Science.gov

Sample records for administrative controls alternative

  1. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

  2. Teacher Preferences for Alternative School Site Administrative Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul M.; Denny, George S.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Public school teachers with high leadership potential who stated that they had no interest in being school principals were surveyed on their attitudes about six alternative school site administrative organizational models. Of the 391 teachers surveyed, 53% identified the Co-Principal model as the preferred school site administrative structure. In…

  3. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control is reported. Extensive numerical testing is included. It is indicated that optimal inputs contribute significantly to the process of calculating tensor approximations for nonlinear systems, and that the resulting approximations may be order-reduced in a systematic way.

  4. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control, is reported. The principal new activities involved the initial testing of an input design method for choosing the inputs to a non-linear system to aid the approximation of its tensor parameters, and the beginning of order reduction studies designed to remove unnecessary monomials from tensor models.

  5. Alternator control for battery charging

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  6. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Schafer, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternatives to linear quadratic regulator theory in the linear case are examined along with nonlinear modelling and optimization approaches for global control. Context for the studies has been set by the DYNGEN digital simulator and by models generated for various phases of the F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. With respect to the linear alternatives, the multivariable frequency domain is stressed. Progress is reported in both the direct algebraic approach to exact model matching, by means of stimulating work on the basic computational issues, and in the indirect generalized Nyquist approach. With respect to nonlinear modelling and optimization, the emphasis is twofold: the development of analytical nonlinear models of the jet engine and the use of these models in conjunction with techniques of mathematical programming in order to study global control over nonincremental portions of the flight envelope. The possibility of using tensor methods is explored.

  7. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, R. J.; Sain, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches are developed as alternatives to current design methods which rely heavily on linear quadratic and Riccati equation methods. The main alternatives are discussed in two broad categories, local multivariable frequency domain methods and global nonlinear optimal methods.

  8. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stanley J; Kearns, David N; Cohn, Scott I; Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V

    2003-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that set the occasion wherein drugs are acquired can "trigger" drug-related behavior. Investigating the stimulus control of drug self-administration in laboratory animals should help us better understand this aspect of human drug abuse. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration was generated here for the first time using multiple and chained schedules with short, frequently-alternating components--like those typically used to study food-maintained responding. The procedures and results are presented along with case histories to illustrate the strategies used to produce this stimulus control. All these multicomponent schedules contained variable-interval (VI) components as well as differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) or extinction components. Schedule parameters and unit dose were adjusted for each rat to produce stable, moderate rates in VI components, with minimal postreinforcement (infusion) pausing, and response cessation in extinction and DRO components. Whole-body drug levels on terminal baselines calculated retrospectively revealed that all rats maintained fairly stable drug levels (mean, 2.3 to 3.4 mg/kg) and molar rates of intake (approximately 6.0 mg/kg/hr). Within this range, no relation between local VI response rates and drug level was found. The stimulus control revealed in cumulative records was indistinguishable from that achieved with food under these schedules, suggesting that common mechanisms may underlie the control of cocaine- and food-maintained behavior.

  9. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stanley J; Kearns, David N; Cohn, Scott I; Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V

    2003-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that set the occasion wherein drugs are acquired can "trigger" drug-related behavior. Investigating the stimulus control of drug self-administration in laboratory animals should help us better understand this aspect of human drug abuse. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration was generated here for the first time using multiple and chained schedules with short, frequently-alternating components--like those typically used to study food-maintained responding. The procedures and results are presented along with case histories to illustrate the strategies used to produce this stimulus control. All these multicomponent schedules contained variable-interval (VI) components as well as differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) or extinction components. Schedule parameters and unit dose were adjusted for each rat to produce stable, moderate rates in VI components, with minimal postreinforcement (infusion) pausing, and response cessation in extinction and DRO components. Whole-body drug levels on terminal baselines calculated retrospectively revealed that all rats maintained fairly stable drug levels (mean, 2.3 to 3.4 mg/kg) and molar rates of intake (approximately 6.0 mg/kg/hr). Within this range, no relation between local VI response rates and drug level was found. The stimulus control revealed in cumulative records was indistinguishable from that achieved with food under these schedules, suggesting that common mechanisms may underlie the control of cocaine- and food-maintained behavior. PMID:12696744

  10. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  11. How to Control Administrative Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    1991-01-01

    Growth in college administration has increased costs and bureaucracy. Rather than wait for fiscal crisis or consumer revolt, academic leaders, including faculty and administrators, should initiate change by simplifying activities and procedures and rewarding consolidation. The challenge is to use resources more effectively and efficiently in a…

  12. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Yurkovich, S.; Hill, J. P.; Kingler, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of models of tensor type for a digital simulation of the quiet, clean safe engine (QCSE) gas turbine engine; the extension, to nonlinear multivariate control system design, of the concepts of total synthesis which trace their roots back to certain early investigations under this grant; the role of series descriptions as they relate to questions of scheduling in the control of gas turbine engines; the development of computer-aided design software for tensor modeling calculations; further enhancement of the softwares for linear total synthesis, mentioned above; and calculation of the first known examples using tensors for nonlinear feedback control are discussed.

  13. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  14. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Research centered on basic topics in the modeling and feedback control of nonlinear dynamical systems is reported. Of special interest were the following topics: (1) the role of series descriptions, especially insofar as they relate to questions of scheduling, in the control of gas turbine engines; (2) the use of algebraic tensor theory as a technique for parameterizing such descriptions; (3) the relationship between tensor methodology and other parts of the nonlinear literature; (4) the improvement of interactive methods for parameter selection within a tensor viewpoint; and (5) study of feedback gain representation as a counterpart to these modeling and parameterization ideas.

  15. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Tensor model order reduction, recursive tensor model identification, input design for tensor model identification, software development for nonlinear feedback control laws based upon tensors, and development of the CATNAP software package for tensor modeling, identification and simulation were studied. The last of these are discussed.

  16. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  17. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The research is classified in two categories: (1) the use of modern multivariable frequency domain methods for control of engine models in the neighborhood of a set-point, and (2) the use of nonlinear modelling and optimization techniques for control of engine models over a more extensive part of the flight envelope. Progress in the first category included the extension of CARDIAD (Complex Acceptability Region for Diagonal Dominance) methods developed with the help of the grant to the case of engine models with four inputs and four outputs. A suitable bounding procedure for the dominance function was determined. Progress in the second category had its principal focus on automatic nonlinear model generation. Simulations of models produced satisfactory results where compared with the NASA DYNGEN digital engine deck.

  18. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    Nonlinear modeling researches involving the use of tensor analysis are presented. Progress was achieved by extending the studies to a controlled equation and by considering more complex situations. Included in the report are calculations illustrating the modeling methodology for cases in which variables take values in real spaces of dimension up to three, and in which the degree of tensor term retention is as high as three.

  19. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, R. J.; Sain, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    General goals of the research were classified into two categories. The first category involves the use of modern multivariable frequency domain methods for control of engine models in the neighborhood of a quiescent point. The second category involves the use of nonlinear modelling and optimization techniques for control of engine models over a more extensive part of the flight envelope. In the frequency domain category, works were published in the areas of low-interaction design, polynomial design, and multiple setpoint studies. A number of these ideas progressed to the point at which they are starting to attract practical interest. In the nonlinear category, advances were made both in engine modelling and in the details associated with software for determination of time optimal controls. Nonlinear models for a two spool turbofan engine were expanded and refined; and a promising new approach to automatic model generation was placed under study. A two time scale scheme was developed to do two-dimensional dynamic programming, and an outward spiral sweep technique has greatly speeded convergence times in time optimal calculations.

  20. The issue of control. An administrator's mirage?

    PubMed

    James, A E

    1989-02-01

    The administration of each discipline has a unique ethos that can characterize the human relationships intrinsic to that specialty. A common trait among leaders is that they have an intense desire to feel that they have the proper measure of control; control of the means to affect solutions to the responsibilities they have and some measure of control of their own destiny. The discipline of Radiology and Radiological Sciences has inherent complexities and natural administrative arrangements that make it very difficult to accommodate a feeling of control.

  1. 77 FR 10800 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALTERNATE LATITUDE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... LATITUDE; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... applicant the intended service of the vessel ALTERNATE LATITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of...

  2. Strategies of Administrative Control and Organizational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Bernard C.; Negandhi, Anant R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of 30 manufacturing firms in India indicated that the most effective organizations tended to choose a unidimensional strategy of administrative control. This strategy consisted of the use of formalized procedures to control decentralized decision-making with respect to both human and material resources. (Author)

  3. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  4. Administrative Support and Alternatively Certified Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study on New Teacher Support and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erin M.

    2012-01-01

    A non-experimental study was conducted to examine the perceived administrative support needs of alternatively certified teachers and determine their impact on teacher retention. The study sought to identify the most valued administrative support needs of alternatively-certified teachers; to compare those needs by gender and tier teaching level;…

  5. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  6. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  7. Visual operations control in administrative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, M.L.; Levine, L.O.

    1995-03-01

    When asked what comes to mind when they think of ``controlling work`` in the office, people may respond with ``overbearing boss,`` ``no autonomy,`` or ``Theory X management.`` The idea of controlling work in white collar or administrative environments can have a negative connotation. However, office life is often chaotic and miserable precisely because the work processes are out of control, and managers must spend their time looking over people`s shoulders and fighting fires. While management styles and structures vary, the need for control of work processes does not. Workers in many environments are being reorganized into self-managed work teams. These teams are expected to manage their own work through increased autonomy and empowerment. However, even empowered work teams must manage their work processes because of process variation. The amount of incoming jobs vary with both expected (seasonal) and unexpected demand. The mixture of job types vary over time, changing the need for certain skills or knowledge. And illness and turnover affect the availability of workers with needed skills and knowledge. Clearly, there is still a need to control work, whether the authority for controlling work is vested in one person or many. Visual control concepts provide simple, inexpensive, and flexible mechanisms for managing processes in work teams and continuous improvement administrative environments.

  8. Science, Systems, and Theoretical Alternatives in Educational Administration: The Road Less Travelled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.; Lakomski, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical reflection on ideas that have been published in the "Journal of Educational Administration" over the last 50 years that present perspectives on the nature of educational administration and its various aspects, that are alternatives to the mainstream systems-scientific view of educational…

  9. Designing an Alternate Mission Operations Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.

  10. Chaos Theory: A Scientific Basis for Alternative Research Methods in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peca, Kathy

    This paper has three purposes. First, it places in scientific perspective the growing acceptance in educational administration research of alternative methods to empiricism by an explication of chaos theory and its assumptions. Second, it demonstrates that chaos theory provides a scientific basis for investigation of complex qualitative variables…

  11. Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

  12. Final priority; Rehabilitation Services Administration--Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2014-08-14

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality assistive technology (AT) alternative financing programs (AFPs) that meet rigorous standards in order to enable individuals with disabilities to access and acquire assistive technology devices and services necessary to achieve education, community living, and employment goals.

  13. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  14. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  15. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  16. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  17. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  18. 76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Fish and... (Service), announce a ] meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup...: The meeting will be held at the Lake Champlain Basin Program/Vermont Fish and Wildlife...

  19. 75 FR 82061 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Fish and... (Service), announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup... primary meeting date. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Lake Champlain Basin Program/Vermont...

  20. Nonmicrobial alternative to reagent quality control testing.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, S M

    1982-01-01

    The traditional approach to quality control in microbiology involves the routine testing of both media and reagents with live microbial cultures. This is expensive, time consuming, and subject to the variables associated with the use of live organisms. A system of reagent quality control based on the pure chemical form of the metabolic end products important to the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae was evaluated. The metabolite reagent control system is simple, reliable, and extremely cost effective, and it eliminates the need for live microbial cultures and media for reagent quality control. PMID:6759528

  1. 10. Control Area, Administration Building, interior view of former day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Control Area, Administration Building, interior view of former day room VIEW SOUTHEAST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  2. 9. Control Area, Administration Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Control Area, Administration Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  3. 11. Control Area, Administration Building, interior view of former offices ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Control Area, Administration Building, interior view of former offices VIEW NORTHEAST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  4. 78 FR 16127 - Administration of Reformed Export Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... HOUSE, Washington, March 8, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-05967 Filed 3-12-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... March 13, 2013 Part III The President Executive Order 13637--Administration of Reformed Export Controls... of March 8, 2013 Administration of Reformed Export Controls By the authority vested in me...

  5. Alternatives to FORTRAN in control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Wright, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Control system software has traditionally been written in assembly language, FORTRAN, or Basic. Today there exist several high-level languages with features that make them convenient and effective in control systems. These features include bit manipulation, user-defined data types, character manipulation, and high-level logical operations. Some of theses languages are quite different from FORTRAN and yet are easy to read and use. We discuss several languages, their features that make them convenient for control systems, and give examples of their use. We focus particular attention on the language C, developed by Bell Laboratories.

  6. INFECTION CONTROL IN ALTERNATIVE HEALTHCARE SETTINGS

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Elaine; Chopra, Teena; Mody, Lona

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS With the changing healthcare delivery, patients receive care at various settings including acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, outpatient primary care and specialty clinics, as well as at home, exposing them to pathogens in various settings. Various healthcare settings face unique challenges requiring individualized infection control programs. Infection control programs in skilled nursing facilities should address: surveillance for infections and antimicrobial resistance, outbreak investigation and control plan for epidemics, isolation precautions, hand hygiene, staff education, and employee and resident health programs. Infection control programs in ambulatory clinics should address: Triage and standard – transmission based precautions, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization principles, surveillance in surgical clinics, safe injection practices, and bioterrorism and disaster planning for ambulatory clinics. PMID:21316005

  7. Perceptions of Alternative School Teachers and Administrators about the Impact of the No Child Left behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queenan, Carla Glover

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate and examine the perceptions of alternative school teachers and administrators about the impact of No Child Left Behind on their students and school. Through the lens of alternative school practitioners, this study examined the intersection of at-risk students, alternative education programs,…

  8. The administration`s arms control agenda: Gaining ground under fire

    SciTech Connect

    Holum, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    Its perhaps too easy to forget that Russia is still one country that could inflict overwhelming nuclear devastation on the United States. Russia`s Dumas elections and presidential elections speaks of changes in Russia, but this transformation will take many years and requires our consistent engagement and steady support. The author examines the Clinton Administration`s arms control agenda.

  9. Alternative model for administration and analysis of research-based assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hobbs, Robert D.; Aiken, John M.; Welch, Nathan M.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    Research-based assessments represent a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers interested in improving undergraduate physics education. However, the historical model for disseminating and propagating conceptual and attitudinal assessments developed by the physics education research (PER) community has not resulted in widespread adoption of these assessments within the broader community of physics instructors. Within this historical model, assessment developers create high quality, validated assessments, make them available for a wide range of instructors to use, and provide minimal (if any) support to assist with administration or analysis of the results. Here, we present and discuss an alternative model for assessment dissemination, which is characterized by centralized data collection and analysis. This model provides a greater degree of support for both researchers and instructors in order to more explicitly support adoption of research-based assessments. Specifically, we describe our experiences developing a centralized, automated system for an attitudinal assessment we previously created to examine students' epistemologies and expectations about experimental physics. This system provides a proof of concept that we use to discuss the advantages associated with centralized administration and data collection for research-based assessments in PER. We also discuss the challenges that we encountered while developing, maintaining, and automating this system. Ultimately, we argue that centralized administration and data collection for standardized assessments is a viable and potentially advantageous alternative to the default model characterized by decentralized administration and analysis. Moreover, with the help of online administration and automation, this model can support the long-term sustainability of centralized assessment systems.

  10. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  11. The administration`s non-proliferation and export control policy

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    On September 27, during his speech to the United Nations, President Bill Clinton outlined his administration`s arm control policies, urging tighter restraints on international export control policies and measures to enhance nuclear non-proliferation. That same day, the White House released a fact sheet summarizing the framework for U.S. efforts to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles that deliver them.

  12. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  13. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has... outlined above for milk or cream, then such a program may be accepted in lieu of the program...

  14. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has... outlined above for milk or cream, then such a program may be accepted in lieu of the program...

  15. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has... outlined above for milk or cream, then such a program may be accepted in lieu of the program...

  16. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has... outlined above for milk or cream, then such a program may be accepted in lieu of the program...

  17. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has... outlined above for milk or cream, then such a program may be accepted in lieu of the program...

  18. Alternative control techniques document: Industrial cleaning solvents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The report provides alternative control techniques (ACT) for State and local agencies to consider for incorporating in rules to limit emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) that otherwise result from industrial cleaning with organic solvents.

  19. 77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing number not listed, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF RISK MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROLLING MOLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. Six areas of research have been addressed: 1. a search for alternatives to prevent and control growth of mold by quantifying the effects of moisture, relative humidity and...

  3. Computer Generated Ability Complements as an Alternative to Continuous Hierarchy Positions: A Cybernetic Model of School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Ron Roy

    The design of an alternative administrative structure related to the cybernetic era and its organizational characteristics are discussed. In View of the role of electronic information systems today, it would be valuable to synthesize the six perspectives of administration--leader, manager, change agent, theorist, planner, and futurist--to provide…

  4. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  5. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described.

  6. Dual ambroxal and chlorpheniramine resinate as an alternative carrier in concurrent resinate administration.

    PubMed

    Akkaramongkolporn, P; Ngawhirunpat, T

    2003-03-01

    Two classical resinates, ambroxal (AMX) resinate and chlorpheniramine (CPM) resinate, and a novel formulation of dual AMX and CPM resinate were prepared by the batch method. The dissolution behavior of the drug from the classical resinates, a mixture of two classical resinates, and the dual-drug resinate in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was examined and compared. The equilibrium of drug on to the resin and the re-exchange of the drug on to the resinate were also investigated. The drug release pattern from the resinate followed the particle diffusion process. The type of dissolution medium affected the amount of drug released from the resinate. The amount of drug released from the dual AMX and CPM resinate was not significantly different from that from the classical AMX resinate or CPM resinate (p < 0.05), but was considerably higher than that from the concurrent administration of two classical resinates (p > 0.05). These results indicated that the concurrent administration of the resinates affected drug release from the resinate, and the dual-drug resinate can be used as an alternative carrier for an ion-exchange delivery system.

  7. Oxytocin administration enhances controlled social cognition in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, J.D.; Chuang, B.; Lam, O.; Lai, W.; O’Donovan, A.; Rankin, K.P.; Mathalon, D.H.; Vinogradov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. Methods We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58) = 8.75; p = 0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Discussion Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of

  8. Alternative control technology document: Ethylene oxide sterilization/fumigation operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This report presents technical information that State and local agencies can use to develop strategies for reducing VOC (i.e., EO) emissions for sterilization/fumigation facilities. The information in the document will allow planners to identify available control alternatives and evaluate the VOC reduction and cost of implementing controls. The document provides information on sterilization/fumigation processes, EO (ethylene oxide) emissions, and emission reductions, and cost associated with the application of control units. Section 2.0 presents a summary of the findings of the study. Section 3.0 provides a description of sterilization/fumigation facility operations and emission sources. Section 4.0 provides a description of alternative control techniques for the reduction of ethylene oxide emissions. Section 5.0 presents a cost analysis that includes a methodology for computing annualized equipment and operating costs. A list of contacts at various Federal agencies who are knowledgeable about sterilization/fumigation processes is presented in Appendix A.

  9. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  10. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  11. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  12. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  13. Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the Asbestos Releasability Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative Asbestos Control Method shows promise in speed, cost, and efficiency if equally protective. ORD conducted side by side test of AACM vs NESHAP on identical asbestos-containing buildings at Fort Chaffee. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on pr...

  14. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  15. 75 FR 77798 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise AGENCY: Occupational Safety... Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise... Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational...

  16. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    PubMed

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  17. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of administrative requirements. 700.106 Section 700.106 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  18. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of administrative requirements. 700.106 Section 700.106 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  19. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of administrative requirements. 700.106 Section 700.106 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  20. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of administrative requirements. 700.106 Section 700.106 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS...

  1. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  2. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  3. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  4. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  5. 8 CFR 1003.11 - Administrative control Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative control Immigration Courts. 1003.11 Section 1003.11 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  6. Alternative control techniques document. NOx emissions from stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Alternative Control Techniques document describes available control technologies for reducing NOx emissions levels from stationary combustion gas turbines. Information on the formation of NOx and uncontrolled NOx emissions from gas turbines is included. Water injection, steam injection, and low-NOx combustors, used independently or in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are discussed. Achievable controlled NOx emissions levels, costs and cost effectiveness, and environmental impacts are presented and applicability to new equipment as well as retrofit applications is discussed. The application of these technologies to gas turbines operating in offshore platform applications is included. Information on the use of alternate fuels, catalytic combustion, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions is also briefly presented.

  7. Operator performance with alternative manual control modes in teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Zak, H.; Kim, W. S.; Bejczy, A. K.; Schenker, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments conducted at the JPL comparing alternative manual control modes using the JPL Advanced Teleoperator system are described. Of particular interest were control modes that provide force reflection to the operator. The task selected for the experiment is a portion of the Solar Maximum Satellite Repair procedure we developed to demonstrate the repair of the Solar Maximum Satellite with teleoperators. The seven manual control modes evaluated in the experiment are combinations of manual position or resolved motion rate control with alternative control schemes for force reflection and remote manipulator compliance. Performance measures used were task completion times, average force and torque exerted during the execution of the task, and cumulative force and torque exerted. The results were statistically analyzed and they show that, in general, force reflection significantly improves operator performance and indicate that a specific force-reflecting scheme may yield the best performance among the control modes we tested. Also, our experiment showed that, for the selected task, the position control modes were preferable to the rate control modes and slave manipulator compliance reduced task interaction forces and torques.

  8. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.

  9. 75 FR 64216 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise AGENCY: Occupational Safety... affordable engineering and administrative controls to reduce noise levels. The Occupational Safety and...

  10. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Ilka; Kanski, Regina; Neumann, Alexander; Herdt, Olga; Hoff, Florian; Jacob, Ralf; Preußner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments. PMID:27492621

  11. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmi, Ilka; Kanski, Regina; Neumann, Alexander; Herdt, Olga; Hoff, Florian; Jacob, Ralf; Preußner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments. PMID:27492621

  12. Chemotactic cell trapping in controlled alternating gradient fields

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Börn; Zielinski, Alejandro; Weber, Christoph; Arcizet, Delphine; Youssef, Simon; Franosch, Thomas; Rädler, Joachim O.; Heinrich, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Directed cell migration toward spatio-temporally varying chemotactic stimuli requires rapid cytoskeletal reorganization. Numerous studies provide evidence that actin reorganization is controlled by intracellular redistribution of signaling molecules, such as the PI4,5P2/PI3,4,5P3 gradient. However, exploring underlying mechanisms is difficult and requires careful spatio-temporal control of external chemotactic stimuli. We designed a microfluidic setup to generate alternating chemotactic gradient fields for simultaneous multicell exposure, greatly facilitating statistical analysis. For a quantitative description of intracellular response dynamics, we apply alternating time sequences of spatially homogeneous concentration gradients across 300 μm, reorienting on timescales down to a few seconds. Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae respond to gradient switching rates below 0.02 Hz by readapting their migration direction. For faster switching, cellular repolarization ceases and is completely stalled at 0.1 Hz. In this “chemotactically trapped” cell state, external stimuli alternate faster than intracellular feedback is capable to respond by onset of directed migration. To investigate intracellular actin cortex rearrangement during gradient switching, we correlate migratory cell response with actin repolymerization dynamics, quantified by a fluorescence distribution moment of the GFP fusion protein LimEΔcc. We find two fundamentally different cell polarization types and we could reveal the role of PI3-Kinase for cellular repolarization. In the early aggregation phase, PI3-Kinase enhances the capability of D. discoideum cells to readjust their polarity in response to spatially alternating gradient fields, whereas in aggregation competent cells the effect of PI3-Kinase perturbation becomes less relevant. PMID:21709255

  13. Altered prefrontal connectivity after acute heroin administration during cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Borgwardt, Stefan; Gerber, Hana; Schmid, Otto; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Smieskova, Renata; Lang, Undine E; Rubia, Katya; Walter, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies have reported reduced activity in a broad network of brain regions during response inhibition in heroin-dependent patients. However, how heroin in an acute dose modulates the neural correlates of response inhibition and the underlying brain connectivity has not yet been investigated. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether acute heroin administration changed whole brain activity during response inhibition in 26 heroin-dependent patients. We then applied dynamic causal modelling to investigate the effect of an acute dose of heroin on the functional interactions between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFG). Heroin acutely reduced dACC activity, as well as the inhibition-induced modulation of connectivity from the dACC to the right IFG compared with placebo. Furthermore, dACC activity was positively related to false alarm rates after placebo but not heroin administration. These results suggest that acute heroin administration impairs cognitive control in dependent patients by reducing the activity in the dACC activity and the functional connectivity from the dACC to the right IFG.

  14. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current

    DOEpatents

    Bolie, Victor W.

    1988-01-01

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for and is particularly suitable for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. In the preferred embodiment, the motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of readonly memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  15. Cytokine therapy: a natural alternative for disease control.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, J W; O'Neil, T E; David, A; Strom, G; Andrew, M E

    1999-12-15

    Disease control in food production animals is normally mediated through the use of vaccines, chemicals and antibiotics. However, the extensive use of antibiotics and chemicals in livestock has resulted in environmental and human health concerns, particularly with regard to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria in the food chain. In fact, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has now urged meat producers to use environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators of the immune response, offer exciting alternatives to conventional therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible with the recent cloning of a number of cytokine genes. Since the chicken's immune system is similar to that of mammals, they offer an attractive model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review our recent studies on the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10614508

  16. Alternative Attitude Commanding and Control for Precise Spacecraft Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2004-01-01

    A report proposes an alternative method of control for precision landing on a remote planet. In the traditional method, the attitude of a spacecraft is required to track a commanded translational acceleration vector, which is generated at each time step by solving a two-point boundary value problem. No requirement of continuity is imposed on the acceleration. The translational acceleration does not necessarily vary smoothly. Tracking of a non-smooth acceleration causes the vehicle attitude to exhibit undesirable transients and poor pointing stability behavior. In the alternative method, the two-point boundary value problem is not solved at each time step. A smooth reference position profile is computed. The profile is recomputed only when the control errors get sufficiently large. The nominal attitude is still required to track the smooth reference acceleration command. A steering logic is proposed that controls the position and velocity errors about the reference profile by perturbing the attitude slightly about the nominal attitude. The overall pointing behavior is therefore smooth, greatly reducing the degree of pointing instability.

  17. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  18. Mutual defense emphasis: The history and implications of an alternative approach to strategic arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfischer, D.

    1989-01-01

    The historical advocacy and potential feasibility of a mutual defense emphasis (MDE) approach to strategic arms control is examined. MDE refers to any superpower arms control regime that incorporates defensive weapons for the purposes of (a) maintaining a stable deterrent balance, and (b) limiting societal damage should deterrence fail. The dissertation documents the promotion of MDE proposals during three periods: the early 1950's (when MDE was proposed as an alternative to the emergent policy of massive retaliation); the decade preceding the 1972 ABM Treaty (when MDE was offered as an alternative to offense-only strategic arms control); and the 1980's (when the Reagan Administration endorsed the concept of a defensive transition to a world of mutual assured security). In critically evaluating MDE proposals in their historical context, it is argued that MDE represented (and continues to represent) a plausible alternative to prevailing rationales for relying primarily on offensive strategic weapons. Consequently, the dissertation inquires into the range of political factors that accounted for the rejection of an MDE approach by US decision makers. If MDE in fact proves technically feasible, it offers several critical advantages over the prevalent mutual assured destruction (MAD) approach to strategic arms control.

  19. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Dantán-González, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herbal extracts, and immune response modulators with proven anticoccidial activity, many of which exist as dietary supplements. Additionally, we offer an overview of the poultry industry and the economic cost of coccidiosis as well as the classical strategies used to control the disease. PMID:25785269

  1. [A Case of Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer with a Complete Response to S-1 Alternate-Day Administration].

    PubMed

    Eto, Ryuichi; Nakatsu, Hiroki; Ozasa, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    An 86-year-old woman underwent a cholecystectomy for gallbladder cancer. Seven months later, an abdominal CT scan showed multiple liver and lymph node metastases. Treatment with S-1 was started at a dose of 100 mg/day, but was changed to alternate-day administration because of diarrhea. Metastatic lesions showed a complete response after 7 months of chemotherapy. S-1 alternate-day therapy could be maintained without any severe adverse events. This method can be managed safely and with certainty in an elderly patient and it has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of recurrent gallbladder cancer. PMID:26809537

  2. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

    DOEpatents

    Bolie, V.W.

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  3. Alternative approaches for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep farming: a review.

    PubMed

    Šimpraga, Miljenko; Ljubičić, Iva; Hlede, Jadranka Pejaković; Vugrovečki, Ana Shek; Marinculić, Albert; Tkalčić, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a serious health problem and represent the most significant constraint in sheep grazing operations. Problems tend to be worse in organic sheep farming systems, as a consequence of a less restricted access of animals to outdoor environment with a higher exposure to infective larvae. In domestic animals, GIN are effectively controlled by an aggressive prophylactic administration of commercially available anthelmintics. As a consequence to a common overdose and misuse of readily available antiparasitic treatments, there is an inevitable development of populations of GIN resistant to all major classes of anthelmintics. Also, the control of GIN that is based entirely on the anthelmintic use, threatens sustainability of the sheep farming worldwide. The combination of the optimized use of anthelmintic drugs and alternative approaches seem to be a reasonable choice in sustainable parasitic control programs that offer a substantial reduction of anthelmintic treatments and conservation of anthelmintic efficacy. In that aspect, a "targeted selective treatment (TST)" directed towards animals clinically diagnosed with GIN, seems to be an effective approach to leave some parasite populations unexposed to anthelmintics (refugia) and to reduce development of anthelmintic resistance. Also, many current research efforts aim to find and validate sustainable non-chemotherapeutic approaches to GIN control, including changes in grazing management, optimized nutrition, dietary supplementation, consumption of plants with anthelmintic properties, biological control by nematophagous fungi, copper oxide wire particles (COWP), and homeopathic treatments. This manuscript outlines (outlines) and discusses relevant alternative approaches for GIN control in modern sheep farming systems.

  4. MHD stability control in alternate confinement concept experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. B.

    2006-10-01

    High-quality plasma operation and good energy confinement in the alternate confinement experiments require control of ideal and resistive MHD instabilities. New experiments in the revitalized ICC program, supported by modern MHD computational capabilities, are demonstrating progress in this control which significantly extends previous work. Results from the classical tokamak are thereby extended into new parameter regimes, generating insight into the physics. We consider both toroidal and open concepts and, where appropriate, highlight comparisons with the tokamak, ST, and stellarator. The driving forces for ideal MHD modes are characterized using the Frieman-Rotenberg condition, which generalizes the stability analysis by including plasma flow. Stabilizing mechanisms include conducting walls (RFP, spheromak, FRC); plasma shaping as characterized by the magnetic dipole moment (spheromak, FRC); current-profile control (RFP, spheromak); sheared, super-Alfvénic flows (Z-pinch, centrifugal mirror); quadrupole magnetic wells (FRC, mirror); and high kinetic-energy density flow in good curvature regions (gas-dynamic trap). Resistive tearing is stabilized or limited by current profile control, primarily in the RFP and spheromak. Non-MHD mechanisms such as FLR can also be stabilizing and will be most effective if the MHD growth rate is minimized. Most of the experimental work to date has focused on global or large-scale modes; the possible consequences of short-wavelength or local modes will be explored. E. Frieman and M. Rotenberg, Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 898 (1960).

  5. Passive Motion Paradigm: An Alternative to Optimal Control

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vishwanathan; Morasso, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, optimal control theory (OCT) has emerged as the leading approach for investigating neural control of movement and motor cognition for two complementary research lines: behavioral neuroscience and humanoid robotics. In both cases, there are general problems that need to be addressed, such as the “degrees of freedom (DoFs) problem,” the common core of production, observation, reasoning, and learning of “actions.” OCT, directly derived from engineering design techniques of control systems quantifies task goals as “cost functions” and uses the sophisticated formal tools of optimal control to obtain desired behavior (and predictions). We propose an alternative “softer” approach passive motion paradigm (PMP) that we believe is closer to the biomechanics and cybernetics of action. The basic idea is that actions (overt as well as covert) are the consequences of an internal simulation process that “animates” the body schema with the attractor dynamics of force fields induced by the goal and task-specific constraints. This internal simulation offers the brain a way to dynamically link motor redundancy with task-oriented constraints “at runtime,” hence solving the “DoFs problem” without explicit kinematic inversion and cost function computation. We argue that the function of such computational machinery is not only restricted to shaping motor output during action execution but also to provide the self with information on the feasibility, consequence, understanding and meaning of “potential actions.” In this sense, taking into account recent developments in neuroscience (motor imagery, simulation theory of covert actions, mirror neuron system) and in embodied robotics, PMP offers a novel framework for understanding motor cognition that goes beyond the engineering control paradigm provided by OCT. Therefore, the paper is at the same time a review of the PMP rationale, as a computational theory, and a perspective presentation of

  6. Clinton Administration federal budget proposal alternately described as dream and fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Some federal science agency heads and advisors are pinching themselves to make sure the Clinton Administrations fiscal year 2001 federal budget request, announced on February 7, is not just a dream.Neal Lane, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy calls the budget historic for its increases and commitment to science and technology. When asked what he thinks about the budget, NASA head Dan Goldin says, Look at the smile on my face. Rita Colwell, who leads the National Science Foundation (NSF), says, We couldn't ask for a better way to mark NSFs 50th anniversary Jim Baker, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), says the budget is a good one for his agency.

  7. Methodologic issues in population planning: studies of alternative patterns of administrative organization.

    PubMed

    Reinke, W A

    1973-01-01

    A systematic framework for the organization of family planning programs includes the specification of the problems, the assessment of the resources available, and then the establishment of objectives regarding the program structure, process, and result. Some of principals involved in administration of family planning programs are the needs for 1) development in a national context; 2) marketing methods; 3) central policy planning; 4) operations-oriented research; 4) political support; and 5) evaluation. No single system of organization for family planning programs is optimal, but this analysis may help to define problems involved administration.

  8. Market scenarios and alternative administrative frameworks for US educational satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkmeyer, J. E., Jr.; Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Costs and benefits of developing an operational educational satellite system in the U.S. are analyzed. Scenarios are developed for each educational submarket and satellite channel and ground terminal requirements for a large-scale educational telecommunications system are estimated. Alternative organizational frameworks for such a system are described.

  9. Effect of physician specialist alternative payment plans on administrative health data in Calgary: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Jetté, Nathalie; Li, Bing; Dhanoa, Ravneet Robyn; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Noseworthy, Tom; Beck, Cynthia A.; Dixon, Elijah; Samuel, Susan; Ghali, William A.; DeCoster, Carolyn; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are concerns that alternate payment plans for physicians may be associated with erosion of data quality, given that physicians are paid regardless of whether claims are submitted. Our objective was to determine the proportion of claims submitted by physician specialists using fee-for-service and alternative payment plans, and to identify and compare the validity of information coded in physician billing claims submitted by these specialists in Calgary. Methods: We conducted a survey of physician specialists to determine their plan status and obtained consent to use physicians' claims data from 4 acute care hospitals in Calgary. Inpatient and emergency department services were identified from the Discharge Abstract Database for Alberta (Canadian Institute for Health Information) and the Alberta Ambulatory Care Classification System database. We linked services to claims by Alberta physicians from 2002 to 2009 by using unique patient and physician identifiers. After identifying the proportion of claims submitted, we reviewed inpatient charts to determine the completeness of submissions as defined by positive predictive value. Results: Of 182 physicians who responded to the survey, 94 (51.6%) used fee-for-service plans exclusively and 51 (28.0%) used alternative payment plans exclusively. Overall completeness of physician submissions for claims was 91.8% for physicians using fee-for-service plans and 90.0% for physicians using alternative payment plans. Submission rate varied by medical specialty (surgery: 92.4% for fee for service v. 88.6% for alternative payment; internal medicine: 94.1% v. 91.3%; neurology: 95.1% v. 91.0%; and pediatrics: 95.1% v. 89.3%). Among claims submitted, the physician accuracies for billing of medical conditions were 87.8% for fee-for-service and 85.0% for alternative payment. Interpretation: Overall submission rates and accuracy in recording diagnoses by physicians who used both plans were high. These findings show that

  10. Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S), Revision 3, Database Administrator`s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    O`Callaghan, P.B.; Nelson, R.A.; Grambihler, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    This document provides a guide for database administration and specific information for the Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S). As a guide, this document discusses required database administration functions for the set up of database tables and for users of the system. It is assumed that general and user information has been obtained from the Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S), Revision 3, User`s Information (WHC 1994).

  11. Admission to the Master of Business Administration Program: An Alternative for Savannah State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, graduate programs in business administration have heavily relied on the Graduate Management Aptitude Test prepared and administered by the Educational Testing Service in the decision to admit a candidate to the program. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding the statistical validity and statistical…

  12. The Administrative Control System of Substance Abuse Managed Care

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael R

    2005-01-01

    Objective This article searches for the dimensions of the administrative structures in outpatient substance abuse managed care that control the behavior of agency providers. It also ascertains how these dimensions, and several financial mechanisms, affect key aspects of the providers services: the average number of sessions of care that are delivered, the rate of completion of care, and the (estimated) rate at which clients control their substance use. Data Sources The data were collected in 1999 for this investigation. Study Design These data come from a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of individual contracts between outpatient drug treatment providers and the Behavioral Health Managed Care Organizations (BHMCOs) that are empowered to regulate the delivery of services. Provider responses are analyzed here. Data Collection Methods Factor analyses at a contract level examine the structural dimensions of the control system. Multivariate analyses at the same level rely on generalized linear models to predict the dependent variables by the structural dimensions and financial mechanisms. Findings The factor analyses suggest that there are six multiple variable structural dimensions. The multivariate analyses suggest that the dimension that mandates follow-up of discharged clients tends to relate to more sessions of care and perhaps a higher rate of service completion. Most other dimensions are found to relate to fewer sessions of care, lower rates of service completion, or lower rates of control of substance abuse. No structural dimension relates to all dependent variables. Financial mechanisms evince varying relations to the sessions of care. They rarely relate to the other dependent variables. Conclusion The results generally suggest that providers, payers, or policymakers might affect service provision by selecting BHMCOs that stress particular structural dimensions and financial mechanisms. However, managed care contracts most heavily rely on

  13. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity.

