in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease, but their roles have not been confirmed yet. Because of the lack of information on this issue, this study compared the serum level of copper and zinc in MS patients with their levels in a control group. Methods This was an analytical, cross-sectional study conducted in Kerman (a medium size city), Iran. We assessed the serum level of copper and zinc in 58 MS patients and 39 healthy individuals, who were selected from the relatives of cases and matched for age and sex. Results The average serum level of Copper in cases and controls were 93.7 and 88.9 ml/dl, respectively. The corresponding numbers for Zinc were 36.7 and 40.9 ml/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (copper: P = 0.459; zinc: P = 0.249). Conclusion The groups were matched for age, sex, and family. However, we did not find a considerable difference between the level of these metals in MS patients and controls. PMID:24250921

  4. Levels of heroin and its metabolites in blood and brain extracellular fluid after i.v. heroin administration to freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Gottås, A; Øiestad, E L; Boix, F; Vindenes, V; Ripel, Å; Thaulow, C H; Mørland, J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Heroin, with low affinity for μ-opioid receptors, has been considered to act as a prodrug. In order to study the pharmacokinetics of heroin and its active metabolites after i.v. administration, we gave a bolus injection of heroin to rats and measured the concentration of heroin and its metabolites in blood and brain extracellular fluid (ECF). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH After an i.v. bolus injection of heroin to freely moving Sprague–Dawley rats, the concentrations of heroin and metabolites in blood samples from the vena jugularis and in microdialysis samples from striatal brain ECF were measured by ultraperformance LC-MS/MS. KEY RESULTS Heroin levels decreased very fast, both in blood and brain ECF, and could not be detected after 18 and 10 min respectively. 6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) increased very rapidly, reaching its maximal concentrations after 2.0 and 4.3 min, respectively, and falling thereafter. Morphine increased very slowly, reaching its maximal levels, which were six times lower than the highest 6-MAM concentrations, after 12.6 and 21.3 min, with a very slow decline during the rest of the experiment and only surpassing 6-MAM levels at least 30 min after injection. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS After an i.v. heroin injection, 6-MAM was the predominant opioid present shortly after injection and during the first 30 min, not only in the blood but also in rat brain ECF. 6-MAM might therefore mediate most of the effects observed shortly after heroin intake, and this finding questions the general assumption that morphine is the main and most important metabolite of heroin. PMID:23865556

  5. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  6. Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

  7. Interrelation of resting state functional connectivity, striatal GABA levels, and cognitive control processes.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lauren; Quetscher, Clara; Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Dydak, Ulrike; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Beste, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Important issues for cognitive control are response selection processes, known to depend on fronto-striatal networks with recent evidence suggesting that striatal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels play an important role. Regional GABA concentrations have also been shown to modulate intrinsic connectivity, e.g. of the default mode network. However, the interrelation between striatal GABA levels, basal ganglia network (BGN) connectivity, and performance in cognitive control is elusive. In the current study, we measure striatal GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and resting state parameters using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting state parameters include activity within the BGN, as determined by the low frequency power (LFP) within the network, and the functional connectivity between the BGN and somatomotor network (SMN). Specifically, we examine the interrelation between GABA, resting state parameters, and performance (i.e., accuracy) in conflict monitoring using a Simon task. Response control was affected by striatal GABA+ levels and activity within the BGN, especially when response selection was complicated by altered stimulus-response mappings. The data suggest that there are two mechanisms supporting response selection accuracy. One is related to resting state activity within the BGN and modulated by striatal GABA+ levels. The other is related to decreased cortico-striatal network connectivity, unrelated to the GABAergic system. The inclusion of all three factors (i.e., striatal GABA+ levels, activity within the BGN, and BGN-SMN network connectivity) explained a considerable amount of variance in task accuracy. Striatal neurobiochemical (GABA+) and parameters of the resting state BGN represent important modulators of response control. PMID:26354091

