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Sample records for administrative cost limit

  1. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance Grant funds? 286.55 Section 286.55 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  2. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Funding... administrative cost cap, even if they fall within the definition of “administrative costs.” (c)...

  3. 20 CFR 667.210 - What administrative cost limits apply to Workforce Investment Act title I grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Workforce Investment Act title I grants? 667.210 Section 667.210 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Administrative Rules, Costs and Limitations § 667.210 What administrative cost limits apply to Workforce Investment Act title I grants? (a) Formula grants to States: (1) As part of the 15 percent that...

  4. 45 CFR 1301.32 - Limitations on costs of development and administration of a Head Start program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on costs of development and... Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE... and General Administration § 1301.32 Limitations on costs of development and administration of a...

  5. 45 CFR 1301.32 - Limitations on costs of development and administration of a Head Start program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occupation, operation and maintenance of program component space, including utilities. (d) Dual benefit costs. (1) Some costs benefit both the program components as well as development and administrative... occupying, operating and maintaining space. (c) Program costs. Program costs include, but are not limited...

  6. 45 CFR 1301.32 - Limitations on costs of development and administration of a Head Start program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupation, operation and maintenance of program component space, including utilities. (d) Dual benefit costs. (1) Some costs benefit both the program components as well as development and administrative... occupying, operating and maintaining space. (c) Program costs. Program costs include, but are not limited...

  7. 20 CFR 667.210 - What administrative cost limits apply to Workforce Investment Act title I grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... limited to no more than ten percent (10%) of the amount allocated to the local area under sections 128(b... for Statewide administrative costs nor the ten percent (10%) of the amount allotted that may...

  8. 45 CFR 2540.110 - Limitation on use of Corporation funds for administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... administrative costs. (a)(1) Not more than five percent of the grant funds provided under 45 CFR 2516, 2517, 2519... meeting operational matching requirements under the Corporation's award; (ii) Specify that a fixed rate of five percent or less (not subject to supporting cost documentation) of total Corporation funds...

  9. 20 CFR 669.555 - Do the WIA administrative cost limits for States and local areas apply to NFJP grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR NATIONAL FARMWORKER JOBS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Performance Accountability, Planning and Waiver Provision § 669.555 Do the WIA administrative cost limits for States and local areas apply to NFJP grants? No, under 20 CFR 667.210(b),...

  10. 20 CFR 669.555 - Do the WIA administrative cost limits for States and local areas apply to NFJP grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR NATIONAL FARMWORKER JOBS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Performance Accountability, Planning and Waiver Provision § 669.555 Do the WIA administrative cost limits for States and local areas apply to NFJP grants? No, under 20 CFR 667.210(b),...

  11. 20 CFR 645.235 - What types of activities are subject to the administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants? 645.235 Section 645.235 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General Program... cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants? (a) Administrative cost limitation (section...

  12. 20 CFR 645.235 - What types of activities are subject to the administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants? 645.235 Section 645.235 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General Program... cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants? (a) Administrative cost limitation (section...

  13. 20 CFR 645.235 - What types of activities are subject to the administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants? 645.235 Section 645.235 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General Program... cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants? (a) Administrative cost limitation (section...

  14. 20 CFR 645.235 - What types of activities are subject to the administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to be allocated as administrative or program costs to the benefitting cost objectives/categories... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What types of activities are subject to the administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants? 645.235 Section 645.235 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT...

  15. 45 CFR 1301.32 - Limitations on costs of development and administration of a Head Start program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs are those costs related to the overall management of the program. These costs can be in both the personnel and non-personnel categories. (2) Grantees must charge the costs of organization-wide management functions as development and administrative costs. These functions include planning, coordination...

  16. 45 CFR 96.88 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative costs. 96.88 Section 96.88 Public... Assistance Program § 96.88 Administrative costs. (a) Costs of planning and administration. Any expenditure... be included in determining administrative costs subject to the statutory limitation on...

  17. 20 CFR 632.174 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative costs. 632.174 Section 632.174 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... Administrative costs. Administrative costs for this subpart are limited to and shall not exceed 20 percent of...

  18. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  19. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  20. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  1. 45 CFR 1301.32 - Limitations on costs of development and administration of a Head Start program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START GRANTS ADMINISTRATION Personnel... and component training and transportation for staff, parents and volunteers; (2) Costs of functions... associated with parent involvement and component volunteer services; and (4) Expenses related to...

  2. 20 CFR 632.263 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative costs. 632.263 Section 632.263... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.263 Administrative costs. Administrative costs for this subpart are limited to and shall not exceed 20 percent of the funds available....

  3. 45 CFR 263.13 - Is there a limit on the amount of Federal TANF funds that a State may spend on administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Is there a limit on the amount of Federal TANF funds that a State may spend on administrative costs? 263.13 Section 263.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. 45 CFR 263.13 - Is there a limit on the amount of Federal TANF funds that a State may spend on administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is there a limit on the amount of Federal TANF funds that a State may spend on administrative costs? 263.13 Section 263.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  5. How to Control Administrative Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    1991-01-01

    Growth in college administration has increased costs and bureaucracy. Rather than wait for fiscal crisis or consumer revolt, academic leaders, including faculty and administrators, should initiate change by simplifying activities and procedures and rewarding consolidation. The challenge is to use resources more effectively and efficiently in a…

  6. 24 CFR 583.135 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs. 583.135... Administrative costs. (a) General. Up to five percent of any grant awarded under this part may be used for the purpose of paying costs of administering the assistance. (b) Administrative costs. Administrative...

  7. 45 CFR 1336.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative costs. 1336.71 Section 1336.71... Administrative costs. Reasonable administrative costs of the RLF may be paid out of the loan fund. The grant award agreement between the Loan Administrator and ANA will set forth the allowable administrative...

  8. 20 CFR 627.445 - Limitations on certain costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... title II-C programs. (3) The title II-B administrative cost limitation of 15 percent shall be 15 percent... (a) and (b) of this section (section 161(b)). (d) Administrative costs incurred by a community-based... shall establish a system to regularly assess compliance with the cost limitations including...

  9. 20 CFR 631.62 - Cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost limitations. 631.62 Section 631.62 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Federal Delivery of Dislocated Worker Services Through...

  10. 24 CFR 1006.230 - Administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative and planning costs... Administrative and planning costs. Up to such amount as HUD may authorize, or such other limit as may be... planning expenses of the DHHL relating to carrying out the Act and this part and activities assisted...

  11. 45 CFR 149.115 - Cost threshold and cost limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost threshold and cost limit. 149.115 Section 149... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.115 Cost threshold and cost limit. The following cost threshold and cost limits apply individually, to each early retiree as...

  12. 20 CFR 632.263 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs. 632.263 Section 632.263 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.263 Administrative...

  13. Reducing the cost of administrative justice

    SciTech Connect

    Tourtellotte, J.R.

    1982-11-01

    In virtually every sector of government regulation, the complaint has been lodged that the costs of administrative justice are too high. These costs in time, money, resources, and productivity can have a profound effect on the individual consumer. When applied to an energy technology such as nuclear power, costs of administrative justice can transcent time and money to have even more profound and pervasive soeietal effects. Societal costs can be expressed in terms of their impact on important national concerns, that is, the standard of living, technological superiority, and the national energy equation. Some views are presented on the interests involved in the regulation of nuclear power and what can be done to bring those interests into better balance so as to reduce the cost of administrative justice.

  14. 45 CFR 98.52 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.52 Administrative costs. (a) Not more than five percent of...) Planning, developing, and designing the Child Care and Development Fund program; (ii) Providing...

  15. 45 CFR 98.52 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.52 Administrative costs. (a) Not more than five percent of...) Planning, developing, and designing the Child Care and Development Fund program; (ii) Providing...

  16. 45 CFR 98.52 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.52 Administrative costs. (a) Not more than five percent of...) Planning, developing, and designing the Child Care and Development Fund program; (ii) Providing...

  17. 45 CFR 98.52 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.52 Administrative costs. (a) Not more than five percent of...) Planning, developing, and designing the Child Care and Development Fund program; (ii) Providing...

  18. 45 CFR 98.52 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.52 Administrative costs. (a) Not more than five percent of...) Planning, developing, and designing the Child Care and Development Fund program; (ii) Providing...

  19. 24 CFR 511.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATON GRANT PROGRAM Grant Administration § 511.71... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Administrative costs. 511.71 Section 511.71 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  20. 24 CFR 511.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM Grant Administration § 511.71... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Administrative costs. 511.71 Section 511.71 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  1. Why Block Grants Should Increase Administrative Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Federal education programs increase costs because they attach fewer strings to funds than state or local grants, and this is likely to lead to administrative empire-building. Bureaucracy tends pathologically as it grows to generate more work for itself independent of true administrative needs. Some policy implications are drawn. (MJL)

  2. Administrative Costs of Education Voucher Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    This paper focuses on the administrative costs of vouchers programs. It considers the tasks that public and private agencies must undertake and estimates the administrative burdens and cash flow that local programs create. It assumes that all voucher programs, including those meant in part to reduce overcrowding, will be voluntary. The paper…

  3. 45 CFR 96.88 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative costs. 96.88 Section 96.88 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy... planning and administering the low-income home energy assistance program shall be 20 percent of...

  4. 20 CFR 631.62 - Cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost limitations. 631.62 Section 631.62... Reserve Account Funds § 631.62 Cost limitations. The expenditure of funds provided to grantees under this subpart shall be consistent with the cost limitations specified in the grant. Applicants for grants...

  5. 20 CFR 645.235 - What types of activities are subject to the administrative cost limit on Welfare-to-Work grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... WtW including: (i) Accounting, budgeting, financial and cash management functions; (ii) Procurement and purchasing functions; (iii) Property management functions; (iv) Personnel management functions; (v... administrative functions (for example, personnel, procurement, purchasing, property management, accounting...