  14. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity. PMID:27433581

  15. Alternative method of oral administration by peanut butter pellet formulation results in target engagement of BACE1 and attenuation of gavage-induced stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Zaleska, M M; Riddell, D R; Atchison, K P; Robshaw, A; Zhou, H; Sukoff Rizzo, S J

    2014-11-01

    Development of novel therapeutic agents aimed at treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases require chronic and preferentially oral dosing in appropriate preclinical rodent models. Since many of these disease models involve transgenic mice that are frequently aged and fragile, the commonly used oro-gastric gavage method of drug administration often confounds measured outcomes due to repeated stress and high attrition rates caused by esophageal complications. We employed a novel drug formulation in a peanut butter (PB) pellet readily consumed by mice and compared the stress response as measured by plasma corticosterone levels relative to oral administration via traditional gavage. Acute gavage produced significant elevations in plasma corticosterone comparable to those observed in mice subjected to stress-induced hyperthermia. In contrast, corticosterone levels following consumption of PB pellets were similar to levels in naive mice and significantly lower than in mice subjected to traditional gavage. Following sub-chronic administration, corticosterone levels remained significantly higher in mice subjected to gavage, relative to mice administered PB pellets or naive controls. Furthermore, chronic 30day dosing of a BACE inhibitor administered via PB pellets to PSAPP mice resulted in expected plasma drug exposure and Aβ40 lowering consistent with drug treatment demonstrating target engagement. Taken together, this alternative method of oral administration by drug formulated in PB pellets results in the expected pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with attenuated stress levels, and is devoid of the detrimental effects of repetitive oral gavage. PMID:25242810

  16. Quality Control in the Administration of Sport Management Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Dennie Ruth

    2004-01-01

    The quality of an intern's learning experience is the joint responsibility of the academic internship coordinator, the administrator of the sport management program, and the agency supervisor. The purpose of this article is to identify the areas of administrative concern in the three major components of an internship: the institution granting…

  17. Issues of medication administration and control in Iowa schools.

    PubMed

    Farris, Karen B; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W; Clay, Daniel; Gross, Jami N

    2003-11-01

    Who is responsible for medication administration at school? To answer this question, a descriptive, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 850 school principals in Iowa. The eight-page, 57-item, anonymous survey was mailed first class, and a follow-up reminder post card was mailed two weeks later. Descriptive analyses were conducted, with type of respondent (principal versus school nurse), grade level, and size of school examined to explore differences. A 46.6% response rate was obtained; 97% of respondents indicated their schools had written guidelines for medication administration. Principals (41%) and school nurses (34%) reported that they have the ultimate legal responsibility for medication administration. Policies for medication administration on field trips were available in schools of 73.6% of respondents. High schools were more likely to allow self-medication than other grade levels. "Missed dose" was the most common medication error. The main reasons contributing to medication administration errors included poor communication among school, family, and healthcare providers, and the increased number of students on medication. It remains unclear who holds ultimate responsibility for medication administration in schools. Written policies typically exist for medication administration at school, but not field trips. Communicating medication changes to schools, and ensuring medications are available at school, likely can reduce medication administration errors.

  18. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J E; Gygi, K F

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs.

  19. Cannabinoids in Exhaled Breath following Controlled Administration of Smoked Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Beck, Olof; Gorelick, David A.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), and cannabinol (CBN) were measured in breath following controlled cannabis smoking to characterize the time course and window of detection of breath cannabinoids. METHODS Exhaled breath was collected from chronic (≥4 times per week) and occasional (alternative matrix for testing for recent driving under the influence of cannabis, but is limited to a short detection window (0.5–2 h). PMID:24046200

  20. Marketing--A Controllable Tool for Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendell C.

    1980-01-01

    Educational marketing is now becoming legitimized. Marketing techniques such as cost benefit analysis and the selection of a mix of promotional methods are tools that educational administrators should understand and use. (SK)

  1. 32 CFR 700.106 - Control of administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... directive or a tasking will result in imposition of additional administrative requirements on commands not within the chain of command or the issuing authority, the first common superior of the commands...

  2. Robust closed-loop control of propofol administration using WAVCNS index as the controlled variable.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Jin-Oh; Dumont, Guy A; Ansermino, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a robust closed-loop strategy for control of depth of hypnosis. The proposed method regulates the electroencephalogram (EEG)-derived WAVCNS index as a hypnosis measure by manipulating intravenous propofol administration. In contrast to many existing closed-loop methods, the control design presented in this paper produces stability and robustness against uncertainty by explicitly accounting for the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) variability between different individuals, as well as unpredictable surgical stimuli that the closed-loop control is required to tolerate. This closed-loop control was evaluated using simulated surgical procedures in 44 patient models whose PK and PD were identified from real clinical data. The controller can deliver consistent and acceptable closed-loop induction and maintenance phase responses for patients with wide-ranging PK and PD differences. PMID:21097118

  3. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  4. Conducting Randomized Controlled Trials with Offenders in an Administrative Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlin, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation research conducted in agencies that sanction law violators is often challenging and due process may preclude evaluators from using experimental methods in traditional criminal justice agencies such as police, courts, and corrections. However, administrative agencies often deal with the same population but are not bound by due process…

  5. Trust and Control: Public Administration and Risk Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyer, Hans Christian; Wood, Elin Marit

    2011-01-01

    Today we live in a society with many choices and possibilities which were absent just a few decades ago. Knowledge is seen as temporary, and many paradoxes are experienced in the flow of information surrounding us. A basic insecurity can be seen as a consequence of this development. This paper re-thinks the consequences at the administrational and…

  6. Authority Control at the National Archives and Records Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Lydia J. E.; Simmons, C. Jerry

    2007-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) launched the Archival Research Catalog (ARC) in 2002. ARC was the first centralized system for describing materials held throughout NARA's nationwide system of archival repositories. ARC's complicated development involved the entire agency, as staff wrestled with years of distinct descriptive…

  7. A computer control system for the alternating gradient magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Michael M.

    1989-01-01

    An alternating gradient magnetometer was interfaced to a computer for the automation of data taking. Using a fast Fourier transform analysis system data can be acquired and processed in real time. Data are stored on disk and can be recalled for plotting and further analysis. With the addition of a simple liquid nitrogen cryostat, magnetization measurements can be performed in the range from 300 to 77 K. Results are reported on three different types of piezoelectric transducers.

  8. Alternative control technology document: Halogenated solvent cleaners. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    The document contains information on the use and control of halogenated solvents in solvent-cleaning applications. Described are the types of solvent cleaners manufactured, sources of solvent emissions, methods of controlling solvent emissions, and the costs associated with installation of control devices.

  9. "Boundary Expansion" and Social Influence as Alternative Modes of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Walter B.

    The psychological effects of perceived lack of control have been extensively investigated. This study was conducted to examine a compensatory control strategy called boundary expansion. Boundary expansion is exhibited in social interactions where control needs are directed toward influencing others' views on a particular subject. Boundary…

  10. Infection Control in Alternative Health Care Settings: An Update.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Elaine; Cassone, Marco; Montoya, Ana; Mody, Lona

    2016-09-01

    With changing health care delivery, patients receive care at various settings including acute care hospitals, nursing homes, outpatient primary care and specialty clinics, and at home, exposing them to pathogens in various settings. Various health care settings face unique challenges, requiring individualized infection control programs. Infection control programs in nursing homes should address surveillance for infections and antimicrobial resistance, outbreak investigation and control plan for epidemics, isolation precautions, hand hygiene, staff education, and employee and resident health programs. PMID:27515148

  11. Infection Control in Alternative Health Care Settings: An Update.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Elaine; Cassone, Marco; Montoya, Ana; Mody, Lona

    2016-09-01

    With changing health care delivery, patients receive care at various settings including acute care hospitals, nursing homes, outpatient primary care and specialty clinics, and at home, exposing them to pathogens in various settings. Various health care settings face unique challenges, requiring individualized infection control programs. Infection control programs in nursing homes should address surveillance for infections and antimicrobial resistance, outbreak investigation and control plan for epidemics, isolation precautions, hand hygiene, staff education, and employee and resident health programs.

  12. Alternative School Administration Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellinger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how principals spend their time and to test a new structure using business management trained staff to increase principal time spent on academic achievement and gap closure. Twenty-one elementary school principals were randomly selected for a week-long time-task analysis. Data collectors shadowed the…

  13. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-5 - Administratively controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... personal property, which includes such items as those controlled for calibration or maintenance purposes, contaminated property, tool crib items, and equipment pool items. Various control records can be employed to... check-outs, loss and theft reports, calibration records, disposal records, and other similar...

  14. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-5 - Administratively controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personal property, which includes such items as those controlled for calibration or maintenance purposes, contaminated property, tool crib items, and equipment pool items. Various control records can be employed to... check-outs, loss and theft reports, calibration records, disposal records, and other similar...

  15. 76 FR 43698 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Wildlife Resources Office, on potential for using Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) technology to control... FR 18112) under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.). The Workgroup's...

  16. Elicitors aboveground: an alternative for control of a belowground pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation ...

  17. Space Shuttle main engine. NASA has not evaluated the alternate fuel turbopump costs and benefits. Report to the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    NASA's plans to develop an alternate high pressure fuel turbopump for the Space Shuttle's main engines were assessed by the General Accounting Office as a part of the evaluation of the Space Shuttle Safety and Obsolescence Upgrade program. The objective was to determine whether NASA has adequately analyzed cost, performance, and benefits that are expected to result from this program in comparison to other alternatives before resuming development of the alternate pump, which was suspended in 1992. The alternate fuel pump is one of five improvements being developed or planned to significantly enhance safety margins of the engines.

  18. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  19. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, J.S.; Kankam, M.D.; Santiago, W.; Madi, F.J.

    1992-08-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  20. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  1. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  2. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: EVALUATIONS OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD FOR BUILDING DEMOLITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the preliminary results of the evaluations of the alternative asbestos control method for demolishing buildings containing asbestos, and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and presentation are based, at ...

  3. Tick control: trapping, biocontrol, host management and other alternative strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Edited by Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.

  4. [Acceptance of alternative disease control strategies in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Nigsch, Annette; Depner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission intends to change its animal disease control strategy following the slogan "Prevention is better than cure". Vaccination and diagnostics should play a major role in emergency situations. A policy paper regarding the use of vaccines has been discussed with all Member States and the main aspects were evaluated in a questionnaire. In principle, the majority of Member States are in favour of a future strategy in which vaccination is replacing culling. However, questions regarding the pathogen freedom and the trade of vaccinated animals and animal products from vaccinated animals still remain open.

  5. Alternating Magnetic Field Controlled, Multifunctional Nano-Reservoirs: Intracellular Uptake and Improved Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Santaneel; Ghoshmitra, Somesree; Cai, Tong; Diercks, David R.; Mills, Nathaniel C.; Hynds, Dianna L.

    2010-01-01

    Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles hold great therapeutic potential, but conventional particles can be toxic. Here, we report the synthesis and alternating magnetic field dependent actuation of a remotely controllable, multifunctional nano-scale system and its marked biocompatibility with mammalian cells. Monodisperse, magnetic nanospheres based on thermo-sensitive polymer network poly(ethylene glycol) ethyl ether methacrylate- co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate were synthesized using free radical polymerization. Synthesized nanospheres have oscillating magnetic field induced thermo-reversible behavior; exhibiting desirable characteristics comparable to the widely used poly- N-isopropylacrylamide-based systems in shrinkage plus a broader volumetric transition range. Remote heating and model drug release were characterized for different field strengths. Nanospheres containing nanoparticles up to an iron concentration of 6 mM were readily taken up by neuron-like PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and had reduced toxicity compared to other surface modified magnetic nanocarriers. Furthermore, nanosphere exposure did not inhibit the extension of cellular processes (neurite outgrowth) even at high iron concentrations (6 mM), indicating minimal negative effects in cellular systems. Excellent intracellular uptake and enhanced biocompatibility coupled with the lack of deleterious effects on neurite outgrowth and prior Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of PEG-based carriers suggest increased therapeutic potential of this system for manipulating axon regeneration following nervous system injury.

  6. An alternate approach to hospital cost control: the Rochester project.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, A A; Saward, E W

    1978-01-01

    The rapid escalation in health care costs has demonstrated a need to control costs in general and hospital costs in particular. In New York State, efforts at control have followed one of several paths, including reduction of Medicaid program expenditures, elimination of hospital beds, and prospective reimbursement of hospital costs. Although some success has been achieved in each of these areas, hospital costs containment has not been as successful as had been hoped. A new project called MAXICAP, being developed in the Rochester region, seeks to link payment with regional hospital planning. MAXICAP represents a voluntary attempt by hospitals, third party payers, planners, consumers, and governmental agencies to devise a prospective hospital payment system. Under this system community hospital plans in the Rochester region would be integrated and a cap imposed on both revenues and expenses for acute hospital care. The principal advantage of the MAXICAP is that it offers a mechanism for linking hospital planning with payment functions on a regional basis. The principal disadvantage is that the success of the MAXICAP depends upon the voluntary cooperation of the vast majority of the acute care hospitals in the area--hospitals that may be scattered throughout a relatively large region. PMID:98805

  7. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  8. From Managerialism to Communicative Competence: Control and Consensus in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Traditional approaches to educational administration have generally reflected a managerial perspective based partly on scientific management principles developed by Frederick W. Taylor. Concerns with efficiency and administrative control have masked inequities and ideologies comprising organizational structure. Habermas's critique may help expose…

  9. Faculty and Administrator Knowledge of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act at Select U.S. Complimentary and Alternative Healthcare Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werosh, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what relationship exists between knowledge of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) to organizational position and training among faculty and administrators employed within complementary and alternative healthcare educational institutions. Within these knowledge levels, this study…

  10. Low-cost alternative for remedial sand control application

    SciTech Connect

    Peavy, M.A.; Bush, M.E.; Plummer, M.A. Perez, J.I.

    1995-09-01

    During mid-1992, a remedial workover program was implemented offshore within the Gulf of Mexico on low-rate marginal-reserve sand-producing wellbores. A process called through-tubing gravel packing (TTGP) was used on five offshore wells and one US Gulf Coast land well. This technique involved the placement of ceramic beads and prepacked screen within existing completions with coiled tubing (CT) to eliminate sand production. The basic steps of TTGP consist of wellbore cleanup, CT counter correlation, injectivity testing, running a dummy assembly, ceramic bead placement, prepacked screen placement, and installation of an isolation device. The TTGP method demonstrated versatility in adapting to individual well conditions. This remedial sand control technique was successfully applied in highly deviated wellbores, in the upper zones of a dual completion, and within existing gravel packs for screen repair. Throughout the implementation of this program, mechanical problems were addressed that led to improvements in subsequent workover programs. This paper details the TTGP program and recommends mechanical improvements for performing future through-tubing gravel packs.

  11. Individually dosed oral drug administration to socially-living transponder-tagged mice by a water dispenser under RFID control.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Ariane; Kaiser, Alexander; Winter, York

    2006-06-15

    The sensitivity of behavioral and physiological parameters to even mildly stressful experiences such as drug injections creates a need for alternative methods. We have established a method of stress-free administration of drugs via drinking water that allows multiple, individually specific and exact dosages, even for socially-housed animals. The drug solution is supplied by a dispenser with automated volume control. Animals are PIT microchip-tagged with RFID transponders and identified in realtime at the water port. Computer control permits preprogramming of individual reward quantities so that drug administration is terminated after an individual has collected its daily dose. For our experiments, the substance 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was given as a marker of proliferating cells that we quantified in the hippocampus of adult mice. Experimental groups received BrdU either via intraperitoneal injections or orally via the water dispensers. Immunohistochemical staining of BrdU-positive cells was of the same quality after oral administration as after injection. BrdU-positive cells did not differ statistically in cell numbers. Thus, water dispensers under transponder control allow the individual and stress-free application of drugs even to group-living animals without disturbing their behavior. This is useful where a complex temporal protocol of application is required, and for phenotyping experiments combining behavioral tests with neural, cellular or molecular analyses.

  12. Introduction and Testing of an Alternative Control Approach for a Robotic Prosthetic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Lauren; Fahimi, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available robotic prosthetic arms currently use independent joint control. An alternative controller involving only control of the hand in a Cartesian frame rather than controlling each joint independently is proposed and tested. An experimental 4DOF robotic arm was used as the platform for testing the proposed control approach. As opposed to joint control, Cartesian control requires the solution to the inverse kinematics problem. The inverse kinematics solution was developed for the robotic arm using the extended Jacobian method. The two control methodologies, joint control and Cartesian control, were tested on five able-bodied human subjects. Improvement of one control methodology over the other was measured by the time it took for the subjects to complete a simple motor task. The timed trial results indicated that Cartesian control was both more intuitive and more effective than joint control. So, the results suggest that much improvement can be achieved by using the proposed Cartesian control methodology. PMID:25400714

  13. Controlled Release Pulmonary Administration of Curcumin Using Swellable Biocompatible Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.

    2012-01-01

    This study involves a promising approach to achieve sustained pulmonary drug delivery. Dry powder particulate carriers were engineered to allow simultaneous aerosol lung delivery, evasion of macrophage uptake, and sustained drug release through a controlled polymeric architecture. Chitosan grafted with PEG was synthesized and characterized (FTIR, EA, DSC and 2D-XRD). Then, a series of respirable amphiphilic hydrogel microparticles were developed via spray drying of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with chitosan-grafted-PEG or chitosan. The nano and microparticles were fully characterized using an array of physicochemical analytical methods including particle size, surface morphology, dynamic swelling, density, moisture content and biodegradation rates. The PLGA nanoparticles and the hydrogel microspheres encapsulating the curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed average size of (221-243 nm) and (3.1-3.9 μm), respectively. The developed carriers attained high swelling within a few minutes, showed low moisture content as dry powders (0.9-1.8%), desirable biodegradation rates, high drug loading (up to 97%), and good sustained release. An aerosolization study was conducted using a next generation impactor and promising aerosolization characteristics were shown. In vitro macrophage uptake studies, cytotoxicity and in-vitro TNF-α assays were performed for the investigated particles. These assays revealed promising bio-interactions for the respirable/swellable nano-micro particles developed in this study as potential carriers for sustained pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:22136259

  14. Controlled release pulmonary administration of curcumin using swellable biocompatible microparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2012-02-01

    This study involves a promising approach to achieve sustained pulmonary drug delivery. Dry powder particulate carriers were engineered to allow simultaneous aerosol lung delivery, evasion of macrophage uptake, and sustained drug release through a controlled polymeric architecture. Chitosan grafted with PEG was synthesized and characterized (FTIR, EA, DSC and 2D-XRD). Then, a series of respirable amphiphilic hydrogel microparticles were developed via spray drying of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with chitosan-grafted-PEG or chitosan. The nanoparticles and microparticles were fully characterized using an array of physicochemical analytical methods including particle size, surface morphology, dynamic swelling, density, moisture content and biodegradation rates. The PLGA nanoparticles and the hydrogel microspheres encapsulating the curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed average size of 221-243 nm and 3.1-3.9 μm, respectively. The developed carriers attained high swelling within a few minutes and showed low moisture content as dry powders (0.9-1.8%), desirable biodegradation rates, high drug loading (up to 97%), and good sustained release. An aerosolization study was conducted using a next generation impactor, and promising aerosolization characteristics were shown. In vitro macrophage uptake studies, cytotoxicity and in vitro TNF-α assays were performed for the investigated particles. These assays revealed promising biointeractions for the respirable/swellable nano-micro particles developed in this study as potential carriers for sustained pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:22136259

  15. 75 FR 54163 - Office of the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Office of the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY... Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup) for 2 years. The Workgroup provides an... lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricides in Lake Champlain. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  16. Introducing biological phosphorus removal in an alternating plant by means of control: a full scale study.

    PubMed

    Rosen, C; Ingildsen, P; Guildal, T; Nielsen, T Munk; Nielsen, M K; Jacobsen, B N; Thomsen, H A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a control strategy for introducing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in an alternating plant designed for enhanced biological nitrogen removal (EBNR) is presented. Alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions to promote EBPR are provided by controlling the phases of the operational cycle, instead of a separate anaerobic volume. By utilising the control schemes already built in the STAR control system for nitrogen removal, the control strategy is fully integrated in the system. The control system relies on on-line measurements of nitrogen (ammonia and/or nitrate) and orthophosphate. The control strategy has been implemented in full-scale operation at the Avedøre wastewater treatment plant in Denmark and the results show clear indications of success. The control strategy has operated robustly for several months with a 60% decrease in use of precipitation chemicals.

  17. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  18. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  19. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  20. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  1. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  2. Alternative stable states explain unpredictable biological control of Salvinia molesta in Kakadu.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Shon S; Salau, Buck; Julien, Mic H; Ives, Anthony R

    2011-02-01

    Suppression of the invasive plant Salvinia molesta by the salvinia weevil is an iconic example of successful biological control. However, in the billabongs (oxbow lakes) of Kakadu National Park, Australia, control is fitful and incomplete. By fitting a process-based nonlinear model to thirteen-year data sets from four billabongs, here we show that incomplete control can be explained by alternative stable states--one state in which salvinia is suppressed and the other in which salvinia escapes weevil control. The shifts between states are associated with annual flooding events. In some years, high water flow reduces weevil populations, allowing the shift from a controlled to an uncontrolled state; in other years, benign conditions for weevils promote the return shift to the controlled state. In most described ecological examples, transitions between alternative stable states are relatively rare, facilitated by slow-moving environmental changes, such as accumulated nutrient loading or climate change. The billabongs of Kakadu give a different manifestation of alternative stable states that generate complex and seemingly unpredictable dynamics. Because shifts between alternative stable states are stochastic, they present a potential management strategy to maximize effective biological control: when the domain of attraction to the state of salvinia control is approached, augmentation of the weevil population or reduction of the salvinia biomass may allow the lower state to trap the system. PMID:21293376

  3. Parallel operation of two Brayton-cycle alternators with parasitic speed controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The experimental paralleling characteristics of two 1200 Hz Brayton-cycle alternators are presented. Since the Brayton power conversion system uses electric speed controllers, the paralleling requirements are somewhat different from those for conventional ground-based systems. Results include the transient effects of synchronizing the two alternators with various phase-angle, voltage, and frequency differences. Based on these results, the effects of synchronizing differences can be defined, and adjustment requirements of the parasitic speed controllers during synchronizing can be established. Data indicate that parasitically loaded alternators are able to parallel over a wide range of synchronizing differences. However, equilibrium could not be reached in extreme cases where alternator load differences were great and, at the same time, the phase-angle error was large (150 deg or more).

  4. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention... (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis...

  5. Oral Delivery of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Analogs: Alternatives for Diabetes Control?

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Francisca; Fonte, Pedro; Santos, Hélder A.; Sarmento, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Current treatments are often associated with off-target effects and do not significantly impact disease progression. New therapies are therefore urgently needed to overcome this social burden. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, has been used to control T2DM symptomatology. However, the administration of peptide or proteins drugs is still a huge challenge in the pharmaceutical field, requiring administration by parenteral routes. This article reviews the main hurdles in oral administration of GLP-1 and focuses on the strategies utilized to overcome them. PMID:23294796

  6. Preharvest treatments with chitosan and other alternatives to conventional fungicides to control postharvest decay of strawberry.

    PubMed

    Feliziani, Erica; Landi, Lucia; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of the control of postharvest decay of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 'Alba' and 'Romina' cvs.) fruit following field applications of chitosan, laminarin, extracts of Abies spp., Polygonum spp., and Saccharomyces spp., an organic acids and calcium combination, and benzothiadiazole, were compared with a fungicide strategy. These compounds were sprayed every 5 days on the strawberry canopy, from flowering to ripening, in 2012 and 2013. The treatments with alternative compounds provided ∼ 30% reduction in postharvest decay of strawberry compared to the water-treated controls, mainly against gray mold and Rhizopus rot, and without negatively affecting fruit color and firmness. Chitosan and benzothiadiazole were the most effective alternative treatments. Preharvest spraying with these alternative treatments can complement the use of conventional fungicides in the control of postharvest decay of strawberry fruit, especially when disease pressure is low. PMID:26256331

  7. A fuzzy logic controller for hormone administration using an implantable pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Wells, George H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements for a Fuzzy Logic Controller for the physiologic administration of hormones by means of a FDA-approved surgically implantable infusion pump. Results of a LabVIEW computer simulation for the administration of insulin for diabetic adult patients as well as human growth hormone for pediatric patients are presented. A VHS video tape of the simulation in action has been prepared and is available for viewing.

  8. Controllability of Free-piston Stirling Engine/linear Alternator Driving a Dynamic Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) driving a single-phase fractional horse-power induction motor. The controllability and dynamic stability of the system are discussed by means of sensitivity effects of variations in system parameters, engine controller, operating conditions, and mechanical loading on the induction motor. The approach used expands on a combined mechanical and thermodynamic formulation employed in a previous paper. The application of state-space technique and frequency domain analysis enhances understanding of the dynamic interactions. Engine-alternator parametric sensitivity studies, similar to those of the previous paper, are summarized. Detailed discussions are provided for parametric variations which relate to the engine controller and system operating conditions. The results suggest that the controllability of a FPSE-based power system is enhanced by proper operating conditions and built-in controls.

  9. Real-time scintigraphic assessment of intravenous radium-223 administration for quality control.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chadwick L; Monk, J Paul; Murrey, Douglas A; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223 ((223)Ra) dichloride is an approved intravenous radiotherapy for patients with osseous metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In addition to the therapeutic alpha radiation, there is additional (223)Ra radiation generated which produces photons that can be imaged with conventional gamma cameras. No studies have evaluated real-time and quality imaging during intravenous (223)Ra administration to verify systemic circulation and exclude (223)Ra extravasation at the injection site. A retrospective review was performed for fifteen (223)Ra administrations for CRPC patients which were imaged using a large field of view portable gamma camera (LFOVPGC) for the purposes of quality control and patient safety. Dynamic imaging of the chest was performed before, during, and after the (223)Ra administration to verify systemic circulation, per institutional clinical protocol. Before and after (223)Ra administration, a static image was obtained of the intravenous access site. Dynamic imaging of the chest confirmed systemic administration early during the 1-minute injection period for all patients. There were no cases of focal (223)Ra extravasation at the site of intravenous access. These results verify that systemic (223)Ra administrations can be quantified with real-time imaging using an LFOVPGC. This simple approach can confirm and quantify systemic circulation of (223)Ra early during injection and exclude focal extravasation for the purposes of quality control.

  10. Real-Time Scintigraphic Assessment of Intravenous Radium-223 Administration for Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Chadwick L.; Monk, J. Paul; Murrey, Douglas A.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223 (223Ra) dichloride is an approved intravenous radiotherapy for patients with osseous metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In addition to the therapeutic alpha radiation, there is additional 223Ra radiation generated which produces photons that can be imaged with conventional gamma cameras. No studies have evaluated real-time and quality imaging during intravenous 223Ra administration to verify systemic circulation and exclude 223Ra extravasation at the injection site. A retrospective review was performed for fifteen 223Ra administrations for CRPC patients which were imaged using a large field of view portable gamma camera (LFOVPGC) for the purposes of quality control and patient safety. Dynamic imaging of the chest was performed before, during, and after the 223Ra administration to verify systemic circulation, per institutional clinical protocol. Before and after 223Ra administration, a static image was obtained of the intravenous access site. Dynamic imaging of the chest confirmed systemic administration early during the 1-minute injection period for all patients. There were no cases of focal 223Ra extravasation at the site of intravenous access. These results verify that systemic 223Ra administrations can be quantified with real-time imaging using an LFOVPGC. This simple approach can confirm and quantify systemic circulation of 223Ra early during injection and exclude focal extravasation for the purposes of quality control. PMID:25789312

  11. Overview On Alternate Asbestos Control Method Research And NESHAP Comparison - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  12. Organic acids and thymol: unsuitable alternative control of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore alternative small hive beetle control strategies, established Varroa destructor and Galleria mellonella treatments with organic acids (formic, lactic, oxalic and acetic) and thymol were investigated in the laboratory against eggs, larvae and adult small hive beetle (SHB). As formic and ox...

  13. Attractant-based systems as pesticide alternatives for control of tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass trapping and attract-and-kill bait stations are two attractant based systems that are being used or are under development as pesticide alternatives for control of a number of pest tephritid fruit flies. Results of field trials for suppression of Caribbean fruit flies in guava orchards in Florid...

  14. Alternative Policies for the Finance, Control, and Delivery of Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K., Ed.; Riddell, Abby, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The introductory chapter of this theme issue considers alternative policies for the finance, control, and delivery of basic education in developing countries. Agency of delivery, source of funding, and prevalence of subsidies are emphasized. Seven subsequent chapters present reactions to proposed policies and strategies, with international…

  15. Presynaptic neurexin-3 alternative splicing trans-synaptically controls postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Aoto, Jason; Martinelli, David C; Malenka, Robert C; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Südhof, Thomas C

    2013-07-01

    Neurexins are essential presynaptic cell adhesion molecules that are linked to schizophrenia and autism and are subject to extensive alternative splicing. Here, we used a genetic approach to test the physiological significance of neurexin alternative splicing. We generated knockin mice in which alternatively spliced sequence #4 (SS4) of neuexin-3 is constitutively included but can be selectively excised by cre-recombination. SS4 of neurexin-3 was chosen because it is highly regulated and controls neurexin binding to neuroligins, LRRTMs, and other ligands. Unexpectedly, constitutive inclusion of SS4 in presynaptic neurexin-3 decreased postsynaptic AMPA, but not NMDA receptor levels, and enhanced postsynaptic AMPA receptor endocytosis. Moreover, constitutive inclusion of SS4 in presynaptic neurexin-3 abrogated postsynaptic AMPA receptor recruitment during NMDA receptor-dependent LTP. These phenotypes were fully rescued by constitutive excision of SS4 in neurexin-3. Thus, alternative splicing of presynaptic neurexin-3 controls postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking, revealing an unanticipated alternative splicing mechanism for trans-synaptic regulation of synaptic strength and long-term plasticity.

  16. 76 FR 44594 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Systems... Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Systems.'' This guidance document describes a...

  17. Global Status of DDT and Its Alternatives for Use in Vector Control to Prevent Disease

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Objective I review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives. Data sources and extraction Contemporary data on DDT use were largely obtained from questionnaires and reports. I also conducted a Scopus search to retrieve published articles. Data synthesis DDT has been recommended as part of the arsenal of insecticides available for indoor residual spraying until suitable alternatives are available. Approximately 14 countries use DDT for disease control, and several countries are preparing to reintroduce DDT. The effectiveness of DDT depends on local settings and merits close consideration in relation to the alternatives. Concerns about the continued use of DDT are fueled by recent reports of high levels of human exposure associated with indoor spraying amid accumulating evidence on chronic health effects. There are signs that more malaria vectors are becoming resistant to the toxic action of DDT, and that resistance is spreading to new countries. A comprehensive cost assessment of DDT versus its alternatives that takes side effects into account is missing. Effective chemical methods are available as immediate alternatives to DDT, but the choice of insecticide class is limited, and in certain areas the development of resistance is undermining the efficacy of insecticidal tools. New insecticides are not expected in the short term. Nonchemical methods are potentially important, but their effectiveness at program level needs urgent study. Conclusions To reduce reliance on DDT, support is needed for integrated and multipartner strategies of vector control and for the continued development of new technologies. Integrated vector management provides a framework for developing and implementing effective technologies and strategies as sustainable alternatives to reliance on DDT. PMID:20049114

  18. Multidimensional complexities of filariasis control in an era of large-scale mass drug administration programmes: a can of worms.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Hopkins, Adrian; Bradley, Mark H; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of control and elimination programmes by mass drug administration (MDA) targeting onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades has resulted in significantly reduced prevalence and intensity of infection, with some areas interrupting transmission. However, given that these infections are often co-endemic and the drugs (either ivermectin alone or combined with albendazole) also impact on soil transmitted helminths (STH), the importance of this, in terms of reaching the global goals has not been assessed. The additional problem posed by Loa loa, where ivermectin cannot be safely administered due to the risk of serious adverse events compounds this situation and has left populations drug naïve and an alternative strategy to eliminate LF is yet to be initiated at scale. Here, we present a series of operational research questions, which must be addressed if the effectiveness of integrated control of filarial and helminth infections is to be understood for the endgame. This is particularly important in the diverse and dynamic epidemiological landscape, which has emerged as a result of the long-term large-scale mass drug administration (or not). There is a need for a more holistic approach to address these questions. Different programmes should examine this increased complexity, given that MDA has multiple impacts, drugs are given over different periods, and programmes have different individual targets. PMID:25128408

  19. Market Scenarios and Alternative Administrative Frameworks for U.S. Educational Satellite Systems. Memorandum No. CG-75/2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkmeyer, John E., Jr.; And Others

    Intended as a framework for analysis of the costs and benefits of developing an operational educational satellite system in the United States, this memorandum presents a series of scenarios of potential applications together with alternative organizational arrangements to support them. The number of satellite channels (25) and the number of ground…

  20. An Experimental Database for Conventional and Alternate Control Concepts on the HSR 1.675% Reference H Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Naomi; Allen, Jerry; Erickson, Gary; Campbell, Jim; Mann, Mike; Kubiatko, Paul; Yingling, David; Mason, Charlie

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to experimentally evaluate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Reference H configuration at supersonic and transonic speeds. A series of conventional and alternate control devices were also evaluated at supersonic and transonic speeds. A database on the conventional and alternate control devices was to be created for use in the HSR program.

  1. 77 FR 35310 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Training Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration's ongoing Export Control Reform Initiative, BIS published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (herein... 7, 2011, BIS published a rule (76 FR 68675) proposing several changes to the framework initially..., ``specially designed'' for military applications, it was identified in the new ECCNs proposed in this...

  2. 78 FR 45026 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    .... 78, No. 143 / Thursday, July 25, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of..., reducing incentives for foreign manufacturers to design out and avoid U.S.-origin content and services, and... Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control Reform'' (78 FR 22660, April 16,...

  3. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator. 112.4 Section 112.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for...

  4. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and Related Items the President Determines No... publishes this proposed rule that describes how military gas turbine engines and related articles that the... USML Category XIX the military gas turbine engines and related articles that would remain on the...

  5. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  6. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-06-05

    A system is provided for controlling two alternating current (AC) machines via a five-phase PWM inverter module. The system comprises a first control loop, a second control loop, and a current command adjustment module. The current command adjustment module operates in conjunction with the first control loop and the second control loop to continuously adjust current command signals that control the first AC machine and the second AC machine such that they share the input voltage available to them without compromising the target mechanical output power of either machine. This way, even when the phase voltage available to either one of the machines decreases, that machine outputs its target mechanical output power.

  7. Analytical design of a parasitic-loading digital speed controller for a 400-hertz turbine driven alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, B. D.; Ryan, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A design for a solid-state parasitic speed controller using digital logic was analyzed. Parasitic speed controllers are used in space power electrical generating systems to control the speed of turbine-driven alternators within specified limits. The analysis included the performance characteristics of the speed controller and the generation of timing functions. The speed controller using digital logic applies step loads to the alternator. The step loads conduct for a full half wave starting at either zero or 180 electrical degrees.

  8. Exploring drug delivery for the DOT1L inhibitor pinometostat (EPZ-5676): Subcutaneous administration as an alternative to continuous IV infusion, in the pursuit of an epigenetic target.

    PubMed

    Waters, Nigel J; Daigle, Scott R; Rehlaender, Bruce N; Basavapathruni, Aravind; Campbell, Carly T; Jensen, Tyler B; Truitt, Brett F; Olhava, Edward J; Pollock, Roy M; Stickland, Kim A; Dovletoglou, Angelos

    2015-12-28

    Protein methyltransferases are emerging as promising drug targets for therapeutic intervention in human cancers. Pinometostat (EPZ-5676) is a small molecule inhibitor of the DOT1L enzyme, a histone methyltransferase that methylates lysine 79 of histone H3. DOT1L activity is dysregulated in the pathophysiology of rearranged mixed lineage leukemia (MLL-r). Pinometostat is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials in relapsed refractory acute leukemia patients and is administered as a continuous IV infusion (CIV). The studies herein investigated alternatives to CIV administration of pinometostat to improve patient convenience. Various sustained release technologies were considered, and based on the required dose size as well as practical considerations, subcutaneous (SC) bolus administration of a solution formulation was selected for further evaluation in preclinical studies. SC administration offered improved exposure and complete bioavailability of pinometostat relative to CIV and oral administration. These findings warranted further evaluation in rat xenograft models of MLL-r leukemia. SC dosing in xenograft models demonstrated inhibition of MLL-r tumor growth and inhibition of pharmacodynamic markers of DOT1L activity. However, a dosing frequency of thrice daily (t.i.d) was required in these studies to elicit optimal inhibition of DOT1L target genes and tumor growth inhibition. Development of an extended release formulation may prove useful in the further optimization of the SC delivery of pinometostat, moving towards a more convenient dosing paradigm for patients. PMID:26385168

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Cocaine and Metabolites in Human Oral Fluid and Correlation with Plasma Concentrations following Controlled Administration

    PubMed Central

    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Kolbrich Spargo, Erin A.; Kelly, Tamsin L.; Cone, Edward J.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral fluid is an attractive alternative matrix for drug testing, with a non-invasive and directly observed collection, but there are few controlled cocaine administration studies to guide interpretation. Materials and Methods While residing on a closed research unit for up to 10 weeks under constant medical supervision, 19 participants were administered 75 mg/70 kg subcutaneous cocaine and 14 received 150mg/70 kg. The disposition of cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME) into oral fluid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 0.08–48h after administration. Results In oral fluid collected by citric acid candy stimulated expectoration, cocaine first appeared in oral fluid 0.08–0.32h after dosing and was rapidly eliminated with half-lives of 1.1–3.8h. BE and EME were first detected 0.08–1.0h after dosing, with longer half-lives of 3.4–13.8 (BE) and 2.4–15.5h (EME) (p<0.05). Oral fluid and plasma concentrations were significantly correlated for cocaine, BE and EME (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in first and last detection times with the 8 μg/L cutoff proposed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration or the 10 μg/L cutoff from the European initiative, Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines. Metabolite:cocaine ratios increased after cocaine administration, potentially helpful for interpreting time of last use. Comparison of oral fluid collection via citric acid candy stimulated expectoration, citric acid treated Salivette® and neutral cotton Salivette® devices did not reveal significant differences between devices for areas under the curve for cocaine, BE or EME (p>0.05). Discussion and Conclusion These results provide additional evidence for interpreting cocaine and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid and oral fluid’s usefulness as an alternative matrix for drug testing. PMID:20814350

  10. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  11. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125

  12. Controlled Soil Warming Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125

  13. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  14. An alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal vacuum testing often requires temperature control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C range. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate temperature range: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint temperature; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint temperature. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic temperatures. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling temperature excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different temperatures, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during temperature transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available temperature controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system

  15. The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.C.; Butler, P.L.; Glassell, R.L.; Herndon, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  17. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  18. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  19. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  20. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  1. The Role of Alternative Splicing in the Control of Immune Homeostasis and Cellular Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yabas, Mehmet; Elliott, Hannah; Hoyne, Gerard F

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA helps to enhance the genetic diversity within mammalian cells by increasing the number of protein isoforms that can be generated from one gene product. This provides a great deal of flexibility to the host cell to alter protein function, but when dysregulation in splicing occurs this can have important impact on health and disease. Alternative splicing is widely used in the mammalian immune system to control the development and function of antigen specific lymphocytes. In this review we will examine the splicing of pre-mRNAs yielding key proteins in the immune system that regulate apoptosis, lymphocyte differentiation, activation and homeostasis, and discuss how defects in splicing can contribute to diseases. We will describe how disruption to trans-acting factors, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), can impact on cell survival and differentiation in the immune system. PMID:26703587

  2. The Role of Alternative Splicing in the Control of Immune Homeostasis and Cellular Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yabas, Mehmet; Elliott, Hannah; Hoyne, Gerard F.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA helps to enhance the genetic diversity within mammalian cells by increasing the number of protein isoforms that can be generated from one gene product. This provides a great deal of flexibility to the host cell to alter protein function, but when dysregulation in splicing occurs this can have important impact on health and disease. Alternative splicing is widely used in the mammalian immune system to control the development and function of antigen specific lymphocytes. In this review we will examine the splicing of pre-mRNAs yielding key proteins in the immune system that regulate apoptosis, lymphocyte differentiation, activation and homeostasis, and discuss how defects in splicing can contribute to diseases. We will describe how disruption to trans-acting factors, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), can impact on cell survival and differentiation in the immune system. PMID:26703587

  3. Project Cerberus: Tobacco Industry Strategy to Create an Alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  4. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  5. Alternative control of Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomato plants grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Soto, Alberto; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Oliveira, Hamilton G; Pallini, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard is an important pest of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. This mite is characterized by a high reproductive rate, which leads to high population growth in a short period of time causing important economic damage. Control of T. evansi is mainly through synthetic acaricides. In searching for environmentally friendly control measures, we evaluated the efficiency of alternative products to control T. evansi on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The products tested were lime sulphur and neem based products. We first estimated the lethal concentration (LC) and instantaneous rate of increase (r i) of T. evansi exposed to different product concentrations in laboratory conditions, and later tested the efficacy of LC95 and the concentrations that restrained mite population growth (r i = 0) in greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were repeated three times: NeemPro (81.0 and 71.6 mg a.i./l), Natuneem (31.1 and 20.4 mg ai/l), Organic Neem (39.1 and 30.4 mg a.i./l), lime sulphur (1.0 and 0.6%) and water (control). For all products, control provided by LC95 was higher than provided for lower concentrations (r i = 0) one day after spraying. However, after five days, for both concentrations, the percentage of T. evansi population reduction was superior to 95% and increased over time. Only plants sprayed with Natuneem (31.1 mg a.i./l) showed symptoms of phytotoxicity. Lime sulphur and neem based products, applied in appropriate concentrations and formulations, bear out as a viable alternative to control T. evansi on tomato plants.