  8. The Effect of Cumin cyminum L. Plus Lime Administration on Weight Loss and Metabolic Status in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Nasrin; Karamali, Fatemeh; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohreh; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited data are available regarding the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight subjects. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the effects of combined administration of Cumin cyminum L. and lime on weight loss and metabolic profiles among subjects with overweight. Patients and Methods This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 72 subjects with overweight, aged 18 - 50 years old. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: Group A received high-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (75 mg each, n = 24), group B low-dose Cumin cyminum L. and lime capsules (25 mg each, n = 24) and group C placebos (n = 24) twice daily for eight weeks. Results After eight weeks of intervention, compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, taking high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime resulted in significant weight loss (in the high-dose group: -2.1 ± 1.7 vs. in the low-dose group: -1.2 ± 1.5 and in the placebo group: + 0.2 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.001) and body mass index (-0.8 ± 0.6 vs. -0.5 ± 0.5 and +0.1 ± 0.5 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, administration of high-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime compared with low-dose C. cyminum L. plus lime and placebo, led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (P < 0.001) and a significant rise in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+ 0.02 ± 0.02 vs. + 0.01 ± 0.02 and 0.01 ± 0.01, respectively; P = 0.01). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (-14.1 ± 56.2 vs. +13.9 ± 36.8 and + 10.6 ± 25.1 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.03), total-cholesterol (-18.4 ± 28.6 vs. +8.6 ± 28.5 and -1.0 ± 24.8 mg/dL; respectively; P = 0.004) and low density lipoproteins- (LDL)-cholesterol levels (-11.8 ± 20.7 vs. +6.5 ± 23.2 and -2.9 ± 20.4 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.01) was observed following the consumption of

  9. The influence of combined magnesium and vanadate administration on the level of some elements in selected rat organs: V-Mg interactions and the role of iron-essential protein (DMT-1) in the mechanism underlying altered tissues iron level.

    PubMed

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Gołębiowska, Dorota; Niedźwiecka, Irmina; Fornal, Emilia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of 12 week co-administration of sodium metavanadate (SMV) and magnesium sulfate (MS) on the levels of some elements in selected rats' organs and an attempt to elucidate a role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT-1) in the mechanism(s) of the SMV-induced disorders in some tissue Fe homeostasis were studied. SMV taken up separately or in combination with MS may pose a risk of the rise and shortage of the total hepatic and splenic Fe and Cu contents, respectively, cerebral Fe deficiency, splenic Ca deposition, and the hepatic, renal, and cerebral DMT-1 down-regulation. When administered alone, SMV may also cause the decrease in the total renal Fe and Cu contents. A visible protective effect of Mg against the renal and cerebral V accumulation and the decrease in the renal Fe and Cu contents during the SMV-MS co-administration together with our previous findings suggest a beneficial role of Mg at SMV exposure. Further, the SMV-induced fall in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), reported previously, and its correlations with the hepatic, splenic, and cerebral Fe levels allow us to suggest that diminished TIBC could be partly involved in the mechanism(s) responsible for the dramatic redistribution of Fe in those tissues. Finally, DMT-1, which potentially could participate in the hepatic non-transferrin Fe-bound uptake, does not play a significant role in this process indicating the need for studying other Fe transporters to more precisely elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying the hepatic Fe loading in our experimental conditions.

  10. Joint operation and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels for mixed cascade reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chongyu

    2014-11-01

    Reservoirs are one of the most efficient infrastructures for integrated water resources development and management; and play a more and more important role in flood control and conservation. Dynamic control of the reservoir flood limiting water level (FLWL) is a valuable and effective approach to compromise the flood control, hydropower generation and comprehensive utilization of water resources of river basins during the flood season. The dynamic control models of FLWL for a single reservoir and cascade reservoirs have been extended for a mixed reservoir system in this paper. The proposed model consists of a dynamic control operation module for a single reservoir, a dynamic control operation module for cascade reservoirs, and a joint operation module for mixed cascade reservoir systems. The Three Gorges and Qingjiang cascade reservoirs in the Yangtze River basin of China are selected for a case study. Three-hour inflow data series for representative hydrological years are used to test the model. The results indicate that the proposed model can make an effective tradeoff between flood control and hydropower generation. Joint operation and dynamic control of FLWL can generate 26.4 × 108 kW h (3.47%) more hydropower for the mixed cascade reservoir systems and increase the water resource utilization rate by 3.72% for the Three Gorges reservoir and 2.42% for the Qingjiang cascade reservoirs without reducing originally designed flood prevention standards.