  6. 24 CFR 511.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM Grant... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative costs. 511.71 Section 511.71 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  7. 24 CFR 511.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATON GRANT PROGRAM Grant... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs. 511.71 Section 511.71 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  8. 24 CFR 511.71 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM Grant... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administrative costs. 511.71 Section 511.71 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  9. 45 CFR 263.13 - Is there a limit on the amount of Federal TANF funds that a State may spend on administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN..., support or operate the portions of information technology or computer systems used for tracking and... those portions of information technology or computer systems used for tracking or monitoring....

  10. 76 FR 74806 - Adjustment of the Amount of an Administrative Costs Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Adjustment of the Amount of an Administrative Costs Assessment AGENCY: Bureau of... decreasing the amount of the administrative costs assessment set forth in the Acreage Limitation Rules and... administrative costs assessment is being decreased to $230. DATES: The decrease in the amount of...

  11. 45 CFR 63.18 - Limitations on costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on costs. 63.18 Section 63.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.18 Limitations...

  12. 24 CFR 578.59 - Project administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Project administrative costs. 578.59... § 578.59 Project administrative costs. (a) Eligible costs. The recipient or subrecipient may use up to... Activities and UFA costs, for the payment of project administrative costs related to the planning...

  13. 24 CFR 578.59 - Project administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project administrative costs. 578... § 578.59 Project administrative costs. (a) Eligible costs. The recipient or subrecipient may use up to... Activities and UFA costs, for the payment of project administrative costs related to the planning...

  14. 42 CFR 432.55 - Reporting training and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting training and administrative costs. 432.55... Expenditures § 432.55 Reporting training and administrative costs. (a) Scope. This section identifies activities and costs to be reported as training or administrative costs on quarterly estimate and...

  15. 42 CFR 432.55 - Reporting training and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting training and administrative costs. 432.55... Expenditures § 432.55 Reporting training and administrative costs. (a) Scope. This section identifies activities and costs to be reported as training or administrative costs on quarterly estimate and...

  16. 42 CFR 432.55 - Reporting training and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting training and administrative costs. 432.55... Expenditures § 432.55 Reporting training and administrative costs. (a) Scope. This section identifies activities and costs to be reported as training or administrative costs on quarterly estimate and...

  17. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United... witnesses; (iii) Reasonable costs of any study, analysis, engineering report, test or project that...

  18. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United... witnesses; (iii) Reasonable costs of any study, analysis, engineering report, test or project that...

  19. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United... witnesses; (iii) Reasonable costs of any study, analysis, engineering report, test or project that...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings Civil Actions by the United... witnesses; (iii) Reasonable costs of any study, analysis, engineering report, test or project that...

  1. 7 CFR 277.9 - Administrative costs principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS OF STATE... households for Food Stamp Program benefits are allowable costs for FNS reimbursement. (c) When costs for... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative costs principles. 277.9 Section...

  2. 7 CFR 277.9 - Administrative costs principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS OF STATE... households for Food Stamp Program benefits are allowable costs for FNS reimbursement. (c) When costs for... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative costs principles. 277.9 Section...

  3. 24 CFR 1006.230 - Administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., including such services as general legal services, accounting services, and audit services; and (4) Other...-specific environmental review costs may be charged as administrative costs or as project costs, at...

  4. 24 CFR 1006.230 - Administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including such services as general legal services, accounting services, and audit services; and (4) Other...-specific environmental review costs may be charged as administrative costs or as project costs, at...

  5. 20 CFR 672.510 - What cost limits apply to the use of YouthBuild program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... definition of administrative costs can be found in 20 CFR 667.220. (b) The cost of supervision and training... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What cost limits apply to the use of Youth... Limitations § 672.510 What cost limits apply to the use of YouthBuild program funds? (a) Administrative...

  6. 20 CFR 672.510 - What cost limits apply to the use of YouthBuild program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... definition of administrative costs can be found in 20 CFR 667.220. (b) The cost of supervision and training... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What cost limits apply to the use of Youth... Limitations § 672.510 What cost limits apply to the use of YouthBuild program funds? (a) Administrative...

  7. 20 CFR 672.510 - What cost limits apply to the use of YouthBuild program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... definition of administrative costs can be found in 20 CFR 667.220. (b) The cost of supervision and training... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What cost limits apply to the use of Youth... Limitations § 672.510 What cost limits apply to the use of YouthBuild program funds? (a) Administrative...

  8. 24 CFR 92.207 - Eligible administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... administrative and planning costs include: (a) General management, oversight and coordination. Reasonable costs of overall program management, coordination, monitoring, and evaluation. Such costs include, but are... CFR part 91. (e) Indirect Costs. Indirect costs may be charged to the HOME program under a...

  9. 24 CFR 92.207 - Eligible administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... administrative and planning costs include: (a) General management, oversight and coordination. Reasonable costs of overall program management, coordination, monitoring, and evaluation. Such costs include, but are... CFR part 91. (e) Indirect Costs. Indirect costs may be charged to the HOME program under a...

  10. 24 CFR 92.207 - Eligible administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... administrative and planning costs include: (a) General management, oversight and coordination. Reasonable costs of overall program management, coordination, monitoring, and evaluation. Such costs include, but are... CFR part 91. (e) Indirect Costs. Indirect costs may be charged to the HOME program under a...

  11. 5 CFR 1639.8 - Interest, penalty, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest, penalty, and administrative costs. 1639.8 Section 1639.8 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Collection, Compromise, Termination, and Referral of Claims § 1639.8...

  12. 45 CFR 30.18 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... age of the debt, an administrative debt may be increased by the cost of living adjustment in lieu of... outstanding penalties, second to administrative charges, third to interest, and last to principal. (g)...

  13. Careful telemedicine planning limits costly liability exposure.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, S A

    1999-12-01

    Recent Federal and state legislation and new payment opportunities from Medicare, Medicaid, and private payers may make it possible to offer telemedicine as a viable, cost-effective alternative to traditional care delivery in communities where access to health care is limited. Originally, nonexistent payment and expensive technology held back telemedicine but, these barriers are giving way to specific applications that can yield dramatic cost savings for group practices in the delivery of medical care while adding features and benefits not typically available in traditional delivery settings. Before joining a telemedicine network, group practices need to negotiate a variety of legal issues related to the corporate practice of medicine, patient confidentiality and privacy, malpractice, informed consent, licensure and credentialing, intellectual property, Medicare and Medicaid payment, fraud and abuse, medical device regulation, and antitrust.

  14. 14 CFR 1261.412 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... costs. 1261.412 Section 1261.412 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Collection of Civil Claims of the United States Arising Out of the... administrative costs. (a) Pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3717, NASA shall assess interest, penalties, and...

  15. 11 CFR 111.55 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. ... Finance Laws § 111.55 Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. (a) The Commission shall assess... CFR 901.9. (b) The Commission shall waive collection of interest and administrative costs on a debt...

  16. 11 CFR 111.55 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. ... Finance Laws § 111.55 Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. (a) The Commission shall assess... CFR 901.9. (b) The Commission shall waive collection of interest and administrative costs on a debt...

  17. 11 CFR 111.55 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. ... Finance Laws § 111.55 Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. (a) The Commission shall assess... CFR 901.9. (b) The Commission shall waive collection of interest and administrative costs on a debt...

  18. 11 CFR 111.55 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. ... Finance Laws § 111.55 Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. (a) The Commission shall assess... CFR 901.9. (b) The Commission shall waive collection of interest and administrative costs on a debt...

  19. 44 CFR 208.42 - Reimbursement for other administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administrative costs. 208.42 Section 208.42 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.42 Reimbursement for other administrative costs....

  20. 5 CFR 179.214 - Interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... costs. 179.214 Section 179.214 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE....C. 3717 and 4 CFR part 101.1 et seq. Penalties and administrative costs will be assessed on all... in part 103 of 4 CFR, chapter II, relating to the compromise of claims (without regard to the...

  1. 48 CFR 252.236-7006 - Cost limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost limitation. 252.236... Clauses 252.236-7006 Cost limitation. As prescribed in 236.570(b)(4), use the following provision: Cost Limitation (JAN 1997) (a) Certain items in this solicitation are subject to statutory cost limitations....

  2. 24 CFR 92.207 - Eligible administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 91. (e) Indirect Costs. Indirect costs may be charged to the HOME program under a cost... consolidated plan. Preparation of the consolidated plan required under 24 CFR part 91. Preparation includes the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible administrative...

  3. 38 CFR 62.70 - Financial management and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Profit Organizations,” codified by VA at 38 CFR Part 41. (b) Grantees must use a financial management... forth in OMB Circular A-122, Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations, codified at 2 CFR Part 235... management of the program. These costs will include the administrative costs, both direct and indirect,...

  4. 38 CFR 62.70 - Financial management and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Profit Organizations,” codified by VA at 38 CFR part 41. (b) Grantees must use a financial management... forth in OMB Circular A-122, Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations, codified at 2 CFR part 235... management of the program. These costs will include the administrative costs, both direct and indirect,...

  5. 38 CFR 62.70 - Financial management and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Profit Organizations,” codified by VA at 38 CFR Part 41. (b) Grantees must use a financial management... forth in OMB Circular A-122, Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations, codified at 2 CFR Part 235... management of the program. These costs will include the administrative costs, both direct and indirect,...

  6. 38 CFR 62.70 - Financial management and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Profit Organizations,” codified by VA at 38 CFR Part 41. (b) Grantees must use a financial management... forth in OMB Circular A-122, Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations, codified at 2 CFR Part 235... management of the program. These costs will include the administrative costs, both direct and indirect,...

  7. 18 CFR 11.1 - Costs of administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 1995, 18 CFR 381.601 (1994), until the total of all such credits equals the filing fee that was paid... Government Dams § 11.1 Costs of administration. (a) Authority. Pursuant to section 10(e) of the Federal...

  8. 18 CFR 11.1 - Costs of administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 1995, 18 CFR 381.601 (1994), until the total of all such credits equals the filing fee that was paid... Government Dams § 11.1 Costs of administration. (a) Authority. Pursuant to section 10(e) of the Federal...

  9. 45 CFR 1179.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administrative costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET §...

  10. 45 CFR 1179.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... administrative costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET §...