  6. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  7. Controlled alternate partial root-zone irrigation: its physiological consequences and impact on water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2004-11-01

    Controlled alternate partial root-zone irrigation (CAPRI), also called partial root-zone drying (PRD) in other literature, is a new irrigation technique and may improve the water use efficiency of crop production without significant yield reduction. It involves part of the root system being exposed to drying soil while the remaining part is irrigated normally. The wetted and dried sides of the root system are alternated with a frequency according to soil drying rate and crop water requirement. The irrigation system is developed on the basis of two theoretical backgrounds. (i) Fully irrigated plants usually have widely opened stomata. A small narrowing of the stomatal opening may reduce water loss substantially with little effect on photosynthesis. (ii) Part of the root system in drying soil can respond to the drying by sending a root-sourced signal to the shoots where stomata may be inhibited so that water loss is reduced. In the field, however, the prediction that reduced stomatal opening may reduce water consumption may not materialize because stomatal control only constitutes part of the total transpirational resistance. The boundary resistance from the leaf surface to the outside of the canopy may be so substantial that reduction in stomatal conductance is small and may be partially compensated by the increase in leaf temperature. It is likely that densely populated field crops, such as wheat and maize, may have a different stomatal control over transpiration from that of fruit trees which are more sparsely separated. It was discussed how long the stomata can keep 'partially' closed when a prolonged and repeated 'partial' soil drying is applied and what role the rewatering-stimulated new root growth may play in sensing the repeated soil drying. The physiological and morphological alternation of plants under partial root-zone irrigation may bring more benefits to crops than improved water use efficiency where carbon redistribution among organs is crucial to the

  8. An empirical evaluation of devolving administrative control to Costa Rican hospital and clinic directors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theodore; McKee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, Costa Rica implemented comprehensive reforms of its health care system, including devolving administrative power from the central government to some providers that remain part of the national system. In this article, we evaluate how this aspect of the reform affected clinic efficiency and population health by analyzing administrative data on regional providers and mortality rates in local areas. We compare changes in outcomes across time between areas that signed performance contracts with the central government and received limited budgetary control to those that continued to be managed directly by the central government. We believe the reform created opportunities for providers to become more efficient and effective. Our results suggest that the reform significantly decreased costs without adversely affecting quality of care or population health.

  9. An empirical evaluation of devolving administrative control to Costa Rican hospital and clinic directors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theodore; McKee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, Costa Rica implemented comprehensive reforms of its health care system, including devolving administrative power from the central government to some providers that remain part of the national system. In this article, we evaluate how this aspect of the reform affected clinic efficiency and population health by analyzing administrative data on regional providers and mortality rates in local areas. We compare changes in outcomes across time between areas that signed performance contracts with the central government and received limited budgetary control to those that continued to be managed directly by the central government. We believe the reform created opportunities for providers to become more efficient and effective. Our results suggest that the reform significantly decreased costs without adversely affecting quality of care or population health. PMID:25813506

  10. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Swedish patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Annelie; Löfberg, Robert; Sternby, Berit; Eriksson, Anders; Almer, Sven; Befrits, Ragnar; Fossum, Bjöörn; Karlén, Per; Broström, Olle; Tysk, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with chronic diseases, including those with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients may turn to CAM when conventional therapies are inadequate or associated with side effects for symptomatic relief or to regain control over their disease. The objectives were to explore CAM use and perceived effects in IBD patients in comparison with a control group. Methods A cross-sectional, multicenter, controlled study was carried out. IBD patients were invited from 12 IBD clinics in Sweden. Controls were selected randomly from a residence registry. A study-specific questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Overall, 48.3% of patients with IBD had used some kind of CAM during the past year compared with 53.5% in controls (P=0.025, adjusted for age, sex, geographic residence, and diet). The most frequently used CAM among IBD patients was massage (21.3%), versus controls (31.4%) (adjusted P=0.0003). The second most used CAM was natural products, 18.7% in IBD patients versus 22.3% of the controls (unadjusted P=0.018). In all, 83.1% of the patients experienced positive effects from CAM and 14.4% experienced negative effects. Conclusion Overall, 48.3% of Swedish IBD patients used some kind of CAM and controls used CAM significantly more. Natural products were used by one-fifth of the patients and even more by controls. This is notable from a patient safety perspective considering the possible risks of interactions with conventional medication. In all, 40% of the patients reported adverse events from conventional medicine. Patients experienced predominantly positive effects from CAM, and so did controls. PMID:27472271

  11. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Controlling feed cost by including alternative ingredients into pig diets: a review.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-04-01

    Sustained price increases for traditional cereal grain and protein meal feed commodities have forced the pork industry to consider the dietary inclusion of alternative feedstuffs. Crop seed may serve as feedstuffs but their demand as feedstock for human food, biofuel, and bioindustrial products has increased. Together with these products, coproducts such as distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat millrun, and canola meal are produced. As omnivores, pigs are ideally suited to convert these non-human-edible coproducts into high-quality food animal protein. Therefore, coproducts and other low-cost alternative feedstuffs such as pulses and oilseeds can be included in pig diets to reduce feed cost per metric ton of feed. However, inclusion of alternative feedstuffs in pig diets does not necessarily reduce feed cost per kilogram of gain. Therefore, the use of novel and existing feedstuffs in pig diets must be optimized following their characterization for energy and AA profile. Alternative feedstuffs generally have a high content of at least 1 of the following antinutritional factors (ANF): fiber, tannins, glucosinolates, and heat-labile trypsin inhibitors. Several methods can optimize nutrient use of pigs fed alternative feedstuffs by reducing effects of their ANF. These methods include 1) particle size reduction to increase nutrient digestibility, 2) dehulling or scarification to reduce tannin and fiber content of pulses and oilseeds, 3) air classification to create fractions that have a greater content of nutrients and lower content of ANF than the feedstock, 4) heat treatments such as extrusion, toasting, roasting, and micronization to reduce heat-labile ANF, 5) dietary supplementation with fiber-degrading enzymes or predigestion of fibrous feedstuffs or diets with fiber-degrading enzymes to increase dietary nutrient availability, and 6) formulation of diets based on bioavailable AA coefficients. In conclusion, the feeding of alternative ingredients may reduce

  12. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Controlling feed cost by including alternative ingredients into pig diets: a review.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-04-01

    Sustained price increases for traditional cereal grain and protein meal feed commodities have forced the pork industry to consider the dietary inclusion of alternative feedstuffs. Crop seed may serve as feedstuffs but their demand as feedstock for human food, biofuel, and bioindustrial products has increased. Together with these products, coproducts such as distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat millrun, and canola meal are produced. As omnivores, pigs are ideally suited to convert these non-human-edible coproducts into high-quality food animal protein. Therefore, coproducts and other low-cost alternative feedstuffs such as pulses and oilseeds can be included in pig diets to reduce feed cost per metric ton of feed. However, inclusion of alternative feedstuffs in pig diets does not necessarily reduce feed cost per kilogram of gain. Therefore, the use of novel and existing feedstuffs in pig diets must be optimized following their characterization for energy and AA profile. Alternative feedstuffs generally have a high content of at least 1 of the following antinutritional factors (ANF): fiber, tannins, glucosinolates, and heat-labile trypsin inhibitors. Several methods can optimize nutrient use of pigs fed alternative feedstuffs by reducing effects of their ANF. These methods include 1) particle size reduction to increase nutrient digestibility, 2) dehulling or scarification to reduce tannin and fiber content of pulses and oilseeds, 3) air classification to create fractions that have a greater content of nutrients and lower content of ANF than the feedstock, 4) heat treatments such as extrusion, toasting, roasting, and micronization to reduce heat-labile ANF, 5) dietary supplementation with fiber-degrading enzymes or predigestion of fibrous feedstuffs or diets with fiber-degrading enzymes to increase dietary nutrient availability, and 6) formulation of diets based on bioavailable AA coefficients. In conclusion, the feeding of alternative ingredients may reduce

  13. Local infiltration of rabies immunoglobulins without systemic intramuscular administration: An alternative cost effective approach for passive immunization against rabies

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Gaunta, Pyare Lal; Belludi, Ashwin Yajaman

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Presently the dose of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) which is an integral part of rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is calculated based on body weight though the recommendation is to infiltrate the wound(s). This practice demands large quantities of RIG which may be unaffordable to many patients. In this background, we conducted this study to know if the quantity and cost of RIG can be reduced by restricting passive immunization to local infiltration alone and avoiding systemic intramuscular administration based on the available scientific evidence. Two hundred and sixty nine category III patients bitten by suspect or confirmed rabid dogs/animals were infiltrated with equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIGs) in and around the wound. The quantity of ERIG used was proportionate to the size and number of wounds irrespective of their body weight. They were followed with a regular course of rabies vaccination by intra-dermal route. As against 363 vials of RIGs required for all these cases as per current recommendation based on body weight, they required only 42 vials of 5ml RIG. Minimum dose of RIGs given was 0.25 ml and maximum dose given was 8 ml. On an average 1.26 ml of RIGs was required per patient that costs Rs. 150 ($3). All the patients were followed for 9 months and they were healthy and normal at the end of observation period. With local infiltration, that required small quantities of RIG, the RIGs could be made available to all patients in times of short supply in the market. A total of 30 (11%) serum samples of patients were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and all showed antibody titers >0.5 IU/mL by day 14. In no case the dose was higher than that required based on body weight and no immunosuppression resulted. To conclude, this pilot study shows that local infiltration of RIG need to be considered in times of non-availability in the market or unaffordability by poor patients

  14. 75 FR 12769 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine...: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the.... Seating is limited. Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)...

  15. Biological control of microbial attachment: a promising alternative for mitigating membrane biofouling.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanghui; Liu, Yu

    2010-04-01

    Microbial attachment to a solid surface is a universal phenomenon occurring in both natural and engineering systems and is responsible for various types of biofouling. Membrane systems have been widely applied in drinking water production, wastewater reuse, and seawater desalination. However, membrane biofouling is the bottleneck that limits the development of membrane systems. In this review, some biological control strategies of microbial attachment which would have great potential in alleviating membrane biofouling are discussed, including inhibition of quorum sensing system, nitric oxide-induced biofilm dispersal, enzymatic disruption of extracellular polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA, inhibition of microbial attachment by energy uncoupling, use of cell wall hydrolases, and disruption of biofilm by bacteriophage. It appears that biological control of microbial attachment would be a novel and promising alternative for mitigating membrane biofouling and would be a new research niche that deserves further study.

  16. Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

    1984-12-01

    Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

  17. Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Alló, Mariano; Agirre, Eneritz; Bessonov, Sergey; Bertucci, Paola; Gómez Acuña, Luciana; Buggiano, Valeria; Bellora, Nicolás; Singh, Babita; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Blaustein, Matías; Miñana, Belén; Dujardin, Gwendal; Pozzi, Berta; Pelisch, Federico; Bechara, Elías; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Srebrow, Anabella; Lührmann, Reinhard; Valcárcel, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin modifications that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and modulate alternative splicing in an Argonaute-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the genome-wide distribution of AGO1 nuclear targets. Unexpectedly, we found that about 80% of AGO1 clusters are associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional enhancers, most of them (73%) overlapping active enhancers. This association seems to be mediated by long, rather than short, enhancer RNAs and to be more prominent in intragenic, rather than intergenic, enhancers. Paradoxically, crossing ChIP-seq with RNA-seq data upon AGO1 depletion revealed that enhancer-bound AGO1 is not linked to the global regulation of gene transcription but to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing, which was confirmed by an individual gene analysis explaining how AGO1 controls inclusion levels of the cassette exon 107 in the SYNE2 gene. PMID:25313066

  18. Alternative antimicrobial compounds to control potential Lactobacillus contamination in bioethanol fermentations.

    PubMed

    Limayem, Alya; Hanning, Irene B; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Illeghems, Koen; Kim, Jin-Woo; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used to control microbial contaminants in yeast-based bioethanol fermentation. Given the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, alternative natural antimicrobials were evaluated against the potential contaminant, Lactobacillus. The effects of nisin, ϵ-polylysine, chitosan (CS) and lysozyme were screened against 5 Lactobacillus strains. A standard broth- microdilution method was used in 96-well plates to assess the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). L. delbrueckii subsp lactis ATCC479 exhibited maximal MICs with CS, ϵ-polylysine and nisin (1.87, 0.3125 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively). Nisin reduced most Lactobacillus strains by 6 log CFU/mL after 48 hours with the exception of L. casei. Synergism occurred when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added with nisin. An MIC of 0.4 mg/mL of nisin combined with the EDTA at an MIC of 1 mg/ml markedly suppressed L .casei by 6 log CFU/mL. In conclusion, alternative antimicrobials proved to be a potential candidate for controlling bacterial contamination in the fermentation process. Synergistic effect of nisin with EDTA successfully inhibited the nisin-resistant contaminant, L. casei. PMID:21879832

  19. [Ejaculatory disorder caused by doxazosin administration for blood pressure control in patient with pheochomocytoma].

    PubMed

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Imao, Tetsuya; Takemae, Katsuro; Yamauchi, Keishi

    2009-06-01

    A 29-year-old man had been treated for hypertension for 10 years. He suffered from speech disturbance caused by cerebral infarction, and further examinations were performed. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left adrenal tumor 6 cm in size. The radioisotope (MIBG) accumulated in the left adrenal gland. The serum noradrenalin levels were high. Thus, the diagnosis of pheochomocytoma in left adrenal tumor was made. He noticed ejaculation disturbance 5 days after starting administration of doxazosin at the dose of 3 mg/day for pre-operative blood pressure control. Sperm was observed in the urine sampling obtained after masturbation, thus his ejaculation disturbance was considered to be retrograde ejaculation. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. After the operation, his blood pressure normalized and the administration of doxazosin has not been necessary. He could perform ejaculation without any trouble after stopping doxazosin intake. The bladder neck conditions measured by ultrasonography were the same before and after the administration of doxazosin. The present case is a very rare case of ejaculation disturbance caused by non-selective alpha 1 blocker doxazosin.

  20. A review of reclamation and alternate sediment control at Bridger Coal Company in southwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, N.E.; Hartley, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    Bridger Coal Company has reclaimed 630 ha of mined lands. The mine is in a northern cold desert at an elevation of 2,073 m. Annual precipitation is 15-20 cm, high winds are frequent, and evapotranspiration is high. Some soils and spoils are saline or sodic. Early publications predicted that revegetation of surface mines under these growing conditions would be problematic within acceptable time frames. Irrigation was initially required for a mining permit. Subsequent studies showed that irrigation was unnecessary. Live direct-haul soil is used when possible. Hay mulch is applied as needed for erosion control and moisture retention. Most seed is planted with a no-till drill after mulch has been crimped. A diverse seed mixture of native, locally adapted species and varieties is varied according to soil properties. Combinations of microrelief, broadcast seeding, shrub and forb seed mixtures, and snow fences have been used experimentally to improve moisture retention, shrub and forb establishment, and species diversity. Herbaceous production is usually greater on reclamation than on native land. Vegetative cover on reclamation is approximately equal to that on native land. Total cover, which includes litter and rock, is usually lower on reclaimed than on native land. Native shrub species have been successfully reestablished and are self-propagating. Alternate sediment control techniques are in use on mine disturbances. These are based on the following local natural conditions: semiarid climate, highly erosive geology, and ephemeral streams. Sediment control techniques are designed to reduce sediment levels in runoff from reclaimed lands to background levels. Runoff from reclaimed land that is at background sediment level has less impact downstream than water with too much or too little sediment. Monitoring by automatic pump samplers indicates that alternate sediment control techniques cause no additional contributions of sediment downstream.

  1. Compensatory mechanisms in Great Lakes sea lamprey populations: implications for alternative control strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Slade, Jeffrey W.

    2003-01-01

    spawner abundance is reduced to low levels through alternative control. It is concluded that further study of recruitment variation in lamprey populations is critical to rationalizing alternative controls that target reproductive success, and that recruitment variation needs to be incorporated into models used to evaluate sea lamprey control options.

  2. The argument for integrating vector control with multiple drug administration campaigns to ensure elimination of lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Burkot, TR; Durrheim, DN; Melrose, WD; Speare, R; Ichimori, K

    2006-01-01

    Background There is a danger that mass drug administration campaigns may fail to maintain adequate treatment coverage to achieve lymphatic filariasis elimination. Hence, additional measures to suppress transmission might be needed to ensure the success of the Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. Discussion Vector control successfully eliminated lymphatic filariasis when implemented alone or with mass drug administration. Challenges to lymphatic filariasis elimination include uncertainty of the exact level and duration of microfilarial suppression required for elimination, the mobility of infected individuals, consistent non-participation of some infected individuals with mass drug administration, the possible development of anti-filarial drug resistance and treatment strategies in areas co-endemic with loasis. Integration of vector control with mass drug administration can address some of these challenges. The potential benefits of vector control would include: (1) the ability to suppress filariasis transmission without the need to identify all individual 'foci of infection'; (2) minimizing the risk of reestablishment of transmission from imported microfilaria positive individuals; and (3) decreasing the risk of dengue or malaria transmission where, respectively, Aedes or Anopheles are lymphatic filariasis vectors. Summary With adequate sustained treatment coverage, mass drug administration should meet the criteria for elimination of lymphatic filariasis. However, it may be difficult to sustain sufficiently high mass drug administration coverage to achieve lymphatic filariasis elimination in some areas, particularly, where Aedes species are the vectors. Since vector control was effective in controlling and even eliminating lymphatic filariasis transmission, integration of vector control with mass drug administration will ensure the sustainability of transmission suppression and thereby better ensure the success of national filariasis

  3. [Problem of controls in physiology and pharmacology: psychophysiological and morphofunctional effects of chronic saline administration].

    PubMed

    Kondashevskaia, M V; Nikol'skaia, K A

    2008-01-01

    The psychophysiological and morphofunctional effects of chronic administration of saline, which is commonly used as an active control, to Wistar rats were analyzed at different levels. The active control proved to be complicated by signs of stress manifested as increased corticosterone levels, changes in the homeostatic system, blood cytometric indices, morphofunctional states of the thymus and spleen, sharp suppression of the cognitive activity, and decrease in the motivational and locomotor activities. Pain expectation developed in animals after the second saline injection in the tail-flick test--pain sensitivity sharply increased in the session prior to the injection. These signs of stress should be taken into account for interpretation of the effects in drug tests.

  4. Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Vera L. M.; Pereira, Eugênia C.; Falcão, Emerson P. S.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

  5. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    PubMed

    Martins, Mônica C B; Silva, Monique C; Silva, Luanna R S; Lima, Vera L M; Pereira, Eugênia C; Falcão, Emerson P S; Melo, Ana M M A; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  6. Taking control: Complementary and alternative medicine in diabetes and cardiovascular disease management.

    PubMed

    Warren, Narelle; Canaway, Rachel; Unantenne, Nalika; Manderson, Lenore

    2013-07-01

    The chronicity of chronic disease, and its associated uncertainties and fluctuations in health status, pain and/or discomfort, often leaves those so diagnosed feeling that they have lost control. Treatment can exacerbate this sense of loss of control, as people surrender to the expertise of their biomedical providers and interventions. In principle, self-management aims to return control to the individual, but its promotion is as much motivated by cost-containment as patient autonomy, and is advocated in an environment largely shaped by policy makers and biomedical providers. In this article, we examine how Australians with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease supplement medical with complementary and alternative medical (CAM) care. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 69 participants collected in 2009-2010, we illustrate how people rely on medical providers and pharmaceuticals to manage their diabetes, but concurrently consulted with CAM practitioners and used non-biomedical therapies to enhance well-being. In explaining this, participants framed CAM use in the context of reclaiming relative personal and bodily control.

  7. In vitro analysis of a novel controlled release system designed for intratympanic administration of N-acetylcysteine: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Zafer; Deniz, Mahmut; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Ciftci, Halide Gunes; Sirin, Duygu Yasar; Gultekin, Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in-vitro experimental study was to design a novel drug delivery system that may permit controlled release of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) following intratympanic administration. The system was composed of two different solutions that attained a hydrogel form within seconds after getting into contact with each other. The authors performed swelling, pH and temperature tests and analysis of controlled release of NAC from this novel controlled release system. For the structure and porosity analysis of the hydrogel, an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used. The diameter of designed hydrogel showed an increase when pH was increased. In addition, in comparison to acidic values, the pore diameter of the hydrogel increased significantly especially in physiological level. The increase in the pore diameter was also directly proportional to the increase in temperature. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that the amount of NAC released into the medium was statistically significant (p=0.038, t=-2.18, 95% CI; DF: 27). SEM analysis of the samples revealed a smooth surface topography and numerous porous structures. The authors are of the opinion that the designed hydrogel may be used as an alternative method for intratympanic delivery of NAC for otoprotective purposes. The disadvantages of intratympanic injection of the drug in its liquid form, including leakage through eustachian tube, restraining the patient in an uncomfortable position, necessity for repetitive injections and dose dependent inflammation of the middle ear epithelium, may also be avoided. Further in vivo studies should be conducted to assess its tolerability and effectivity. PMID:26545472

  8. Combustion instability and active control: Alternative fuels, augmentors, and modeling heat release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sammy Ace

    Experimental and analytical studies were conducted to explore thermo-acoustic coupling during the onset of combustion instability in various air-breathing combustor configurations. These include a laboratory-scale 200-kW dump combustor and a 100-kW augmentor featuring a v-gutter flame holder. They were used to simulate main combustion chambers and afterburners in aero engines, respectively. The three primary themes of this work includes: 1) modeling heat release fluctuations for stability analysis, 2) conducting active combustion control with alternative fuels, and 3) demonstrating practical active control for augmentor instability suppression. The phenomenon of combustion instabilities remains an unsolved problem in propulsion engines, mainly because of the difficulty in predicting the fluctuating component of heat release without extensive testing. A hybrid model was developed to describe both the temporal and spatial variations in dynamic heat release, using a separation of variables approach that requires only a limited amount of experimental data. The use of sinusoidal basis functions further reduced the amount of data required. When the mean heat release behavior is known, the only experimental data needed for detailed stability analysis is one instantaneous picture of heat release at the peak pressure phase. This model was successfully tested in the dump combustor experiments, reproducing the correct sign of the overall Rayleigh index as well as the remarkably accurate spatial distribution pattern of fluctuating heat release. Active combustion control was explored for fuel-flexible combustor operation using twelve different jet fuels including bio-synthetic and Fischer-Tropsch types. Analysis done using an actuated spray combustion model revealed that the combustion response times of these fuels were similar. Combined with experimental spray characterizations, this suggested that controller performance should remain effective with various alternative fuels

  9. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

  10. Use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies to control symptoms in women living with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wells, Marjorie; Sarna, Linda; Cooley, Mary E; Brown, Jean K; Chernecky, Cynthia; Williams, Roma D; Padilla, Geraldine; Danao, Leda Layo

    2007-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by cancer patients, especially women, is increasing. However, CAM use among patients with lung cancer, who have been reported to have the highest symptom burden, is poorly documented. This study describes types and frequencies of specific CAM therapies used by women with lung cancer to manage symptoms, and examines differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between CAM users and non-CAM users. Participants included 189 women with non-small cell lung cancer and > or =1 of 8 symptoms. Six CAM therapies, used to control symptoms, were assessed, including herbs, tea, acupuncture, massage, meditation, and prayer. Forty-four percent (84 women) used CAM therapies, including prayer (34.9%), meditation (11.6%), tea (11.6%), herbs (9.0%), massage (6.9%), and acupuncture (2.6%). Complementary and alternative medicine use was greatest for difficulty breathing and pain (54.8% each), with prayer the most commonly used CAM for all symptoms. Significant differences (P < .05) were found for age (t = 2.24), symptom frequency (t = -3.02), and geographic location (chi = 7.51). Women who were younger, experienced more symptoms, and lived on the West Coast or South (vs Northeast) were more likely to use CAM. We found that CAM use is variable by symptom and may be an indicator of symptom burden. Our results provide important initial data regarding CAM use for managing symptoms by women with lung cancer.

  11. The medical importance of riceland mosquitoes and their control using alternatives to chemical insecticides.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Lacey, C M

    1990-06-01

    The medical importance, ecology and control of riceland mosquitoes using alternative strategies is reviewed. Over 135 pest and vector anopheline and culicine mosquito species found in association with riceland habitats and their medical importance are presented. Malaria and Japanese encephalitis are the two most serious human diseases transmitted by riceland mosquitoes, but they have been incriminated as vectors of dozens of arboviruses and other parasites and pathogens including the causal agents of West Nile and Rift Valley Fevers and lymphatic filariasis. Control of vector and pest mosquitoes using chemical pesticides has generated several problems including: insecticide resistance, safety risks for humans and domestic animals, and other environmental concerns. These problems and the high cost and sustainability of programs based predominantly on conventional insecticides have stimulated increased interest in integrated control measures in ricelands. The integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for mosquito control, also known as integrated vector control (IVC), is an ecologically based approach that may involve several complementary interventions used in combination or singly. Environmental management, and chemical, biological and mechanical control, comprise the elements of IVC proposed for use in or near riceland habitats. Some of the elements of environmental management include the use of intermittent irrigation; flushing of fields; use of rice cultivars that require less water; shifting of planting schedules to avoid optimal mosquito breeding conditions; relocation of communities or use of dry belt farming around them; and zooprophylaxis and other personal protection methods, especially use of insecticide-impregnated bed nets. Biological control agents that have been used successfully in rice fields include several species of larvivorous fish, a mermithid nematode (Romanomermis culicivorax), a fungus (Lagenidium giganteum) and bacteria (Bacillus

  12. 76 FR 22708 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and... related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services...

  13. Infection control in physicians' offices. Academy of Pediatrics. The American Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    Infection control is an integral part of pediatric practice in outpatient settings as well as in hospitals. All employees should be educated regarding the routes of transmission and techniques used to prevent transmission of infectious agents. Policies for infection control and prevention should be written, readily available, updated annually, and enforced. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention standard precautions for hospitalized patients with modifications from the American Academy of Pediatrics are appropriate for most patient encounters. As employers, pediatricians are required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to take precautions to protect staff likely to be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials while on the job. Key principles of infection control include the following: hand-washing before and after every patient contact, separation of infected, contagious children from uninfected children, safe handling and disposal of needles and other sharp medical devices, appropriate use of personal protection equipment such as gloves, appropriate sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis, and judicious use of antibiotics.

  14. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  15. Stereo- and Temporally Controlled Coordination Polymerization Triggered by Alternating Addition of a Lewis Acid and Base.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Dongmei; Tang, Tao

    2016-09-19

    Significant progress has been made with regard to temporally controlled radical and ring-opening polymerizations, for example, by means of chemical reagents, light, and voltage, whereas quantitative switch coordination polymerization is still challenging. Herein, we report the temporally and stereocontrolled 3,4-polymerization of isoprene through allosterically regulating the active metal center by alternating addition of Lewis basic pyridine to "poison" the Lewis acidic active metal species through acid-base interactions and Lewis acidic Al(i) Bu3 to release the original active species through pyridine abstraction. This process is quick, quantitative, and can be repeated multiple times while maintaining high 3,4-selectivity. Moreover, this strategy is also effective for the switch copolymerization of isoprene and styrene with dual 3,4- and syndiotactic selectivity. Tuning the switch cycles and intervals enables the isolation of various copolymers with different distributions of 3,4-polyisoprene and syndiotactic polystyrene sequences. PMID:27539866

  16. Alternatives to antibiotics for the control of bacterial disease in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The wide and frequent use of antibiotics in aquaculture has resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Because of the health risks associated with the use of antibiotics in animal production, there is a growing awareness that antibiotics should be used with more care. This is reflected in the recent implementation of more strict regulations on the prophylactic use of antibiotics and the presence of antibiotic residues in aquaculture products. For a sustainable further development of the aquaculture industry, novel strategies to control bacterial infections are needed. This review evaluates several alternative biocontrol measures that have emerged recently. Most of these methods are still in research phase; few have been tested in real aquaculture settings. It is important to further develop different strategies that could be combined or used in rotation in order to maximise the chance of successfully protecting the animals and to prevent resistance development.

  17. Aptamer-based analysis: a promising alternative for food safety control.

    PubMed

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Alvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future.

  18. Aptamer-based analysis: a promising alternative for food safety control.

    PubMed

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Alvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future. PMID:24287543

  19. Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J.; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future. PMID:24287543

  20. Runtime Performance and Virtual Network Control Alternatives in VM-Based High-Fidelity Network Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S; Henz, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    In prior work (Yoginath and Perumalla, 2011; Yoginath, Perumalla and Henz, 2012), the motivation, challenges and issues were articulated in favor of virtual time ordering of Virtual Machines (VMs) in network simulations hosted on multi-core machines. Two major components in the overall virtualization challenge are (1) virtual timeline establishment and scheduling of VMs, and (2) virtualization of inter-VM communication. Here, we extend prior work by presenting scaling results for the first component, with experiment results on up to 128 VMs scheduled in virtual time order on a single 12-core host. We also explore the solution space of design alternatives for the second component, and present performance results from a multi-threaded, multi-queue implementation of inter-VM network control for synchronized execution with VM scheduling, incorporated in our NetWarp simulation system.

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome and personality: a case-control study using the Alternative Five Factor Model.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Valero, Sergi; Calvo, Natalia; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Alegre, José; de Sevilla, Tomás Fernández; Casas, Miquel

    2014-05-30

    Neuroticism is the personality dimension most frequently associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Most studies have also shown that CFS patients are less extraverted than non-CFS patients, but results have been inconsistent, possibly because the facets of the extraversion dimension have not been separately analyzed. This study has the following aims: to assess the personality profile of adults with CFS using the Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM), which considers Activity and Sociability as two separate factors of Extraversion, and to test the discriminant validity of a measure of the AFFM, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, in differentiating CFS subjects from normal-range matched controls. The CFS sample consisted of 132 consecutive patients referred for persistent fatigue or pain to the Department of Medicine of a university hospital. These were compared with 132 matched normal population controls. Significantly lower levels of Activity and significantly higher levels of Neuroticism-Anxiety best discriminated CFS patients from controls. The results are consistent with existing data on the relationship between Neuroticism and CFS, and clarify the relationship between Extraversion and CFS by providing new data on the relationship of Activity to CFS.

  2. Aeroelastic Sizing for High-Speed Research (HSR) Longitudinal Control Alternatives Project (LCAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Dunn, H. J.; Stroud, W. Jefferson; Barthelemy, J.-F.; Weston, Robert P.; Martin, Carl J.; Bennett, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The Longitudinal Control Alternatives Project (LCAP) compared three high-speed civil transport configurations to determine potential advantages of the three associated longitudinal control concepts. The three aircraft configurations included a conventional configuration with a layout having a horizontal aft tail, a configuration with a forward canard in addition to a horizontal aft tail, and a configuration with only a forward canard. The three configurations were aeroelastically sized and were compared on the basis of operational empty weight (OEW) and longitudinal control characteristics. The sized structure consisted of composite honeycomb sandwich panels on both the wing and the fuselage. Design variables were the core depth of the sandwich and the thicknesses of the composite material which made up the face sheets of the sandwich. Each configuration was sized for minimum structural weight under linear and nonlinear aeroelastic loads subject to strain, buckling, ply-mixture, and subsonic and supersonic flutter constraints. This report describes the methods that were used and the results that were generated for the aeroelastic sizing of the three configurations.

  3. Screening alternative therapies to control Nosemosis type C in honey bee (Apis mellifera iberiensis) colonies.

    PubMed

    Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu; Higes, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Nosemosis type C caused by the microsporidium Nosema ceranae is one of the most widespread of the adult honey bee diseases, and due to its detrimental effects on both strength and productivity of honey bee colonies, an appropriate control of this disease is advisable. Fumagillin is the only veterinary medicament recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) to suppress infections by Nosema, but the use of this antibiotic is prohibited in the European Union and few alternatives are available at present to control the disease. In the present study three therapeutic agents (Nosestat®, Phenyl salicylate and Vitafeed Gold®) have been tested to control N. ceranae infection in honey bee colonies, and have been compared to the use of fumagillin. None of the products tested was effective against Nosema under our experimental conditions. Low consumption of the different doses of treatments may have had a strong influence on the results obtained, highlighting the importance of this issue and emphasizing that this should be evaluated in studies to test therapeutic treatments of honey bee colonies.

  4. An alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Bálint; Sedyó, Inez; Rohonczy, János

    2015-10-01

    Tuning and matching of NMR probes is necessary for many fields of NMR application including temperature dependent NMR, thermoporometry and cryoporometry, or when significantly different types of samples are measured in automation using sample changers. Mismatch of the probe is an especially critical issue in the case of high magnetic fields, polar or ionic solvents, or extreme thermal conditions. Careful tuning is particularly important for quantitative NMR measurements. Manual tuning and matching of the NMR probe is not possible in the case of automated or remotely controlled measurements. Spectrometer manufacturers offer modern probes equipped with automatic tuning/matching mechanics, like Bruker ATM™, suitable for these experiments. The disadvantages of probes with built-in ATM™ are the significantly higher price, and the non-detachable and non-portable construction. Computer controlled tuning and matching is highly desirrable in solid state NMR since no industrial solution has been developed yet for MAS NMR probes. We present an alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing Bruker probes. Building costs are significantly lower, since only commercially available components and ICs are used.

  5. An alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Bálint; Sedyó, Inez; Rohonczy, János

    2015-10-01

    Tuning and matching of NMR probes is necessary for many fields of NMR application including temperature dependent NMR, thermoporometry and cryoporometry, or when significantly different types of samples are measured in automation using sample changers. Mismatch of the probe is an especially critical issue in the case of high magnetic fields, polar or ionic solvents, or extreme thermal conditions. Careful tuning is particularly important for quantitative NMR measurements. Manual tuning and matching of the NMR probe is not possible in the case of automated or remotely controlled measurements. Spectrometer manufacturers offer modern probes equipped with automatic tuning/matching mechanics, like Bruker ATM™, suitable for these experiments. The disadvantages of probes with built-in ATM™ are the significantly higher price, and the non-detachable and non-portable construction. Computer controlled tuning and matching is highly desirrable in solid state NMR since no industrial solution has been developed yet for MAS NMR probes. We present an alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing Bruker probes. Building costs are significantly lower, since only commercially available components and ICs are used. PMID:26363581

  6. A behavioral-educational alternative to drug control of hyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Ayllon, T; Layman, D; Kandel, H J

    1975-01-01

    A behavioral procedure for controlling hyperactivity without inhibiting academic performance is described. Using a time-sample observational method, the hyperactivity displayed by three school children was recorded during math and reading classes. Concurrently, math and reading performances were measured. The study consisted of two baselines, one while the children were on medication and the second while they were off medication. A multiple-baseline design across the two academic subject matters was used to assess the behavioral intervention, which consisted of token reinforcement for correct academic responses in math and subsequently math and reading. Discontinuation of medication resulted in a gross increase in hyperactivity from 20% to about 80%, and a slight increase in math and reading performance. Introduction of a behavioral program for academic performance, during no medication, controlled the children's hyperactivity at a level comparable to that when they were on drugs (about 20%). At the same time, math and reading performance for the group jumped from about 12% during baseline to a level of over 85% correct. Each child performed behaviorally and academically in an optimal manner without medication. Contingency management techniques provided a feasible alternative to medication for controlling hyperactivity in the classroom while enabling the children to grow academically. PMID:1184484

  7. Extraction of gadolinium from high flux isotope reactor control plates. [Alternative method

    SciTech Connect

    Kohring, M.W.