  11. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized control of air power at operational level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arisoy, Uǧur

    2014-05-01

    People do not want to see and hear a war. In today's world, if war is inevitable, the use of air power is seen as the preferable means of conducting operations instead of financially burdensome land battles which are more likely to cause heavy loss of life. The use of Air Power has gained importance in NATO operations in the Post-Cold War era. For example, air power has undertaken a decisive role from the beginning to the end of the operation in Libya. From this point of view, the most important issue to consider is how to direct air power more effectively at operational level. NATO's Core JFAC (Joint Force Air Command) was established in 2012 to control joint air power at operational level from a single center. US had experienced JFAC aproach in the Operation Desert Storm in 1991. UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain are also directing their air power from their JFAC structures. Joint air power can be directed from a single center at operational level by means of JFAC. JFAC aproach provides complex planning progress of Air Power to be controled faster in a single center. An Air Power with a large number of aircrafts, long range missiles of cutting-edge technology may have difficulties in achieving results unless directed effectively. In this article, directing air power more effectively at operational level has been studied in the framework of directing air power from a single center carried out by SWOT analysis technique. "Directing Air Power at operational level from a single center similar to JFAC-like structure" is compared with "Directing Air Power at operational level from two centers similar to AC (Air Command) + CAOC (Combined Air Operations Center) structure" As a result of this study, it is assessed that directing air power at operational level from a single center would bring effectiveness to the air campaign. The study examines directing air power at operational level. Developments at political, strategic and tactical levels have been ignored.

  12. Exercise increases serum endostatin levels in female and male patients with diabetes and controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels, most notably plaques. The angiostatic parameter endostatin is able to inhibit angiogenesis in tissue as well as in plaques and therefore plays an important role in physiological and pathological neovascularisation. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences and the influence of exercise on circulating endostatin levels in patients suffering from diabetes, and control subjects. Methods In total, 42 T2DM-patients and 45 control subjects were investigated. They underwent a graded physical stress test (ergometry). Serum endostatin levels were measured in venous blood at rest and directly after reaching maximum workload. Results Females showed significantly higher endostatin levels at baseline measurements compared to men, independently of their underlying disease. In both female and male T2DM-patients endostatin levels were significantly lower compared to controls. Both groups and sexes showed a significant increase of endostatin after physical stress, whereas the extent of endostatin-increase was between 10.59-15.05%. Conclusion Middle-aged healthy female individuals as well as female T2DM-patients showed higher circulating serum endostatin levels compared to males, suggesting a hormonal influence on baseline circulating endostatin amounts. Exercise-induced increase in endostatin is also observable in patients suffering from T2DM. Concerning vascularisation, lower endostatin levels in T2DM might be advantageous. Concerning plaque stability, lower levels might be prejudicial. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01165515 PMID:24393402

  13. Using a Policy Classification Model to Analyze Major Changes Regarding Control and Administration of Policies Relative to Professional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Ernest J.; Walker, John H.

    There has been a diversity of activity to change policies relating to the recruitment, admission, and preparation of new educational professionals in college and university settings. These policies, coupled with state mandated polices to upgrade the competence of current teachers and administrators, has resulted in a great amount of policy to…

  14. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Pressure Wound Therapy; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT).'' This guidance document describes a means by which non-powered suction... Device Intended for Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT)'' to the Division of Small...

  15. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... for the Topical Approximation of Skin; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Intended for the Topical Approximation of Skin.'' This guidance document describes a means by which tissue adhesives with adjunct wound closure devices intended for the topical approximation of skin may comply...

  16. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    PubMed Central

    Ransom, Jason I; Powers, Jenny G; Thompson Hobbs, N; Baker, Dan L

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife contraception, managers

  17. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  18. Foliar anatomical and morphological variation in Nothofagus pumilio seedlings under controlled irradiance and soil moisture levels.