  11. 45 CFR 1179.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... administrative costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET §...

  12. 45 CFR 1179.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... administrative costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET §...

  13. 45 CFR 1179.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... administrative costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET §...

  14. 78 FR 8389 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits AGENCY... publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for... CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural Gas, Reporting and...

  15. 42 CFR 409.46 - Allowable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable administrative costs. 409.46 Section 409... MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.46... supervising home health aides as required at § 484.36(d) of this chapter are allowable administrative...

  16. 42 CFR 409.46 - Allowable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable administrative costs. 409.46 Section 409... MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.46... supervising home health aides as required at § 484.36(d) of this chapter are allowable administrative...

  17. 42 CFR 409.46 - Allowable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable administrative costs. 409.46 Section 409... MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.46... supervising home health aides as required at § 484.36(d) of this chapter are allowable administrative...

  18. 17 CFR 204.44 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 204.44 Section 204.44 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 204.44 Interest, penalties, and administrative...

  19. 24 CFR 1003.206 - Program administration costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonable administrative costs and carrying charges related to the planning and execution of community... this section and in § 1003.205—Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management capacity building activities. This does not include staff and overhead costs directly related...

  20. 42 CFR 409.46 - Allowable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Respiratory care services. If a respiratory therapist is used to furnish overall training or consultative advice to an HHA's staff and incidentally provides respiratory therapy services to beneficiaries in their homes, the costs of the respiratory therapist's services are allowable as administrative costs....

  1. 22 CFR 1007.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1007.12 Section 1007.12 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.12...

  2. 22 CFR 1007.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1007.12 Section 1007.12 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.12...

  3. 22 CFR 1007.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1007.12 Section 1007.12 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.12...

  4. 22 CFR 1007.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1007.12 Section 1007.12 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.12...

  5. 22 CFR 1007.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... costs in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 102.13. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1007.12 Section 1007.12 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.12...

  6. 42 CFR 413.35 - Limitations on coverage of costs: Charges to beneficiaries if cost limits are applied to services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., subject to validation by the intermediary, will estimate the current cost of the service to which a limit... when there is no second preceding period) exceed the current cost limits. (Data from the most recently... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage of costs: Charges...

  7. 25 CFR 137.5 - Construction costs limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Construction costs limited. 137.5 Section 137.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.5 Construction costs limited. The...

  8. 25 CFR 137.5 - Construction costs limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Construction costs limited. 137.5 Section 137.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.5 Construction costs limited. The...

  9. 25 CFR 137.5 - Construction costs limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction costs limited. 137.5 Section 137.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.5 Construction costs limited. The...

  10. 25 CFR 137.5 - Construction costs limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Construction costs limited. 137.5 Section 137.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.5 Construction costs limited. The...

  11. 77 FR 38802 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation AGENCY... a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Trinity... hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning...

  12. A comparison of hospital administrative costs in eight nations: US costs exceed all others by far.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, David U; Jun, Miraya; Busse, Reinhard; Chevreul, Karine; Geissler, Alexander; Jeurissen, Patrick; Thomson, Sarah; Vinet, Marie-Amelie; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2014-09-01

    A few studies have noted the outsize administrative costs of US hospitals, but no research has compared these costs across multiple nations with various types of health care systems. We assembled a team of international health policy experts to conduct just such a challenging analysis of hospital administrative costs across eight nations: Canada, England, Scotland, Wales, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States. We found that administrative costs accounted for 25.3 percent of total US hospital expenditures--a percentage that is increasing. Next highest were the Netherlands (19.8 percent) and England (15.5 percent), both of which are transitioning to market-oriented payment systems. Scotland and Canada, whose single-payer systems pay hospitals global operating budgets, with separate grants for capital, had the lowest administrative costs. Costs were intermediate in France and Germany (which bill per patient but pay separately for capital projects) and in Wales. Reducing US per capita spending for hospital administration to Scottish or Canadian levels would have saved more than $150 billion in 2011. This study suggests that the reduction of US administrative costs would best be accomplished through the use of a simpler and less market-oriented payment scheme.

  13. 42 CFR 413.35 - Limitations on coverage of costs: Charges to beneficiaries if cost limits are applied to services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage of costs: Charges to beneficiaries if cost limits are applied to services. 413.35 Section 413.35 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR...

  14. 45 CFR 607.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 101.1. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 607.12 Section 607.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL...

  15. 45 CFR 607.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 101.1. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 607.12 Section 607.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL...

  16. 45 CFR 607.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 101.1. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 607.12 Section 607.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL...

  17. 24 CFR 1006.230 - Administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative and planning costs. 1006.230 Section 1006.230 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities §...

  18. 45 CFR 607.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 101.1. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 607.12 Section 607.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL...

  19. 24 CFR 570.206 - Program administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Program administrative costs. 570.206 Section 570.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 24 CFR 570.206 - Program administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applications and proposals under the Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program pursuant to 24 CFR parts 880... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Program administrative costs. 570.206 Section 570.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  1. 42 CFR 409.46 - Allowable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable administrative costs. 409.46 Section 409.46 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... that constitute skilled care may be separately billed as skilled visits. (d) Dietary and...

  2. 11 CFR 8.5 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 902.2(a). (d) The Commission is authorized to impose interest and related charges on debts not subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. ... administrative costs on debts owed to the United States Government in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31...

  3. 45 CFR 607.12 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 607.12 Section 607.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... Federal Claims Collection Standards, 4 CFR 101.1....

  4. 24 CFR 1003.206 - Program administration costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section and in § 1003.205—Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program administration costs. 1003.206 Section 1003.206 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  5. 26 CFR 301.7430-4 - Reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable administrative costs. 301.7430-4 Section 301.7430-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... calendar year (substituting “calendar year 1995” for “calendar year 1992” in section 1(f)(3)(B)). If...

  6. 45 CFR 1177.7 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1177.7 Section 1177.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  7. 45 CFR 1177.7 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1177.7 Section 1177.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  8. 18 CFR 11.1 - Costs of administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., 1995, 18 CFR 381.601 (1994), until the total of all such credits equals the filing fee that was paid... all such outstanding licenses or exemptions. (4) To enable the Commission to compute on the bill for... of bills based on the administrative costs incurred by the Commission during the year in which...

  9. 18 CFR 11.1 - Costs of administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., 1995, 18 CFR 381.601 (1994), until the total of all such credits equals the filing fee that was paid... all such outstanding licenses or exemptions. (4) To enable the Commission to compute on the bill for... of bills based on the administrative costs incurred by the Commission during the year in which...

  10. 18 CFR 11.1 - Costs of administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., 1995, 18 CFR 381.601 (1994), until the total of all such credits equals the filing fee that was paid... all such outstanding licenses or exemptions. (4) To enable the Commission to compute on the bill for... of bills based on the administrative costs incurred by the Commission during the year in which...

  11. 24 CFR 1006.230 - Administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative and planning costs. 1006.230 Section 1006.230 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities §...

  12. 45 CFR 1177.7 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1177.7 Section 1177.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  13. 45 CFR 1177.7 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1177.7 Section 1177.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  14. 45 CFR 1177.7 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 1177.7 Section 1177.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  15. 7 CFR 3.17 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The cost of living adjustment is the percentage by which the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year preceding the adjustment exceeds the Consumer Price Index for the month of... administrative debts shall be computed annually. Agencies may use this alternative only when there is...

  16. 31 CFR 901.9 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and loan guaranties. The cost of living adjustment is the percentage by which the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year preceding the adjustment exceeds the Consumer Price Index.... Increases to administrative debts shall be computed annually. Agencies should use this alternative only...

  17. The Cost of Prestige: Do New Research I Universities Incur Higher Administrative Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphew, Christopher C.; Baker, Bruce D.

    2004-01-01

    The authors construct and respond to several questions about changing administrative costs for new Research I Universities, a group of institutions that might be expected to incur new costs as a result of their new status. Using IPEDS data, the study provides mixed support for the claim that universities reaching the pinnacle of research…

  18. 48 CFR 1832.705-270 - NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA clauses for limitation... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 1832.705-270 NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds. (a) The contracting officer shall insert...

  19. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal amounts... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the...

  20. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal amounts... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the...

  1. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal amounts... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the...

  2. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal amounts... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the...

  3. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  4. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  5. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  6. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  7. 48 CFR 3432.704 - Limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation of cost or funds. 3432.704 Section 3432.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Limitation of cost or funds. (a) Under the circumstances in FAR 32.704(a)(1), the contractor shall submit...

  8. 10 CFR 602.15 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 602.15 Section 602.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.15 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences...

  9. Guidelines for Serving Students with Limited English Proficiency. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biagini, Joyce; And Others

    A revision of a manual first produced in 1980, this guide is designed to help local school districts in Minnesota meet the educational needs of their limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in academically and administratively expedient ways. The chapters in the manual, which correspond to topics pertinent to designing and maintaining an LEP…

  10. 36 CFR 1206.45 - What rules govern subgrant distribution, cost sharing, grant administration, and reporting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution, cost sharing, grant administration, and reporting? 1206.45 Section 1206.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NATIONAL HISTORICAL..., cost sharing, grant administration, and reporting? (a) The Commission will annually establish...

  11. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(v)(1)(A) of the Act by setting forth the general rules under which CMS may establish limits on SNF... characteristics of the SNF or HHA class, the data on which CMS bases those limits, or the method by which CMS... July 1, 1998, a SNF may request an exception or exemption to the cost limits imposed under this...

  12. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...(v)(1)(A) of the Act by setting forth the general rules under which CMS may establish limits on SNF... characteristics of the SNF or HHA class, the data on which CMS bases those limits, or the method by which CMS... July 1, 1998, a SNF may request an exception or exemption to the cost limits imposed under this...

  13. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...(v)(1)(A) of the Act by setting forth the general rules under which CMS may establish limits on SNF... characteristics of the SNF or HHA class, the data on which CMS bases those limits, or the method by which CMS... July 1, 1998, a SNF may request an exception or exemption to the cost limits imposed under this...