    1987-04-01

    Gadolinium-153 is an important radioisotope used in the diagnosis of various bone disorders. Recent medical and technical developments in the detection and cure of osteoporosis, a bone disease affecting an estimated 50 million people, have greatly increased the demand for this isotope. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has produced /sup 153/Gd since 1980 primarily through the irradiation of a natural europium-oxide powder followed by the chemical separation of the gadolinium fraction from the europium material. Due to the higher demand for /sup 153/Gd, an alternative production method to supplement this process has been investigated. This process involves the extraction of gadolinium from the europium-bearing region of highly radioactive, spent control plates used at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a subsequent re-irradiation of the extracted material for the production of the /sup 153/Gd. Based on the results of experimental and calculational analyses, up to 25 grams of valuable gadolinium (greater than or equal to60% enriched in /sup 152/Gd) resides in the europium-bearing region of the HFIR control components of which 70% is recoverable. At a specific activity yield of 40 curies of /sup 153/Gd for each gram of gadolinium re-irradiated, 700 one-curie sources can be produced from each control plate assayed.

  8. A behavioral-educational alternative to drug control of hyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Ayllon, T; Layman, D; Kandel, H J

    1975-01-01

    A behavioral procedure for controlling hyperactivity without inhibiting academic performance is described. Using a time-sample observational method, the hyperactivity displayed by three school children was recorded during math and reading classes. Concurrently, math and reading performances were measured. The study consisted of two baselines, one while the children were on medication and the second while they were off medication. A multiple-baseline design across the two academic subject matters was used to assess the behavioral intervention, which consisted of token reinforcement for correct academic responses in math and subsequently math and reading. Discontinuation of medication resulted in a gross increase in hyperactivity from 20% to about 80%, and a slight increase in math and reading performance. Introduction of a behavioral program for academic performance, during no medication, controlled the children's hyperactivity at a level comparable to that when they were on drugs (about 20%). At the same time, math and reading performance for the group jumped from about 12% during baseline to a level of over 85% correct. Each child performed behaviorally and academically in an optimal manner without medication. Contingency management techniques provided a feasible alternative to medication for controlling hyperactivity in the classroom while enabling the children to grow academically.

  9. Oral fluid cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-03-01

    Limited oral fluid (OF) pharmacokinetic data collected with commercially available collection devices after controlled cocaine administration hinder OF result interpretations. Ten cocaine-using adults provided OF, collected with Oral-Eze(®) (OE) and StatSure Saliva Sampler™ (SS) devices, an hour prior to and up to 69 h after 25mg intravenous (IV) cocaine administration. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) were quantified by a validated 2D-GC-MS method. Large inter-subject variability was observed. Cocaine was detected in OF in the first 0.17 h sample after IV administration, with much more rapid elimination than BE. OE observed Cmax median (range) concentrations were 932 (394-1574)μg/L for cocaine and 248 (96.9-953)μg/L for BE. SS observed cocaine and BE Cmax median (range) concentrations trended lower at 732 (83.3-1892)μg/L and 360 (77.2-836)μg/L, respectively. OE and SS cocaine OF detection times were 12.5 and 6.5h and for BE 30.5 and 28.0 h, respectively at 1 μg/L. There were no significant pharmacokinetic differences between OE and SS OF collection devices, except cocaine half-life was significantly shorter in SS OF specimens. This difference could be attributed to differences in stabilizing buffers present in OF collection devices, which may affect cocaine stability in OF specimens, or decreased recovery from collection pads. Both OE and SS OF collection devices were effective in monitoring cocaine and metabolite concentrations with similar detection windows. Furthermore, we demonstrated that different confirmatory OF cutoffs can be selected to produce shorter or longer cocaine and metabolite detection windows to address specific needs of clinical and forensic drug testing programs. PMID:26851651

  10. Hypertonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Frank M P; Sleigh, James; Boerma, E Christiaan; La Pine, Mary; Bahr, Mohamed; Pickkers, Peter; van der Hoeven, Johannes G

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of hypertonic fluid versus isotonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock. This was a double-blind, prospective randomized controlled trial in a 15-bed intensive care unit. Twenty-four patients with septic shock were randomized to receive 250 mL 7.2% NaCl/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HT group) or 500 mL 6% hydroxyethyl starch (IT group). Hemodynamic measurements included mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), central venous pressure, stroke volume index, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index, gastric tonometry, and sublingual microcirculatory flow as assessed by sidestream dark field imaging. Systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities of the medial mitral annulus were measured using echocardiography to assess left ventricular contractility. Log transformation of the ratio MAP divided by the norepinephrine infusion rate (log MAP/NE) quantified the combined effect on both parameters. Compared with the IT group, hypertonic solution treatment resulted in an improvement in log MAP/NE (P = 0.008), as well as an increase in systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities (P = 0.03) and stroke volume index (P = 0.017). No differences between the groups were found for preload parameters (central venous pressure, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index) or for afterload parameters (systemic vascular resistance index, MAP). Hypertonic solution treatment decreased the need for ongoing fluid resuscitation (P = 0.046). No differences between groups were observed regarding tonometry or the sublingual microvascular variables. In patients with septic shock, hypertonic fluid administration did not promote gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion or sublingual microcirculatory blood flow in comparison to isotonic fluid. Independent of changes in preload or afterload, hypertonic fluid administration improved the cardiac contractility and vascular tone compared with isotonic fluid. The need for ongoing fluid

  11. Performance consequences of alternating directional control-response compatibility: Evidence from a coal mine shuttle car simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Zupanc, C.M.; Burgess-Limerick, R.J.; Wallis, G.

    2007-08-15

    This experiment examines the performance of 48 novice participants in a virtual analogy of an underground coal mine shuttle car. Participants were randomly assigned to a compatible condition, an incompatible condition, an alternating condition in which compatibility alternated within and between hands, or an alternating condition in which compatibility alternated between hands. Participants made fewer steering direction errors and made correct steering responses more quickly in the compatible condition. Error rate decreased over time in the incompatible condition. A compatibility effect for both errors and reaction time was also found when the control-response relationship alternated; however, performance improvements over time were not consistent. Isolating compatibility to a hand resulted in reduced error rate and faster reaction time than when compatibility alternated within and between hands. Thus consequences of alternating control-response relationships are higher error rates and slower responses, at least in the early stages of learning. This research highlights the importance of ensuring consistently compatible human-machine directional control-response relationships.

  12. The role of the Therapeutic Goods Administration and the Medicine and Medical Devices Safety Authority in evaluating complementary and alternative medicines in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip; Skinner, Margot; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2006-04-01

    Currently, the regulation of complementary and alternative medicines and related health claims in Australia and New Zealand is managed in a number of ways. Complementary medicines, including herbal, minerals, nutritional/dietary supplements, aromatherapy oils and homeopathic medicines are regulated under therapeutic goods/products legislation. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), a division of the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing is responsible for administering the provisions of the legislation in Australia. The New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe) administers the provision of legislation in New Zealand. In December 2003 the Australian and New Zealand governments signed a Treaty to establish a single, bi-national agency to regulate therapeutic products, including medical devices prescription, over-the-counter and complementary medicines. A single agency will replace the Australian TGA and the New Zealand Medsafe. The role of the new agency will be to safeguard public health through regulation of the quality, safety and efficacy or performance of therapeutic products in both Australia and New Zealand. The major activities of the new joint Australia New Zealand therapeutic products agency are in product licensing, specifying labelling standards and setting the advertising scheme, together with determining the risk classes of medicines and creating an expanded list of ingredients permitted in Class I medicines. A new, expanded definition of complementary medicines is proposed and this definition is currently under consultation. Related Australian and New Zealand legislation is being developed to implement the joint scheme. Once this legislation is passed, the Treaty will come into force and the new joint regulatory scheme will begin. The agency is expected to commence operation no later than 1 July 2006 and will result in a single agency to regulate complementary and alternative medicines.

  13. Cocaine and metabolite concentrations in DBS and venous blood after controlled intravenous cocaine administration

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Concheiro, Marta; Anizan, Sebastien; Barnes, Allan J; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-01-01

    Background: DBS are an increasingly common clinical matrix. Methods & results: Sensitive and specific methods for DBS and venous blood cocaine and metabolite detection by LC–HRMS and 2D GC–MS, respectively, were validated to examine correlation between concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration. Linear ranges from 1 to 200 µg/l were achieved, with acceptable bias and imprecision. Authentic matched specimens’ (392 DBS, 97 venous blood) cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations were qualitatively similar, but DBS had much greater variability (21.4–105.9 %CV) and were lower than in blood. Conclusion: DBS offer advantages for monitoring cocaine intake; however, differences between capillary and venous blood and DBS concentration variability must be addressed. PMID:26327184

  14. Differential Control of Cocaine Self-Administration by GABAergic and Glutamatergic CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Elena; Bourgoin, Lucie; Cathala, Adeline; Kasanetz, Fernando; Mondesir, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Rodriguez, Ana; Reguero, Leire; Fiancette, Jean-François; Grandes, Pedro; Spampinato, Umberto; Maldonado, Rafael; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) modulates numerous neurobehavioral processes and is therefore explored as a target for the treatment of several mental and neurological diseases. However, previous studies have investigated CB1 by targeting it globally, regardless of its two main neuronal localizations on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. In the context of cocaine addiction this lack of selectivity is critical since glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal transmission is involved in different aspects of the disease. To determine whether CB1 exerts different control on cocaine seeking according to its two main neuronal localizations, we used mutant mice with deleted CB1 in cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1) or in forebrain GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1). In Glu-CB1, gene deletion concerns the dorsal telencephalon, including neocortex, paleocortex, archicortex, hippocampal formation and the cortical portions of the amygdala. In GABA-CB1, it concerns several cortical and non-cortical areas including the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, thalamic, and hypothalamic nuclei. We tested complementary components of cocaine self-administration, separating the influence of primary and conditioned effects. Mechanisms underlying each phenotype were explored using in vivo microdialysis and ex vivo electrophysiology. We show that CB1 expression in forebrain GABAergic neurons controls mouse sensitivity to cocaine, while CB1 expression in cortical glutamatergic neurons controls associative learning processes. In accordance, in the nucleus accumbens, GABA-CB1 receptors control cocaine-induced dopamine release and Glu-CB1 receptors control AMPAR/NMDAR ratio; a marker of synaptic plasticity. Our findings demonstrate a critical distinction of the altered balance of Glu-CB1 and GABA-CB1 activity that could participate in the vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction. Moreover, these novel insights advance our understanding of CB1 neuropathophysiology.

  15. Alternative disease control agents induce resistance to blue mold in harvested 'red delicious' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    de Capdeville, Guy; Wilson, Charles L; Beer, Steven V; Aist, James R

    2002-08-01

    ABSTRACT Alternative control agents, including UV-type C (254 nm) irradiation, yeasts antagonistic to fungal growth, chitosan and harpin, were evaluated for their ability to induce resistance in cv. Red Delicious apple fruit against postharvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum. Freshly harvested and controlled atmosphere (CA)-stored fruit were treated with these agents at different doses and concentrations or with paired combinations of the agents. Treated fruit were inoculated with P. expansum 24, 48, or 96 h following treatment, and stored at 24 degrees C in the dark. The fruit were evaluated for development of disease every 2 days for 14 days by measuring the diameter of lesions that formed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated and analyzed statistically. All treatments were effective in reducing the AUDPC; UV-C was most effective, followed by harpin, chitosan, and the yeasts, respectively. Regardless of treatment, fresh fruit were more responsive to treatments than CA-stored fruit. There was a clear time-dependent response of the fruit to the treatments, in which treatments applied 96 h before inoculation provided the best results. In a few situations, the combinations of agents did provide an additive effect, but no synergistic effects were detected. Moreover, disease severity in fruit treated by any combination was markedly better than that in the controls. Although the combinations of treatments was overall less effective than the single treatments, they did provide significant reductions of the progress of disease in comparison with the controls. Because the fungus did not come into contact with any of the control agents, this study showed conclusively that the agents studied were able to induce resistance in the fruit rather than merely inhibit the pathogen directly. It also showed, for the first time, that harpin is able to induce resistance in harvested apple fruit. The use of these control agents may minimize the

  16. Teaching brain-machine interfaces as an alternative paradigm to neuroprosthetics control

    PubMed Central

    Iturrate, Iñaki; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier; Millán, José del R.

    2015-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movement parameters from cortical activity to control neuroprostheses. This requires subjects to learn to modulate their brain activity to convey all necessary information, thus imposing natural limits on the complexity of tasks that can be performed. Here we demonstrate an alternative and complementary BMI paradigm that overcomes that limitation by decoding cognitive brain signals associated with monitoring processes relevant for achieving goals. In our approach the neuroprosthesis executes actions that the subject evaluates as erroneous or correct, and exploits the brain correlates of this assessment to learn suitable motor behaviours. Results show that, after a short user’s training period, this teaching BMI paradigm operated three different neuroprostheses and generalized across several targets. Our results further support that these error-related signals reflect a task-independent monitoring mechanism in the brain, making this teaching paradigm scalable. We anticipate this BMI approach to become a key component of any neuroprosthesis that mimics natural motor control as it enables continuous adaptation in the absence of explicit information about goals. Furthermore, our paradigm can seamlessly incorporate other cognitive signals and conventional neuroprosthetic approaches, invasive or non-invasive, to enlarge the range and complexity of tasks that can be accomplished. PMID:26354145

  17. Alternative 3' UTR selection controls PAR-5 homeostasis and cell polarity in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Mikl, Martin; Cowan, Carrie R

    2014-09-11

    Cell polarity in one-cell C. elegans embryos guides asymmetric cell division and cell-fate specification. Shortly after fertilization, embryos establish two antagonistic cortical domains of PAR proteins. Here, we find that the conserved polarity factor PAR-5 regulates PAR domain size in a dose-dependent manner. Using quantitative imaging and controlled genetic manipulation, we find that PAR-5 protein levels reflect the cumulative output of three mRNA isoforms with different translational efficiencies mediated by their 3' UTRs. 3' UTR selection is regulated, influencing PAR-5 protein abundance. Alternative splicing underlies the selection of par-5 3' UTR isoforms. 3' UTR splicing is enhanced by the SR protein kinase SPK-1, and accordingly, SPK-1 is required for wild-type PAR-5 levels and PAR domain size. Precise regulation of par-5 isoform selection is essential for polarization when the posterior PAR network is compromised. Together, strict control of PAR-5 protein levels and feedback from polarity to par-5 3' UTR selection confer robustness to embryo polarization. PMID:25199833

  18. Teaching brain-machine interfaces as an alternative paradigm to neuroprosthetics control.

    PubMed

    Iturrate, Iñaki; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier; Millán, José del R

    2015-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movement parameters from cortical activity to control neuroprostheses. This requires subjects to learn to modulate their brain activity to convey all necessary information, thus imposing natural limits on the complexity of tasks that can be performed. Here we demonstrate an alternative and complementary BMI paradigm that overcomes that limitation by decoding cognitive brain signals associated with monitoring processes relevant for achieving goals. In our approach the neuroprosthesis executes actions that the subject evaluates as erroneous or correct, and exploits the brain correlates of this assessment to learn suitable motor behaviours. Results show that, after a short user's training period, this teaching BMI paradigm operated three different neuroprostheses and generalized across several targets. Our results further support that these error-related signals reflect a task-independent monitoring mechanism in the brain, making this teaching paradigm scalable. We anticipate this BMI approach to become a key component of any neuroprosthesis that mimics natural motor control as it enables continuous adaptation in the absence of explicit information about goals. Furthermore, our paradigm can seamlessly incorporate other cognitive signals and conventional neuroprosthetic approaches, invasive or non-invasive, to enlarge the range and complexity of tasks that can be accomplished. PMID:26354145

  19. Alternative splicing of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease in cortex of control and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    König, G; Salbaum, J M; Wiestler, O; Lang, W; Schmitt, H P; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1991-02-01

    An S1 nuclease protection assay was designed to study the splicing pattern of the alternatively spliced beta A4 amyloid gene (APP gene) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We determined the splicing pattern of the APP gene in fetal, adult, aged adult and AD human cortex. The results suggest that alternative splicing of the APP gene in AD is not significantly different from age-matched controls, but distinct from the developing fetal brain.

  20. Female and Male Psychologists in Academic Administration: Resource Control and Perceived Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined male and female psychologists in academic administrative positions with regard to their perceptions of their own power and their actual power within the administrative hierarchies in which they work. In the past, researchers have compared women and men in academic administrative positions with regard to parity of numbers,…

  1. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Neil; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Pert, Kirsty; Joyce, Craig; Stephens, Emma; Wo, Lawrence; Squires, Garry; Woods, Kevin; Calam, Rachel; Turner, Alex

    2016-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies curriculum (PATHS; Kusche & Greenberg, 1994) as a means to improve children's social-emotional competence (assessed via the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS); Gresham & Elliot, 2008) and mental health outcomes (assessed via the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Goodman, 1997). Forty-five schools in Greater Manchester, England, were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Allocation was balanced by proportions of children eligible for free school meals and speaking English as an additional language via minimization. Children (N=4516) aged 7-9years at baseline in the participating schools were the target cohort. During the two-year trial period, teachers of this cohort in schools allocated to the intervention group delivered the PATHS curriculum, while their counterparts in the control group continued their usual provision. Teachers in PATHS schools received initial training and on-going support and assistance from trained coaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of outcome data was undertaken to identify both primary (e.g., for all children) and secondary (e.g., for children classified as "at-risk") intervention effects. A primary effect of the PATHS curriculum was found, demonstrating increases in teacher ratings of changes in children's social-emotional competence. Additionally, secondary effects of PATHS were identified, showing reductions in teacher ratings of emotional symptoms and increases in pro-social behavior and child ratings of engagement among children identified as at-risk at baseline. However, our analyses also identified primary effects favoring the usual provision group, showing reductions in teacher ratings of peer problems and emotional symptoms, and secondary effects demonstrating reductions in teacher ratings of conduct problems and child ratings of co-operation among at-risk children. Effect sizes were small

  2. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Neil; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Pert, Kirsty; Joyce, Craig; Stephens, Emma; Wo, Lawrence; Squires, Garry; Woods, Kevin; Calam, Rachel; Turner, Alex

    2016-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies curriculum (PATHS; Kusche & Greenberg, 1994) as a means to improve children's social-emotional competence (assessed via the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS); Gresham & Elliot, 2008) and mental health outcomes (assessed via the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Goodman, 1997). Forty-five schools in Greater Manchester, England, were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Allocation was balanced by proportions of children eligible for free school meals and speaking English as an additional language via minimization. Children (N=4516) aged 7-9years at baseline in the participating schools were the target cohort. During the two-year trial period, teachers of this cohort in schools allocated to the intervention group delivered the PATHS curriculum, while their counterparts in the control group continued their usual provision. Teachers in PATHS schools received initial training and on-going support and assistance from trained coaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of outcome data was undertaken to identify both primary (e.g., for all children) and secondary (e.g., for children classified as "at-risk") intervention effects. A primary effect of the PATHS curriculum was found, demonstrating increases in teacher ratings of changes in children's social-emotional competence. Additionally, secondary effects of PATHS were identified, showing reductions in teacher ratings of emotional symptoms and increases in pro-social behavior and child ratings of engagement among children identified as at-risk at baseline. However, our analyses also identified primary effects favoring the usual provision group, showing reductions in teacher ratings of peer problems and emotional symptoms, and secondary effects demonstrating reductions in teacher ratings of conduct problems and child ratings of co-operation among at-risk children. Effect sizes were small

  3. Purified fibronectin administration to patients with severe abdominal infections. A controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Lundsgaard-Hansen, P; Doran, J E; Rubli, E; Papp, E; Morgenthaler, J J; Späth, P

    1985-01-01

    Subnormal plasma fibronectin (Fn) levels are found in patients with severe abdominal infections (SAI). The repletion of Fn has been postulated to have therapeutic benefit by virtue of its opsonic, reticuloendothelial system (RES) stimulating effects. A controlled, prospective trial of Fn administration was performed in patients with SAI to assess its use as an adjunct to standard procedures of intensive care. Thirty-three SAI patients were given daily doses of 0.8 g of purified Fn on days 1-5 following admission to the ICU, whereas 34 control patients received no Fn. All patients received the clinical care, antibiotics, and pharmacologic agents appropriate to their individual needs. The admission status and laboratory profiles of the two patient groups (+ and -Fn) were comparable on admission to the study. No side effects of the Fn preparation were observed. As judged by subgroup averages, the Fn replacement regimen was effective in elevating Fn levels to within normal range from day 2 onwards, as measured by immunological and functional assays. The estimated intravascular recovery of Fn averaged 82% in those patients who survived, yet only 52% in the nonsurvivors. Ultimate hospital mortality was 9/33 (27.3%) in the +Fn group versus 13/34 (38.2%) in the -Fn group (p = 0.244, Fisher's exact test). Although ultimate mortality was not significantly changed by the administration of Fn, the Fn treated patients appeared to survive longer than did the control patients. This trend was confirmed through the analysis of expected survival curves (D = 3.12, 0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). When compared to the survivors, the ultimate nonsurvivors entered the study with statistically higher group averages of bilirubin and creatinine concomitant with lower averages of Fn, antithrombin III, C4, C3, C3b-INH, and transferrin. These differences persisted throughout the 11-day monitoring period; differences between survivors and nonsurvivors with respect to platelets

  4. 75 FR 78997 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and...

  5. 76 FR 28688 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for... entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus spp. Detection.'' This draft guidance document describes means by which in vitro diagnostic devices for...

  6. Incorporation of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair following controlled oral methamphetamine administration

    PubMed Central

    Polettini, Aldo; Cone, Edward J.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although hair testing is well established for the assessment of past drug exposure, uncertainties persist about mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair and interpretation of results. The aim of this study was to administer methamphetamine (MAMP) under controlled conditions as a model drug to investigate drug incorporation into human hair. Material and Methods Seven volunteers with a history of stimulant use received 4×10 mg (low) doses of sustained release S-(+)-MAMP HCl within one week, with weekly head hair samples collected by shaving. 3 weeks later, 4 of them received 4×20 mg (high) doses. After extensive isopropanol/phosphate buffer washing of the hair, MAMP and its metabolite amphetamine (AMP) concentrations were determined in all weekly hair samples by LC-MS-MS in selected reaction monitoring mode with the undeca- and deca-deuterated drugs, respectively, as internal standards (LLOQ, 0.005 ng/mg). Results MAMP Tmax occurred from 1 to 2 weeks after both doses, with Cmax ranging from 0.6–3.5 ng/mg after the low and 1.2–5.3 ng/mg after the high MAMP doses. AMP Cmax in hair was 0.1–0.3 ng/mg and 0.2–0.5 ng/mg, respectively, for low and high doses. Highly dose–related concentrations within subjects, but large variability between subjects were observed. MAMP concentrations were above the 0.2 ng/mg cutoff for at least two weeks following administration of both low and high doses. The overall AMP/MAMP ratio ranged from 0.07 to 0.37 with a mean value of 0.15±0.07, and a median of 0.13. The percentage of MAMP and AMP removed with the washing procedure decreased with time after administration. A strong correlation was found between area under the curve of MAMP (r2=0.90, p=0.00) and AMP (r2=0.94, p=0.00) concentrations calculated for the 3-week period following administration and the total melanin concentration in hair. Significant correlations were observed also between Cmax and melanin. Conclusions This study demonstrated that despite large

  7. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C.; Vylet, Vashek; Walker, Lawrence S.; /SLAC

    2007-12-17

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a reference.

  8. Cross-regulation between an alternative splicing activator and a transcription repressor controls neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Bushra; O'Hanlon, Dave; Vessey, John P; Pan, Qun; Ray, Debashish; Buckley, Noel J; Miller, Freda D; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2011-09-01

    Neurogenesis requires the concerted action of numerous genes that are regulated at multiple levels. However, how different layers of gene regulation are coordinated to promote neurogenesis is not well understood. We show that the neural-specific Ser/Arg repeat-related protein of 100 kDa (nSR100/SRRM4) negatively regulates REST (NRSF), a transcriptional repressor of genes required for neurogenesis. nSR100 directly promotes alternative splicing of REST transcripts to produce a REST isoform (REST4) with greatly reduced repressive activity, thereby activating expression of REST targets in neural cells. Conversely, REST directly represses nSR100 in nonneural cells to prevent the activation of neural-specific splicing events. Consistent with a critical role for nSR100 in the inhibition of REST activity, blocking nSR100 expression in the developing mouse brain impairs neurogenesis. Our results thus reveal a fundamental role for direct regulatory interactions between a splicing activator and transcription repressor in the control of the multilayered regulatory programs required for neurogenesis. PMID:21884984

  9. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  10. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  11. Pipe loop demonstration study of corrosion control alternatives at a pH of 10

    SciTech Connect

    Yannoni, C.C.; Clark, S.D.; Rafanovic, R.O.; Covellone, M.A.; Crosby, F.J.; Neff, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Federal Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) under the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) requires many water supply utilities to reevaluate their current method of corrosion control and has resulted in the implementation of numerous capital improvements and/or changes in water treatment plant operations. The Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB) serves more than 600,000 people and maintains a pH of 10 through the treatment plant and water distribution system. Maintaining a pH of 10 results in a calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) of 5 to 12 mg/l expressed as calcium carbonate. Theoretically, a positive CCPP will result in the precipitation of calcium carbonate which maintains a thin protective film along the interior walls of water distribution pipe and helps minimize lead and copper solubility. Monitoring results indicated that lead levels were close to maximum allowable limits. The application of a pipe loop demonstration study provided information on alternative treatment methodologies to minimize lead solubility while maintaining a pH close to 10.0. Sodium silicate inhibition and dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) adjustment were two treatment methodologies which resulted in reducing lead levels by 50 percent.

  12. Toxicological study of Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) extracts as alternative control strategies for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Junhirun, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L)) is an economically important pest in Thailand and the indiscriminant use of chemical pesticides against this pest has been responsible for environmental hazards. Present research, therefore, is trying to develop alternative strategies by using plant based-products for the control of this pest. Wedelia trilobata (L) Hitchc extracts prepared in hexane, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol were used initially against the second instars of P. xylostella by topical application to determine the dose dependent toxicity. The highest yield of the extracts was obtained with EtOH extract followed by hexane, EtOAc and dichloroethane. However, the EtOAc extract exhibited the highest toxicity (24h-LC50 = 442.8 ppm) that became more prominent after 48 h (LC50 = 376.71 ppm). This suggests there was an increase in toxicity with the duration of exposure to the treatment. With the exception of the hexane extract, all other treatments were significantly correlated, which suggests that W. trolobata contains a varied profile of anti-insect allelochemicals that can be exploited in any integrated pest management strategy. The identification of the active ingredients is in progress. PMID:23885442

  13. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former. PMID:21214028

  14. Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results.

  15. Morphine and Codeine Concentrations in Human Urine following Controlled Poppy Seeds Administration of Known Opiate Content

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45g oral poppy seed doses 8h apart, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2,000 and 300μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA® Heroin Metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6AM) and Lin-Zhi 6AM immunoassays with 10μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2,000 and 300μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7,522μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5,239μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2,000μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2,000μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

  16. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10-20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12-24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS. PMID:26356840

  17. Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Comparison of 15 Databases

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Elise; Sampson, Margaret; Ajiferuke, Isola; Manheimer, Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Daniel, Raymond; Moher, David

    2011-01-01

    This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS) and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005). The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases. PMID:19468052

  18. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C.; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10–20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12–24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS. PMID:26356840

  19. Urinary pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine and its metabolite, amphetamine following controlled oral administration to humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Insook; Oyler, Jonathan M; Moolchan, Eric T; Cone, Edward J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2004-12-01

    Methamphetamine is widely abused for its euphoric effects. Our objectives were to characterize the urinary pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine and amphetamine after controlled methamphetamine administration to humans and to improve the interpretation of urine drug test results. Participants (n = 8) received 4 daily 10-mg (low) oral doses of sustained-release (d)-methamphetamine hydrochloride within 7 days. After 4 weeks, 5 participants received 4 daily 20-mg (high) oral doses. All urine specimens were collected during the study. Methamphetamine and amphetamine were measured by GC-MS/PCI. Maximum excretion rates ranged from 403 to 4919 microg/h for methamphetamine and 59 to 735 microg/h for amphetamine with no relationship between dose and excretion rate. The mean molar percentage of dose in the urine as total methamphetamine and amphetamine were 57.5 +/- 21.7% (low dose) and 40.9 +/- 8.5% (high dose). Mean urinary terminal elimination half-lives across doses were 23.6 +/- 6.6 hours for methamphetamine and 20.7 +/- 7.3 hours for amphetamine. Methamphetamine renal clearance across doses was 175 +/- 102 mL/min. The mean amphetamine/methamphetamine percentage ratio based on the area under the urinary excretion-time curve increased over time from 13.4 +/- 6.5% to 35.7 +/- 26.6%. Slow urinary excretion results in drug accumulation and increases in detection time windows. Our findings also support the presence of an active renal excretion mechanism for methamphetamine.

  20. Political, economic, and administrative resources available for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    Reid, R S

    1989-01-01

    The harnessing of broad social mobilization with immunization appears to be the only feasible way of controlling the vaccine-preventable diseases and of achieving universal immunization by 1990. Burkina Faso, Colombia, Nigeria, Syria, and Turkey have marshalled national forces to assist the health sector, with the result that sizeable gains in immunization have been made in the past three years. In these countries effective use has been made of the personal involvement of top political leaders, beginning with presidents and prime ministers. The media has been used to deliver a single message: get your child vaccinated. This message has been reinforced through coalitions involving religious leaders, primary teachers, village heads, policemen, soldiers, and truck drivers. Support has been gathered from nongovernmental organizations and individuals, ranging from Rotary International to actors, comedians, and sports figures. These political, economic, and administrative resources constitute a low-cost, elastic, permanently renewable resource base that can aid health ministers not only in beginning immunization coverage but also in maintaining it.

  1. Evaluation of alternatives to fungicide to control postharvest gray mold alone or with ozone storage in grapes, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray mold, caused by B. cinerea, causes severe losses since it spreads easily among berries during cold storage. Currently, it is controlled by fumigation with SO2 or SO2 emitting sheets within boxes. Alternative methods, such as storage in ozone atmospheres, are needed because SO2 is banned in orga...

  2. Evaluation of Alternative Control for Prevention and or Mitigation of HEPA Filter Failure Accidents at Tank Farm Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-28

    This study evaluates the adequacy and benefit of use of HEPA filter differential pressure limiting setpoints to initiate exhauster shut down as an alternative safety control for postulated accidents that might result in filtration failure and subsequent unfiltered release from Tank Farm primary tank ventilators.

  3. Randomized controlled trials and neuro-oncology: should alternative designs be considered?

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Alireza; Shin, Samuel; Cooper, Benjamin; Srivastava, Archita; Bhandari, Mohit; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Deficiencies in design and reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) hinders interpretability and critical appraisal. The reporting quality of recent RCTs in neuro-oncology was analyzed to assess adequacy of design and reporting. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched to identify non-surgical RCTs (years 2005-2014, inclusive). The CONSORT and Jadad scales were used to assess the quality of design/reporting. Studies published in 2005-2010 were compared as a cohort against studies published in 2011-2014, in terms of general characteristics and reporting quality. A PRECIS-based scale was used to designate studies on the pragmatic-explanatory continuum. Spearman's test was used to assess correlations. Regression analysis was used to assess associations. Overall 68 RCTs were identified. Studies were often chemotherapy-based (n = 41 studies) focusing upon high grade gliomas (46 %) and metastases (41 %) as the top pathologies. Multi-center trials (71 %) were frequent. The overall median CONSORT and Jadad scores were 34.5 (maximum 44) and 2 (maximum 5), respectively; these scores were similar in radiation and chemotherapy-based trials. Major areas of deficiency pertained to allocation concealment, implementation of methods, and blinding whereby less than 20 % of articles fulfilled all criteria. Description of intervention, random sequence generation, and the details regarding recruitment were also deficient; less than 50 % of studies fulfilled all criteria. Description of sample size calculations and blinding improved in later published cohorts. Journal impact factor was significantly associated with higher quality (p = 0.04). Large academic consortia, multi-center designs, ITT analysis, collaboration with biostatisticians, larger sample sizes, and studies with pragmatic objectives were more likely to achieve positive primary outcomes on univariate analysis; none of these variables were significant on multivariate analysis. Deficiencies in the

  4. The alternative complement pathway control protein H binds to immune complexes and serves their detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nydegger, U.E.; Corvetta, A.; Spaeth, P.J.; Spycher, M.

    1983-01-01

    During solubilization of immune complexes C3b becomes fixed to the immunoglobulin part and serves as a receptor for the alternative complement pathway control protein H. The H-C3b immune complex interaction can be made detectable using 4% polyethyleneglycol to separate free from bound /sup 125/I-H. Tetanus toxoid (Te)/anti-Te complexes kept soluble with fresh serum and containing 125 IU of specific antibody bound 18% of /sup 125/I-H; when fresh serum was chelated with 10 mM EDTA, /sup 125/I-H binding was only 5%. On sucrose density gradients, the H-binding material sedimented in the range of 12 to 30 S. In 36 serum samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and in 12 serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), /sup 125/I-H binding was significantly elevated to 9.5 +/- 4.7% (mean +/- 1 SD) and 13.3 +/- 5.6%, respectively, while /sup 125/I-H binding by 36 normal human sera was 4 +/- 2%. RA samples (17/36, 47%) and SLE samples (9/12, 75%) had H-binding values increased by more than 2 SD above the normal mean. The serum samples were also assessed for conglutinin- and C1q-binding activities; a significant correlation between H and C1q binding was observed (P less than 0.001); there was no correlation between H and conglutinin binding. Although binding to immune complexes through its interaction with C3b, H clearly detects a population of complexes other than conglutinin, thus expanding the possibilities of further characterizing pathological complexes.

  5. Circuit performance of a parasitic-loading digital speed controller for a 400-hertz turbine-driven alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. P.; Ingle, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Parasitic speed controllers are used in space power electrical generating systems to maintain the speed of the turbine-driven alternators within specified limits. Selected subcircuits for a solid state parasitic-loading speed controller were assembled and tested. The test results as obtained to date consist of the performance evaluation of the frequency reference and the period counter subcircuits. These circuits performed as expected.

  6. Administration of vaccinia virus complement control protein shows significant cognitive improvement in a mild injury model.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Kellaway, Laurie A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that traumatic mild brain injury in a rat model is accompanied by breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the accumulation of inflammatory cells. A therapeutic agent, vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), inhibits both the classic and the alternative pathways of the complement system and, in so doing, prevents cell death and inflammation. With the use of a rat mild injury model, the effects of VCP on spatial learning and memory were tested. Training in a Morris water maze consisted of a total of 16 trials over a 2-day period before rats were anesthetized and subjected to mild (1.0-1.1 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) 3.0 mm lateral to the sagittal suture and 4.5 mm posterior to bregma. Ten microl of VCP (1.7 mg/ml) was injected into the injury site immediately after FPI. Two weeks post-FPI the rats were assessed in the Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. Neurologic motor function tests were carried out after FPI for 14 consecutive days and again after 28 days. The Morris water maze data show that FPI plus saline-injected rats spent a significantly (P <0.05) larger amount of time in one of the incorrect quadrants than did the FPI plus VCP-injected group. Neurologic evaluations 24 hours postinjury revealed differences in sensorimotor function between groups. The results suggest that in a mild injury model, VCP influences neurologic outcome and offers some enhancement in spatial memory and learning.

  7. Beyond the Randomized Controlled Trial: A Review of Alternatives in mHealth Clinical Trial Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wiljer, David; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have long been considered the primary research study design capable of eliciting causal relationships between health interventions and consequent outcomes. However, with a prolonged duration from recruitment to publication, high-cost trial implementation, and a rigid trial protocol, RCTs are perceived as an impractical evaluation methodology for most mHealth apps. Objective Given the recent development of alternative evaluation methodologies and tools to automate mHealth research, we sought to determine the breadth of these methods and the extent that they were being used in clinical trials. Methods We conducted a review of the ClinicalTrials.gov registry to identify and examine current clinical trials involving mHealth apps and retrieved relevant trials registered between November 2014 and November 2015. Results Of the 137 trials identified, 71 were found to meet inclusion criteria. The majority used a randomized controlled trial design (80%, 57/71). Study designs included 36 two-group pretest-posttest control group comparisons (51%, 36/71), 16 posttest-only control group comparisons (23%, 16/71), 7 one-group pretest-posttest designs (10%, 7/71), 2 one-shot case study designs (3%, 2/71), and 2 static-group comparisons (3%, 2/71). A total of 17 trials included a qualitative component to their methodology (24%, 17/71). Complete trial data collection required 20 months on average to complete (mean 21, SD 12). For trials with a total duration of 2 years or more (31%, 22/71), the average time from recruitment to complete data collection (mean 35 months, SD 10) was 2 years longer than the average time required to collect primary data (mean 11, SD 8). Trials had a moderate sample size of 112 participants. Two trials were conducted online (3%, 2/71) and 7 trials collected data continuously (10%, 7/68). Onsite study implementation was heavily favored (97%, 69/71). Trials with four data collection points had a longer study

  8. Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-10-01

    Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ≤ 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation.

  9. Optimizing Intradermal Administration of Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Strauss, Kathy; Adams, Matthew; Billingsley, Peter F.; James, Eric; Manoj, Anita; Chakravarty, Sumana; Plowe, Christopher V.; Li, Ming Lin; Ruben, Adam; Edelman, Robert; Green, Michael; Dube, Tina J.; Kim Lee Sim, B.; Hoffman, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate malaria vaccine and prophylactic drug efficacy. Until recently CHMI was only carried out by the bite of infected mosquitoes. A parenteral method of CHMI would standardize Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) administration, eliminate the need for expensive challenge facility infrastructure, and allow for use of many P. falciparum strains. Recently, intradermal (ID) injection of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ was shown to induce P. falciparum malaria; however, 100% infection rates were not achieved by ID injection. To optimize ID PfSPZ dosing so as to achieve 100% infection, 30 adults aged 18–45 years were randomized to one of six groups composed of five volunteers each. The parameters of dose (1 × 104 versus 5 × 104 PfSPZ total dose per volunteer), number of injections (two versus eight), and aliquot volume per ID injection (10 μL versus 50 μL) were studied. Three groups attained 100% infection: 1 × 104 PfSPZ in 50 μL/2 doses, 1 × 104 PfSPZ in 10 μL/2 doses, and 5 × 104 PfSPZ in 10 μL/8 doses. The group that received 5 × 104 PfSPZ total dose in eight 10 μL injections had a 100% infection rate and the shortest prepatent period (mean of 12.7 days), approaching the prepatent period for the current CHMI standard of five infected mosquitoes. PMID:26416102

  10. Optimizing Intradermal Administration of Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Controlled Human Malaria Infection.