    PubMed

    Ivancich, Horacio S; Lencinas, María V; Pastur, Guillermo J Martínez; Esteban, Rosina M Soler; Hernández, Luis; Lindstrom, Ivone

    2012-05-01

    Foliar anatomy and morphology are strongly related to physiological performance; therefore, phenotypic plasticity in leaves to variations in environmental conditions, such as irradiance and soil moisture availability, can be related to growth rate and survivorship, mainly during critical growth phases, such as establishment. The aim of this work was to analyze changes in the foliar internal anatomy (tissue proportions and cell dimensions) and external morphology (leaf length, width and area) of Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl.) Krasser seedlings growing in a greenhouse under controlled irradiance (three levels) and soil moisture (two levels) during one growing season (measured three times), and to relate them to physiological traits. Three irradiance levels (4, 26 and 64% of the natural incident light) and two soil moisture levels (40 and 80% soil capacity) were evaluated during November, January and March. Internal foliar anatomy of seedlings was analyzed using digital photographs of histological cuttings, while leaf gross morphology was measured using digital calipers and image analysis software. Most internal anatomical variables presented significant differences under different irradiance levels during the growing season, but differences were not detected between soil moisture levels. Palisade parenchyma was the tissue most sensitive to irradiance levels, and high irradiance levels (64% natural incident light) produced greater values in most of the internal anatomical variables than lower irradiance levels (4-24% natural incident light). Complementarily, larger leaves were observed in medium and low irradiance levels, as well as under low soil moisture levels (40% soil capacity). The relationship of main results with some eco-physiological traits was discussed. Foliar internal anatomical and external morphological plasticity allows quick acclimation of seedlings to environmental changes (e.g., during harvesting). These results can be used to propose new

  19. Differential Control of Interleukin-6 mRNA Levels by Cellular Distribution of YB-1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sujin; Lee, Taeyun A.; Ra, Eun A.; Lee, Eunhye; Choi, Hyun jin; Lee, Sungwook; Park, Boyoun

    2014-01-01

    Cytokine production is essential for innate and adaptive immunity against microbial invaders and must be tightly controlled. Cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) is in constant flux between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and in transcription, splicing, or decay; such processes must be tightly controlled. Here, we report a novel function of Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) in modulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in a cell type-specific manner. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, YB-1 interacts with IL-6 mRNA and actively transports it to the extracellular space by YB-1-enriched vesicles, resulting in the proper maintenance of intracellular IL-6 mRNA levels. YB-1 secretion occurs in a cell type-specific manner. Whereas macrophages actively secret YB-1, dendritic cells maintain it predominantly in the cytoplasm even in response to LPS. Intracellular YB-1 has the distinct function of regulating IL-6 mRNA stability in dendritic cells. Moreover, because LPS differentially regulates the expression of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in macrophages and dendritic cells, this stimulus might control YB-1 acetylation differentially in both cell types. Taken together, these results suggest a unique feature of YB-1 in controlling intracellular IL-6 mRNA levels in a cell type-specific manner, thereby leading to functions that are dependent on the extracellular and intracellular distribution of YB-1. PMID:25398005

  20. [An outpatient clinic measure and control system for anticoagulation levels, CoaguChek XS].

    PubMed

    Romero Guardeño, Araceli; Pérez Lucena, Dolores Amalia

    2009-03-01

    A significant increase during recent years in the number of patients who need Oral Anticoagulant Treatment has meant a greater role for nurses, especially in Primary Health Care Centers, since nurses, along with doctors, are the professionals responsible for treating those patients. This control is carried out by measuring the levels of anticoagulants in the blood, regulating the anticoagulant medicine doses, and providing patients with the essential health education so patients participate in the treatment of their illness. To a large degree, the preponderance of Primary Health Care Centers in the aforementioned control has developed hand-in-hand with the availability of portable, simple and low cost coagulation measuring systems which permit a direct reading of a patient's anticoagulation level with one drop of capillary blood. The objective of this article is introduce the reader to a measuring system appropriate for outpatient clinic control of anticoagulant levels in blood by mans of the CoaguChek XS System, which is described. The authors specify the sample extraction procedure, how to measure coagulant levels, and recommendations to keep in mind while carrying out this procedure. The authors sketch the importance of health education and finally, they describe some advantages and inconveniences this system has.