  14. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...(v)(1)(A) of the Act by setting forth the general rules under which CMS may establish limits on SNF... characteristics of the SNF or HHA class, the data on which CMS bases those limits, or the method by which CMS... July 1, 1998, a SNF may request an exception or exemption to the cost limits imposed under this...

  15. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...(v)(1)(A) of the Act by setting forth the general rules under which CMS may establish limits on SNF... characteristics of the SNF or HHA class, the data on which CMS bases those limits, or the method by which CMS... July 1, 1998, a SNF may request an exception or exemption to the cost limits imposed under this...

  16. 24 CFR 248.123 - Determination of Federal cost limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of Federal cost limit... AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayments and Plans of Action Under the Low Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 § 248.123 Determination of Federal cost...

  17. 24 CFR 248.123 - Determination of Federal cost limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of Federal cost limit... AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayments and Plans of Action Under the Low Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 § 248.123 Determination of Federal cost...

  18. Corporations Eye Limits on Matching Gifts to Colleges as Costs Go Up Almost 200 Pct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anne Lowrey

    1987-01-01

    Many corporations are considering limits on how much they spend to match their employees' gifts to colleges. In response to abuses, corporations and colleges have tightened the administration of matching-gift programs, which in turn has contributed to the increased costs of running them. (MLW)

  19. 48 CFR 1832.705-2 - Clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clauses for limitation of cost or funds. 1832.705-2 Section 1832.705-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding...

  20. 48 CFR 1832.705-2 - Clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clauses for limitation of cost or funds. 1832.705-2 Section 1832.705-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding...

  1. 48 CFR 1832.705-2 - Clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clauses for limitation of cost or funds. 1832.705-2 Section 1832.705-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding...

  2. 48 CFR 1832.705-2 - Clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clauses for limitation of cost or funds. 1832.705-2 Section 1832.705-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding...

  3. 48 CFR 1832.705-2 - Clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clauses for limitation of cost or funds. 1832.705-2 Section 1832.705-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding...

  4. Evaluating the administration costs of biologic drugs: development of a cost algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Ebenezer K; Morris, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Biologic drugs, as with all other medical technologies, are subject to a number of regulatory, marketing, reimbursement (financing) and other demand-restricting hurdles applied by healthcare payers. One example is the routine use of cost-effectiveness analyses or health technology assessments to determine which medical technologies offer value-for-money. The manner in which these assessments are conducted suggests that, holding all else equal, the economic value of biologic drugs may be determined by how much is spent on administering these drugs or trade-offs between drug acquisition and administration costs. Yet, on the supply-side, it seems very little attention is given to how manufacturing and formulation choices affect healthcare delivery costs. This paper evaluates variations in the administration costs of biologic drugs, taking care to ensure consistent inclusion of all relevant cost resources. From this, it develops a regression-based algorithm with which manufacturers could possibly predict, during process development, how their manufacturing and formulation choices may impact on the healthcare delivery costs of their products. PMID:26208926

  5. 42 CFR 417.564 - Apportionment and allocation of administrative and general costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apportionment and allocation of administrative and... Apportionment and allocation of administrative and general costs. (a) Costs not directly associated with... administrative and general costs that are not included in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) The allocation...

  6. 20 CFR 668.820 - What rules apply to administrative costs under the INA program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Administrative Requirements § 668.820 What rules apply to administrative costs under the INA program? The definition and treatment of administrative costs are covered in 20 CFR 667.210(b) and 667.220. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What rules apply to administrative...

  7. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  8. 47 CFR 27.1178 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27....1178 Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, under delegated... clearinghouse(s) will administer the cost-sharing plan by, inter alia, determining the cost-sharing...

  9. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  10. 24 CFR 891.853 - Development cost limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Development cost limits. 891.853 Section 891.853 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  11. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  12. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  13. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  14. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  15. Mission possible: creating a technology infrastructure to help reduce administrative costs.

    PubMed

    Alper, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Controlling administrative costs associated with managed care benefits has traditionally been considered a "mission impossible" in healthcare, with the unreasonably high cost of paperwork and administration pushing past the $420 billion mark. Why administrative costs remain a critical problem in healthcare while other industries have alleviated their administrative burdens must be carefully examined. This article looks at the key factors contributing to high administrative costs and how these costs can be controlled in the future with "mission possible" tools, including business process outsourcing, IT outsourcing, technology that helps to bring "consumerism" to managed care, and an IT infrastructure that improves quality and outcomes. PMID:14983647

  16. 24 CFR 92.207 - Eligible administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 91. (e) Indirect Costs. Indirect costs may be charged to the HOME program under a cost... consolidated plan. Preparation of the consolidated plan required under 24 CFR part 91. Preparation includes the... planning costs. 92.207 Section 92.207 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department...

  17. Time limitation, egg limitation, the cost of oviposition, and lifetime reproduction by an insect in nature.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Jepsen, Sarina J; Matthews, Christopher E; Smith, D Solance; Rosenheim, Micah R

    2008-10-01

    For more than 80 years, ecologists have debated whether reproduction by female insect herbivores and parasitoids is constrained by the time needed to find hosts (time limitation) or by the finite supply of mature eggs (egg limitation). Here we present the first direct measures of permanent time limitation and egg limitation and their influences on the cost of oviposition and lifetime reproduction for an insect in nature. We studied the gall midge Rhopalomyia californica, which neither matures nor resorbs eggs during the adult stage. By sampling females soon after their death and correcting for predation effects, we demonstrate that females lay a large proportion of their total complement of eggs (multiyear mean: 82.9%). The egg supplies of 17.1% of females were completely exhausted, with the remaining 82.9% of females being time limited. As predicted by theory, we estimate that even though egg limitation is a minority condition within the population, egg costs make a substantial contribution (57% of the total) to the cost of oviposition. We conclude that insect life histories evolve to produce a balanced risk of time and egg limitation and, therefore, that both of these constraining factors have important influences on insect oviposition behavior and population dynamics.

  18. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.230-6 Administration of Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(d)(1), insert the following clause: Administration of Cost Accounting Standards (JUN 2010) For the purpose of administering the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) requirements under this contract, the Contractor shall take...

  19. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.230-6 Administration of Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(d)(1), insert the following clause: Administration of Cost Accounting Standards (JUN 2010) For the purpose of administering the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) requirements under this contract, the Contractor shall take...

  20. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.230-6 Administration of Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(d)(1), insert the following clause: Administration of Cost Accounting Standards (JUN 2010) For the purpose of administering the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) requirements under this contract, the Contractor shall take...

  1. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.230-6 Administration of Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(d)(1), insert the following clause: Administration of Cost Accounting Standards (JUN 2010) For the purpose of administering the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) requirements under this contract, the Contractor shall take...

  2. 24 CFR 1000.546 - Are audit costs eligible program or administrative expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Oversight and Accountability § 1000.546 Are audit costs eligible program or administrative expenses? Yes, audit costs are an eligible program or administrative expense. If the Indian tribe is the recipient then... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are audit costs eligible program...

  3. 75 FR 21292 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; AVX Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; AVX Corporation AGENCY... administrative settlement for recovery of projected future response oversight costs and performance of work... removal action, pre- payment of future response oversight costs, payment for long-term care of the...

  4. 47 CFR 27.1162 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 27... § 27.1162 Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, under...(s). This clearinghouse(s) will administer the cost-sharing plan by, inter alia, determining the...

  5. High feeding costs limit dive time in the largest whales.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A; Croll, D A; Tershy, B R

    2002-06-01

    Large body size usually extends dive duration in air-breathing vertebrates. However, the two largest predators on earth, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and the fin whale (B. physalus), perform short dives for their size. Here, we test the hypothesis that the foraging behavior of these two species (lunge-feeding) is energetically expensive and limits their dive duration. We estimated the cost of lunge-feeding in both species using an approach that combined attaching time/depth recorders to seven blue whales and eight fin whales and comparing the collected dive information with predictions made by optimality models of dive behavior. We show that the rate at which whales recovered from a foraging dive was twice that of a non-foraging dive and that the cost of foraging relative to the cost of travel to and from the prey patch was 3.15 in blue whales (95 % CI 2.58-3.72) and 3.60 in fin whales (95 % CI 2.35-4.85). Whales foraged in small areas (<1 km(2)) and foraging bouts lasted more than one dive, indicating that prey did not disperse and thus that prey dispersal could not account for the limited dive durations of the whales. Despite the enormous size of blue whales and fin whales, the high energetic costs of lunge-feeding confine them to short durations of submergence and to areas with dense prey aggregations. As a corollary, because of their limited foraging time under water, these whales may be particularly vulnerable to perturbations in prey abundance.

  6. 24 CFR 1003.206 - Program administration costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-management capacity building activities. This does not include staff and overhead costs directly related to... costs must not, however, exceed 10% of the total grant award. (a) General management, oversight and coordination. Reasonable costs of overall program management, coordination, monitoring, and evaluation....

  7. 24 CFR 248.127 - Limitations on action pursuant to Federal cost limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal cost limit. 248.127 Section 248.127 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayments and Plans of Action Under the Low Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 §...

  8. 24 CFR 248.127 - Limitations on action pursuant to Federal cost limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal cost limit. 248.127 Section 248.127 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayments and Plans of Action Under the Low Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 §...

  9. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the River Forest Dry... considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The...

  10. 42 CFR 417.564 - Apportionment and allocation of administrative and general costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... providing medical care. Enrollment, marketing, and other administrative and general costs that benefit the...) Political and lobbying activities. (4) Charity or courtesy allowances. (5) Spousal education....

  11. 78 FR 7776 - Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to... past response costs (``Proposed Agreement'') associated with the Rehrig-United International Superfund... received disclose facts or considerations that indicate that the Proposed Agreement is...

  12. 20 CFR 641.856 - What functions and activities constitute administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... management, accounting, and payroll systems) including the purchase, systems development, and operating costs..., including: (i) Accounting, budgeting, financial, and cash management functions; (ii) Procurement and... carrying out administrative activities or the overall management of the program; (5) Costs of...