    PubMed

    Lyke, Kirsten E; Laurens, Matthew B; Strauss, Kathy; Adams, Matthew; Billingsley, Peter F; James, Eric; Manoj, Anita; Chakravarty, Sumana; Plowe, Christopher V; Li, Ming Lin; Ruben, Adam; Edelman, Robert; Green, Michael; Dube, Tina J; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2015-12-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate malaria vaccine and prophylactic drug efficacy. Until recently CHMI was only carried out by the bite of infected mosquitoes. A parenteral method of CHMI would standardize Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) administration, eliminate the need for expensive challenge facility infrastructure, and allow for use of many P. falciparum strains. Recently, intradermal (ID) injection of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ was shown to induce P. falciparum malaria; however, 100% infection rates were not achieved by ID injection. To optimize ID PfSPZ dosing so as to achieve 100% infection, 30 adults aged 18-45 years were randomized to one of six groups composed of five volunteers each. The parameters of dose (1 × 10(4) versus 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ total dose per volunteer), number of injections (two versus eight), and aliquot volume per ID injection (10 μL versus 50 μL) were studied. Three groups attained 100% infection: 1 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 50 μL/2 doses, 1 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 10 μL/2 doses, and 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 10 μL/8 doses. The group that received 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ total dose in eight 10 μL injections had a 100% infection rate and the shortest prepatent period (mean of 12.7 days), approaching the prepatent period for the current CHMI standard of five infected mosquitoes.

  11. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Alternative splicing controls selective trans-synaptic interactions of the neuroligin-neurexin complex.

    PubMed

    Chih, Ben; Gollan, Leora; Scheiffele, Peter

    2006-07-20

    Formation of synapses requires specific cellular interactions that organize pre- and postsynaptic compartments. The neuroligin-neurexin complex mediates heterophilic adhesion and can trigger assembly of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in cultured hippocampal neurons. Both neuroligins and neurexins are encoded by multiple genes. Alternative splicing generates large numbers of isoforms, which may engage in selective axo-dendritic interactions. We explored whether alternative splicing of the postsynaptic neuroligins modifies their activity toward glutamatergic and GABAergic axons. We find that small extracellular splice insertions restrict the function of neuroligin-1 and -2 to glutamatergic and GABAergic contacts and alter interaction with presynaptic neurexins. The neuroligin isoforms associated with GABAergic contacts bind to neurexin-1alpha and a subset of neurexin-1betas. In turn, these neurexin isoforms induce GABAergic but not glutamatergic postsynaptic differentiation. Our findings suggest that alternative splicing plays a central role in regulating selective extracellular interactions through the neuroligin-neurexin complex at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses.

  13. Behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans in alternating electric field and its application to their localization and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezai, Pouya; Siddiqui, Asad; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi; Gupta, Bhagwati P.

    2010-04-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an attractive model organism because of its genetic similarity to humans and the ease of its manipulation in the laboratory. Recently, it was shown that a direct current electric field inside microfluidic channel induces directed movement that is highly sensitive, reliable, and benign. In this letter, we describe the worm's movement response to alternating electric fields in a similar channel setup. We demonstrate that the 1 Hz and higher frequency of alternating current field can effectively localize worms in the channel. This discovery could potentially help design microfluidic devices for high throughput automated analysis of worms.

  14. Phosphate Control and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Administration in Preventing Experimental Renal Osteodystrophy in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, W. E.; Bordier, P.; Marie, P.; Hruska, K.; Harter, H.; Greenwalt, A.; Blondin, J.; Haddad, J.; Bricker, N.; Slatopolsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with chronic renal disease may occur, at least in part, as a consequence of the need for progressive adaptation in renal phosphorus (P) excretion that occurs as glomerular filtration rate falls. However, the studies were of relatively short duration. Moreover, no information emerged regarding a potential role of calcium malabsorption in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The short duration of the protocol did not lend itself to the study of the effect of P control or the administration of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy. In the present studies, 14 dogs with experimental chronic renal disease were studied serially for a period of 2 yr. Each animal was studied first with two normal kidneys on an intake of P of 1,200 mg/day. Then, renal insufficiency was produced by 5/6 nephrectomy. The dogs then were divided into three groups. In group I, 1,200 mg/day P intake was administered for the full 2 yr. In group II, P intake was reduced from the initial 1,200 mg/day, in proportion to the measured fall in glomerular filtration rate, in an effort to obviate the renal adaptation in P excretion. In group III, “proportional reduction” of P intake also was employed; but in addition, 20 μg of 25(OH)D3 were administered orally three times a week. In group I, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels rose throughout the 2-yr period reaching a final concentration of 557±70 U (normal 10-60). In group II, values for PTH remained normal throughout the 1st yr, increased modestly between the 12th and the 18th mo, but then did not rise after the 18th mo. In group III, no elevation of PTH levels was observed at any time; however, these animals were hypercalcemic. Histomorphologic analyses of the ribs of these dogs were performed serially throughout the 2-yr period. A linear relationship was obtained between the osteoclastic resorption surface and the concentration

  15. Uptake of Mass Drug Administration Programme for Schistosomiasis Control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bagonza, James; Kiracho, Elizabeth Ekirapa; Yeka, Adoke; Elliott, Alison M.; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA) programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda. Methods In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012) MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers. Results Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615), 95% confidence interval (CI) 40.8–48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6%) reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22–2.81) and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67–9.65). Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands. Conclusions Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education

  16. Alternatives to conventional fungicides for the control of citrus postharvest green and blue molds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Literature review for electronic review journal “Stewart Postharvest Review” on the subject of alternatives to the fungicides for postharvest use on citrus fruit. This review contributes to the development of practical technologies to reduce postharvest fruit losses without the use of synthetic fung...

  17. Educational Management Tools for the Practicing School Administrator. A Handbook for School Administrators Who Wish to Plan, Organize, Allocate Resources, and Control Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The purpose of this handbook is to describe selected management tools useful to elementary and secondary school administrators. It attempts to provide the administrator with knowledge that will stimulate the use of these tools in an educational environment. It is intended to enable the administrator to direct educational programs to a productive…

  18. Alternative zoning scenarios for regional sustainable land use controls in China: a knowledge-based multiobjective optimisation model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-08-28

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation.

  19. Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  20. 77 FR 25932 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Energetic Materials and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... rule (76 FR 41958) (herein ``the July 15 proposed rule'') that set forth a framework for how articles... Administration Regulations (EAR). On November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68675) (herein ``the November 7 proposed rule...), as extended by the Notice of August 12, 2011, 76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011), has continued the...

  1. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Administrative practice and procedure, Exports, Inventions and patents, Research science and technology. 15 CFR... identified in an existing ECCN. As BIS explained in the proposed rule issued on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41958... Initiative, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (herein...

  2. 3 CFR 13637 - Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013. Administration of Reformed Export Controls

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall consult with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. (k) Those under section 36(b)(1... relate to defense articles and defense services sold, leased, or transferred under the Foreign Military... Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals. (b) This order...

  3. Oral administration of piperine for the control of aflatoxin intoxication in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gagini, Thalita B.; Silva, Robson E.; Castro, Isabela S.; Soares, Breno A.; Lima, Marco E.F.; Brito, Marilene F.; Mazur, Carlos; Direito, Glória M.; Danelli, Maria das Graças M.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that have important toxic effects on human and animal health, even if consumed at low doses. The oral administration of piperine (1.12 mg/kg) during 23 days in rats seemingly interfered with the toxicity of aflatoxins, decreasing hepatic injuries and the leukocyte depletion in experimentally intoxicated animals. PMID:24031502

  4. Administration of University Athletic Programs: Internal Control and Excellence. An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, J. Wade; Hickey, Anthony A.

    The views of 65 university presidents about athletic programs, the administration of their athletic programs, and the impact of problems of athletic program on university leadership were studied in spring 1985. Ten of the presidents responding to the survey were from private institutions, while 55 were from public universities. On the average,…

  5. [Effects of controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on apple seedling morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Ge, Zhen-Yang

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI) on the morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, three irrigation modes, i.e., fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation (FDI, fixed watering on one side of the seedling root zone), controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI, alternate watering on both sides of the seedling root zone), and conventional drip irrigation (CDI, watering cling to the seedling base), and three irrigation quotas, i. e., each irrigation amount of FDI and ADI was 10, 20 and 30 mm, and that of CDI was 20, 30 and 40 mm, respectively, were designed. In treatment ADI, the soil moisture content on the both sides of the root zone appeared a repeated alternation of dry and wet process; while in treatment CDI, the soil moisture content had less difference. At the same irrigation quotas, the soil moisture content at the watering sides had no significant difference under the three drip irrigation modes. At irrigation quota 30 mm, the root-shoot ratio, healthy index of seedlings, and root hydraulic conductivity in treatment ADI increased by 31.6% and 47.1%, 34.2% and 53.6%, and 9.0% and 11.0%, respectively, as compared with those in treatments CDI and FDI. The root dry mass and leaf area had a positive linear correlation with root hydraulic conductivity. It was suggested that controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation had obvious compensatory effects on the root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, improved the soil water use by the roots, benefited the equilibrated dry matter allocation in seedling organs, and markedly enhanced the root-shoot ratio and healthy index of the seedlings.

  6. [Effects of controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on apple seedling morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Ge, Zhen-Yang

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI) on the morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, three irrigation modes, i.e., fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation (FDI, fixed watering on one side of the seedling root zone), controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI, alternate watering on both sides of the seedling root zone), and conventional drip irrigation (CDI, watering cling to the seedling base), and three irrigation quotas, i. e., each irrigation amount of FDI and ADI was 10, 20 and 30 mm, and that of CDI was 20, 30 and 40 mm, respectively, were designed. In treatment ADI, the soil moisture content on the both sides of the root zone appeared a repeated alternation of dry and wet process; while in treatment CDI, the soil moisture content had less difference. At the same irrigation quotas, the soil moisture content at the watering sides had no significant difference under the three drip irrigation modes. At irrigation quota 30 mm, the root-shoot ratio, healthy index of seedlings, and root hydraulic conductivity in treatment ADI increased by 31.6% and 47.1%, 34.2% and 53.6%, and 9.0% and 11.0%, respectively, as compared with those in treatments CDI and FDI. The root dry mass and leaf area had a positive linear correlation with root hydraulic conductivity. It was suggested that controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation had obvious compensatory effects on the root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, improved the soil water use by the roots, benefited the equilibrated dry matter allocation in seedling organs, and markedly enhanced the root-shoot ratio and healthy index of the seedlings. PMID:22919832

  7. Alternative splicing of MALT1 controls signalling and activation of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A.; Hu, Desheng; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C.; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heyd, Florian; Krappmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4+ T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation. PMID:27068814

  8. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  9. Adaptive thermal control of stem gravitropism through alternative RNA splicing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Chung-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Gravitropism is an important growth movement in response to gravity in virtually all higher plants: the roots showing positive gravitropism and the shoots showing negative gravitropism. The gravitropic orientation of plant organs is also influenced by environmental factors, such as light and temperature. It is known that a zinc finger (ZF)-containing transcription factor SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5/INDETERMINATE DOMAIN 15 (SGR5/IDD15) mediates the early events of gravitropic responses occurring in inflorescence stems. We have recently found that SGR5 gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce 2 protein variants, the full-size SGR5α transcription factor and the truncated SGR5β form lacking functional ZF motifs. The SGR5β form inhibits SGR5α function possibly by forming nonfunctional heterodimers that are excluded from DNA binding. Notably, SGR5 alternative splicing is accelerated at high temperatures, resulting in a high-level accumulation of SGR5β proteins. Accordingly, transgenic plants overexpressing SGR5β exhibit a reduction in the negative gravitropism of inflorescence stems, as observed in the SGR5-defective mutant. It is proposed that the thermos-responsive alternative splicing of SGR5 gene provides an adaptation strategy by which plants protect the shoots from aerial heat frequently occurring in natural habitats.

  10. Adaptive thermal control of stem gravitropism through alternative RNA splicing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Chung-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Gravitropism is an important growth movement in response to gravity in virtually all higher plants: the roots showing positive gravitropism and the shoots showing negative gravitropism. The gravitropic orientation of plant organs is also influenced by environmental factors, such as light and temperature. It is known that a zinc finger (ZF)-containing transcription factor SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5/INDETERMINATE DOMAIN 15 (SGR5/IDD15) mediates the early events of gravitropic responses occurring in inflorescence stems. We have recently found that SGR5 gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce 2 protein variants, the full-size SGR5α transcription factor and the truncated SGR5β form lacking functional ZF motifs. The SGR5β form inhibits SGR5α function possibly by forming nonfunctional heterodimers that are excluded from DNA binding. Notably, SGR5 alternative splicing is accelerated at high temperatures, resulting in a high-level accumulation of SGR5β proteins. Accordingly, transgenic plants overexpressing SGR5β exhibit a reduction in the negative gravitropism of inflorescence stems, as observed in the SGR5-defective mutant. It is proposed that the thermos-responsive alternative splicing of SGR5 gene provides an adaptation strategy by which plants protect the shoots from aerial heat frequently occurring in natural habitats. PMID:26452406

  11. Adaptive thermal control of stem gravitropism through alternative RNA splicing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Chung-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Gravitropism is an important growth movement in response to gravity in virtually all higher plants: the roots showing positive gravitropism and the shoots showing negative gravitropism. The gravitropic orientation of plant organs is also influenced by environmental factors, such as light and temperature. It is known that a zinc finger (ZF)-containing transcription factor SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5/INDETERMINATE DOMAIN 15 (SGR5/IDD15) mediates the early events of gravitropic responses occurring in inflorescence stems. We have recently found that SGR5 gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce 2 protein variants, the full-size SGR5α transcription factor and the truncated SGR5β form lacking functional ZF motifs. The SGR5β form inhibits SGR5α function possibly by forming nonfunctional heterodimers that are excluded from DNA binding. Notably, SGR5 alternative splicing is accelerated at high temperatures, resulting in a high-level accumulation of SGR5β proteins. Accordingly, transgenic plants overexpressing SGR5β exhibit a reduction in the negative gravitropism of inflorescence stems, as observed in the SGR5-defective mutant. It is proposed that the thermos-responsive alternative splicing of SGR5 gene provides an adaptation strategy by which plants protect the shoots from aerial heat frequently occurring in natural habitats. PMID:26452406

  12. Alternative control techniques document: Offset lithographic printing. Supplemental information based on public comment on draft control techniques guideline announced in Federal Register on November 8, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    This is an alternative control techniques (ACT) document for control of volatile organic compound emissions from offset lithographic printing. The document provides supplemental information based on public comment on the draft control techniques guideline (CTG) announced in the Federal Register on November 8, 1993 (EPA-453/D-95-001). The document addresses sheet fed, on-heatset web, newspaper, and heat-set web offset lithographic printing. The principle emission sources addressed are fountain solution, cleaning solvents (blanket and roller washed) and headset dryers. The purpose of an ACT document is to assist state and local air pollution agencies in developing regulations to limit emissions of volatile organic compounds.

  13. ALTERNATE VOC CONTROL TECHNIQUE OPTIONS FOR SMALL ROTOGRAVURE AND FLEXOGRAPHY FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies Available Control Techniques (ACTs) for states to use as a referenec when implementing Reasonable Available Control Technilogy (RACT) for graphic arts facilities that are covered by the Control Technologies Guidelines (CTGs), but emit less than 91 tonnes of ...

  14. 40 CFR 725.975 - EPA approval of alternative control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which EPA has determined provide substantially the same degree of protection as the specified control... § 725.25(c). See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(iv) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software. Support... control measures provide substantially the same degree of protection as the specific control...

  15. Psychological and Physiological Alternatives in the Control of Human Communicative Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springhorn, Ron G.

    The paper considers whether precise control over the actions, thoughts, emotions, and desires of individuals is desirable. New technological methods for controlling human behavior enable systematic manipulation of people and promise an even greater degree of manipulation in the near future. Arguments for and against behavior control are presented.…

  16. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  17. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  18. 78 FR 42430 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2012 Missile Technology Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Annex that were agreed to by MTCR member countries at the October 2012... export control arrangement among 34 nations, including most of the world's advanced suppliers of missiles... countries implement in accordance with their national export controls. The MTCR seeks to limit the risk...

  19. Computational alternatives to obtain time optimal jet engine control. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basso, R. J.; Leake, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two computational methods to determine an open loop time optimal control sequence for a simple single spool turbojet engine are described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Both methods are modifications of widely accepted algorithms which can solve fixed time unconstrained optimal control problems with a free right end. Constrained problems to be considered have fixed right ends and free time. Dynamic programming is defined on a standard problem and it yields a successive approximation solution to the time optimal problem of interest. A feedback control law is obtained and it is then used to determine the corresponding open loop control sequence. The Fletcher-Reeves conjugate gradient method has been selected for adaptation to solve a nonlinear optimal control problem with state variable and control constraints.

  20. Alternate-day dosing of linagliptin in type 2 diabetes patients controlled on once daily dose: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Manash P.; Bhuyan, Sonali B.; Deka, Jumi; Bora, Jatin; Bora, Smritisikha; Barkakati, Murchana

    2016-01-01

    Linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP 4) inhibitor with a long terminal half life, significantly inhibits the DPP 4 enzyme at a steady state up to 48 h after the last dose. The present case series examined the hypothesis that linagliptin retains its efficacy during alternate day dosing in type 2 diabetes patients when switched over from once daily (OD) dosing. Eight type 2 diabetes patients maintaining stable glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with acceptable fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose levels and receiving linagliptin 5 mg OD for at least 6 weeks, with a stable dose of concomitant antidiabetic medications were given linagliptin 5 mg every alternate day. The median HbA1c while on the OD regimen was 6.1% (43 mmol/mol) (range: 5.8–6.9% [40–52 mmol/mol]) and median duration of diabetes was 7 years (range: 0.75–16 years). After a median follow-up period of 21weeks,the glycemic control was maintained in all patients similar to their baseline values (median HbA1c: 6.0% [42 mmol/mol], range: 5.1–7.1% [32–54 mmol/mol]). The body weight, fasting, and random glucose levels at baseline were also well maintained at the end of treatment. Optimal glycemic status maintained in our study population favors our hypothesis that linagliptin used alternate daily after switching from initial OD dose of the drug in patients on a stable background antidiabetic medications retains its efficacy. Paradoxically, alternate day dosing may affect compliance if the patient forgets when they took the last dose. Further studies including larger cohorts are needed to validate this finding and identify patients who can benefit from the alternate day regimen. PMID:27366728

  1. The Impact of Alternative Schooling Options on School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, W. Keith

    In these times of reforming public education, considerable debate is being given to alternative schooling options. Many policymakers view school choice as a means of increasing parental influence of educational services and of reducing the control of government, professional administrators, and educators. These alternative schooling options have…

  2. Conserved functional antagonism of CELF and MBNL proteins controls stem cell-specific alternative splicing in planarians.

    PubMed

    Solana, Jordi; Irimia, Manuel; Ayoub, Salah; Orejuela, Marta Rodriguez; Zywitza, Vera; Jens, Marvin; Tapial, Javier; Ray, Debashish; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy R; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2016-08-09

    In contrast to transcriptional regulation, the function of alternative splicing (AS) in stem cells is poorly understood. In mammals, MBNL proteins negatively regulate an exon program specific of embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the in vivo significance of this regulation. We studied AS in a powerful in vivo model for stem cell biology, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We discover a conserved AS program comprising hundreds of alternative exons, microexons and introns that is differentially regulated in planarian stem cells, and comprehensively identify its regulators. We show that functional antagonism between CELF and MBNL factors directly controls stem cell-specific AS in planarians, placing the origin of this regulatory mechanism at the base of Bilaterians. Knockdown of CELF or MBNL factors lead to abnormal regenerative capacities by affecting self-renewal and differentiation sets of genes, respectively. These results highlight the importance of AS interactions in stem cell regulation across metazoans.

  3. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  4. An alternative to animal testing in the quality control of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Gerhard, D; Hothorn, L A; Dingermann, T

    2011-06-01

    A physico-chemical method has been developed as an alternative to the current bioassay in normocythaemic mice for estimating the biological activity of erythropoietin batches. Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for quantification of the isoforms and their substructures were further elucidated by N-glycan mapping techniques. The analytical study was carried out on a total of 40 batches of epoetin beta which were selected to cover an adequate range of precisely established potency values. The relationship between the biological and chemical parameters was evaluated statistically in order to identify suitable covariates for the prediction of the biological activity. Out of several alternatives, a prediction model which is based on the percentages of isoforms per batch and the degree of sialidation was selected and tested. This model is comparable in terms of accuracy to the established in vivo bioassay, but is far superior in terms of precision. Further advantages of the method are improved animal welfare and savings in time and effort. The question whether the prediction model already meets the requirements for replacing the bioassay according to the ICH guideline Q6B is discussed.

  5. Alternative splicing of TAF6: downstream transcriptome impacts and upstream RNA splice control elements.

    PubMed

    Kamtchueng, Catherine; Stébenne, Marie-Éve; Delannoy, Aurélie; Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Léger, Hélène; Benecke, Arndt G; Bell, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    The TAF6δ pathway of apoptosis can dictate life versus death decisions independently of the status of p53 tumor suppressor. TAF6δ is an inducible pro-apoptotic subunit of the general RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription factor TFIID. Alternative splice site choice of TAF6δ has been shown to be a pivotal event in triggering death via the TAF6δ pathway, yet nothing is currently known about the mechanisms that promote TAF6δ splicing. Furthermore the transcriptome impact of the gain of function of TAF6δ versus the loss of function of the major TAF6α splice form remains undefined. Here we employ comparative microarray analysis to show that TAF6δ drives a transcriptome profile distinct from that resulting from depletion of TAF6α. To define the cis-acting RNA elements responsible for TAF6δ alternative splicing we performed a mutational analysis of a TAF6 minigene system. The data point to several new RNA elements that can modulate TAF6δ and also reveal a role for RNA secondary structure in the selection of TAF6δ.

  6. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  7. 40 CFR 725.975 - EPA approval of alternative control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 725.25(c). See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(iv) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software. Support... on paper, requests must be submitted either via U.S. mail to the Document Control Office (DCO) (7407M... Protection Agency, OPPT Document Control Office (DCO), EPA East Bldg., 1201 Constitution Ave., NW., Rm....

  8. 40 CFR 725.975 - EPA approval of alternative control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 725.25(c). See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(iv) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software. Support... on paper, requests must be submitted either via U.S. mail to the Document Control Office (DCO) (7407M... Protection Agency, OPPT Document Control Office (DCO), EPA East Bldg., 1201 Constitution Ave., NW., Rm....

  9. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adherence to, Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, 3 CFR 117 (1977 Compilation), or as it may be... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm... rehabilitation, repair, or restoration of flood control works damaged by floods or coastal storms. (b) Policy....

  10. The Role of Standardized Tests as a Means of Assessment of Young Children: A Review of Related Literature and Recommendations of Alternative Assessments for Administrators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Stacie; Karr-Kidwell, P. J.

    An extensive review of literature related to the role of standardized tests in the assessment of young children was conducted, and recommendations were made for alternative approaches more appropriate to the assessment of young children. The first section of the paper contains a literature review that provides a brief history of standardized tests…

  11. Preliminary methodology for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of alternative indoor air quality control approaches. Final report, March 1998--February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Henschel, D.B.

    1999-06-01

    The report defines a simplified methodology that can be used by indoor air quality (IAQ) diagnosticians, architects/engineers, building owners/operators, and the scientific community, for preliminary comparison of the cost-effectiveness of alternative IAQ control measures for any given commercial or institutional building. The preliminary methodology consists of text, logic diagrams, and worksheets that are intended to aid the user in: (1) assessing which IAQ control options(s) might apply to the specific building being addressed; (2) designing alternative control measures (involving increased outdoor air ventilation, air cleaning, or source management), and developing rough installed and operating costs for these measures; (3) estimating the approximate effectiveness of the alternative control measures in reducing occupant exposure to contaminants of concern; and (4) comparing the cost-effectiveness of the alternative control measures under consideration, to aid in selecting the optimal control approach.

  12. The New DEEL (Democratic Ethical Educational Leadership) and the Work of Reclaiming a Progressive Alternative in Educational Administration from PreK-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steven Jay; Shapiro, Joan Poliner

    2013-01-01

    Facing repressive accountability regimes and high-stakes testing in the US and beyond, university and practitioner educators around the world decided to take action. Inspired by the democratic administration movement of the 1930's and 1940's and current scholarship in ethics, we started a movement called the New DEEL (Democratic Ethical…

  13. Trend Analysis of Administrative Documents Pertinent to the Community Alternatives and Institutional Reform Planning Grant Program. A Report to the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, David L.; Sosowsky, Larry

    To identify trends in institutional reform and deinstitutionalization of the developmentally disabled, 34 administrative documents emanating from a federally funded planning grant program were examined. Documents were gathered in response to a survey letter to state Developmental Disabilities Councils, and fact sheets summarizing the documents…

  14. Advancing Performance Pay in the Obama Administration: The Influence of Political Strategy and Alternative Priorities. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Even the most cursory look at the current administration's approach to performance pay reveals a noteworthy story. Unlike all of his Democratic predecessors--and some of his Republican ones--President Obama not only appreciates the value of differentiating the compensation of teachers based on a effectiveness, he has put energy and money behind…

  15. Authority of the Food and Drug Administration to require data access and control use rights in the Sentinel data network.

    PubMed

    Evans, Barbara J

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) authorized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop a 100-million-person health data network known as the Sentinel system. When fully operational, the Sentinel network will offer a very rich, very large health data resource that has the potential to become one of history's most powerful engines of biomedical innovation and clinical translation of discoveries. Who controls this asset will be a matter of great scientific and commercial importance. This article explores two key questions--data access and use rights--that are under debate as various parties jostle for control of the network: First, does FDA have legal authority to require private healthcare data environments--such as insurers, healthcare providers, pharmacists and other entities that hold data in administrative and clinical databases--to make data available for inclusion in the network? Second, who will decide how the network is used, once it is built? The article explains why a neutral analysis of these questions is essential as FDA designs the governance framework for protecting the diverse stakeholders who will be touched by the Sentinel network. The conclusion describes threats to network operations, including federal and state constitutional claims and state legislative interventions, which could arise if FDA fails to devote timely attention to these issues.

  16. Insight into Alternative Approaches for Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry, with Emphasis on Highly Pathogenic H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, E. M.; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 causes a devastating disease in poultry but when it accidentally infects humans it can cause death. Therefore, decrease the incidence of H5N1 in humans needs to focus on prevention and control of poultry infections. Conventional control strategies in poultry based on surveillance, stamping out, movement restriction and enforcement of biosecurity measures did not prevent the virus spreading, particularly in developing countries. Several challenges limit efficiency of the vaccines to prevent outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 in endemic countries. Alternative and complementary approaches to reduce the current burden of H5N1 epidemics in poultry should be encouraged. The use of antiviral chemotherapy and natural compounds, avian-cytokines, RNA interference, genetic breeding and/or development of transgenic poultry warrant further evaluation as integrated intervention strategies for control of HPAIV H5N1 in poultry. PMID:23202521

  17. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions. PMID:23719689

  18. Evaluation of alternative rapid thin layer chromatography systems for quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mang'era, Kennedy; Wong, Derek; Douglas, David; Franz, Kellie; Biru, Taddese

    2014-04-01

    Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™ systems were evaluated as ITLC-SG alternatives for 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals. They compare well in accuracy and reproducibility, and are faster and more convenient than ITLC-SG. Tec-Control™ radiochemical purity values for 99mTc-sestamibi were more conservative than ITLC-SG. Full solvent migration was not reproduced for 99mTc-tetrofosmin in Tec-Control™, and for this Whatman 3MM™ is preferred. Developing times were 10-15 min, 7-9 min and ~1min for ITLC-SG, Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™, respectively. Overall, Tec-Control™ strips are preferred due to speed and ease of use.

  19. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies.

    PubMed

    Rani, D Amutha; Boccaccini, A R; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-11-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  20. 78 FR 22659 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Determines No Longer Warrant Control under the United States Munitions List (USML) (76 FR 41958) (hereinafter... Retrospective Regulatory Review (77 FR 37524) (hereinafter ``June 21 (transition) rule''). That rule proposed... President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the United States Munitions List (USML), (, 76 FR...

  1. [Transcranial alternating current stimulation. Entrainment and function control of neuronal networks].

    PubMed

    Vosskuhl, J; Strüber, D; Herrmann, C S

    2015-12-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a new technique for the modulation of oscillatory brain activity as measured in the electroencephalogram (EEG). In contrast to well-established stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, tACS applies a sinusoidal alternating current at a specific frequency. This enables the modulation of the amplitude and frequency of endogenous brain oscillations as well as related cognitive processes. Therefore, the use of tACS has the possibility to evaluate well-known correlations between brain oscillations and cognitive processes in terms of causality. Such causal relationships have been documented in numerous neurocognitive studies on sensory, motor and perceptual processes; however, the clinical application of tACS is still in its infancy. In principle, any pathology that can reliably be connected with brain oscillations of a defined frequency is treatable. A current main focus of clinical research is on symptoms of Parkinson's disease and to a lesser degree, tinnitus. For an effective application of tACS it is important to choose the electrode positions as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the stimulation in a theory-based and symptom-related manner. A successful therapeutic intervention requires the persistence of the tACS effect after stimulation has ceased. A mechanism that offers not only an explanation to the origin of persistent tACS effects but is also of high therapeutic benefit is neural plasticity. Therefore, one current focus of research aims at a better understanding of tACS after effects. PMID:26440521

  2. Mask roughness induced LER control and mitigation: aberrations sensitivity study and alternate illumination scheme

    SciTech Connect

    McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2011-03-11

    Here we conduct a mask-roughness-induced line-edge-roughness (LER) aberrations sensitivity study both as a random distribution amongst the first 16 Fringe Zernikes (for overall aberration levels of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75nm rms) as well as an individual aberrations sensitivity matrix over the first 37 Fringe Zernikes. Full 2D aerial image modeling for an imaging system with NA = 0.32 was done for both the 22-nm and 16-nm half-pitch nodes on a rough mask with a replicated surface roughness (RSR) of 100 pm and a correlation length of 32 nm at the nominal extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) wavelength of 13.5nm. As the ideal RSR value for commercialization of EUVL is 50 pm and under, and furthermore as has been shown elsewhere, a correlation length of 32 nm of roughness on the mask sits on the peak LER value for an NA = 0.32 imaging optic, these mask roughness values and consequently the aberration sensitivity study presented here, represent a worst-case scenario. The illumination conditions were chosen based on the possible candidates for the 22-nm and 16-nm half-pitch nodes, respectively. In the 22-nm case, a disk illumination setting of {sigma} = 0.50 was used, and for the 16-nm case, crosspole illumination with {sigma} = 0.10 at an optimum offset of dx = 0 and dy = .67 in sigma space. In examining how to mitigate mask roughness induced LER, we considered an alternate illumination scheme whereby a traditional dipole's angular spectrum is extended in the direction parallel to the line-and-space mask absorber pattern to represent a 'strip'. While this illumination surprisingly provides minimal improvement to the LER as compared to several alternate illumination schemes, the overall imaging quality in terms of image-log-slope (ILS) and contrast is improved.

  3. Alternative vs. conventional treatment given on-demand for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Per G; Heibert, Mathis; Høeg, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Background Alternative treatments are commonly used for various disorders and often taken on-demand. On-demand treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with pharmaceutical products is an established, cost-effective strategy. Comparisons between alternative medicine and pharmaceutical products are rare. The aim of this trial was to compare on-demand treatment with a pectin-based, raft-forming, natural, anti-reflux agent (PRA) with that of esomeprazole 20 mg (Eso20) in patients with mild/moderate GERD. Methods Patients with mild/moderate GERD were randomised to a six weeks' on-demand treatment with PRA or Eso20 in a pragmatic, open, multicentre trial. Overall satisfaction with treatment, satisfactory relief on a weekly basis, reflux symptoms, and treatment preferences were noted. Results Seventy-seven patients were included in the analyses. Eso20 was significantly superior to PRA for proportion of overall satisfied patients (92% and 58% respectively; p = 0.001), reduction of symptoms (mean symptom scores at the end 5.9 and 8.0 respectively; p = 0.019), proportion of weeks of satisfactory relief (89% and 62% respectively; p = 0.008) and proportion preferring continuation with the same treatment (85% and 42% respectively; p < 0.001). Older patients were more satisfied than younger, and patients preferring on-demand treatment had lower symptom scores at inclusion than those preferring regular treatment. Conclusion On-demand treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg was clearly superior to the pectin-based raft-forming agent. Most patients preferred on-demand treatment to regular treatment. Those preferring regular therapy had significantly more symptoms at inclusion. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00184522. PMID:19236727

  4. MIMO Sliding Mode Control for a Tailless Fighter Aircraft, An Alternative to Reconfigurable Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, S. R.; Hess, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-domain procedure for the design of sliding mode controllers for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems is presented. The methodology accommodates the effects of parasitic dynamics such as those introduced by unmodeled actuators through the introduction of multiple asymptotic observers and model reference hedging. The design procedure includes a frequency domain approach to specify the sliding manifold, the observer eigenvalues, and the hedge model. The procedure is applied to the development of a flight control system for a linear model of the Innovative Control Effector (ICE) fighter aircraft. The stability and performance robustness of the resulting design is demonstrated through the introduction of significant degradation in the control effector actuators and variation in vehicle dynamics.

  5. [Experience with a microcomputer-controlled blood bank administration system in the blood bank of the Hannover Medical University].

    PubMed

    Raufmann, W; Stangel, W

    1990-01-01

    During the last three years two components of a modular administration system were implemented in the blood bank of the Medical University of Hannover (MHH). Considering the integration of the blood bank system to the central hospital information system of the clinic the aspect of independence and self-controlling by the blood bank was the most important point. This goal was reached by a couple of PC's which are compounded by a local area network (LAN). This LAN can communicate with the host of the computer center of the MHH. By this way the short staff capacity was not stressed more than absolute necessary by taking over all parameters of the central data base. On the other hand all functions for administrating the blood bank were in self-responsibility of the department. This concept of different modules has the possibility of using single parts like donor- or storage-system in other blood banks without implementing the whole system.

  6. A Contingency in the Rosetta Reaction Control System: Alternative Cruise Trajectory Strategies to Cope with Degraded Delta-V Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauske, Rainer; Companys, Vincente

    2007-01-01

    Since August 2006 a pressure transducer of the Rosetta Reaction Control System (RCS) shows anomalous telemetries indicating a possible leak in a pressurant line. The future operation mode of the RCS may be affected by this problem, resulting in performance degradation. The current propellant budget and its future evolution are evaluated to show the possible states w.r.t. the required mission delta-V. Alternative cruise trajectory strategies are analyzed, providing delta-V savings, to compensate for the expected performance loss of the RCS.

  7. Summary Report for National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) and Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (C3P) 2011 International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The C3P &. NASA International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy was held on November 15-18, 2011 at the European Space Agency (ESA)'s Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. The theme of the workshop was "Global Collaboration in Environmental and Alternative Energy Strategies". The workshop was held at ESTEC's conference center. More than 110 individuals from eleven countries attended the workshop. For the first time since the inception of NASA-C3P workshops, a full day was dedicated to a student session. Fifteen students from around the globe gave oral presentations along with poster displays relating to the latest technologies in environmental and alternative energy strategies. Judges from NASA, C3P and ESA awarded plaques to the top three students. In addition to the students, thirty eight U.S. and international subject matter experts presented on the following general environmental-related topics: (1) Hazardous materials management and substitution in support of space operations (2) Emerging renewable and alternative energy technologies (3) Sustainable development and redevelopment (4) Remediation technologies and strategies The workshop also included a panel discussion on the topic of the challenges of operating installations across borders. Throughout the workshop, attendees heard about the scope of environmental and energy challenges that industry and governments face. They heard about technologies for increasing energy efficiency and increasing use of renewable energy. They learned about ways companies and government agencies are using materials, processes, goods and services in a manner more respectful with the environment and in compliance with health and safety rules. The concept of partnerships and their inherent benefits was evidenced throughout the workshop. Partnering is a key aspect of sustainability because sustainable development is complicated. Through formal presentations and side discussions, attendees

  8. Alternative method to control radiative vortex forces in a magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersnowski, K.; Kawalec, T.; Dohnalik, T.

    2006-06-15

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of controlling the atomic spatial distributions in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). With a diaphragm we can vary the waist and power of one of the cooling laser beams and we can change parameters of large-diameter, parallelogram-shaped atomic orbits. We show that the radiative force generated by the repumping MOT laser has to be taken into consideration. Computer simulations of atomic trajectories explain the observed spatial structures, and we employ these simulations to present potential applications of controlling the diaphragm diameter as a function of time. A potential use of controlled vortex forces seems to have a great significance in recently presented important new methods to investigate cold atom collisions in the MOT, which were recently published.

  9. Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management: Regulatory and economic instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the most common strategies and policy instruments (that is, regulatory and economic) used in developed and developing countries to achieve pollution control and waste management objectives. Although this topic has been at the center of theoretical controversy both within and outside the World Bank, the paper is not intended to contribute to this debate. Rather, its purpose is to explore how regulatory and economic instruments are used to control air and water pollution, protect ground water, and manage solid and hazardous wastes. The paper is directed to policy makers at the national, state, and local levels of government, as well as to other parties responsible for pollution control and waste management programs.

  10. An alternative approach for adaptive real-time control using a nonparametric neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Alves da Silva, A.P.; Nascimento, P.C.; Lambert-Torres, G.; Borges da Silva, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a nonparametric Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for adaptive control of nonlinear systems. The proposed ANN, Functional Polynomial Network (FPN), mixes the concept of orthogonal basis functions with the idea of polynomial networks. A combination of orthogonal functions can be used to produce a desired mapping. However, there is no way besides trial and error to choose which orthogonal functions should be selected. Polynomial nets can be used for function approximation, but, it is not easy to set the order of the activation function. The combination of the two concepts produces a very powerful ANN model due to the automatic input selection capability of the polynomial networks. The proposed FPN has been tested for speed control of a DC motor. The results have been compared with the ones provided by an indirect adaptive control scheme based on multilayer perceptrons trained by backpropagation.