  13. The Vital Role of Administrative Cost Allowances to Student Financial Aid Offices: Key Findings from NASFAA's Administrative Cost Allowance Survey, July 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) recently conducted a survey on the 2009-10 award year Administrative Cost Allowances (ACA), which are funds used by colleges and universities to support operations and professional development. Specifically, ACA is often used in essential areas that support the day-to-day…

  14. 20 CFR 632.39 - Administrative cost plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a Native American grantee may be accounted for separately and be allocated by title and program....39 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.39...

  15. 48 CFR 2131.205-71 - Reinsurer administrative expense costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as set forth in the contract is an allowable cost when documented through an internal accounting... expense costs. 2131.205-71 Section 2131.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL...

  16. 48 CFR 2131.205-71 - Reinsurer administrative expense costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as set forth in the contract is an allowable cost when documented through an internal accounting... expense costs. 2131.205-71 Section 2131.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL...

  17. 48 CFR 2131.205-71 - Reinsurer administrative expense costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as set forth in the contract is an allowable cost when documented through an internal accounting... expense costs. 2131.205-71 Section 2131.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL...

  18. 48 CFR 2131.205-71 - Reinsurer administrative expense costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as set forth in the contract is an allowable cost when documented through an internal accounting... expense costs. 2131.205-71 Section 2131.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL...

  19. School District Administrative Costs, Regional Series, and Telecommunications. Special Study. Report to the Arizona Legislature by the Auditor General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    The Arizona Office of the Auditor General conducted a study of Arizona school district administrative costs, regional services, and telecommunications. In the area of administrative costs, the study found that larger, unified districts were more cost effective in terms of district administrative costs per student and students per administrator.…

  20. Contract Administration: Understanding Limitations on Management Rights. A Presenter's Guide. Research Based Training for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Center for Educational Policy and Management.

    This workshop presenter's guide is intended for use by administrators in training one another in the Project Leadership program developed by the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA). The purpose of this particular guide is to train administrators to interpret common contract provisions that affect management's decision-making…

  1. 38 CFR 19.51 - Officials authorized to file administrative appeals and time limits for filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Officials authorized to file administrative appeals and time limits for filing. 19.51 Section 19.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Administrative Appeals § 19.51 Officials authorized to file administrative appeals and time limits for...

  2. 12 CFR 793.10 - Limitation on National Credit Union Administration's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation on National Credit Union Administration's authority. 793.10 Section 793.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 793.10 Limitation...

  3. 6 CFR 11.10 - Interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs. 11.10 Section 11.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... CFR 901.9. Administrative costs of processing and handling a delinquent debt shall be determined...

  4. 6 CFR 11.10 - Interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs. 11.10 Section 11.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... CFR 901.9. Administrative costs of processing and handling a delinquent debt shall be determined...

  5. 23 CFR Appendix F to Part 1200 - PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS F APPENDIX F TO... HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANT PROGRAMS Pt. 1200, App. F APPENDIX F TO PART 1200—PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS (a) Policy. Federal participation in P&A activities shall not exceed 50 percent of the total...

  6. 23 CFR Appendix F to Part 1200 - Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs F Appendix F to... HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANT PROGRAMS Pt. 1200, App. F Appendix F to Part 1200—Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs (a) Policy. Federal participation in P&A activities shall not exceed 50 percent of the total...

  7. 10 CFR 171.25 - Collection, interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... collected pursuant to the procedures of 10 CFR part 15. Interest, penalties and administrative costs for... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection, interest, penalties, and administrative costs. 171.25 Section 171.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ANNUAL FEES FOR...

  8. 77 FR 9652 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake Linden... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake..., Chicago, Illinois, C-14J, 60604, (312) 886-6609. Comments should reference the Lake Linden Superfund...

  9. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  10. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  11. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  13. 25 CFR 122.8 - Administrative costs for management of the fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs for management of the fund. 122.8 Section 122.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES MANAGEMENT OF OSAGE JUDGMENT FUNDS FOR EDUCATION § 122.8 Administrative costs for management of the fund....

  14. 75 FR 3236 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration. A request for public comments was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 58628, on November 13, 2009. No comments were received. Public... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCIES: Department...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  17. 11 CFR 8.5 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... set forth at 31 CFR 902.2(a). (d) The Commission is authorized to impose interest and related charges on debts not subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. .... 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9. (b) The Commission shall waive collection of interest and administrative...

  18. 11 CFR 8.5 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... set forth at 31 CFR 902.2(a). (d) The Commission is authorized to impose interest and related charges on debts not subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. .... 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9. (b) The Commission shall waive collection of interest and administrative...

  19. 11 CFR 8.5 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... set forth at 31 CFR 902.2(a). (d) The Commission is authorized to impose interest and related charges on debts not subject to 31 U.S.C. 3717, in accordance with common law. .... 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9. (b) The Commission shall waive collection of interest and administrative...

  20. 34 CFR 673.7 - Administrative cost allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-STUDY PROGRAM, AND FEDERAL SUPPLEMENTAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY GRANT PROGRAM General Provisions for the... Provisions regulations, 34 CFR part 668. (f) An institution may use up to 10 percent of the administrative... quality of a student's experience; (2) Assuring student access to educational resources, expertise,...

  1. 10 CFR 1015.212 - Interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage by which the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year preceding the adjustment exceeds the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year in which the debt was determined or last adjusted. Increases to administrative debts shall be computed annually. DOE will use...

  2. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  3. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... administrative settlement for recovery of past and projected future response costs concerning the ACM Smelter and... past response costs, as well as future response costs under the settlement. The settlement includes a... considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The...

  4. 77 FR 64513 - Proposed Administrative Agreement for Collection of CERCLA Past Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AGENCY Proposed Administrative Agreement for Collection of CERCLA Past Costs AGENCY: U.S Environmental... collection of a percentage of past response costs at the Ultimate Industries, Inc. Site. Respondent has agreed to pay $8,000 out of total past costs of approximately $83,776.10, in return for a covenant not...

  5. Improving Productivity in Higher Education: Administration and Support Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massy, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Among the many reasons why college and university costs are rising are factors internal to the institutions which hold down productivity. Most efforts to improve productivity usually fail because they do not introduce new energy or information from the outside. In order to improve productivity, formal, non-quantitative evaluation should include a…

  6. Administration: Cost Control, Hiring Practices, Cooperation, Disaster Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Notes on various topics, such as how the Virginia Higher Education system can cut costs; the University of South Carolina's personnel recruitment system; a cooperative program between a college and a hospital; and preparations for tornadoes at an Indiana college. (JF)

  7. 24 CFR 570.206 - Program administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Fair housing activities. Provision of fair housing services designed to further the fair housing... services performed under third party contracts or agreements, including such services as general legal services, accounting services, and audit services; and (4) Other costs for goods and services required...

  8. 22 CFR 213.12 - Interest, penalty and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... either actual or average cost incurred, will be charged on all debts except those owed by State and local... delinquent debts unless prohibited by statute, regulation or contract. (1) Interest begins to accrue on all debts from the payment due date established in the initial notice to the debtor. USAID will assess...

  9. 40 CFR 13.11 - Interest, penalty and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actual or average cost incurred, will be charged on all debts except those owed by State and local... assess interest on all delinquent debts unless prohibited by statute, regulation or contract. (1) Interest begins to accrue on all debts from the date of the initial notice to the debtor. EPA will...

  10. 14 CFR 1261.412 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 do not apply: (i) To debts owed by any State or local government; (ii) To debts... costs on debts owed to the United States. Before assessing these charges, NASA must mail or hand deliver...)). (b) Interest shall accrue from the date on which notice of the debt and the interest requirements...

  11. 22 CFR 213.12 - Interest, penalty and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... either actual or average cost incurred, will be charged on all debts except those owed by State and local... delinquent debts unless prohibited by statute, regulation or contract. (1) Interest begins to accrue on all debts from the payment due date established in the initial notice to the debtor. USAID will assess...

  12. 40 CFR 13.11 - Interest, penalty and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actual or average cost incurred, will be charged on all debts except those owed by State and local... assess interest on all delinquent debts unless prohibited by statute, regulation or contract. (1) Interest begins to accrue on all debts from the date of the initial notice to the debtor. EPA will...

  13. [Ecodialysis: first strategies to limit damages and reduce costs].

    PubMed

    Ferraresi, Martina; Nazha, Marta; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Pereno, Amina; Di Giorgio, Gerardo; Gatti, Rachele; Luisa, Bevilacqua Maria; Miriam, Cagnazzo; Barbara, Cassetta; Giovanna, Denti; Gaetana, Grimaldi; Monterossi, Marianna; Barbero, Silvia; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In the medical field, the attention to the environmental impact of industrial processes and products is still limited. In recent years there has been an increased sensitivity towards the environment; meanwhile, the economic burden of hazardous waste disposal is becoming evident. Dialysis is a "big producer" of waste and it has been estimated that disposal costs can be up to 10-40% of the cost of disposables. So there are several reasons of interest on "ecodialysis": the high amount of waste defined as "potentially hazardous", which requires a very expensive management and the recyclability potential of the non-contaminated waste, that has not yet been fully explored in dialysis. This primary study has been performed in collaboration with the Politecnico di Torino. Its aim has been to define a schedule of activities by a few brainstorming sessions. This schedule is to be readily performed or it should be developed in detail to optimize, by reducing and recycling, the waste production during the dialysis session. The discussion identified seven basic points for the eco-sustainability of haemodialysis to: [1] reduce packaging; [2] facilitate separation of materials, and [3] their discharge; [4] differentiate materials; [5] clearly highlight the potentially hazardous materials; [6] improve the recyclability of plastic products; [7] propose a path of recovery and reuse. Although a full optimization requires a close cooperation with the manufacturers and is achievable only in the long term, the reduction of one pound of potentially contaminated materials could presently lead, on a national scale, to a saving of several million euros, which can be better employed in investments to improve our treatments. PMID:25315732

  14. 20 CFR 641.876 - When will compliance with cost limitations and minimum expenditure levels be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and minimum expenditure levels be determined? 641.876 Section 641.876 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Administrative Requirements § 641.876 When will compliance with cost limitations and minimum expenditure levels be determined? The Department will determine compliance by...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904.410 Section 9904.410 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

  16. 29 CFR 4022.61 - Limitations on benefit payments by plan administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participant dies after December 31, 1992, the plan administrator will pay his spouse $963.26 (0.50×$1,926.51... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on benefit payments by plan administrator. 4022.... Facts. On October 10, 1992, a plan administrator files with the PBGC a notice of intent to terminate...

  17. 45 CFR 63.18 - Limitations on costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs. The amount of the award shall be set forth in the grant award document. The total cost to the Government will not exceed the amount set forth in the grant award document or any modification thereof.... The Government shall not be obligated to reimburse the grantee for costs incurred in excess of...

  18. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  19. Social costs of icatibant self-administration vs. health professional-administration in the treatment of hereditary angioedema in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Icatibant is the only subcutaneous treatment for acute Type I and Type II hereditary angioedema with C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) licensed for self-administration in Europe. Aim To compare the economic impact of two icatibant administration strategies: health professional-administration only (strategy 1) versus including the patient self-administration option (strategy 2). Methods Economic evaluation model based on the building of a decision tree. Both strategies are assumed to have equivalent effectiveness. The payer (Spanish National Health System) and the social perspectives were considered. All relevant cost-generating factors were taken into account. The time horizon was one year. Sources of information included scientific evidence, official data and experts’ opinion. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the underlying uncertainty in the model. Results From the social perspective, which considers both direct (health care costs) and indirect costs (productivity losses), strategy 2 would result into average savings of €121.30 per acute attack compared to strategy 1. For Spain, this would achieve in an annual savings of €551,371. The reduction in direct costs accounts for 74% of the savings and lower indirect costs account for the remaining 26%. Savings per acute attack may range from €79.50 to €169.80; accordingly, the annual savings in Spain may vary between €90,319 and €2,315,360. Conclusion Costs related to the management of acute HAE attacks with C1 inhibitor deficiency may be substantially reduced through interventions targeting home treatment by training patients to self-administer icatibant. PMID:23398817

  20. 75 FR 146 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; David Benvenuti and Howe Cleaners, Howe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past costs concerning the Howe Cleaners... withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which...

  1. 75 FR 36388 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... administrative settlement with Doe Run Resources Corporation (Doe Run), for recovery of past response costs... consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that...

  2. 20 CFR 641.856 - What functions and activities constitute costs of administration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including: (i) Accounting, budgeting, financial, and cash management functions; (ii) Procurement and purchasing functions; (iii) Property management functions; (iv) Personnel management functions; (v) Payroll... management of the program; and (5) Costs of information systems related to administrative functions...

  3. 76 FR 51029 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron... Mercury site in Iron Mountain, Dickenson County, Michigan with the following settling parties: The.... Comments should reference the Carpenter Avenue Mercury site, Iron Mountain, Dickenson County, Michigan...

  4. 77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits... (OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket... establishes cost limits applicable from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  5. 76 FR 8293 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits...) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction.... Applicability date: This final rule establishes cost limits applicable from January 1, 2011 through December...

  6. No Child Left Behind and Administrative Costs: A Resource Dependence Study of Local School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the impact of federal funding on the administrative expenditures of local school districts since the passage of the No-Child-Left-Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Under NCLB, federal education funds were made contingent upon a variety of accountability and reporting standards, creating new administrative costs and challenges for…

  7. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  8. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  9. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  10. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  11. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  12. Administrative Costs in Higher Education: How Fast Are They Really Growing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, David W.; Wassell, Charles S., Jr.; Henson, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that administrative expenditures in US higher education are growing too rapidly, particularly in relation to expenditures that are directly related to instruction, and that this so-called "administrative bloat" is a major factor in the rising cost of higher education. We argue that this perception of rapid growth is…

  13. 78 FR 1858 - Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past and Future Response Costs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... AGENCY Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past and Future Response Costs...''), notice is hereby given that a proposed administrative settlement agreement for recovery of past and... disclose facts or considerations that indicate that the Proposed Agreement is inappropriate, improper,...

  14. 43 CFR 429.17 - When will Reclamation collect administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When will Reclamation collect... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR USE OF BUREAU OF RECLAMATION LAND, FACILITIES, AND WATERBODIES Application Fees and Administrative Costs § 429.17 When will Reclamation collect administrative...

  15. 20 CFR 641.856 - What functions and activities constitute administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What functions and activities constitute administrative costs? 641.856 Section 641.856 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM...

  16. 20 CFR 641.856 - What functions and activities constitute administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What functions and activities constitute administrative costs? 641.856 Section 641.856 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM...

  17. 75 FR 57272 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Gilberts/Kedzie Site, Village of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Gilberts/Kedzie Site, Village of Gilberts... settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Gilberts/Kedzie Site in the Village of Gilberts... whose telephone number is (312) 353- 3804. Comments should reference the Gilberts/Kedzie Site and...

  18. 75 FR 10481 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement: Sherwood Motors, Inc.; West Site/Hows...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed administrative settlement of past response costs concerning the West Site/Hows Corner Superfund... agrees to reimburse the Agency $5,000 in past costs. This settlement amount is based on the ability to... comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is...

  19. 42 CFR 417.564 - Apportionment and allocation of administrative and general costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417... associated with providing medical care. Enrollment, marketing, and other administrative and general costs... medical care must be apportioned on the basis of a ratio of Medicare enrollees to the total HMO or...

  20. 42 CFR 417.564 - Apportionment and allocation of administrative and general costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417... associated with providing medical care. Enrollment, marketing, and other administrative and general costs... medical care must be apportioned on the basis of a ratio of Medicare enrollees to the total HMO or...

  1. 76 FR 69733 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Tracy Lead Battery Site, Tracy, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Tracy Lead Battery Site, Tracy, MN AGENCY... of past response costs concerning the Tracy Lead Battery Site in Tracy, Minnesota with the following.... Comments should reference the Tracy Lead Battery Site and EPA Docket No. CERCLA-05-2012-0001 and should...

  2. Process-Based Governance in Public Administrations Using Activity-Based Costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Bergener, Philipp; Räckers, Michael

    Decision- and policy-makers in public administrations currently lack on missing relevant information for sufficient governance. In Germany the introduction of New Public Management and double-entry accounting enable public administrations to get the opportunity to use cost-centered accounting mechanisms to establish new governance mechanisms. Process modelling in this case can be a useful instrument to help the public administrations decision- and policy-makers to structure their activities and capture relevant information. In combination with approaches like Activity-Based Costing, higher management level can be supported with a reasonable data base for fruitful and reasonable governance approaches. Therefore, the aim of this article is combining the public sector domain specific process modelling method PICTURE and concept of activity-based costing for supporting Public Administrations in process-based Governance.

  3. 38 CFR 21.258 - Cost limitations on approval of self-employment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost limitations on... Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.258 Cost limitations on approval of self-employment plans. A self-employment plan with an estimated or actual cost of less than $25,000 may...

  4. 34 CFR 75.531 - Limit on total cost of a project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limit on total cost of a project. 75.531 Section 75.531 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.531 Limit on total cost of a project. A grantee shall insure...

  5. Alpine scree plants benefit from cryptic coloration with limited cost.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Sun, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Like animals, plants are attacked by enemies (herbivores) that forage using visual cues; however, the defensive coloration type known as cryptic coloration was rarely reported in plants. For most autotrophic plants, because photosynthesis relies on the presence of chlorophyll, a green leaf appearance is standard. However, if having leaves that are not green is more beneficial than costly, such coloration may evolve under certain conditions. Taking advantage of the leaf color dimorphism of Corydalis benecincta, we showed that the cryptically colored leaves confer a clear benefit without obvious cost in natural populations. Based on this study, we try to provide a framework on which to base a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the evolution of cryptic leaf coloration in plants.

  6. 28 CFR 16.98 - Exemption of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of the Drug Enforcement... PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.98 Exemption of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Systems—limited access. (a) The...

  7. 28 CFR 16.98 - Exemption of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of the Drug Enforcement... PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.98 Exemption of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Systems—limited access. (a) The...

  8. 42 CFR 413.35 - Limitations on coverage of costs: Charges to beneficiaries if cost limits are applied to services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR... a second preceding cost period and is a new provider as defined in § 413.30(e), the...

  9. 42 CFR 413.35 - Limitations on coverage of costs: Charges to beneficiaries if cost limits are applied to services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR... a second preceding cost period and is a new provider as defined in § 413.30(e), the...

  10. 42 CFR 413.35 - Limitations on coverage of costs: Charges to beneficiaries if cost limits are applied to services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR... a second preceding cost period and is a new provider as defined in § 413.30(e), the...

  11. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... counted as provided, or to be provided, by the business units of an awardee or subawardee participating in... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the business... before the OT agreement became effective in order to ensure the successful implementation of the...

  12. 34 CFR 609.41 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 609.41 Section 609.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING HISTORICALLY BLACK GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM...

  13. 34 CFR 607.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 607.30 Section 607.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee...

  14. 34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606.30 Section 606.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEVELOPING...

  15. 34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606.30 Section 606.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEVELOPING...

  16. 34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606.30 Section 606.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEVELOPING...

  17. 34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606.30 Section 606.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEVELOPING...

  18. 34 CFR 606.30 - What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and what are the limitations on allowable costs? 606.30 Section 606.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEVELOPING...

  19. Administrative costs for advance payment of health coverage tax credits: an initial analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Stan

    2007-03-01

    Health Coverage Tax Credits (HCTCs), created under the Trade Act of 2002, pay 65 percent of health insurance premiums for certain workers displaced by international trade and early retirees. These credits can be paid directly to insurers when monthly premiums are due, in advance of annual tax return filing. While HCTC administrative costs have fallen significantly since program start-ups, they still comprise approximately 34 percent of total spending. Changes to the HCTC program could lower administrative costs, but the size of the resulting savings is unknown. These findings have important implications for any future tax credit plan intended to cover the uninsured.