  11. Qualitative systemic review of randomized controlled trials on complementary and alternative medicine treatments in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Baranowsky, Julia; Klose, Petra; Musial, Frauke; Häuser, Winfried; Haeuser, Winfried; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the study were identification, quality evaluation and summary of RCTs on complementary and alternative medicine as defined by the National Institute of Health with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements. A computerized search of databases from 1990 (year of publication of the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia) to July 2007 was performed. The RCTs were assessed by a methodological quality score. A total of 23 RCTs issued from 1992 to 2007 on acupuncture, balneotherapy, thermotherapy, magnetic therapy, homeopathy, manual manipulation, mind-body medicine, diet therapy and music therapy were identified. The RCTs had an average group size of 25 with the number of groups ranging from two to four. The quality score assessment of the RCTs yielded a mean score of 51 out of 100. The average methodological quality of the identified studies was fairly low. Best evidence was found for balneotherapy/hydrotherapy in multiple studies. Positive results were also noted for homeopathy and mild infrared hyperthermia in 1 RCT in each field. Mindfulness meditation showed mostly positive results in two trials and acupuncture mixed results in multiple trials with a tendency toward positive results. Tendencies for improvement were furthermore noted in single trials of the Mesendieck system, connective tissue massage and to some degree for osteopathy and magnet therapy. No positive evidence could be identified for Qi Gong, biofeedback, and body awareness therapy.

  12. High-density force myography: A possible alternative for upper-limb prosthetic control.

    PubMed

    Radmand, Ashkan; Scheme, Erik; Englehart, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Several multiple degree-of-freedom upper-limb prostheses that have the promise of highly dexterous control have recently been developed. Inadequate controllability, however, has limited adoption of these devices. Introducing more robust control methods will likely result in higher acceptance rates. This work investigates the suitability of using high-density force myography (HD-FMG) for prosthetic control. HD-FMG uses a high-density array of pressure sensors to detect changes in the pressure patterns between the residual limb and socket caused by the contraction of the forearm muscles. In this work, HD-FMG outperforms the standard electromyography (EMG)-based system in detecting different wrist and hand gestures. With the arm in a fixed, static position, eight hand and wrist motions were classified with 0.33% error using the HD-FMG technique. Comparatively, classification errors in the range of 2.2%-11.3% have been reported in the literature for multichannel EMG-based approaches. As with EMG, position variation in HD-FMG can introduce classification error, but incorporating position variation into the training protocol reduces this effect. Channel reduction was also applied to the HD-FMG technique to decrease the dimensionality of the problem as well as the size of the sensorized area. We found that with informed, symmetric channel reduction, classification error could be decreased to 0.02%. PMID:27532260

  13. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) and Steam As Alternatives For Parasitic Nematode Control In Florida Floriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and steam are being investigated for controlling a broad spectrum of pests, including parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD is a biologically-based method that combines organic amendments and solar heat with water saturated soil to create oxygen-depleted soil co...

  14. Using Alternate Forms of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale: Caveat Emptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Wagner, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether Forms A and B of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLCS) are parallel by comparing (a) mean performance on the internal, powerful others, and chance subscales, (b) the internal consistency and one-week test-retest reliability estimates for each of the subscales, (c) the intercorrelations among the…

  15. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-02-14

    A system is provided for controlling two AC machines. The system comprises a DC input voltage source that provides a DC input voltage, a voltage boost command control module (VBCCM), a five-phase PWM inverter module coupled to the two AC machines, and a boost converter coupled to the inverter module and the DC input voltage source. The boost converter is designed to supply a new DC input voltage to the inverter module having a value that is greater than or equal to a value of the DC input voltage. The VBCCM generates a boost command signal (BCS) based on modulation indexes from the two AC machines. The BCS controls the boost converter such that the boost converter generates the new DC input voltage in response to the BCS. When the two AC machines require additional voltage that exceeds the DC input voltage required to meet a combined target mechanical power required by the two AC machines, the BCS controls the boost converter to drive the new DC input voltage generated by the boost converter to a value greater than the DC input voltage.

  16. Chronic cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys: impact on associative learning, cognitive control, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jessica N; Olsen, Adam S; Gurnsey, Kate; Dugan, Brian P; Jedema, Hank P; Bradberry, Charles W

    2011-03-30

    Cocaine users display a wide range of cognitive impairments. Because treatment outcome is dependent on baseline cognitive ability, it is clinically important to understand the underlying neurobiology of these deficits. Therefore, it is crucial to determine whether cocaine exposure by itself is an etiological factor and, if so, to determine the overall nature of cognitive deficits associated with cocaine use. This will help to guide therapeutic approaches that address cognitive components of cocaine use to improve treatment outcome. We used rhesus monkeys in a longitudinal study in which 14 animals were characterized before assignment to matched control (n = 6) and cocaine self-administration (n = 8) groups. Self-administration took place on 4 consecutive days/week over 9 months, with a maximum (and typical) daily cumulative intake of 3.0 mg/kg. Weekly cognitive assessments (total of 36) were conducted after a 72 h drug-free period. We used a stimulus discrimination task with reversal to evaluate associative learning and the cognitive control/flexibility needed to adapt to changes in reward contingencies. After extended self-administration, initial accuracy on the stimulus discrimination indicated intact associative learning. However, animals were impaired at maintaining high levels of accuracy needed to reach criterion and initiate the reversal. Increasing the reward contrast between stimuli permitted evaluation of reversal performance and revealed striking deficits in the cocaine group. Impairments in visual working memory were also observed using a delayed match-to-sample task. These results suggest a combination of generalized, possibly attentional, impairments, along with a more specific cognitive control impairment implicating orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction. PMID:21451031

  17. Sequential or alternating administration of docetaxel (Taxotere®) combined with FEC in metastatic breast cancer: a randomised phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, M; Tubiana-Hulin, M; Namer, M; Mansouri, H; Bougnoux, P h; Tubiana-Mathieu, N; Lotz, V; Eymard, J C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study, using a Fleming single-stage design, was to explore the efficacy and safety of Taxotere® 100 mg m−2 docetaxel and FEC 75 cyclophosphamide 500 mg m−2, fluorouracil 500 mg m−2 and epirubicin 75 mg m−2, in alternating and sequential schedules for the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer. One hundred and thirty-six women were randomly allocated, to one of three treatment regimens: DTX 100 plus FEC 75, alternated for eight courses (ALT); four courses of DTX 100 followed by four courses of FEC 75 (SEQ T); or four courses of FEC 75 followed by four courses of DTX 100 (SEQ F). One hundred and thirty-one women were evaluable for tumour response. Although the treatment outcome was equivalent in the two sequential arms and the alternating regimen (P=0.110, not significant), the response rate was less encouraging in the SEQ F arm (52.3%) than in the other two arms (71.1% for ALT and 70.5% for SEQ T), in which docetaxel was administered first. Time to progression was similar in the ALT, SEQ T and SEQ F arms (9.5, 9.3 and 10.4 months respectively). Grade 3–4 neutropenia was observed in nearly all patients; febrile neutropenia occurred in 9% (ALT), 16% (SEQ T) and 2% (SEQ F) of patients. Few patients (⩽9%) developed grade 3–4 non-haematological toxicities. Relative dose intensity was 97–99% for all regimens. All treatment regimens were active and well tolerated. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 692–697. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600165 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11875727

  18. In silico tumor control induced via alternating immunostimulating and immunosuppressive phases

    PubMed Central

    Reppas, AI; Alfonso, JCL; Hatzikirou, H

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the field of Oncoimmunology, the success potential of immunomodulatory therapies against cancer remains to be elucidated. One of the reasons is the lack of understanding on the complex interplay between tumor growth dynamics and the associated immune system responses. Toward this goal, we consider a mathematical model of vascularized tumor growth and the corresponding effector cell recruitment dynamics. Bifurcation analysis allows for the exploration of model's dynamic behavior and the determination of these parameter regimes that result in immune-mediated tumor control. In this work, we focus on a particular tumor evasion regime that involves tumor and effector cell concentration oscillations of slowly increasing and decreasing amplitude, respectively. Considering a temporal multiscale analysis, we derive an analytically tractable mapping of model solutions onto a weakly negatively damped harmonic oscillator. Based on our analysis, we propose a theory-driven intervention strategy involving immunostimulating and immunosuppressive phases to induce long-term tumor control. PMID:26305801

  19. Renal excretion profiles of psilocin following oral administration of psilocybin: a controlled study in man.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Felix; Bourquin, Daniel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2002-09-01

    In a clinical study eight volunteers received psilocybin (PY) in psychoactive oral doses of 212+/-25 microg/kg body weight. To investigate the elimination kinetics of psilocin (PI), the first metabolite of PY, urine was collected for 24 h and PI concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Sample workup included protection of the unstable PI with ascorbic acid, freeze-drying, and extraction with methanol. Peak PI concentrations up to 870 microg/l were measured in urine samples from the 2-4 h collection interval. The PI excretion rate in this period was 55.5+/-33.8 microg/h. The limit of quantitation (10 microg/L) was usually reached 24 h after drug administration. Within 24 h, 3.4+/-0.9% of the applied dose of PY was excreted as free PI. Addition of beta-glucuronidase to urine samples and incubation for 5 h at 40 degrees C led to twofold higher PI concentrations, although 18+/-7% of the amount of unconjugated PI was decomposed during incubation. We conclude that in humans PI is partially excreted as PI-O-glucuronide and that enzymatic hydrolysis extends the time of detectability for PI in urine samples.

  20. 76 FR 80291 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Submersible Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... establish a new, unilateral control on submersibles ``specially designed'' for cargo transport that are not... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``the July 15 proposed... submersibles ``specially designed'' for cargo transport that are not currently subject to USML or CCL...

  1. 76 FR 41957 - Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Items the President...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... definitions of relevant terms, including ``specially designed,'' ``end items,'' ``parts,'' and ``components... Control List: Revising Descriptions of Items and Foreign Availability,'' 75 FR 76664 (Dec. 9, 2010); ``Revision to the United States Munitions List,'' 75 FR 76935 (Dec. 10, 2010). In addition, the...

  2. 76 FR 68675 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Aircraft and Related Items...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``the July 15 proposed rule'') that set forth a framework for how... result of differences in form and fit, ``specially designed'' for military applications, then it was... incentives for foreign companies to design out or avoid U.S.- origin ITAR-controlled content,...

  3. 75 FR 20520 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2009 Missile Technology Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... December 10, 2009 (74 FR 65662). DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective: April 20, 2010. Although... infiltrated tungsten, silver infiltrated tungsten, and tungsten alloys in solid ] form (including dimensional... MTCR Annex was modified to include new controls for solid tungsten and tungsten alloy billets for...

  4. Women in Educational Administration: Moving from a Paradigm of Power and Control to Empowerment and Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Francie

    Factors in the development of empowerment through ethical leadership are discussed in this paper, which draws on feminist and humanist theories. A review of literature describes the conditions in patriarchal societies that lead to and lessen the exaltation of power and control; conditions of temporary and permanent inequality; ways in which…

  5. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  6. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  7. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  8. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  9. 78 FR 31431 - Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ..., 2011 proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``July 15 (framework) rule'') setting up a structure to control in... with section 38(f) of the AECA. On November 7, 2011, BIS published a proposed rule (76 FR 68675.... On June 19, 2012, BIS published a proposed rule to define the term ``specially designed'' (77...

  10. Effects of oral tetrachlorvinphos fly control (Equitrol) administration in horses: physiological and behavioural findings.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Valdez, S; Puschner, B; Leutenegger, C M; Gardner, I A; Madigan, J E

    2008-01-01

    Highly reactive horses may pose risks to humans involved in equestrian activities. Among the factors that may affect horses' reactivity to external stimuli are pesticides used for fly control in equine facilities. The organophosphorus (OP) insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is used as a feed-through larvicide to prevent completion of the fly larval life cycle in horse manure. TCVP exerts its effect by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AChE) in synapses of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of whole-blood ChE levels associated with feeding a commercially available product (Equitrol, Farnam Companies, Inc.) to horses for fly control. A second aim was to report neurological, physiological and behavioural findings in addition to profiles of selected immune markers (IFN-gamma, IL-12p40 and COX-2) and serum thyroid hormones during and after a 30-day treatment period of TCVP feeding. The results indicated significant decreases in whole-blood ChE activity and concomitant behavioural alterations, manifested as increased reactivity and decreased controllability in treated horses. No changes were detected in physiological or neurological parameters, immune markers or thyroid hormones in treated (n=6) or control (n=4) horses during the course of the study.

  11. Transformations in the Field of Symbolic Control and Their Implications for the Greek Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsatsaroni, Anna; Sifakakis, Polychronis; Sarakinioti, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    This paper theorises the field of symbolic control and reflects on the critical literature of policy studies, exploring the possibilities that the former might offer to the analysis of global policy discourses and their up-take in specific national and local contexts. Starting from the rapidly expanding literature on the "globalising"…

  12. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amigud, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public…

  13. Acute effects of an alternative electronic-control-device waveform in swine.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James; Beason, Charles W; Cook, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, repeated 5-s exposures of anesthetized pigs to an electronic control device (TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 device) resulted in acidosis and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of longer continuous exposures to a different electronic-control-device waveform. After intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl, anesthesia was maintained with propofol infusion. Ten pigs were exposed to either 30- or 60-s applications of an electronic waveform similar to the TASER-X26 device. Transient increases in potassium, and sodium were consistent with previous reports in the literature dealing with studies of muscle stimulation or exercise. Blood pH was significantly decreased after exposure, but subsequently returned to baseline levels. Lactate was highly elevated and remained somewhat increased even after three hrs. Serum myoglobin was increased after exposure and remained elevated for the 3-h follow-up period. Acidosis would appear to be one of the major concerns with long-duration (e.g., several min) exposures over a short period of time. Even with the extremely low pH immediately after exposure, all animals survived. On the basis of these results, further development of useful continuous-exposure electronic control devices is at least feasible, with the caveat that some medical monitoring of subjects may be required.

  14. Analysis of alternatives for insulinizing patients to achieve glycemic control and avoid accompanying risks of hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JIALIN; XIONG, QIANYIN; MIAO, JUN; ZHANG, YAO; XIA, LIBING; LU, MEIQIN; ZHANG, BINHUA; CHEN, YUEPING; ZHANG, ANSU; YU, CUI; WANG, LI-ZHUO

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients. PMID:26137223

  15. U.S. military administration's malaria control activities (1945-1948).

    PubMed

    Yeo, In-Sok

    2015-04-01

    To prevent and control infectious diseases was one of the major concerns of U.S. military government when they stationed in Korea in 1945. It was because the spread of various infectious diseases can cause social unrest and they can also affect the U.S. military. Malaria was one of the most important infectious diseases to which the U.S. military had been paying special attention. The U.S. military received a severe damage during the Pacific war with Japan due to malaria. It was said that more soldiers were lost by malaria than by battle itself. The bitter experience they had during the war made them accumulate more systematic and practical knowledge against malaria. As a result, by the end of the war, the U.S. military could run more than hundreds of units specialized in controlling malaria. Thanks to such a preparation, they could immediately begin their anti-malaria activities in Korea soon after the World War II. Although the vivax malaria, which is the dominant type in Korea, is not as much a fatal type as that in the Pacific areas, it was damaging enough to the infected. The 207th Malaria Survey Detachment carried out collecting and identifying the kinds of mosquitos in Korea. In addition, they also surveyed the prevalence of malaria among school children in Seoul. In terms of controlling malaria, DDT played a decisive role. Vector control is the most effective and ideal measurements against malaria. Before the development of DDT, it was practically impossible to eradicate mosquitos which arise from extremely broad areas. However, DDT could not be used as it had been expected in the rural area, because spraying DDT in the rice paddies which is the breeding place of mosquitos kills rice. Despite such a limitation in anti-malaria activities of the US military government, it should be noted that a significant turn in controlling malaria was possible thanks to the development of DDT. PMID:25985777

  16. Instantaneous and controllable integer ambiguity resolution: review and an alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Meiping; Li, Tao; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-11-01

    In the high-precision application of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), integer ambiguity resolution is the key step to realize precise positioning and attitude determination. As the necessary part of quality control, integer aperture (IA) ambiguity resolution provides the theoretical and practical foundation for ambiguity validation. It is mainly realized by acceptance testing. Due to the constraint of correlation between ambiguities, it is impossible to realize the controlling of failure rate according to analytical formula. Hence, the fixed failure rate approach is implemented by Monte Carlo sampling. However, due to the characteristics of Monte Carlo sampling and look-up table, we have to face the problem of a large amount of time consumption if sufficient GNSS scenarios are included in the creation of look-up table. This restricts the fixed failure rate approach to be a post process approach if a look-up table is not available. Furthermore, if not enough GNSS scenarios are considered, the table may only be valid for a specific scenario or application. Besides this, the method of creating look-up table or look-up function still needs to be designed for each specific acceptance test. To overcome these problems in determination of critical values, this contribution will propose an instantaneous and CONtrollable (iCON) IA ambiguity resolution approach for the first time. The iCON approach has the following advantages: (a) critical value of acceptance test is independently determined based on the required failure rate and GNSS model without resorting to external information such as look-up table; (b) it can be realized instantaneously for most of IA estimators which have analytical probability formulas. The stronger GNSS model, the less time consumption; (c) it provides a new viewpoint to improve the research about IA estimation. To verify these conclusions, multi-frequency and multi-GNSS simulation experiments are implemented. Those results show that IA

  17. Riboswitch Control of Gene Expression in Plants by Splicing and Alternative 3′ End Processing of mRNAs[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Andreas; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Grove, Beth C.; Green, Pamela J.; Shintani, David K.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    The most widespread riboswitch class, found in organisms from all three domains of life, is responsive to the vitamin B1 derivative thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP). We have established that a TPP-sensing riboswitch is present in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the thiamin biosynthetic gene THIC of all plant species examined. The THIC TPP riboswitch controls the formation of transcripts with alternative 3′ UTR lengths, which affect mRNA accumulation and protein production. We demonstrate that riboswitch-mediated regulation of alternative 3′ end processing is critical for TPP-dependent feedback control of THIC expression. Our data reveal a mechanism whereby metabolite-dependent alteration of RNA folding controls splicing and alternative 3′ end processing of mRNAs. These findings highlight the importance of metabolite sensing by riboswitches in plants and further reveal the significance of alternative 3′ end processing as a mechanism of gene control in eukaryotes. PMID:17993623

  18. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  19. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  20. Alternating current-generated plasma discharges for the controlled direct current charging of ferroelectrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cury Basso, Heitor; Monteiro, José Roberto B. de A.; Baladelli Mazulquim, Daniel; Teixeira de Paula, Geyverson; Gonçalves Neto, Luiz; Gerhard, Reimund

    2013-09-01

    The standard charging process for polymer ferroelectrets, e.g., from polypropylene foams or layered film systems involves the application of high DC fields either to metal electrodes or via a corona discharge. In this often-used process, the DC field triggers the internal breakdown and limits the final charge densities inside the ferroelectret cavities and, thus, the final polarization. Here, an AC + DC charging procedure is proposed and demonstrated in which a high-voltage high-frequency (HV-HF) wave train is applied together with a DC poling voltage. Thus, the internal dielectric-barrier discharges in the ferroelectret cavities are induced by the HV-HF wave train, while the final charge and polarization level is controlled separately through the applied DC voltage. In the new process, the frequency and the amplitude of the HV-HF wave train must be kept within critical boundaries that are closely related to the characteristics of the respective ferroelectrets. The charging method has been tested and investigated on a fluoropolymer-film system with a single well-defined cylindrical cavity. It is found that the internal electrical polarization of the cavity can be easily controlled and increases linearly with the applied DC voltage up to the breakdown voltage of the cavity. In the standard charging method, however, the DC voltage would have to be chosen above the respective breakdown voltage. With the new method, control of the HV-HF wave-train duration prevents a plasma-induced deterioration of the polymer surfaces inside the cavities. It is observed that the frequency of the HV-HF wave train during ferroelectret charging and the temperature applied during poling of ferroelectrics serve an analogous purpose. The analogy and the similarities between the proposed ferroelectret charging method and the poling of ferroelectric materials or dipole electrets at elevated temperatures with subsequent cooling under field are discussed.

  1. Morphine and Codeine in Oral Fluid after Controlled Poppy Seed Administration

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programs. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only 2 addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3.1mg codeine, 8h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (1μg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n=459) were collected before and up to 32h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13h at Draeger 20μg/L morphine cutoff. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax) were 177 and 32.6μg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax) of 0.5-1h and 0.5-2.5h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24h for morphine and to 18h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1h with 40μg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cutoff, and 0.5h with 95μg/L cutoff, recently recommended by the Driving Under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1h after ingestion of 15.7mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending upon the cutoff employed. PMID:25345619

  2. Alternative methods to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum in plums (Prunus domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Molinu, M G; Pani, G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2012-01-01

    In the latest years, investigation on postharvest treatments has been increasingly addressed to preserve human health and environment safeguard. Several preservative compounds, physical treatments and biological control agents to restrain postharvest pathogens on horticultural products have been widely studied. Among them potassium sorbate (KS) has been generally recognized as safe for use in foods and personal care products. It acts as microbial growth inhibitor and fungistatic agent in foods, including vegetable and fruit products. The efficacy of KS, used alone or combined with heat treatments or biocontrol agents, has been demonstrated in Citrus and stone fruits. Here we report the results of 3 experiments aimed at controlling Penicillium expansum Link decay with the use of KS on a yellow ('Shiro') and a red ('Sanguigna di Bosa II', from the Sardinian germplasm) plum cultivar. An integrated approach, combining ultrasounds (US) as a physical mean and KS solutions at different concentrations, has been employed. In the first experiment, 360 fruits were wounded twice and divided into 6 sets (6 x 60), three of which were inoculated with an isolate of P. expansum (20 microl of a 10(5) cfu x mL(-1)). Then, 180 fruit (half inoculated) were treated by pipetting into each wound 20 microl of a KS solution containing 0, 1.5 or 3% (w/v), respectively. In exp. 2, all fruit (number) was wounded and inoculated, and after 24 h treated by immersion (1 min) into solutions containing 0, 1.5 or 3% (w/v) of SK, with or without the use of US. In exp. 3, wounded fruits were treated by immersion or sonication like in exp. 2, while inoculation took place after 24 h. Then, plums were kept at 25 degrees C and 75-80% RH and the infection degree was monitored after 3 and 6 days. In both cultivars, the 1.5% KS solution significantly reduced the natural infection, while the 3% KS solution resulted effective only on the red one. Moreover, the 1.5% solution was effective in controlling decay of

  3. Alternative methods to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum in plums (Prunus domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Molinu, M G; Pani, G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2012-01-01

    In the latest years, investigation on postharvest treatments has been increasingly addressed to preserve human health and environment safeguard. Several preservative compounds, physical treatments and biological control agents to restrain postharvest pathogens on horticultural products have been widely studied. Among them potassium sorbate (KS) has been generally recognized as safe for use in foods and personal care products. It acts as microbial growth inhibitor and fungistatic agent in foods, including vegetable and fruit products. The efficacy of KS, used alone or combined with heat treatments or biocontrol agents, has been demonstrated in Citrus and stone fruits. Here we report the results of 3 experiments aimed at controlling Penicillium expansum Link decay with the use of KS on a yellow ('Shiro') and a red ('Sanguigna di Bosa II', from the Sardinian germplasm) plum cultivar. An integrated approach, combining ultrasounds (US) as a physical mean and KS solutions at different concentrations, has been employed. In the first experiment, 360 fruits were wounded twice and divided into 6 sets (6 x 60), three of which were inoculated with an isolate of P. expansum (20 microl of a 10(5) cfu x mL(-1)). Then, 180 fruit (half inoculated) were treated by pipetting into each wound 20 microl of a KS solution containing 0, 1.5 or 3% (w/v), respectively. In exp. 2, all fruit (number) was wounded and inoculated, and after 24 h treated by immersion (1 min) into solutions containing 0, 1.5 or 3% (w/v) of SK, with or without the use of US. In exp. 3, wounded fruits were treated by immersion or sonication like in exp. 2, while inoculation took place after 24 h. Then, plums were kept at 25 degrees C and 75-80% RH and the infection degree was monitored after 3 and 6 days. In both cultivars, the 1.5% KS solution significantly reduced the natural infection, while the 3% KS solution resulted effective only on the red one. Moreover, the 1.5% solution was effective in controlling decay of

  4. Administration of Triclabendazole Is Safe and Effective in Controlling Fascioliasis in an Endemic Community of the Bolivian Altiplano

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Fidel; Angles, René; Barrientos, René; Barrios, Gary; Valero, María Adela; Hamed, Kamal; Grueninger, Heiner; Ault, Steven K.; Montresor, Antonio; Engels, Dirk; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background The Bolivian northern Altiplano is characterized by a high prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection. In order to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of large-scale administration of triclabendazole as an appropriate public health measure to control morbidity associated with fascioliasis, a pilot intervention was implemented in 2008. Materials and Methods Schoolchildren from an endemic community were screened for fascioliasis and treated with a single administration of triclabendazole (10 mg/kg). Interviews to assess the occurrence of adverse events were conducted on treatment day, one week later, and one month after treatment. Further parasitological screenings were performed three months after treatment and again two months later (following a further treatment) in order to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Results Ninety infected children were administered triclabendazole. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. No serious adverse events were reported. Observed cure rates were 77.8% after one treatment and 97.8% after two treatments, while egg reduction rates ranged between 74% and 90.3% after one treatment, and between 84.2% and 99.9% after two treatments. The proportion of high-intensity infections (≥400 epg) decreased from 7.8% to 1.1% after one treatment and to 0% after two treatments. Conclusion Administration of triclabendazole is a feasible, safe and efficacious public health intervention in an endemic community in the Bolivian Altiplano, suggesting that preventive chemotherapy can be applied to control of fascioliasis. Further investigations are needed to define the most appropriate frequency of treatment. PMID:22880138

  5. Chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles loaded with paraquat herbicide: an environmentally safer alternative for weed control.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Renato; Pereira, Anderson E S; Nishisaka, Caroline S; de Lima, Renata; Oehlke, Kathleen; Greiner, Ralf; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2014-08-15

    Paraquat is a fast acting nonselective contact herbicide that is extensively used worldwide. However, the aqueous solubility and soil sorption of this compound can cause problems of toxicity in nontarget organisms. This work investigates the preparation and characterization of nanoparticles composed of chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to produce an efficient herbicidal formulation that was less toxic and could be used for safer control of weeds in agriculture. The toxicities of the formulations were evaluated using cell culture viability assays and the Allium cepa chromosome aberration test. The herbicidal activity was investigated in cultivations of maize (Zea mays) and mustard (Brassica sp.), and soil sorption of the nanoencapsulated herbicide was measured. The efficiency association of paraquat with the nanoparticles was 62.6 ± 0.7%. Encapsulation of the herbicide resulted in changes in its diffusion and release as well as its sorption by soil. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoencapsulated herbicide was less toxic than the pure compound, indicating its potential to control weeds while at the same time reducing environmental impacts. Measurements of herbicidal activity showed that the effectiveness of paraquat was preserved after encapsulation. It was concluded that the encapsulation of paraquat in nanoparticles can provide a useful means of reducing adverse impacts on human health and the environment, and that the formulation therefore has potential for use in agriculture. PMID:24968252

  6. A Comparative Study of Alternative Controls and Displays for by the Severely Physically Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.; Simpson, C.; Barker, M.

    1984-01-01

    A modification of a row/column scanning system was investigated in order to increase the speed and accuracy with which communication aids can be accessed with one or two switches. A selection algorithm was developed and programmed in BASIC to automatically select individuals with the characteristic difficulty in controlling time dependent control and display systems. Four systems were compared: (1) row/column directed scan (2 switches); (2) row/column auto scan (1 switch); (3) row auto scan (1 switch); and (4) column auto scan (1 switch). For this sample population, there were no significant differences among systems for scan time to select the correct target. The row/column auto scan system resulted in significantly more errors than any of the other three systems. Thus, the most widely prescribed system for severely physically disabled individuals turns out for this group to have a higher error rate and no faster communication rate than three other systems that have been considered inappropriate for this group.

  7. Characterizing cryogenic propellant flow behavior through a cavitating venturi in comparison to alternative flow control mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Marjorie Adele

    The work detailed is an investigation of the use of a cavitating venturi as both a flow control and metering device. This was achieved through the combination of actual experimentation and numerical modeling of the fluid behavior of both liquid water and liquid methane as it passes through the test article designed, developed, and validated here within this study. The discharge coefficient of the cavitating venturi was determined through weigh flow calibration testing to determine an average mass flow rate. Turbine flow meter flow rate readings were used as a point of comparison and the discharge coefficient was computed. The discharge coefficient was then implemented into the Bernoulli Equation along with experimental pressure and temperature data to again calculate mass flow rate through the cavitating venturi. The agreement of the venturi flow rate data to that of the turbine flow meter effectively established its applicability as a passive flow control and metering feature. A preliminary CFD cavitation model was developed and validated for cavitating water flow regimes using ANSYS FLUENT. Agreement between mass flow rates obtained from the model to experimental data for cavitating water flow indicates that deviations in results for liquid methane analysis from experimental results could simply be the result of insufficiently defined fluid characteristics in the ANSYS FLUENT materials database. SEM surface roughness analysis of a secondary test article indicated that the default average surface roughness for steel in ANSYS FLUENT was reasonable. In addition, the methodology could be further applied to future duty life studies for the cavitating venturi flow meter.

  8. Use of a computer-assisted administrative control to enhance criticality safety in LLNL for fissile material disposition operations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Song T.; Lappa, D.A.; Chiao, Tang

    1997-04-01

    This paper deals primarily with the use of a two-person rule on the mass limit control. Main emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of a computer program to assist operators in carrying out mass control. An attempt will be exercised to compare the use of a mass control card system under a two-person rule with a computer-assist two-person system. The interface points relevant to criticality safety between computer and human operators will be identified. Features that will make a computer program useful in a multiple workstation application environment will be discussed along with the merits of the using the computer program. How such a computer-assist administrative control may be incorporated in the overall infrastructure for criticality safety will be analyzed. Suggestion of future development of using a computer program to enhance safety margin will also be made to stimulate further discussion on the application of computer technology for real-time criticality safety control.

  9. Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-09-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/μg, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations.

  10. Morphine and codeine in oral fluid after controlled poppy seed administration.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-07-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programmes. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only two addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45 g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3.1 mg codeine, 8 h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (1 µg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n = 459) were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5 h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13 h at Draeger 20 µg/L morphine cut-off. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax ) were 177 and 32.6 µg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax ) of 0.5-1 h and 0.5-2.5 h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24 h for morphine and to 18 h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1 h with 40 µg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off, and 0.5 h with 95 µg/L cut-off, recently recommended by the Driving under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1 h after ingestion of 15.7 mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending on the cut-off employed. PMID:25345619

  11. Morphine and codeine in oral fluid after controlled poppy seed administration.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-07-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programmes. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only two addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45 g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3.1 mg codeine, 8 h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (1 µg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n = 459) were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5 h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13 h at Draeger 20 µg/L morphine cut-off. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax ) were 177 and 32.6 µg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax ) of 0.5-1 h and 0.5-2.5 h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24 h for morphine and to 18 h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1 h with 40 µg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off, and 0.5 h with 95 µg/L cut-off, recently recommended by the Driving under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1 h after ingestion of 15.7 mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending on the cut-off employed.

  12. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  13. Antigens and Alternatives for Control of Anaplasma marginale Infection in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kocan, Katherine M.; Fuente, José de la; Guglielmone, Alberto A.; Meléndez, Roy D.

    2003-01-01

    Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease causes considerable economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. Analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and surface proteins have resulted in the recent reclassification of the order Rickettsiales. The genus Anaplasma, of which A. marginale is the type species, now also includes A. bovis, A. platys, and A. phagocytophilum, which were previously known as Ehrlichia bovis, E. platys, and the E. phagocytophila group (which causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), respectively. Live and killed vaccines have been used for control of anaplasmosis, and both types of vaccines have advantages and disadvantages. These vaccines have been effective in preventing clinical anaplasmosis in cattle but have not blocked A. marginale infection. Thus, persistently infected cattle serve as a reservoir of infective blood for both mechanical transmission and infection of ticks. Advances in biochemical, immunologic, and molecular technologies during the last decade have been applied to research of A. marginale and related organisms. The recent development of a cell culture system for A. marginale provides a potential source of antigen for the development of improved killed and live vaccines, and the availability of cell culture-derived antigen would eliminate the use of cattle in vaccine production. Increased knowledge of A. marginale antigen repertoires and an improved understanding of bovine cellular and humoral immune responses to A. marginale, combined with the new technologies, should contribute to the development of more effective vaccines for control and prevention of anaplasmosis. PMID:14557295

  14. MYCN controls an alternative RNA splicing program in high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shile; Wei, Jun S; Li, Samuel Q; Badgett, Tom C; Song, Young K; Agarwal, Saurabh; Coarfa, Cristian; Tolman, Catherine; Hurd, Laura; Liao, Hongling; He, Jianbin; Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhihui; Thiele, Carol J; Westermann, Frank; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Seeger, Robert C; Maris, John M; Guidry Auvil, Jamie M; Smith, Malcolm A; Kolaczyk, Eric D; Shohet, Jason; Khan, Javed

    2016-02-28

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive behavior of MYCN driven neuroblastoma (NBL) is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the impact of this family of transcription factors on the splicing program. Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to systematically study the expression of RNA isoforms in stage 4 MYCN-amplified NBL, an aggressive subtype of metastatic NBL. We show that MYCN-amplified NBL tumors display a distinct gene splicing pattern affecting multiple cancer hallmark functions. Six splicing factors displayed unique differential expression patterns in MYCN-amplified tumors and cell lines, and the binding motifs for some of these splicing factors are significantly enriched in differentially-spliced genes. Direct binding of MYCN to promoter regions of the splicing factors PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 detected by ChIP-seq demonstrates that MYCN controls the splicing pattern by direct regulation of the expression of these key splicing factors. Furthermore, high expression of PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of stage4 NBL patients (p ≤ 0.05). Knocking down PTBP1, HNRNPA1 and their downstream target PKM2, an isoform of pro-tumor-growth, result in repressed growth of NBL cells. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role of MYCN in controlling global splicing program through regulation of splicing factors in addition to its well-known role in the transcription program. These findings suggest a therapeutically potential to target the key splicing factors or gene isoforms in high-risk NBL with MYCN-amplification.

  15. Does Perceived Control Predict Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use Among Patients with Lung Cancer? A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bauml, Joshua; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey; Garland, Sheila N.; Desai, Krupali; Mao, Jun J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Scant literature exists on the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among patients with lung cancer. Preliminary data indicates that perceived control is an important factor leading patients to CAM. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between perceived control and CAM use in patients with lung cancer. Methods We performed a cross sectional survey in patients with lung cancer under active treatment and follow-up at the oncology clinic of an academic medical center. Self-reported CAM use was the primary outcome. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the relationship between perceived control and CAM use, controlling for other factors. Results Among 296 participants. 54.4% were female, 83.5% Caucasian, 57.6% ≤65 years old, 52.4% stage IV and 86.4% had Non-small cell lung cancer. 50.9% of patients had used CAM, most commonly vitamins (31.5%), herbs (19.3%), relaxation techniques (16%) and special diets (15.7%). In multivariate analysis, CAM use was associated with having greater perceived control over the cause of cancer (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.27, 95% CI 1.35–3.80), age ≤65 (AOR 1.64, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01–2.67), higher education (AOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.29–3.64), and never having smoked tobacco (AOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.25–4.54). Nearly 60% of patients who used CAM were receiving active treatment. Conclusion Over half of lung cancer patients have used CAM since diagnosis. Greater perceived control over the cause of cancer was associated with CAM use. Given the high prevalence of CAM, it is essential that oncologists caring for patients with lung cancer discuss its use. PMID:24715092

  16. Rheostat Re-Wired: Alternative Hypotheses for the Control of Thioredoxin Reduction Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, Kathryn D.; Dey, Mishtu; Bjork, Rebekah E.; Mitra, Sangha; Chobot, Sarah E.; Drennan, Catherine L.; Elliott, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxins are small soluble proteins that contain a redox-active disulfide (CXXC). These disulfides are tuned to oxidizing or reducing potentials depending on the function of the thioredoxin within the cell. The mechanism by which the potential is tuned has been controversial, with two main hypotheses: first, that redox potential (Em) is specifically governed by a molecular ‘rheostat’—the XX amino acids, which influence the Cys pKa values, and thereby, Em; and second, the overall thermodynamics of protein folding stability regulates the potential. Here, we use protein film voltammetry (PFV) to measure the pH dependence of the redox potentials of a series of wild-type and mutant archaeal Trxs, PFV and glutathionine-equilibrium to corroborate the measured potentials, the fluorescence probe BADAN to measure pKa values, guanidinium-based denaturation to measure protein unfolding, and X-ray crystallography to provide a structural basis for our functional analyses. We find that when these archaeal thioredoxins are probed directly using PFV, both the high and low potential thioredoxins display consistent 2H+:2e- coupling over a physiological pH range, in conflict with the conventional ‘rheostat’ model. Instead, folding measurements reveals an excellent correlation to reduction potentials, supporting the second hypothesis and revealing the molecular mechanism of reduction potential control in the ubiquitous Trx family. PMID:25874934

  17. Beyond Traditional RAFT: Alternative Activation of Thiocarbonylthio Compounds for Controlled Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Thomas G.; Fu, Qiang; Uchiyama, Mineto; Satoh, Kotaro; Xu, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in polymerization reactions utilizing thiocarbonylthio compounds have highlighted the surprising versatility of these unique molecules. The increasing popularity of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization as a means of producing well‐defined, ‘controlled’ synthetic polymers is largely due to its simplicity of implementation and the availability of a wide range of compatible reagents. However, novel modes of thiocarbonylthio activation can expand the technique beyond the traditional system (i.e., employing a free radical initiator) pushing the applicability and use of thiocarbonylthio compounds even further than previously assumed. The primary advances seen in recent years are a revival in the direct photoactivation of thiocarbonylthio compounds, their activation via photoredox catalysis, and their use in cationic polymerizations. These synthetic approaches and their implications for the synthesis of controlled polymers represent a significant advance in polymer science, with potentially unforeseen benefits and possibilities for further developments still ahead. This Research News aims to highlight key works in this area while also clarifying the differences and similarities of each system. PMID:27711266

  18. Beyond Traditional RAFT: Alternative Activation of Thiocarbonylthio Compounds for Controlled Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Thomas G.; Fu, Qiang; Uchiyama, Mineto; Satoh, Kotaro; Xu, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in polymerization reactions utilizing thiocarbonylthio compounds have highlighted the surprising versatility of these unique molecules. The increasing popularity of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization as a means of producing well‐defined, ‘controlled’ synthetic polymers is largely due to its simplicity of implementation and the availability of a wide range of compatible reagents. However, novel modes of thiocarbonylthio activation can expand the technique beyond the traditional system (i.e., employing a free radical initiator) pushing the applicability and use of thiocarbonylthio compounds even further than previously assumed. The primary advances seen in recent years are a revival in the direct photoactivation of thiocarbonylthio compounds, their activation via photoredox catalysis, and their use in cationic polymerizations. These synthetic approaches and their implications for the synthesis of controlled polymers represent a significant advance in polymer science, with potentially unforeseen benefits and possibilities for further developments still ahead. This Research News aims to highlight key works in this area while also clarifying the differences and similarities of each system.