  20. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  1. Course of health care costs before and after psychiatric inpatient treatment: patient-reported vs. administrative records

    PubMed Central

    Zentner, Nadja; Baumgartner, Ildiko; Becker, Thomas; Puschner, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited evidence on the course of health service costs before and after psychiatric inpatient treatment, which might also be affected by source of cost data. Thus, this study examines: i) differences in health care costs before and after psychiatric inpatient treatment, ii) whether these differences vary by source of cost-data (self-report vs. administrative), and iii) predictors of cost differences over time. Methods: Sixty-one psychiatric inpatients gave informed consent to their statutory health insurance company to provide insurance records and completed assessments at admission and 6-month follow-up. These were compared to the self‐reported treatment costs derived from the "Client Socio-demographic and Service Use Inventory" (CSSRI‐EU) for two 6‐month observation periods before and after admission to inpatient treatment to a large psychiatric hospital in rural Bavaria. Costs were divided into subtypes including costs for inpatient and outpatient treatment as well as for medication. Results: Sixty-one participants completed both assessments. Over one year, the average patient‐reported total monthly treatment costs increased from € 276.91 to € 517.88 (paired Wilcoxon Z = ‐2.27; P = 0.023). Also all subtypes of treatment costs increased according to both data sources. Predictors of changes in costs were duration of the index admission and marital status. Conclusion: Self-reported costs of people with severe mental illness adequately reflect actual service use as recorded in administrative data. The increase in health service use after inpatient treatment can be seen as positive, while the pre-inpatient level of care is a potential problem, raising the question whether more or better outpatient care might have prevented hospital admission. Findings may serve as a basis for future studies aiming at furthering the understanding of what to expect regarding appropriate levels of post-hospital care, and what factors may help or

  2. 34 CFR 690.10 - Administrative cost allowance to participating schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative cost allowance to participating schools. 690.10 Section 690.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PELL GRANT PROGRAM Scope, Purpose...

  3. 34 CFR 403.195 - What are the administrative cost requirements applicable to local recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met by Local Recipients? § 403... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the administrative cost requirements applicable to local recipients? 403.195 Section 403.195 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  4. 78 FR 22451 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 701, 736, 737, 738, and 750 RIN 1029-AC65 Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement Correction In proposed...

  5. 78 FR 40738 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site AGENCY... incurred for the Double H Pesticide Burial Site in Grandview, Yakima County, Washington. Under this proposed settlement, the settling parties are Double H, L.P.; James T. Hansen; Linda L. Hansen; George...

  6. 34 CFR 30.62 - When does the Secretary forego interest, administrative costs, or penalties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When does the Secretary forego interest, administrative costs, or penalties? 30.62 Section 30.62 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DEBT... debt contained in 4 CFR part 103. (b) For a debt not based on a loan the Secretary may waive,...

  7. 34 CFR 30.62 - When does the Secretary forego interest, administrative costs, or penalties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When does the Secretary forego interest, administrative costs, or penalties? 30.62 Section 30.62 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DEBT... debt contained in 4 CFR part 103. (b) For a debt not based on a loan the Secretary may waive,...

  8. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC...

  9. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC...

  10. 24 CFR 570.610 - Uniform administrative requirements and cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform administrative requirements and cost principles. 570.610 Section 570.610 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating...

  11. 47 CFR 24.241 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.241 Section 24.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  12. 47 CFR 24.241 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.241 Section 24.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  13. 47 CFR 24.241 - Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of the Cost-Sharing Plan. 24.241 Section 24.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the...

  14. 43 CFR 429.19 - What happens if the initial estimate for administrative costs is insufficient?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the initial estimate for administrative costs is insufficient? 429.19 Section 429.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR USE OF BUREAU OF RECLAMATION LAND,...

  15. 77 FR 19425 - Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... AFFAIRS Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar... purposes of calculating VA's charges for prescription drugs that were not administered during treatment but... administered during treatment for: (1) A nonservice-connected disability for which the veteran is entitled...

  16. 78 FR 13675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 69441, on November 19, 2012. Two respondents submitted... the Federal Register at 75 FR 3236, on January 20, 2010. Based on data from the Federal Procurement... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of...

  17. 34 CFR 226.23 - May charter schools use grant funds for administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Local, and Indian Tribal Governments). (b) Consistent with the requirements in 34 CFR 75.564(c)(2), any... OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES... administrative costs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, charter school subgrantees may...

  18. 34 CFR 226.23 - May charter schools use grant funds for administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Local, and Indian Tribal Governments). (b) Consistent with the requirements in 34 CFR 75.564(c)(2), any... OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES... administrative costs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, charter school subgrantees may...

  19. 34 CFR 226.23 - May charter schools use grant funds for administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Local, and Indian Tribal Governments). (b) Consistent with the requirements in 34 CFR 75.564(c)(2), any... OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES... administrative costs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, charter school subgrantees may...

  20. 34 CFR 226.23 - May charter schools use grant funds for administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Local, and Indian Tribal Governments). (b) Consistent with the requirements in 34 CFR 75.564(c)(2), any... OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES... administrative costs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, charter school subgrantees may...

  1. 34 CFR 226.23 - May charter schools use grant funds for administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Local, and Indian Tribal Governments). (b) Consistent with the requirements in 34 CFR 75.564(c)(2), any... OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES... administrative costs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, charter school subgrantees may...

  2. 34 CFR 403.186 - What are the administrative cost requirements applicable to a State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Financial Conditions Must Be Met by a State? § 403.186 What are... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the administrative cost requirements applicable to a State? 403.186 Section 403.186 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  3. 34 CFR 403.195 - What are the administrative cost requirements applicable to local recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met by Local Recipients? § 403... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the administrative cost requirements applicable to local recipients? 403.195 Section 403.195 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  4. What are the costs of limiting CO2 concentrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of stabilizing the concentration of CO2 is fundamentally different than the problem of stabilizing the concentration of a conventional pollutant or even other non-CO2 greenhouse gases. A fraction of any net anthropogenic emission is permanently committed to the atmosphere and in the very long term net anthropogenic emissions must cease if atmospheric CO2 concentrations are to be stabilized. Many of the technologies that could play a large future role in limiting cumulative carbon emissions are minor elements in the present energy system. A portfolio of technologies will be needed to address the variety of technology needs across the world's regions and over time.

  5. 75 FR 8245 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits...) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This final rule is effective February 24, 2010 and establishes...

  6. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  7. Cost of Radiotherapy Versus NSAID Administration for Prevention of Heterotopic Ossification After Total Hip Arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, Jonathan B. Chen, Sea S.; Shah, Anand P.; Coon, Alan B.; Dickler, Adam

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO), or abnormal bone formation, is a common sequela of total hip arthroplasty. This abnormal bone can impair joint function and must be surgically removed to restore mobility. HO can be prevented by postoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use or radiotherapy (RT). NSAIDs are associated with multiple toxicities, including gastrointestinal bleeding. Although RT has been shown to be more efficacious than NSAIDs at preventing HO, its cost-effectiveness has been questioned. Methods and Materials: We performed an analysis of the cost of postoperative RT to the hip compared with NSAID administration, taking into account the costs of surgery for HO formation, treatment-induced morbidity, and productivity loss from missed work. The costs of RT, surgical revision, and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding were estimated using the 2007 Medicare Fee Schedule and inpatient diagnosis-related group codes. The cost of lost wages was estimated using the 2006 median salary data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Results: The cost of administering RT was estimated at $899 vs. $20 for NSAID use. After accounting for the additional costs associated with revision total hip arthroplasty and gastrointestinal bleeding, the corresponding estimated costs were $1,208 vs. $930. Conclusion: If the costs associated with treatment failure and treatment-induced morbidity are considered, the cost of NSAIDs approaches that of RT. Other NSAID morbidities and quality-of-life differences that are difficult to quantify add to the cost of NSAIDs. These considerations have led us to recommend RT as the preferred modality for use in prophylaxis against HO after total hip arthroplasty, even when the cost is considered.

  8. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904.410 Section 9904.410 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

  9. Distribution and cost of wheelchairs and scooters provided by Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Sandra L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Vogel, Bruce; Reker, Dean M; Cooper, Rory A; Boninger, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    During fiscal years 2000 and 2001, the Veterans Health Administration provided veterans with more than 131,000 wheelchairs and scooters at a cost of $109 million. This national study is the first to investigate Veterans Health Administration costs in providing wheelchairs and scooters and to compare regional prescription patterns. With a retrospective design, we used descriptive methods to analyze fiscal years 2000 and 2001 National Prosthetics Patient Database data (cleaned data set of 113,724 records). Wheelchairs were categorized by function, weight, and adjustability options for meeting individual needs (e.g., axle position, camber, position of wheels, tilt, and recline options). Results displayed a cost distribution that was negatively skewed by low-cost accessories coded as wheelchairs. Of the standard manual wheelchairs, 3.5% could be considered beyond the customary cost. Regionally, 71% to 86% of all wheelchairs provided were manual wheelchairs, 5% to 11% were power wheelchairs, and 5% to 20% were scooters. The considerable variation found in the types of wheelchairs and scooters provided across Veterans Integrated Service Networks may indicate a need for evidence-based prescription guidelines and clinician training in wheeled-mobility technologies.

  10. Transcending the Limitations of the Social Sciences: Insight, Understanding, and the Humanities in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, James

    1994-01-01

    Considers the role of the humanities in the study and practice of educational administration, offering significant insights into the human condition and the philosophical and moral aspects of education. Discusses the limitations of the subject-object dualism underpinning traditional social science. Explains how Slipperjack's "Honor the Sun,"…

  11. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential business... business information under administrative protective order. 206.17 Section 206.17 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  12. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... Investigations for Relief From Market Disruption § 206.47 Limited disclosure of certain confidential...