  19. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, J.G.; Vilala, J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  20. Conserved functional antagonism of CELF and MBNL proteins controls stem cell-specific alternative splicing in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Solana, Jordi; Irimia, Manuel; Ayoub, Salah; Orejuela, Marta Rodriguez; Zywitza, Vera; Jens, Marvin; Tapial, Javier; Ray, Debashish; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy R; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to transcriptional regulation, the function of alternative splicing (AS) in stem cells is poorly understood. In mammals, MBNL proteins negatively regulate an exon program specific of embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the in vivo significance of this regulation. We studied AS in a powerful in vivo model for stem cell biology, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We discover a conserved AS program comprising hundreds of alternative exons, microexons and introns that is differentially regulated in planarian stem cells, and comprehensively identify its regulators. We show that functional antagonism between CELF and MBNL factors directly controls stem cell-specific AS in planarians, placing the origin of this regulatory mechanism at the base of Bilaterians. Knockdown of CELF or MBNL factors lead to abnormal regenerative capacities by affecting self-renewal and differentiation sets of genes, respectively. These results highlight the importance of AS interactions in stem cell regulation across metazoans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16797.001 PMID:27502555

  1. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug..., Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, rm. 4613, Silver Spring, MD...

  2. Alternate RASSF1 Transcripts Control SRC Activity, E-Cadherin Contacts, and YAP-Mediated Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Vlahov, Nikola; Scrace, Simon; Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Grawenda, Anna M.; Bradley, Leanne; Pankova, Daniela; Papaspyropoulos, Angelos; Yee, Karen S.; Buffa, Francesca; Goding, Colin R.; Timpson, Paul; Sibson, Nicola; O’Neill, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumor progression to invasive carcinoma is associated with activation of SRC family kinase (SRC, YES, FYN) activity and loss of cellular cohesion. The hippo pathway-regulated cofactor YAP1 supports the tumorigenicity of RAS mutations but requires both inactivation of hippo signaling and YES-mediated phosphorylation of YAP1 for oncogenic activity. Exactly how SRC kinases are activated and hippo signaling is lost in sporadic human malignancies remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that hippo-mediated inhibition of YAP1 is lost upon promoter methylation of the RAS effector and hippo kinase scaffold RASSF1A. We find that RASSF1A promoter methylation reduces YAP phospho-S127, which derepresses YAP1, and actively supports YAP1 activation by switching RASSF1 transcription to the independently transcribed RASSF1C isoform that promotes Tyr kinase activity. Using affinity proteomics, proximity ligation, and real-time molecular visualization, we find that RASSF1C targets SRC/YES to epithelial cell-cell junctions and promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and YAP1. RASSF1A restricts SRC activity, preventing motility, invasion, and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo, with epigenetic inactivation correlating with increased inhibitory pY527-SRC in breast tumors. These data imply that distinct RASSF1 isoforms have opposing functions, which provide a biomarker for YAP1 activation and explain correlations of RASSF1 methylation with advanced invasive disease in humans. The ablation of epithelial integrity together with subsequent YAP1 nuclear localization allows transcriptional activation of β-catenin/TBX-YAP/TEAD target genes, including Myc, and an invasive phenotype. These findings define gene transcript switching as a tumor suppressor mechanism under epigenetic control. PMID:26549256

  3. Limitations of amorphous content quantification by isothermal calorimetry using saturated salt solutions to control relative humidity: alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Khalef, Nawel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bakri, Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of isothermal calorimetry (IC), reported measurements of amorphous content by this technique show significant variability even for the same compound. An investigation into the reasons behind such variability is presented using amorphous lactose and salbutamol sulfate as model compounds. An analysis was carried out on the heat evolved as a result of the exchange of water vapor between the solid sample during crystallization and the saline solution reservoir. The use of saturated salt solutions as means of control of the vapor pressure of water within sealed ampoules bears inherent limitations that lead in turn to the variability associated with the IC technique. We present an alternative IC method, based on an open cell configuration that effectively addresses the limitations encountered with the sealed ampoule system. The proposed approach yields an integral whose value is proportional to the amorphous content in the sample, thus enabling reliable and consistent quantifications. PMID:19774655

  4. Remote-Controlled DNA Release from Fe3O4@Au Nanoparticles Using an Alternating Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zong, Shenfei; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Dan; Zhong, Yuan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrated a remote-controlled DNA release strategy, in which irradiation of nanoparticles with an alternating electromagnetic field (AMF) results in DNA release on demand. The method we developed used 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled diblock DNA to modify Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (NPs) through the affinity of adenine with the surfaces of the NPs. The DNA release was confirmed by zeta potential measurement, surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the DNA was released into the surrounding medium under irradiation with an AMF at a frequency of 20-25 kHz. The DNA release was efficient (60%-70%), and externally controllable by tuning various parameters, such as the sequences length of the diblock DNA, the pH value of environmental solutions, and the power and the time of AMF irradiation. Furthermore, the AMF-triggered DNA release was successfully performed in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells, demonstrating the system's ability to maintain the release behavior in vitro. This remote-controlled DNA release method presents a new application for DNA-modified NPs in targeted therapies. PMID:26353587

  5. A proposal for an alternative quality control test procedure for inactivated vaccines against food-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Molin-Capeti, K C; Sepulveda, L; Terra, F; Torres-Pioli, M F; Costa-Casagrande, T; França, S C; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2013-02-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control in Brazil includes a strict mandatory vaccination program with vaccines produced in certified laboratories subject to inspection by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (MAPA). The FMD vaccine's potency is tested through antibodies titration against structural viral proteins in sera from cattle that have not had any exposure to food-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), at 28 days post-vaccination. Biological product testing using large animals is expensive and unwieldy. Thus, alternative testing procedures using laboratory animals have been proposed for quality control of these products. Such biological methods for vaccine evaluation using animals from vivarium facilities can have a significant impact through reduced costs, easier handling, and shorter testing times. The present study was designed to access Balb/C mice's humoral immune responses to a FMDV experimental vaccine, the composition of which contains three virus serotypes of FMDV (O1 Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, and C3 Indaial). Balb/C mice were immunized at doses that were 5% and 10% of the vaccine volume administered in cattle. Immunized mice had their antibody titers probed at 14, 21, and 28 DPV (days post vaccination). The results obtained were compared to those previously known from cattle's immune responses to the FMDV vaccine. An adequate immune response to the vaccine was seen with 10% formulation at 21 DPV. The study results are encouraging and indicate that the mouse model can be used for quality control in experimental vaccine testing.

  6. Remote-Controlled DNA Release from Fe3O4@Au Nanoparticles Using an Alternating Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zong, Shenfei; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Dan; Zhong, Yuan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrated a remote-controlled DNA release strategy, in which irradiation of nanoparticles with an alternating electromagnetic field (AMF) results in DNA release on demand. The method we developed used 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled diblock DNA to modify Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (NPs) through the affinity of adenine with the surfaces of the NPs. The DNA release was confirmed by zeta potential measurement, surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the DNA was released into the surrounding medium under irradiation with an AMF at a frequency of 20-25 kHz. The DNA release was efficient (60%-70%), and externally controllable by tuning various parameters, such as the sequences length of the diblock DNA, the pH value of environmental solutions, and the power and the time of AMF irradiation. Furthermore, the AMF-triggered DNA release was successfully performed in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells, demonstrating the system's ability to maintain the release behavior in vitro. This remote-controlled DNA release method presents a new application for DNA-modified NPs in targeted therapies.

  7. Chemical Ecology of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Potential for Alternative Control Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sablon, Ludovic; Dickens, Joseph C.; Haubruge, Éric; Verheggen, François J.

    2012-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely used approaches, although alternative methods are being developed. Here we review the role of various volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in behavior changes of CPB that may have potential for their control. First, we describe all volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in host plant localization and acceptance by CPB beetles, including glycoalcaloids and host plant volatiles used as kairomones. In the second section, we present the chemical signals used by CPB in intraspecific communication, including sex and aggregation pheromones. Some of these chemicals are used by natural enemies of CPBs to locate their prey and are presented in the third section. The last section of this review is devoted a discussion of the potential of some natural chemicals in biological control of CPB and to approaches that already reached efficient field applications. PMID:26466794

  8. Chemical Ecology of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Potential for Alternative Control Methods.

    PubMed

    Sablon, Ludovic; Dickens, Joseph C; Haubruge, Éric; Verheggen, François J

    2012-12-20

    The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely used approaches, although alternative methods are being developed. Here we review the role of various volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in behavior changes of CPB that may have potential for their control. First, we describe all volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in host plant localization and acceptance by CPB beetles, including glycoalcaloids and host plant volatiles used as kairomones. In the second section, we present the chemical signals used by CPB in intraspecific communication, including sex and aggregation pheromones. Some of these chemicals are used by natural enemies of CPBs to locate their prey and are presented in the third section. The last section of this review is devoted a discussion of the potential of some natural chemicals in biological control of CPB and to approaches that already reached efficient field applications.

  9. Potential control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 asp expression by alternative splicing in the upstream untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Michael S; Birch, Katherine E; Deacon, Nicholas J; Mosse, Jennifer A

    2012-07-01

    The negative-sense asp open reading frame (ORF) positioned opposite to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env gene encodes the 189 amino acid, membrane-associated ASP protein. Negative-sense transcription, regulated by long terminal repeat sequences, has been observed early in HIV-1 infection in vitro. All subtypes of HIV-1 were scanned to detect the negative-sense asp ORF and to identify potential regulatory sequences. A series of highly conserved upstream short open reading frames (sORFs) was identified. This potential control region from HIV-1(NL4-3), containing six sORFs, was cloned upstream of the reporter gene EGFP. Expression by transfection of HEK293 cells indicated that the introduction of this sORF region inhibits EGFP reporter expression; analysis of transcripts revealed no significant changes in levels of EGFP mRNA. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR) further demonstrated that the upstream sORF region undergoes alternative splicing in vitro. The most abundant product is spliced to remove sORFs I to V, leaving only the in-frame sORF VI upstream of asp. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of typical splice donor- and acceptor-site motifs. Mutation of the highly conserved splice donor and acceptor sites modulates, but does not fully relieve, inhibition of EGFP production. The strong conservation of asp and its sORFs across all HIV-1 subtypes suggests that the asp gene product may have a role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. Alternative splicing of the upstream sORF region provides a potential mechanism for controlling expression of the asp gene.

  10. IPTAKALIM ATTENUATES SELF-ADMINISTRATION AND ACQUIRED GOAL-TRACKING BEHAVIOR CONTROLLED BY NICOTINE

    PubMed Central

    Charntikov, S.; Swalve, N.; Pittenger, S.; Fink, K.; Schepers, S.; Hadlock, G. C.; Fleckenstein, A. E.; Hu, G.; Li, M.; Bevins, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Iptakalim is an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, as well as an α4β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist. Pretreatment with iptakalim diminishes nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens. This neuropharmacological profile suggests that iptakalim may be useful for treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, we examined the effects of iptakalim in two preclinical models. First, the impact of iptakalim on the interoceptive stimulus effect of nicotine was evaluated by training rats in a discriminated goal-tracking task that included intermixed nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) and saline sessions. Sucrose was intermittently presented in a response-independent manner only on nicotine sessions. On intervening test days, rats were pretreated with iptakalim (10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IP). Results revealed that iptakalim attenuated nicotine-evoked responding controlled by the nicotine stimulus in a dose-dependent manner. In a separate study, the impact of iptakalim on the reinforcing effects of nicotine was investigated by training rats to lever-press to self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion). Results revealed that pretreatment with iptakalim (1, 3, 6 mg/kg, IV) decreased nicotine intake (i.e., less active lever responding). Neither behavioral effect was due to a non-specific motor effect of iptakalim, nor to an ability of iptakalim to inhibit DA transporter (DAT) or serotonin transporter (SERT) function. Together, these finding support the notion that iptakalim may be an effective pharmacotherapy for increasing smoking cessation and better understanding its action could contribute medication development. PMID:23916479

  11. Iptakalim attenuates self-administration and acquired goal-tracking behavior controlled by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Charntikov, S; Swalve, N; Pittenger, S; Fink, K; Schepers, S; Hadlock, G C; Fleckenstein, A E; Hu, G; Li, M; Bevins, R A

    2013-12-01

    Iptakalim is an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, as well as an α4β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist. Pretreatment with iptakalim diminishes nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens. This neuropharmacological profile suggests that iptakalim may be useful for treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, we examined the effects of iptakalim in two preclinical models. First, the impact of iptakalim on the interoceptive stimulus effect of nicotine was evaluated by training rats in a discriminated goal-tracking task that included intermixed nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, SC) and saline sessions. Sucrose was intermittently presented in a response-independent manner only on nicotine sessions. On intervening test days, rats were pretreated with iptakalim (10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IP). Results revealed that iptakalim attenuated nicotine-evoked responding controlled by the nicotine stimulus in a dose-dependent manner. In a separate study, the impact of iptakalim on the reinforcing effects of nicotine was investigated by training rats to lever-press to self-administer nicotine (0.01 mg/kg/infusion) [Dosage error corrected]. Results revealed that pretreatment with iptakalim (1, 3, 6 mg/kg, IV) decreased nicotine intake (i.e., less active lever responding). Neither behavioral effect was due to a non-specific motor effect of iptakalim, nor to an ability of iptakalim to inhibit DA transporter (DAT) or serotonin transporter (SERT) function. Together, these finding support the notion that iptakalim may be an effective pharmacotherapy for increasing smoking cessation and a better understanding of its action could contribute to medication development.

  12. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics following Controlled Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Oromucosal Cannabis Extract Administration

    PubMed Central

    Karschner, Erin L.; Darwin, W. David; Goodwin, Robert S.; Wright, Stephen; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sativex®, a cannabis extract oromucosal spray containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is currently in phase III trials as an adjunct to opioids for cancer pain treatment, and recently received United Kingdom approval for treatment of spasticity. There are indications that CBD modulates THC’s effects, but it is unclear if this is due to a pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction. METHODS Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board–approved study. Participants received 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low-dose (5.4 mg THC and 5.0 mg CBD) and high-dose (16.2 mg THC and 15.0 mg CBD) Sativex, and placebo over 5 sessions. CBD, THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in plasma by 2-dimensional GC-MS. Lower limits of quantification were ≤0.25 μg/L. RESULTS Nine cannabis smokers completed all 5 dosing sessions. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) and areas under the curve from 0–10.5 h postdose (AUC0→10.5) for all analytes were found between low and high doses of synthetic THC and Sativex. There were no statistically significant differences in Cmax, time to maximum concentration or in the AUC0→10.5 between similar oral THC and Sativex doses. Relative bioavailability was calculated to determine the relative rate and extent of THC absorption; 5 and 15 mg oral THC bioavailability was 92.6% (13.1%) and 98.8% (11.0%) of low- and high-dose Sativex, respectively. CONCLUSION These data suggest that CBD modulation of THC’s effects is not due to a pharmacokinetic interaction at these therapeutic doses. PMID:21078841

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Although NASA is currently considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain without a top-level roadmap to serve as a guide. This paper documents the process and results of an effort to define a roadmap for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) as well as enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro-gravity mission; 2) a long duration microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration partial gravity (surface) exploration mission. To organize the effort, a functional decomposition of ECLSS was completed starting with the three primary functions: atmosphere, water, and solid waste management. Each was further decomposed into sub-functions to the point that current state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies could be tied to the sub-function. Each technology was then assessed by NASA subject matter experts as to its ability to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types. When SOA capabilities were deemed to fall short of meeting the needs of one or more mission types, those gaps were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The result was a list of enabling and enhancing capability needs that can be used to guide future ECLSS development, as well as a list of existing hardware that is ready to go for exploration-class missions. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies intended to meet exploration needs

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Robert

    2011-01-01

    At present, NASA has considered a number of future human space exploration mission concepts . Yet, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain without a top-level roadmap to serve as a guide. This paper documents a roadmap for development of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) as well as enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro gravity mission; 2) a long duration transit microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration surface exploration mission. To organize the effort, ECLSS was categorized into three major functional groups (atmosphere, water, and solid waste management) with each broken down into sub-functions. The ability of existing state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types was then assessed by NASA subject matter experts. When SOA capabilities were deemed to fall short of meeting the needs of one or more mission types, those gaps were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The result was a list of enabling and enhancing capabilities needs that can be used to guide future ECLSS development, as well as a list of existing hardware that is ready to go for exploration-class missions. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies intended to meet exploration needs will, in many cases, directly benefit the ISS operational capability, benefit the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), and guide long-term technology

  15. Chiral Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its Phase I and II Metabolites following Controlled Administration to Humans.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Schmidhauser, Corina; Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Liechti, Matthias E; Kraemer, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Generally, pharmacokinetic studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in blood have been performed after conjugate cleavage, without taking into account that phase II metabolites represent distinct chemical entities with their own effects and stereoselective pharmacokinetics. The aim of the present study was to stereoselectively investigate the pharmacokinetics of intact glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of MDMA in blood plasma after a controlled single MDMA dose. Plasma samples from 16 healthy participants receiving 125 mg of MDMA orally in a controlled study were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy after chiral derivatization. Pharmacokinetic parameters of R- and S-stereoisomers were determined. Sulfates of 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA), and sulfate and glucuronide of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) were identified, whereas free phase I metabolites were not detected. Stereoselective differences in Cmax and AUC24 were observed with the following preferences: R>S for MDMA and DHMA 4-sulfate; S>R for 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), DHMA 3-sulfate, and HMMA glucuronide; and no preference in Cmax for HMMA sulfate. R/S ratios were >1 for all analytes after 24 hours, independent of the initial chiral preference. These are the first data on chiral pharmacokinetics of MDMA phase II metabolites in human plasma in vivo after controlled administration. The main human MDMA metabolites were shown to be sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. PMID:26395866

  16. The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available. PMID:22022632

  17. Effect of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids Administration on Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood. Studies have indicated nutritional deficiencies, particularly Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) deficiency in these children and have suggested supplementation with PUFA for clinical improvement. Aim The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of PUFA administration in Indian children with ADHD. Settings and Design The study was conducted in the paediatrics and psychiatry departments of a tertiary care hospital. We conducted a prospective double blind randomized control trial on children aged 4-11 years, diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV TR criterias and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and lifetime version. Materials and Methods The study subjects were randomized into study and control groups. The control group was administered Atomoxetine, while the study group received Atomoxetine along with Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Both groups were followed up every 2 weeks over the next 4 months using Conner’s Parent Rating Scale - Revised (CPRS-R). Statistical Analysis The data was carefully analysed by SPSS (17th version) software with the help of a statistician. Confidence interval of 95% was used. The complete data was analysed using appropriate parametric and non parametric tests. Correlation was done between various socio-demographic and illness related parameters. For all analyses, probability of 5% or less was assumed to represent statistical significance. Results Fifty children diagnosed with ADHD were randomized to study group (n=25) and control group (n=25). The study group had greater reduction in ADHD scores as compared to the control group, although not statistically significant (p = 0.08). Improvement was more significant in male study subjects with combined type of ADHD. Conclusion It may be concluded that PUFA supplementation improves the symptoms of ADHD. However, the effect is not

  18. 40 CFR 85.2208 - Alternative standards and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance... process, as set forth in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and S, a manufacturer may request an alternative short... rulemaking. The administrative provisions of the certification process (see 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and...

  19. 40 CFR 85.2208 - Alternative standards and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance... process, as set forth in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and S, a manufacturer may request an alternative short... rulemaking. The administrative provisions of the certification process (see 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and...

  20. 40 CFR 85.2208 - Alternative standards and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance... process, as set forth in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and S, a manufacturer may request an alternative short... rulemaking. The administrative provisions of the certification process (see 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and...

  1. Quantification of cocaine and metabolites in exhaled breath by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry following controlled administration of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Beck, Olof; Gorelick, David A; Pirard, Sandrine; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-10-01

    Breath has been investigated as an alternative matrix for detecting recent cocaine intake; however, there are no controlled cocaine administration studies that investigated the drug's disposition into breath. Breath was collected from 10 healthy adult cocaine users by asking them to breathe into a SensAbues device for 3 min before and up to 22 h following 25 mg intravenous (IV) cocaine dosing on days 1, 5, and 10, and assayed with a validated liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method to quantify breath cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and norcocaine. The assay was linear from 25 to 1,000 pg/filter, extraction efficiencies were 83.6-126%, intra- and inter-assay imprecision was <10.6%, and bias was between -8.5 and 16.8%. No endogenous or exogenous interferences were observed for more than 75 tested. Analytes were generally stable under short-term storage conditions. Ion suppression was less than 46%. Of breath specimens collected after controlled cocaine administration, 2.6% were positive for cocaine (26.1-66 pg/filter, 1-9.5 h), 0.72% BE (83.3-151 pg/filter, 6.5-12.5 h), and 0.72% EME (50-69.1 pg/filter, 6.5-12.5 h); norcocaine was not detected. Methanolic extraction of the devices themselves, after filters were removed, yielded 19.2% positive cocaine tests (25.2-36.4 pg/device, 10 min-22 h) and 4.3% positive BE tests (26.4-93.7 pg/device, 10 min-22 h), explaining differences between the two extraction techniques. These results suggest that the device reflects the drug in oral fluid as well as lung microparticles, while the filter reflects only drug-laden microparticles. A sensitive and specific method for cocaine, BE, EME, and norcocaine quantification in breath was developed and validated. Cocaine in breath identifies recent cocaine ingestion, but its absence does not preclude recent use.

  2. Effects of flood control alternatives on fish and wildlife resources of the Malheur-Harney lakes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Malheur Lake is the largest freshwater marsh in the western contiguous United States and is one of the main management units of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Oregon. The marsh provides excellent waterfowl production habitat as well as vital migration habitats for birds in the Pacific flyway. Water shortages have typically been a problem in this semiarid area; however, record snowfalls and cool summers have recently caused Malheur Lake to rise to its highest level in recorded history. This has resulted in the loss of approximately 57,000 acres of important wildlife habitat as well as extensive flooding of local ranches, roads, and railroad lines. Because of the importance of the Refuge, any water management plan for the Malheur-Harney Lakes Basin needs to consider the impact of management alternatives on the hydrology of Malheur Lake. The facilitated modeling workshop described in this report was conducted January 14-18, 1985, under the joint sponsorship of the Portland Ecological Services Field Office and the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Region 1, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The Portland Field Office is responsible for FWS reporting requirements on Federal water resource projects while the Refuge staff has management responsibility for much of the land affected by high water levels in the Malheur-Harney Lakes Basin. The primary objective of the workshop was to begin gathering and analyzing information concerning potential fish and wildlife impacts, needs, and opportunities associated with proposed U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) flood control alternatives for Malheur Lake. The workshop was structured around the formulation of a computer model that would simulate the hydrologic effects of the various alternatives and any concommitant changes in vegetation communities and wildlife use patterns. The simulation model is composed of three connected submodels. The Hydrology submodel calculates changes in lake volume, elevation

  3. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance. PMID:26470374

  4. Alternating irrigation water quality as a method to control solute concentrations and mass fluxes below irrigated fields: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, David

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present numerical study was to extend the data-driven protocol for the control of soil salinity, to control chloride and nitrate concentrations and mass fluxes below agricultural fields irrigated with treated waste water (TWW). The protocol is based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water (DSW), guided by solute concentrations at soil depth, zs. Two different schemes, the first requires measurements of soil solution concentrations of chloride and nitrate at zs, while, the second scheme requires only measurements of soil solution EC at zs, were investigated. For this purpose, 3-D numerical simulations of flow and transport were performed for variably saturated, spatially heterogeneous, flow domains located at two different field sites. The sites differ in crop type, irrigation method, and in their lithology; these differences, in turn, considerably affect the performance of the proposed schemes, expressed in terms of their ability to reduce solute concentrations that drained below the root zone. Results of the analyses suggest that the proposed data-driven schemes allow the use of low-quality water for irrigation, while minimizing the consumption of high-quality water to a level, which, for given climate, soil, crop, irrigation method, and water quality, may be determined by the allowable nitrate and chloride concentrations in the groundwater. The results of the present study indicate that with respect to the diminution of groundwater contamination by chloride and nitrate, the more data demanding, first scheme is superior the second scheme.

  5. Regulation of mRNA Abundance by Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein-Controlled Alternate 5′ Splice Site Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Fursham M.; Makeyev, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) provides a potent mechanism for increasing protein diversity and modulating gene expression levels. How alternate splice sites are selected by the splicing machinery and how AS is integrated into gene regulation networks remain important questions of eukaryotic biology. Here we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (Ptbp1/PTB/hnRNP-I) controls alternate 5′ and 3′ splice site (5′ss and 3′ss) usage in a large set of mammalian transcripts. A top scoring event identified by our analysis was the choice between competing upstream and downstream 5′ss (u5′ss and d5′ss) in the exon 18 of the Hps1 gene. Hps1 is essential for proper biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and loss of its function leads to a disease called type 1 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS). We show that Ptbp1 promotes preferential utilization of the u5′ss giving rise to stable mRNAs encoding a full-length Hps1 protein, whereas bias towards d5′ss triggered by Ptbp1 down-regulation generates transcripts susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We further demonstrate that Ptbp1 binds to pyrimidine-rich sequences between the u5′ss and d5′ss and activates the former site rather than repressing the latter. Consistent with this mechanism, u5′ss is intrinsically weaker than d5′ss, with a similar tendency observed for other genes with Ptbp1-induced u5′ss bias. Interestingly, the brain-enriched Ptbp1 paralog Ptbp2/nPTB/brPTB stimulated the u5′ss utilization but with a considerably lower efficiency than Ptbp1. This may account for the tight correlation between Hps1 with Ptbp1 expression levels observed across mammalian tissues. More generally, these data expand our understanding of AS regulation and uncover a post-transcriptional strategy ensuring co-expression of a subordinate gene with its master regulator through an AS-NMD tracking mechanism. PMID:25375251

  6. Central coordination as an alternative for local coordination in a multicenter randomized controlled trial: the FAITH trial experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgeons in the Netherlands, Canada and the US participate in the FAITH trial (Fixation using Alternative Implants for the Treatment of Hip fractures). Dutch sites are managed and visited by a financed central trial coordinator, whereas most Canadian and US sites have local study coordinators and receive per patient payment. This study was aimed to assess how these different trial management strategies affected trial performance. Methods Details related to obtaining ethics approval, time to trial start-up, inclusion, and percentage completed follow-ups were collected for each trial site and compared. Pre-trial screening data were compared with actual inclusion rates. Results Median trial start-up ranged from 41 days (P25-P75 10-139) in the Netherlands to 232 days (P25-P75 98-423) in Canada (p = 0.027). The inclusion rate was highest in the Netherlands; median 1.03 patients (P25-P75 0.43-2.21) per site per month, representing 34.4% of the total eligible population. It was lowest in Canada; 0.14 inclusions (P25-P75 0.00-0.28), representing 3.9% of eligible patients (p < 0.001). The percentage completed follow-ups was 83% for Canadian and Dutch sites and 70% for US sites (p = 0.217). Conclusions In this trial, a central financed trial coordinator to manage all trial related tasks in participating sites resulted in better trial progression and a similar follow-up. It is therefore a suitable alternative for appointing these tasks to local research assistants. The central coordinator approach can enable smaller regional hospitals to participate in multicenter randomized controlled trials. Circumstances such as available budget, sample size, and geographical area should however be taken into account when choosing a management strategy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00761813 PMID:22225733

  7. Comparison of Incidence of hypoxia during modified rapid sequence induction and an alternative technique: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ji; Li, Xing-Huan; Zuo, Yun-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the effects and safety of an alternative technique for rapid sequence intubation in children predicting to have high risk of pulmonary aspiration in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods: One hundred sixty-five children predicting to have high risk of pulmonary aspiration were randomly allocated to spontaneous breathing maintained induction and intubation group (Group S) and the modified rapid sequence group (Group C). The primary outcome was the incidence of hypoxemia around the intubation period, which was defined as SpO2<90% at any time during the induction and 10 min after the endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of pulmonary aspiration, gastroesophageal reflux and other major adverse events associated with the induction and intubation. Results: There were no differences in the incidence of hypoxemia around the intubation period between Group C and Group S; 25.9% vs. 14.8% (P=0.079). The incidence of severe hypoxemia appeared higher in Group C than Group S but not statistical significance, 6.2% vs. 2.5% (P=0.246). Simultaneously, gastroesophageal reflux (upper esophageal pH≤4) was detected in 4.93% children in Group C and 2.47% in group S, which was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.552). There were no witnessed aspirations in all subjects. Conclusion: Sevoflurane based deep sedation with spontaneous respiration maintained technique is not superior to modified rapid sequence induction but can be an alternative technique for anesthesia induction for those predicting to have high risk of aspiration in children. PMID:26629138

  8. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Manufacturers, International and Consumer Assistance, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and...

  9. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Administration (FDA) is correcting a notice that appeared in the Federal Register of April 25, 2011 (76 FR...

  10. [Effects of nitrogen forms on the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato under controlled alternate partial root zone irrigation].

    PubMed

    Zhang Qiang; Xu, Fei; Wang, Rong-fu; Shu, Liang-zuo; Liu, Rui; Zhang, De-yu

    2014-12-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) forms (ammonium-N and nitrate-N) on the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato plants (cv. Zhongyan 988) under controlled alternate partial root zone irrigation (APRI) were examined in a split-root experiment. Under the same irrigation mode and/or controlled soil water limitation treatment, ammonium-N promoted plant growth at the early stage, while nitrate-N improved plant growth and development at the later stage leading to higher biomass accumulation and fruit yield at harvest. Under APRI and the same soil water conditions, plants of the nitrate-N treatment improved the content of vitamin C and the ratio of soluble sugar to organic acid and thus facilitated fruit quality when compared with those of the ammonium-N treatment. Plant height and leaf area under APRI treatment were lower compared with conventional irrigation (CK) under the same N form, but the stem diameter under APRI treatment with 60% theta(f) (field water capacity, theta(f)) soil moisture showed a slight increase at the late growth stage. Under the same N form, fruit yield was significantly lower in APRI treatment than that of the CK. Compared with the CK, fruit yield decreased by 22.4%-26.3% under the APRI treatment with 40% theta(f) soil moisture. Under 60% theta(f) soil moisture, the APRI treatment significantly improved fruit quality and water-use efficiency compared with the CK regardless small reduction (5.3%-5.4%) in fruit yield. The experimental results suggested that the APRI treatment with the lower limitation of soil moisture controlled at 60% theta(f), and nitrate-N supply would be the optimal option in terms of sustainable use of water resource and fertilizer.

  11. [Effects of nitrogen forms on the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato under controlled alternate partial root zone irrigation].

    PubMed

    Zhang Qiang; Xu, Fei; Wang, Rong-fu; Shu, Liang-zuo; Liu, Rui; Zhang, De-yu

    2014-12-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) forms (ammonium-N and nitrate-N) on the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato plants (cv. Zhongyan 988) under controlled alternate partial root zone irrigation (APRI) were examined in a split-root experiment. Under the same irrigation mode and/or controlled soil water limitation treatment, ammonium-N promoted plant growth at the early stage, while nitrate-N improved plant growth and development at the later stage leading to higher biomass accumulation and fruit yield at harvest. Under APRI and the same soil water conditions, plants of the nitrate-N treatment improved the content of vitamin C and the ratio of soluble sugar to organic acid and thus facilitated fruit quality when compared with those of the ammonium-N treatment. Plant height and leaf area under APRI treatment were lower compared with conventional irrigation (CK) under the same N form, but the stem diameter under APRI treatment with 60% theta(f) (field water capacity, theta(f)) soil moisture showed a slight increase at the late growth stage. Under the same N form, fruit yield was significantly lower in APRI treatment than that of the CK. Compared with the CK, fruit yield decreased by 22.4%-26.3% under the APRI treatment with 40% theta(f) soil moisture. Under 60% theta(f) soil moisture, the APRI treatment significantly improved fruit quality and water-use efficiency compared with the CK regardless small reduction (5.3%-5.4%) in fruit yield. The experimental results suggested that the APRI treatment with the lower limitation of soil moisture controlled at 60% theta(f), and nitrate-N supply would be the optimal option in terms of sustainable use of water resource and fertilizer. PMID:25876407

  12. Buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia: Axillary brachial plexus block versus intramuscular administration in a placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Deepali; Malde, Anila

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Peripheral administration of opioids has been suggested for prolongation of regional analgesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken to compare the effect of regional (axillary brachial plexus block [ABPB]) versus intramuscular (IM) buprenorphine (2 μg/kg) in adults. Material and Methods: Seventy-five adults undergoing upper limb surgery received ABPB with local anaesthetic (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, 15 ml 2% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:200,000, 9 ml normal saline [NS]). In addition, regional group RB (n = 25) received buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in ABPB and 1 ml NS IM. Systemic Group SB (n = 25) received 1 ml NS in ABPB and buprenorphine 2 μg/kg IM. Group C (n = 25) received 1 ml NS in ABPB and IM. Onset, duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic parameters, sedation score, pain scores using visual analog scale, duration of postoperative analgesia, rescue analgesic (RA) requirement, adverse events, and patient satisfaction were noted. Results: Demographics, onset and duration of sensory, motor block were similar. RB group had longest duration of analgesia (20.61 ± 1.33 h) compared to SB (10.91 ± 0.90 h) and control group (5.86 ± 0.57 h) (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C). RA requirement was highest in the control group and least in RB group (P = 0.000 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C). SB group had a maximum number of side effects (P = 0.041, SB vs. RB/C). Patient satisfaction was highest with group RB (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C, and P = 0.06 SB vs. C). Conclusion: Buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in axillary plexus block provides significantly prolonged analgesia with less RA requirement and greater patient satisfaction compared to IM administration. This is highly suggestive of action on peripheral opioid receptors. PMID:26330716

  13. Neurophysiological effects of acute oxytocin administration: systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Wigton, Rebekah; Radua, Jocham; Allen, Paul; Averbeck, Bruno; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) plays a prominent role in social cognition and may have clinical applications for disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety. The neural basis of its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of placebo-controlled imaging studies using OXT as a pharmacological manipulator of brain activity. Results We identified a total of 21 studies for inclusion in our review, and after applying additional selection criteria, 11 of them were included in our fMRI voxel-based meta-analysis. The results demonstrate consistent alterations in activation of brain regions, including the temporal lobes and insula, during the processing of social stimuli, with some variation dependent on sex and task. The meta-analysis revealed significant left insular hyperactivation after OXT administration, suggesting a potential modulation of neural circuits underlying emotional processing. Limitations This quantitative review included only a limited number of studies, thus the conclusions of our analysis should be interpreted cautiously. This limited sample size precluded a more detailed exploration of potential confounding factors, such as sex or other demographic factors, that may have affected our meta-analysis. Conclusion Oxytocin has a wide range of effects over neural activity in response to social and emotional processing, which is further modulated by sex and task specificity. The magnitude of this neural activation is largest in the temporal lobes, and a meta-analysis across all tasks and both sexes showed that the left insula demonstrated the most robust activation to OXT administration. PMID:25520163

  14. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  15. The fentanyl HCl patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS): an alternative to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in the postoperative setting.

    PubMed

    Sinatra, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Inadequate pain control in the postoperative period not only contributes to patient discomfort, but also causes physiological changes that may result in increased risk of myocardial ischaemia, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These events complicate postoperative recovery and may lead to longer hospital stays as well as increased healthcare costs. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) has emerged as an effective way for patients to manage their pain, allowing self-administration of small doses of analgesics to maintain a certain level of pain control. PCA is most commonly delivered via an intravenous (IV) or epidural route, and while patient satisfaction is higher with PCA than with conventional methods of analgesic administration, the invasiveness, costs and risk of errors associated with currently available modalities may limit their utility. These systems also require significant healthcare resources, as nurses must manually program the pumps to deliver the correct amount of medication. Several new PCA modalities are being developed to address these limitations. These systems deliver drug through a variety of routes, including nasal transmucosal and transdermal. Most notably, a self-contained, credit card-sized, transdermal PCA system is currently in the final stages of development. The fentanyl HCl patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS; IONSYS, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Inc., Raritan, NJ) uses an imperceptible, low-intensity direct current to transfer fentanyl on demand across the skin into the systemic circulation. This compact system is patient-activated, can be applied to the patient's upper arm or chest, and is designed to manage moderate-to-severe pain requiring opioid analgesia. The system delivers a preprogrammed amount of fentanyl HCI over 10 minutes, for a total of 80 doses, or for 24 hours, whichever occurs first. The on-demand dosing and pharmacokinetics of this system differentiate it from the passive transdermal formulation of

  16. Fabrication of Uniform Hydrogel Microparticles with Alternate Polyelectrolyte/Silica Shell Layers for Applications of Controlled Loading and Releasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Jin Woong

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogel particles, also known as microgels, consist of cross-linked three-dimensional water-soluble polymer networks. They play an essential role in loading and delivering active ingredients in medicine, cosmetics, and foods. Despite their excellent biocompatibility as well as structural diversity, much wider applications are limited due mainly to their intrinsically loose network nature. This study introduces a practical and straightforward method that enables fabrication of hydrogel microparticles layered with a mechanically robust hybrid thin shell. Basically highly monodisperse hydrogel microparticles were produced in microcapillary devices. Then, their surface was coated with alternate polyelectrolyte layers through the layer-by-layer deposition. Finally a thin silica layer was again formed by reduction of silicate on the amino-functionalized polyelectrolyte layer. We have figured out that these hybrid hydrogel microparticles showed controlled loading and releasing behaviors for water-soluble probe molecules. Moreover, we have demonstrated that they can be applied for immobilization of biomacromolecules, such as bacteria and living cells, and even for targeted releasing.

  17. Novel anti-infective molecule from innate immune cells as an antibiotic-alternative to control infections caused by Apicomplexa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increasing needs for the global animal industry to address the regulatory restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production, there is much interest to find alternatives to AGPs. To develop alternatives to antibiotics against the major poultry parasitic disease, ...

  18. Role of Alternative Food in Controlling Chaotic Dynamics in a Predator-Prey Model with Disease in the Predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Krishna Pada; Bairagi, Nandadulal; Sen, Prabir

    It is generally, but not always, accepted that alternative food plays a stabilizing role in predator-prey interaction. Parasites, on the other hand, have the ability to change both the qualitative and quantitative dynamics of its host population. In recent times, researchers are showing growing interest in formulating models that integrate both the ecological and epidemiological aspects. The present paper deals with the effect of alternative food on a predator-prey system with disease in the predator population. We show that the system, in the absence of alternative food, exhibits different dynamics viz. stable coexistence, limit cycle oscillations, period-doubling bifurcation and chaos when infection rate is gradually increased. However, when predator consumes alternative food coupled with its focal prey, the system returns to regular oscillatory state from chaotic state through period-halving bifurcations. Our study shows that alternative food may have larger impact on the community structure and may increase population persistence.

  19. Prescription opioids. III. Disposition of oxycodone in oral fluid and blood following controlled single-dose administration.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; DePriest, Anne Z; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Oxycodone (OC) is recommended to be included as an analyte tested in the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA's) Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs using Oral Fluid (OF) Specimens. This study demonstrates the time course of OC and metabolites, noroxycodone (NOC), oxymorphone (OM) and noroxymorphone (NOM), in near-simultaneous paired OF and whole blood (BL) specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) (limit of detection = 1 ng/mL OF, 5 ng/mL BL). A single dose of OC 20 mg controlled-release was administered to 12 healthy subjects followed by specimen collections for 52 h. Analyte prevalence was as follows: OF, OC > NOC > OM; and BL, OC > NOC > NOM. OC and NOC were frequently detected within 15-30 min in OF and 30 min to 2 h in BL. NOM and OM appeared between 1.5-5 h post-dose. The mean OF-to-BL (OF:BL) ratios and correlations were 5.4 for OC (r = 0.719) and 1.0 for NOC (r = 0.651). The period of detection for OF exceeded BL by ∼2-fold at similar cutoff concentrations. At a 1 ng/mL cutoff for OF, the mean detection time was 34 h for OC and NOC. These data provide new information that should facilitate interpretation of OC test results.

  20. Controlled release of thyrotropin releasing hormone from microspheres: evaluation of release profiles and pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Heya, T; Mikura, Y; Nagai, A; Miura, Y; Futo, T; Tomida, Y; Shimizu, H; Toguchi, H

    1994-06-01

    The drug-release kinetics of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) containing copoly(dl-lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The drug was encapsulated in PLGA using an in-water drying method through a water in oil in water emulsion. The drug release from the PLGA microspheres in vitro correlated well with that in vivo, and pseudo-zero-order release kinetics were observed. The pharmacokinetics of TRH following administration of this controlled-release parenteral dosage form have been also examined in rats. Following a transient increase in the plasma level due to an initial burst, steady-state plasma levels were observed. The duration of drug release estimated from the plasma level was comparable with the results in the in vitro and in vivo release studies. The steady-state plasma levels correlated well with the levels predicted from the pharmacokinetic parameters following a single subcutaneous or intravenous injection of TRH solution. The results of this study confirm the previously reported in vivo sustained release of TRH achieved with this drug-delivery system. PMID:9120809

  1. COMMUNITY MEMBERS' PERCEPTIONS OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION FOR CONTROL OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN RURAL AND URBAN TANZANIA.

    PubMed

    Kisoka, William J; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowsky; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Mushi, Declare L

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of several neglected tropical diseases with severely disabling and stigmatizing manifestations that are referred to as 'neglected diseases of poverty'. It is a mosquito-borne disease found endemically and exclusively in low-income contexts where, concomitantly, general public health care is often deeply troubled and fails to meet the basic health needs of impoverished populations. This presents particular challenges for the implementation of mass drug administration (MDA), which currently is the principal means of control and eventual elimination. Several MDA programmes face the dilemma that they are unable to attain and maintain the required drug coverage across target groups. In recognition of this, a qualitative study was conducted in the Morogoro and Lindi regions of Tanzania to gain an understanding of community experiences with, and perceptions of, the MDA campaign implemented in 2011 by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme. The study revealed a wide variation of perceptions and experiences regarding the aim, rationale and justification of MDA. There were positive sentiments about the usefulness of the drugs, but many study participants were sceptical about the manner in which MDA is implemented. People were particularly disappointed with the limited attempts by implementers to share information and mobilize residents. In addition, negative sentiments towards MDA for lymphatic filariasis reflected a general feeling of desertion and marginalization by the health care system and political authorities. However, the results suggest that if the communities are brought on board with genuine respect for their integrity and informed self-determination, there is scope for major improvements in community support for MDA-based control activities. PMID:25790081

  2. Characterization of bacteriophages virulent for Clostridium perfringens and identification of phage lytic enzymes as alternatives to antibiotics for potential control of the bacterium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a resurgent interest in the use of bacteriophages or their gene products to control bacterial pathogens as alternatives to currently utilized antibiotics. Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that plays a significant role in human food-borne d...

  3. Characterization of bacteriophages virulent for Clostridium perfringens and identification of phage lytic enzymes as alternatives to antibiotics for potential control of the bacterium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a resurgent interest in the use of bacteriophages or their gene products to control bacterial pathogens as alternatives to currently utilized antibiotics. Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that plays a significant role in human food-borne di...

  4. An Evaluation of the Wii Nunchuk as an Alternative Assistive Device for People with Intellectual and Physical Disabilities Using Switch Controlled Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standen, P. J.; Camm, C.; Battersby, S.; Brown, D. J.; Harrison, M.

    2011-01-01

    Many people with intellectual disabilities also have physical difficulties which prevent them from using standard computer control devices. Custom made alternative devices for those with special needs can be expensive and the low unit turnover makes the prospect unattractive to potential manufacturers. One solution is to explore the potential of…

  5. Transcript levels, alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage of TFIIIA control 5S rRNA accumulation during Arabidopsis thaliana development.

    PubMed

    Layat, Elodie; Cotterell, Sylviane; Vaillant, Isabelle; Yukawa, Yasushi; Tutois, Sylvie; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2012-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is critical for eukaryotic cells and requires coordinated synthesis of the protein and rRNA moieties of the ribosome, which are therefore highly regulated. 5S ribosomal RNA, an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and specifically requires transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). To obtain insight into the regulation of 5S rRNA transcription, we have investigated the expression of 5S rRNA and the exon-skipped (ES) and exon-including (EI) TFIIIA transcripts, two transcript isoforms that result from alternative splicing of the TFIIIA gene, and TFIIIA protein amounts with respect to requirements for 5S rRNA during development. We show that 5S rRNA quantities are regulated through distinct but complementary mechanisms operating through transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of TFIIIA transcripts as well as at the post-translational level through proteolytic cleavage of the TFIIIA protein. During the reproductive phase, high expression of the TFIIIA gene together with low proteolytic cleavage contributes to accumulation of functional, full-length TFIIIA protein, and results in 5S rRNA accumulation in the seed. In contrast, just after germination, the levels of TFIIIA-encoding transcripts are low and stable. Full-length TFIIIA protein is undetectable, and the level of 5S rRNA stored in the embryo progressively decreases. After day 4, in correlation with the reorganization of 5S rDNA chromatin to a mature state, full-length TFIIIA protein with transcriptional activity accumulates and permits de novo transcription of 5S rRNA.

  6. Case-Control Study of Telavancin as an Alternative Treatment for Gram-Positive Bloodstream Infections in Patients with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray; Jordan, Mary; Garoge, Kumait; Al Hamal, Zainab; El Zakhem, Aline; Viola, George M; Granwehr, Bruno; Mulanovich, Victor; Gagel, Andrew; Reitzel, Ruth; Yousif, Ammar; Jiang, Ying; Raad, Issam

    2015-10-19

    Gram-positive bacterial infections are an important cause of morbidity and death among cancer patients, despite current therapy. In this case-control study, we evaluated the clinical outcomes and safety of telavancin in cancer patients with uncomplicated Gram-positive bloodstream infections (BSIs). Between March 2011 and May 2013, we enrolled cancer patients with uncomplicated Gram-positive BSIs to receive intravenous telavancin therapy for at least 14 days for Staphylococcus aureus and 7 days for other Gram-positive cocci. Patients with baseline creatinine clearance (CLCR) values of >50 ml/min received 10 mg/kg/day of telavancin, and those with CLCR values between 30 and 49 ml/min received 7.5 mg/kg/day. Patients were compared with a retrospective cohort of 39 historical patients with Gram-positive BSIs, matched for underlying malignancy, infecting organism, and neutropenia status, who had been treated with vancomycin. A total of 78 patients were analyzed, with 39 in each group. The most common pathogen causing BSIs was S. aureus (51%), followed by alpha-hemolytic streptococci (23%), Enterococcus spp. (15%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (8%), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (3%). Sixty-two percent of patients had hematological malignancies, and 38% had solid tumors; 51% of the patients were neutropenic. The overall response rate determined by clinical outcome and microbiological eradication at 72 h following the initiation of therapy, in the absence of relapse, deep-seated infections, and/or infection-related death, was better with telavancin than with vancomycin (86% versus 61%; P = 0.013). Rates of drug-related adverse events were similar in the two groups (telavancin, 31%; vancomycin, 23%; P = 0.79), with similar rates of renal adverse events. Telavancin may provide a useful alternative to standard vancomycin therapy for Gram-positive BSIs in cancer patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01321879.).

  7. Does mass drug administration for the integrated treatment of neglected tropical diseases really work? Assessing evidence for the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Less is known about mass drug administration [MDA] for neglected tropical diseases [NTDs] than is suggested by those so vigorously promoting expansion of the approach. This paper fills an important gap: it draws upon local level research to examine the roll out of treatment for two NTDs, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, in Uganda. Methods Ethnographic research was undertaken over a period of four years between 2005-2009 in north-west and south-east Uganda. In addition to participant observation, survey data recording self-reported take-up of drugs for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and, where relevant, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis was collected from a random sample of at least 10% of households at study locations. Data recording the take-up of drugs in Ministry of Health registers for NTDs were analysed in the light of these ethnographic and social survey data. Results The comparative analysis of the take-up of drugs among adults revealed that although most long term residents have been offered treatment at least once since 2004, the actual take up of drugs for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths varies considerably from one district to another and often also within districts. The specific reasons why MDA succeeds in some locations and falters in others relates to local dynamics. Issues such as population movement across borders, changing food supply, relations between drug distributors and targeted groups, rumours and conspiracy theories about the 'real' purpose of treatment, subjective experiences of side effects from treatment, alternative understandings of affliction, responses to social control measures and historical experiences of public health control measures, can all make a huge difference. The paper highlights the need to adapt MDA to local circumstances. It also points to specific generalisable issues, notably with respect to health education, drug distribution and more effective use of

  8. Optimising the controlled release of dexamethasone from a new generation of PLGA-based microspheres intended for intravitreal administration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villanueva, Javier; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Molina Martínez, Irene Teresa; Guzmán Navarro, Manuel

    2016-09-20

    Successful therapy for chronic diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye requires sustained drug concentrations at the site of action for extended periods of time. To achieve this, it is necessary to use high systemic doses or frequent intraocular injections, both associated with serious adverse effects. In order to avoid these complications and improve patient's quality of life, an experimental study has been conducted on the preparation of a new generation of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50) (PLGA) polymer microspheres (MSs) loaded with Dxm, vitamin E and/or human serum albumin (HSA). Particles were prepared according to a S/O/W encapsulation method and the 20-40μm fraction was selected. This narrow size distribution is suitable for minimally invasive intravitreal injection by small calibre needles. Characterisation of the MSs showed high Dxm loading and encapsulation efficiency (> 90%) without a strong interaction with the polymer matrix, as revealed by DSC analysis. MSs drug release studies indicated a small burst effect (lower than 5%) during the first five hours and subsequently, drug release was sustained for at least 30days, led by diffusion and erosion mechanisms. Dxm release rate was modulated when solid state HSA was incorporated into MSs formulation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the protein maintained its integrity during the encapsulation process, as well as for the release study. MSs presented good tolerance and lack of cytotoxicity in macrophages and HeLa cultured cells. After 12months of storage under standard refrigerated conditions (4±1°C), MSs retained appropriate physical and chemical properties and analogous drug release kinetics. Therefore, we conclude that these microspheres are promising pharmaceutical systems for intraocular administration, allowing controlled release of the drug.

  9. Optimising the controlled release of dexamethasone from a new generation of PLGA-based microspheres intended for intravitreal administration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villanueva, Javier; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Molina Martínez, Irene Teresa; Guzmán Navarro, Manuel

    2016-09-20

    Successful therapy for chronic diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye requires sustained drug concentrations at the site of action for extended periods of time. To achieve this, it is necessary to use high systemic doses or frequent intraocular injections, both associated with serious adverse effects. In order to avoid these complications and improve patient's quality of life, an experimental study has been conducted on the preparation of a new generation of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50) (PLGA) polymer microspheres (MSs) loaded with Dxm, vitamin E and/or human serum albumin (HSA). Particles were prepared according to a S/O/W encapsulation method and the 20-40μm fraction was selected. This narrow size distribution is suitable for minimally invasive intravitreal injection by small calibre needles. Characterisation of the MSs showed high Dxm loading and encapsulation efficiency (> 90%) without a strong interaction with the polymer matrix, as revealed by DSC analysis. MSs drug release studies indicated a small burst effect (lower than 5%) during the first five hours and subsequently, drug release was sustained for at least 30days, led by diffusion and erosion mechanisms. Dxm release rate was modulated when solid state HSA was incorporated into MSs formulation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the protein maintained its integrity during the encapsulation process, as well as for the release study. MSs presented good tolerance and lack of cytotoxicity in macrophages and HeLa cultured cells. After 12months of storage under standard refrigerated conditions (4±1°C), MSs retained appropriate physical and chemical properties and analogous drug release kinetics. Therefore, we conclude that these microspheres are promising pharmaceutical systems for intraocular administration, allowing controlled release of the drug. PMID:26987610

  10. An Analysis of Editorial Freedom and Administrative Control of the Student Newspaper in the Four-Year Colleges and Universities in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howells, Ronald Frederick

    The study was designed to investigate judicial decisions of state and federal courts concerning editorial freedom of the college and university student press to determine emerging legal rules, precedents, and trends in judicial decisions and to analyze the extent of editorial freedom and administrative control of the student press as perceived by…

  11. Drinking water from alternative water sources: differences in beliefs, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control across eight Australian locations.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, S; Hurlimann, A

    2009-01-01

    Australia is facing serious challenges in the management of water in various urban and regional locations. Two popular responses to these challenges are increasing supply through alternative water sources such as recycled and desalinated water. However, significant gaps exist in our knowledge of community attitudes to these alternative sources of water, particularly for potable use. This paper reports results from an Australian study of community attitudes to alternative water sources. Sixty six qualitative interviews were held at eight locations with distinctly different water situations. This paper explores all three antecedents to the behaviour of drinking recycled water and desalinated water as postulated by the Theory of Planned Behaviour: attitudes, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control. Key results indicate that while people hold both positive and negative beliefs (mostly cost, health and environmental concerns) about water from alternative sources, nearly all of them are willing to drink it if the water crisis were to deteriorate further. People also feel they lack knowledge and state that information from scientists would influence their decision to drink recycled and desalinated water most. Friends and relatives are most influential in preventing people from drinking recycled water. The findings reported in this paper have major implications for water policy, and will be of particular interest to water engineers. The paper raises a provocative question: Is it better to avoid public consultation in introducing water from alternative sources?

  12. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  13. Heroin self-administration experience establishes control of ventral tegmental glutamate release by stress and environmental stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; You, Zhi-Bing; Wise, Roy A

    2012-12-01

    Heroin and cocaine have very different unconditioned receptor-mediated actions; however, in the brain circuitry of drug-reward and motivation, the two drugs establish common conditioned consequences. A single experience with either drug can change the sensitivity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons to glutamatergic input. In the case of cocaine, repeated intravenous self-administration establishes de novo VTA glutamate release and dopaminergic activation in response to conditioned stimuli and mild footshock stress. Here we determined whether repeated self-administration of heroin would establish similar glutamate release and dopaminergic activation. Although self-administration of heroin itself did not cause VTA glutamate release, conditioned glutamate release was seen when rats expecting rewarding heroin were given nonrewarding saline in its place. Mild footshock stress also caused glutamate release in heroin-trained animals. In each case, the VTA glutamate release was accompanied by elevations in VTA dopamine levels, indicative of dopaminergic activation. In each case, infusion of the ionotropic glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid blocked the VTA dopamine release associated with VTA glutamate elevation. Although glutamate levels in the extinction and reinstatement tests were similar to those reported in cocaine studies, the effects of heroin self-administration itself were quite different from what has been seen during cocaine self-administration.

  14. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  15. Ketamine Infusion Therapy as an Alternative Pain Control Strategy in Patients with Multi-Trauma including Rib Fracture; Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Losing, Ashley K; Jones, Justin M; Keric, Adis; Briggs, Steven E; Leedahl, David D

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine is a promising alternative agent for pain control that offers benefit to traditional strategies, particularly in the setting of rib fracture. Current pharmacologic therapies have clear adverse effects, and other options may be invasive, cost prohibitive, or marginally effective. We describe three consecutive patients with traumatic injuries including rib fracture for which a ketamine infusion was utilized as part of their pain control strategy.  For each patient, use of a ketamine infusion trended toward reduced opioid requirements with stable pain scores. One patient experienced a dissociative adverse effect prompting decrease and discontinuation of ketamine. No pulmonary complications in the form of emergent intubation or new diagnosis of pneumonia were observed. We believe the addition of ketamine infusion to be a valid alternative strategy for managing pain associated with rib fracture. PMID:27540552

  16. Ketamine Infusion Therapy as an Alternative Pain Control Strategy in Patients with Multi-Trauma including Rib Fracture; Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Losing, Ashley K; Jones, Justin M; Keric, Adis; Briggs, Steven E; Leedahl, David D

    2016-07-01

    Ketamine is a promising alternative agent for pain control that offers benefit to traditional strategies, particularly in the setting of rib fracture. Current pharmacologic therapies have clear adverse effects, and other options may be invasive, cost prohibitive, or marginally effective. We describe three consecutive patients with traumatic injuries including rib fracture for which a ketamine infusion was utilized as part of their pain control strategy.  For each patient, use of a ketamine infusion trended toward reduced opioid requirements with stable pain scores. One patient experienced a dissociative adverse effect prompting decrease and discontinuation of ketamine. No pulmonary complications in the form of emergent intubation or new diagnosis of pneumonia were observed. We believe the addition of ketamine infusion to be a valid alternative strategy for managing pain associated with rib fracture. PMID:27540552

  17. Using a Policy Classification Model to Analyze Major Changes Regarding Control and Administration of Policies Relative to Professional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Ernest J.; Walker, John H.

    There has been a diversity of activity to change policies relating to the recruitment, admission, and preparation of new educational professionals in college and university settings. These policies, coupled with state mandated polices to upgrade the competence of current teachers and administrators, has resulted in a great amount of policy to…

  18. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Pressure Wound Therapy; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT).'' This guidance document describes a means by which non-powered suction... Device Intended for Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT)'' to the Division of Small...

  19. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... for the Topical Approximation of Skin; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Intended for the Topical Approximation of Skin.'' This guidance document describes a means by which tissue adhesives with adjunct wound closure devices intended for the topical approximation of skin may comply...

  20. Improving food and agriculture productivity and the environment: Canadian initiatives in methyl bromide alternatives and emission control technologies. Revised edition

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, M.; Tibelius, C.

    1998-12-31

    Methyl bromide, a fumigant used in the agricultural sector, was listed as an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol and is scheduled for phasing out in Canada. This report begins with a review of the joint industry/government approach being taken to plan and manage this phase-out. It then reviews alternative solutions that have been formulated and tested as replacements for the use of methyl bromide in greenhouse cultivation, soil fumigation, strawberry transplant production, tobacco production, grain production, and food processing facilities. Contact names and addresses are provided for those seeking further information. The final sections describe activities in methyl bromide recovery and recycling and list industry and government organizations that have expertise in methyl bromide alternatives.

  1. Control of fibroblast fibronectin expression and alternative splicing via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    White, Eric S.; Sagana, Rommel L.; Booth, Adam J.; Yan, Mei; Cornett, Ashley M.; Bloomheart, Christopher A.; Tsui, Jessica L.; Wilke, Carol A.; Moore, Bethany B.; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; Roman, Jesse; Muro, Andres F.

    2010-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a ubiquitous glycoprotein that plays critical roles in physiologic and pathologic conditions, undergoes alternative splicing which distinguishes plasma FN (pFN) from cellular FN (cFN). Although both pFN and cFN can be incorporated into the extracellular matrix, a distinguishing feature of cFN is the inclusion of an alternatively spliced exon termed EDA (for extra type III domain A). The molecular steps involved in EDA splicing are well-characterized, but pathways influencing EDA splicing are less clear. We have previously found an obligate role for inhibition of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN), the primary regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in fibroblast activation. Here we show TGF-{beta}, a potent inducer of both EDA splicing and fibroblast activation, inhibits PTEN expression and activity in mesenchymal cells, corresponding with enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling. In pten{sup -/-} fibroblasts, which resemble activated fibroblasts, inhibition of Akt attenuated FN production and decreased EDA alternative splicing. Moreover, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pten{sup -/-} cells also blocked FN production and EDA splicing. This effect was due to inhibition of Akt-mediated phosphorylation of the primary EDA splicing regulatory protein SF2/ASF. Importantly, FN silencing in pten{sup -/-} cells resulted in attenuated proliferation and migration. Thus, our results demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis is instrumental in FN transcription and alternative splicing, which regulates cell behavior.

  2. Alternative strategies: a better alternative.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations.

  3. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  4. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  5. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  6. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  7. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  8. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building Oakland, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-01

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be build at Oakland, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  9. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Las Vegas, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Las Vegas, Nevada by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  10. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  11. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use... Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document... ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use''...

  12. Significant increase of salivary testosterone levels after single therapeutic transdermal administration of testosterone: suitability as a potential screening parameter in doping control.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Rautenberg, Claudia; Grosse, Joachim; Schoenfelder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The legally defensible proof of the abuse of endogenous steroids in sports is currently based on carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), i.e. a comparison between (13)C/(12)C ratios of diagnostic precursors and metabolites of testosterone. The application of this technique requires a chromatographic baseline separation of respective steroids prior to IRMS detection and hence laborious sample pre-processing of the urinary steroid extracts including clean up by solid-phase extraction and/or liquid chromatography. Consequently, an efficient pre-selection of suspicious control urine samples is essential for appropriate follow up confirmation by IRMS and effective doping control. Two single transdermal administration studies of testosterone (50 mg Testogel® and Testopatch® at 3.8 mg in 16 h, respectively) were conducted and resulting profiles of salivary testosterone and urinary steroid profiles and corresponding carbon isotope ratios were determined. Conventional doping control markers (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, threshold concentrations of androsterone, etiocholanolone, or androstanediols) did not approach or exceed critical thresholds. In contrast to these moderate variations, the testosterone concentration in oral fluid increased from basal values (30-142 pg/mg) to peak concentrations above 1000 pg/mg. It is likely that this significant increase in oral fluid is due to a pulsatile elevation of free (protein unbound) circulating testosterone after transdermal administration and may be assumed to represent a more diagnostic marker for transdermal testosterone administration.

  13. RAFT Dispersion Alternating Copolymerization of Styrene with N-Phenylmaleimide: Morphology Control and Application as an Aqueous Foam Stabilizer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a new nonaqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) formulation based on the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion alternating copolymerization of styrene with N-phenylmaleimide using a nonionic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) stabilizer in a 50/50 w/w ethanol/methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) mixture. The MEK cosolvent is significantly less toxic than the 1,4-dioxane cosolvent reported previously [YangP.; Macromolecules2013, 46, 8545−8556]. The core-forming alternating copolymer block has a relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg), which leads to vesicular morphologies being observed during PISA, as well as the more typical sphere and worm phases. Each of these copolymer morphologies has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. TEM studies reveal micrometer-sized elliptical particles with internal structure, with SAXS analysis suggesting an oligolamellar vesicle morphology. This structure differs from that previously reported for a closely related PISA formulation utilizing a poly(methacrylic acid) stabilizer block for which unilamellar platelet-like particles are observed by TEM and SAXS. This suggests that interlamellar interactions are governed by the nature of the steric stabilizer layer. Moreover, using the MEK cosolvent also enables access to a unilamellar vesicular morphology, despite the high Tg of the alternating copolymer core-forming block. This was achieved by simply conducting the PISA synthesis at a higher temperature for a longer reaction time (80 °C for 24 h). Presumably, MEK solvates the core-forming block more than the previously utilized 1,4-dioxane cosolvent, which leads to greater chain mobility. Finally, preliminary experiments indicate that the worms are much more efficient stabilizers for aqueous foams than either the spheres or the oligolamellar elliptical vesicles.

  14. RAFT Dispersion Alternating Copolymerization of Styrene with N-Phenylmaleimide: Morphology Control and Application as an Aqueous Foam Stabilizer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a new nonaqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) formulation based on the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion alternating copolymerization of styrene with N-phenylmaleimide using a nonionic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) stabilizer in a 50/50 w/w ethanol/methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) mixture. The MEK cosolvent is significantly less toxic than the 1,4-dioxane cosolvent reported previously [YangP.; Macromolecules2013, 46, 8545−8556]. The core-forming alternating copolymer block has a relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg), which leads to vesicular morphologies being observed during PISA, as well as the more typical sphere and worm phases. Each of these copolymer morphologies has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. TEM studies reveal micrometer-sized elliptical particles with internal structure, with SAXS analysis suggesting an oligolamellar vesicle morphology. This structure differs from that previously reported for a closely related PISA formulation utilizing a poly(methacrylic acid) stabilizer block for which unilamellar platelet-like particles are observed by TEM and SAXS. This suggests that interlamellar interactions are governed by the nature of the steric stabilizer layer. Moreover, using the MEK cosolvent also enables access to a unilamellar vesicular morphology, despite the high Tg of the alternating copolymer core-forming block. This was achieved by simply conducting the PISA synthesis at a higher temperature for a longer reaction time (80 °C for 24 h). Presumably, MEK solvates the core-forming block more than the previously utilized 1,4-dioxane cosolvent, which leads to greater chain mobility. Finally, preliminary experiments indicate that the worms are much more efficient stabilizers for aqueous foams than either the spheres or the oligolamellar elliptical vesicles. PMID:27708458

  15. Mixing enhancement by biologically inspired convection in a micro-chamber using alternating current galvanotactic control of the Tetrahymena pyriformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Jang, Yonghee; Byun, Doyoung; Hyung Kim, Dal; Jun Kim, Min

    2013-09-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the swimming behavior of microorganisms and biologically inspired micro-robots. In this study, we investigated biologically induced convection flow with living microorganism using galvanotaxis. We fabricated and evaluated our micro-mixer with motile cells. For the cell based active micro-mixers, two miscible fluids were used to measure the mixing index. Under alternating current (AC) electric fields with varying frequency, a group of motile Tetrahymena pyriformis cells generated reciprocal motion with circulating flows around their pathline, enhancing the mixing ratio.

  16. Administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, (1987 annual report). Report for January-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This document is an annual report submitted to the President for transmittal to the Congress. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. The report provides a summary of the operations of the Center in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1987. In reviewing the operations of the CDRH as reported in the document, it should be kept in mind that the day-to-day administration of the Act is only part of the Center's function. Other responsibilities include the administration and enforcement of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (not covered in the report). Manufacturers of electronic products are required by 21 CFR 1002.20 to report accidental radiation occurrences to the CDRH. The Center no longer maintains a Radiation Incidents Registry, since accidental radiation occurrences are reported through the Device Experience Network (DEN) and through the requirements of the Medical Device Reporting (MDR) regulations.

  17. Control Points in School Business Management, Presenting General Observations, Specific Control Points, and a Series of Checkpoints for the Practicing School Business Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials, Chicago, IL.

    This revised outline of a 1962 address contains general guidelines considered still useful for practicing school business administrators. Introductory "general observations" and a preamble give advice about good personal qualities, policy and planning practices, and relations with school boards, community, staff, and fellow professional…

  18. 76 FR 6622 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use; Availability...: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document describes a means by which contact... systems for aesthetic use into class II (special controls). The guidance document is immediately in...

  19. 76 FR 16425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System... Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System.'' This guidance document... system, but it remains subject to comment in accordance with the agency's good guidance practices...

  20. 75 FR 68364 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...-796-2533. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 30, 2008 (73 FR... class II (special controls). Also, in the Federal Register of May 30, 2008 (73 FR 31128), FDA announced...''; (4) rewording the ``Automatic Exposure Control Performance'' section to ask for data based on...

  1. 77 FR 16123 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of Mycobacterium...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based...

  2. 76 FR 22906 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Controls Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities'' (71 FR 17476). Interested persons were... Register of April 6, 2006 (71 FR 17390), FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) published...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability...

  3. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use; Availability...: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document describes a means by which low level laser systems for aesthetic use may comply with the requirement of special controls for class...

  4. 76 FR 64228 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Special Controls Guidance Document: External Pacemaker Pulse Generator; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Pulse Generator.'' This draft guidance document describes a means by which external pacemaker pulse generators may comply with the requirement of special controls for class II devices. This draft guidance...

  5. 75 FR 59726 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological... Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays.'' This draft guidance document describes a means by which the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay device...

  6. Negative Feedback Control of Jasmonate Signaling by an Alternative Splice Variant of JAZ101[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Javier E.; Shyu, Christine; Campos, Marcelo L.; Patel, Lalita C.; Chung, Hoo Sun; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Howe, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) activates gene expression by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation of jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressor proteins. A key feature of all JAZ proteins is the highly conserved Jas motif, which mediates both JAZ degradation and JAZ binding to the transcription factor MYC2. Rapid expression of JAZ genes in response to JA is thought to attenuate JA responses, but little is known about the mechanisms by which newly synthesized JAZ proteins exert repression in the presence of the hormone. Here, we show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that desensitization to JA is mediated by an alternative splice variant (JAZ10.4) of JAZ10 that lacks the Jas motif. Unbiased protein-protein interaction screens identified three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4) and the corepressor NINJA as JAZ10.4-binding partners. We show that the amino-terminal region of JAZ10.4 contains a cryptic MYC2-binding site that resembles the Jas motif and that the ZIM motif of JAZ10.4 functions as a transferable repressor domain whose activity is associated with the recruitment of NINJA. Functional studies showed that the expression of JAZ10.4 from the native JAZ10 promoter complemented the JA-hypersensitive phenotype of a jaz10 mutant. Moreover, treatment of these complemented lines with JA resulted in the rapid accumulation of JAZ10.4 protein. Our results provide an explanation for how the unique domain architecture of JAZ10.4 links transcription factors to a corepressor complex and suggest how JA-induced transcription and alternative splicing of JAZ10 premessenger RNA creates a regulatory circuit to attenuate JA responses. PMID:23632853

  7. A Novel Scheme for Optimal Control of a Nonlinear Delay Differential Equations Model to Determine Effective and Optimal Administrating Chemotherapy Agents in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, HR; Setayeshi, S; Akbari, ME

    2011-01-01

    Background Determining the optimal and effective scheme for administrating the chemotherapy agents in breast cancer is the main goal of this scientific research. The most important issue here is the amount of drug or radiation administrated in chemotherapy and radiotherapy for increasing patient's survival. This is because in these cases, the therapy not only kills the tumor cells, but also kills some of the healthy tissues and causes serious damages. In this paper we investigate optimal drug scheduling effect for breast cancer model which consist of nonlinear ordinary differential time-delay equations. Methods In this paper, a mathematical model of breast cancer tumors is discussed and then optimal control theory is applied to find out the optimal drug adjustment as an input control of system. Finally we use Sensitivity Approach (SA) to solve the optimal control problem. Results The goal of this paper is to determine optimal and effective scheme for administering the chemotherapy agent, so that the tumor is eradicated, while the immune systems remains above a suitable level. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of our proposed procedure. Conclusion In this paper a new scheme is proposed to design a therapy protocol for chemotherapy in Breast Cancer. In contrast to traditional pulse drug delivery, a continuous process is offered and optimized, according to the optimal control theory for time-delay systems. PMID:26322192

  8. Top-predator control-induced trophic cascades: an alternative hypothesis to the conclusion of Colman et al.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin L

    2015-01-22

    Colman et al. (2014 Proc. R. Soc. B 281, 20133094. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.3094)) recently argued that observed positive relationships between dingoes and small mammals were a result of top-down processes whereby lethal dingo control reduced dingoes and increased mesopredators and herbivores, which then suppressed small mammals. Here, I show that the prerequisite negative effects of dingo control on dingoes were not shown, and that the same positive relationships observed may simply represent well-known bottom-up processes whereby more generalist predators are found in places with more of their preferred prey. Identification of top-predator control-induced trophic cascades first requires demonstration of some actual effect of control on predators, typically possible only through manipulative experiments with the ability to identify cause and effect.

  9. Top-predator control-induced trophic cascades: an alternative hypothesis to the conclusion of Colman et al.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Colman et al. (2014 Proc. R. Soc. B 281, 20133094. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.3094)) recently argued that observed positive relationships between dingoes and small mammals were a result of top-down processes whereby lethal dingo control reduced dingoes and increased mesopredators and herbivores, which then suppressed small mammals. Here, I show that the prerequisite negative effects of dingo control on dingoes were not shown, and that the same positive relationships observed may simply represent well-known bottom-up processes whereby more generalist predators are found in places with more of their preferred prey. Identification of top-predator control-induced trophic cascades first requires demonstration of some actual effect of control on predators, typically possible only through manipulative experiments with the ability to identify cause and effect. PMID:25473006

  10. Top-predator control-induced trophic cascades: an alternative hypothesis to the conclusion of Colman et al.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin L

    2015-01-22

    Colman et al. (2014 Proc. R. Soc. B 281, 20133094. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.3094)) recently argued that observed positive relationships between dingoes and small mammals were a result of top-down processes whereby lethal dingo control reduced dingoes and increased mesopredators and herbivores, which then suppressed small mammals. Here, I show that the prerequisite negative effects of dingo control on dingoes were not shown, and that the same positive relationships observed may simply represent well-known bottom-up processes whereby more generalist predators are found in places with more of their preferred prey. Identification of top-predator control-induced trophic cascades first requires demonstration of some actual effect of control on predators, typically possible only through manipulative experiments with the ability to identify cause and effect. PMID:25473006

  11. Topical Versus Intravenous Administration of Tranexamic Acid in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Sammy A.; Prasad, Anoop; Lee, Joshua; Achan, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Tranexamic acid (TA) is widely used by orthopedic surgeons to decrease blood loss and the need for transfusion following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although both intravenous and topical applications are described in the literature, there remains no consensus regarding the optimal regimen, dosage and method of delivery of TA during THA. In addition, concerns still exist regarding the risk of thromboembolic events with intravenous administration. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus intravenous administration of TA in THA. A systemic review of the electronic databases PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE and Google Scholar was undertaken to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the topical and intravenous administration of TA during THA, in terms of total blood loss, rate of blood transfusion and incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) post-operatively. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of both methods of administration. Of 248 potentially relevant papers, three RCTs comprising (482) were eligible for data extraction and meta-analysis. The results showed a slightly higher amount of blood loss [Mean Difference (MD) – 46.37, P=0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) – 12.54 to 105.29] and rate of transfusion (Risk Ratio 1.30, P=0.39, 95%CI 0.71 to 2.37) postoperatively in the topical TA group, but both did not reach statistical significance. There were 3 cases (1.2%) of DVT/PE in the intravenous group and one case (0.4%) in the topical group. Topical TA is an effective and safe method to reduce blood loss and the rate of transfusion following primary THA. It has comparative effectiveness to IV administration with slightly less post-operative thromboembolic complications. Larger and better-designed RCTs are required to establish the optimum dosage and regimen for topical use. PMID:27761223

  12. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease. PMID:25877652

  13. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  14. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  15. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... special controls for class II devices. In the Federal Register of October 4, 2007 (72 FR 56771), and... associated with electrocardiograph electrodes: Adverse tissue reaction to the skin- contacting...

  16. 76 FR 69040 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Yersinia Species Detection... Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Yersinia Species Detection.'' This draft guidance document describes a means by which in vitro diagnostic devices for Yersinia species (spp.) detection...

  17. Application of a Multi-Objective Optimization Method to Provide Least Cost Alternatives for NPS Pollution Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maringanti, Chetan; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Arabi, Mazdak; Engel, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants such as phosphorus, nitrogen, sediment, and pesticides are the foremost sources of water contamination in many of the water bodies in the Midwestern agricultural watersheds. This problem is expected to increase in the future with the increasing demand to provide corn as grain or stover for biofuel production. Best management practices (BMPs) have been proven to effectively reduce the NPS pollutant loads from agricultural areas. However, in a watershed with multiple farms and multiple BMPs feasible for implementation, it becomes a daunting task to choose a right combination of BMPs that provide maximum pollution reduction for least implementation costs. Multi-objective algorithms capable of searching from a large number of solutions are required to meet the given watershed management objectives. Genetic algorithms have been the most popular optimization algorithms for the BMP selection and placement. However, previous BMP optimization models did not study pesticide which is very commonly used in corn areas. Also, with corn stover being projected as a viable alternative for biofuel production there might be unintended consequences of the reduced residue in the corn fields on water quality. Therefore, there is a need to study the impact of different levels of residue management in combination with other BMPs at a watershed scale. In this research the following BMPs were selected for placement in the watershed: (a) residue management, (b) filter strips, (c) parallel terraces, (d) contour farming, and (e) tillage. We present a novel method of combing different NPS pollutants into a single objective function, which, along with the net costs, were used as the two objective functions during optimization. In this study we used BMP tool, a database that contains the pollution reduction and cost information of different BMPs under consideration which provides pollutant loads during optimization. The BMP optimization was performed using a NSGA

  18. Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The current generation of AFVs available to consumers is somewhat limited as the auto industry attempts to respond to the presently uncertain market. At the same time, however, the automobile industry must anticipate future demand and is therefore engaged in research, development, and production programs on a wide range of alternative fuels. The ultimate composition of the AFV fleet may be determined by state and local regulations which will have the effect of determining demand. Many state and regional groups may require vehicles to meet emission standards more stringent than those required by the federal government. Therefore, a significant impact on the market could occur if emission classifications begin serving as the benchmark for vehicles, rather than simply certifying a vehicle as capable of operating on an ``alternative`` to gasoline. Vehicles classified as Zero-Emissions, or even Inherently Low-Emissions, could most likely be met only by electricity or natural gas, thereby dictating that multi-fuel vehicles would be unable to participate in some clean air markets. In the near-term, the Clinton Administration desires to accelerate the use of alternative fuels as evidenced by an executive order directing the federal government to increase the rate of conversion of the federal fleet beyond that called for in EPACT. The Administration has expressed particular interest in using more compressed natural gas (CNG) as a motor fuel, which has resulted in the auto industry`s strong response of concentrating short-term efforts on CNG vehicles. For the 1994 model year, a number of CNG cars and trucks will be available from major automobile manufacturers.

  19. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  20. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…