  13. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  14. 19 CFR 206.37 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.37 Section 206.37 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  15. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  16. 19 CFR 206.37 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.37 Section 206.37 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  17. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  18. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  19. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  20. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  1. 29 CFR 4022.61 - Limitations on benefit payments by plan administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on benefit payments by plan administrator. 4022... bankruptcy termination, see §§ 4022.21(e), 4022.22(b), and 4022.23(g).) Example 1. Facts. On October 10, 1992... that includes December 31, 1992, as the proposed termination date. A participant who is in pay...

  2. 48 CFR 1422.1003-4 - Administrative limitations, variations, tolerances and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administrative limitations, variations, tolerances and exemptions. 1422.1003-4 Section 1422.1003-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT...

  3. 48 CFR 1422.1003-4 - Administrative limitations, variations, tolerances and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative limitations, variations, tolerances and exemptions. 1422.1003-4 Section 1422.1003-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT...

  4. 26 CFR 301.7430-2 - Requirements and procedures for recovery of reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative proceeding, then an affidavit that specialized skills and distinctive knowledge as described in that section were necessary in the representation of the taxpayer in the proceeding and that there is a limited availability of representatives possessing such skills and knowledge as described in that...

  5. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  6. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  7. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  8. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  9. 77 FR 59185 - Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... AGENCY Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to the... hereby given that a proposed administrative settlement agreement for recovery of past response costs..., after which EPA may modify or withdraw its consent if comments received disclose facts or...

  10. 77 FR 64989 - Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... AGENCY Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to the... hereby given that a proposed administrative settlement agreement for recovery of past response costs... EPA may modify or withdraw its consent if comments received disclose facts or considerations...

  11. 77 FR 49795 - Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... AGENCY Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to the... administrative settlement agreement for recovery of past response costs (``Proposed Agreement'') associated with... if comments received disclose facts or considerations that indicate that the Proposed Agreement...

  12. Risk-Adjusted Impact of Administrative Costs on the Distribution of Terminal Wealth for Long-Term Investment

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Pérez-Marín, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs. PMID:25180200

  13. Risk-adjusted impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth for long-term investment.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Nielsen, Jens Perch; Pérez-Marín, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs.

  14. Risk-adjusted impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth for long-term investment.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Nielsen, Jens Perch; Pérez-Marín, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs. PMID:25180200

  15. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity: limits and costs of phenotype and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Murren, C J; Auld, J R; Callahan, H; Ghalambor, C K; Handelsman, C A; Heskel, M A; Kingsolver, J G; Maclean, H J; Masel, J; Maughan, H; Pfennig, D W; Relyea, R A; Seiter, S; Snell-Rood, E; Steiner, U K; Schlichting, C D

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce an optimal trait) to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, or that plasticity may have inherent significant costs. Yet numerous experimental studies have not detected widespread costs. Explicitly differentiating plasticity costs from phenotype costs, we re-evaluate fundamental questions of the limits to the evolution of plasticity and of generalists vs specialists. We advocate for the view that relaxed selection and variable selection intensities are likely more important constraints to the evolution of plasticity than the costs of plasticity. Some forms of plasticity, such as learning, may be inherently costly. In addition, we examine opportunities to offset costs of phenotypes through ontogeny, amelioration of phenotypic costs across environments, and the condition-dependent hypothesis. We propose avenues of further inquiry in the limits of plasticity using new and classic methods of ecological parameterization, phylogenetics and omics in the context of answering questions on the constraints of plasticity. Given plasticity's key role in coping with environmental change, approaches spanning the spectrum from applied to basic will greatly enrich our understanding of the evolution of plasticity and resolve our understanding of limits. PMID:25690179

  16. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity: limits and costs of phenotype and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Murren, C J; Auld, J R; Callahan, H; Ghalambor, C K; Handelsman, C A; Heskel, M A; Kingsolver, J G; Maclean, H J; Masel, J; Maughan, H; Pfennig, D W; Relyea, R A; Seiter, S; Snell-Rood, E; Steiner, U K; Schlichting, C D

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce an optimal trait) to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, or that plasticity may have inherent significant costs. Yet numerous experimental studies have not detected widespread costs. Explicitly differentiating plasticity costs from phenotype costs, we re-evaluate fundamental questions of the limits to the evolution of plasticity and of generalists vs specialists. We advocate for the view that relaxed selection and variable selection intensities are likely more important constraints to the evolution of plasticity than the costs of plasticity. Some forms of plasticity, such as learning, may be inherently costly. In addition, we examine opportunities to offset costs of phenotypes through ontogeny, amelioration of phenotypic costs across environments, and the condition-dependent hypothesis. We propose avenues of further inquiry in the limits of plasticity using new and classic methods of ecological parameterization, phylogenetics and omics in the context of answering questions on the constraints of plasticity. Given plasticity's key role in coping with environmental change, approaches spanning the spectrum from applied to basic will greatly enrich our understanding of the evolution of plasticity and resolve our understanding of limits.

  17. 38 CFR 21.258 - Cost limitations on approval of self-employment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved by the VR&E Officer with jurisdiction. Any self-employment plan with an estimated or actual cost of $25,000 or more must be approved by the Director, VR&E Service. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3104... Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.258 Cost limitations on approval of...

  18. 38 CFR 21.258 - Cost limitations on approval of self-employment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved by the VR&E Officer with jurisdiction. Any self-employment plan with an estimated or actual cost of $25,000 or more must be approved by the Director, VR&E Service. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3104... Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.258 Cost limitations on approval of...

  19. 38 CFR 21.258 - Cost limitations on approval of self-employment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved by the VR&E Officer with jurisdiction. Any self-employment plan with an estimated or actual cost of $25,000 or more must be approved by the Director, VR&E Service. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3104... Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.258 Cost limitations on approval of...

  20. 38 CFR 21.258 - Cost limitations on approval of self-employment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved by the VR&E Officer with jurisdiction. Any self-employment plan with an estimated or actual cost of $25,000 or more must be approved by the Director, VR&E Service. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3104... Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.258 Cost limitations on approval of...

  1. The hidden cost of low prices: limited access to new drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Cockburn, Iain M

    2014-09-01

    The pricing and accessibility of patent-protected drugs in low- and middle-income countries is a contentious issue in the global context. But questions about price have little meaning if a drug is not available for purchase, and the extent to which patent policy affects when (and if) new drugs become available in these countries has largely been overlooked. We examined data on the sales of 184 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2000 and 2009. We found that 50 percent of those 184 drugs went on sale in India only after lags of more than five years from their first worldwide introduction. More than half of the drugs that became newly available in India during the study period were produced and sold by multiple manufacturers in the country within one year of their introduction. The presence of multiple manufacturers indicates sharp competition and weak patent protection--factors that are disincentives to manufacturers to incur the costs of gaining access to the market. We conclude that modest patent and regulatory reform could bring the faster availability of a wider range of new drugs in India with limited impact on prices--a trade-off that merits greater policy attention.

  2. The hidden cost of low prices: limited access to new drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Cockburn, Iain M

    2014-09-01

    The pricing and accessibility of patent-protected drugs in low- and middle-income countries is a contentious issue in the global context. But questions about price have little meaning if a drug is not available for purchase, and the extent to which patent policy affects when (and if) new drugs become available in these countries has largely been overlooked. We examined data on the sales of 184 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2000 and 2009. We found that 50 percent of those 184 drugs went on sale in India only after lags of more than five years from their first worldwide introduction. More than half of the drugs that became newly available in India during the study period were produced and sold by multiple manufacturers in the country within one year of their introduction. The presence of multiple manufacturers indicates sharp competition and weak patent protection--factors that are disincentives to manufacturers to incur the costs of gaining access to the market. We conclude that modest patent and regulatory reform could bring the faster availability of a wider range of new drugs in India with limited impact on prices--a trade-off that merits greater policy attention. PMID:25201661

  3. The high-cost, type 2 diabetes mellitus patient: an analysis of managed care administrative data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects 25.8 million individuals in the United States and exerts a substantial economic burden on patients, health care systems, and society. Few studies have categorized costs and resource use at the patient level. The goals of this study were to assess predictors of being a high-cost (HC) patient and compare HC T2DM patients with not high-cost (NHC) T2DM patients. Methods Using managed care administrative claims data, patients with two or more T2DM diagnoses between 2005 and 2010 were selected. Patients were followed for 1 year after their first observed T2DM diagnosis; patients not continuously enrolled during this period were excluded from the study. Study measures included annual health care expenditures by component (i.e., inpatient, outpatient, pharmacy, total). Patients accruing total costs in the top 10% of the overall cost distribution (i.e., patients with costs > $20,528) were classified as HC a priori; all other patients were considered NHC. To assess predictors of being HC, a logistic regression model was estimated, accounting for demographics; underlying comorbidity burden (using the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] score); diagnoses of renal impairment, obesity, or hypertension; and receipt of insulin, oral antidiabetics only, or no antidiabetics. Results A total of 1,720,041 patients met the inclusion criteria; 172,004 were HC. The mean (SD) CCI score for HC patients was 4.3 (3.0) versus 2.1 (1.7) for NHC patients. Mean (SD; upper 95% confidence interval-lower 95% confidence interval) annual per-patient costs were $56,468 ($65,604; $56,778-$56,157) among HC patients and $4,674 ($4,504; $4,695-$4,652) among NHC patients. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs were higher for HC patients than for NHC patients. The strongest predictor of being an HC patient was having a CCI score of 2 or greater (odds ratio [OR] = 4.896), followed by a diagnosis of obesity (OR = 2.106), renal impairment (OR = 2

  4. 77 FR 75163 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contract Funding-Limitation of Costs/Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Contract Funding--Limitation of Costs/Funds AGENCIES: Department of... (NASA). ACTION: Notice of request for public comments regarding an extension of an existing OMB...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0074, Contract Funding--Limitation of...

  5. 13 CFR 107.855 - Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (âCost of Moneyâ). 107.855 Section 107.855 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of......

  6. How to think clearly about Medicare administrative costs: data sources and measurement.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kip

    2013-06-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) annually publishes two measures of Medicare's administrative expenditures. One of these appears in the reports of the Medicare Boards of Trustees and the other in the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA). The latest trustees' report indicates Medicare's administrative expenditures are 1 percent of total Medicare spending, while the latest NHEA indicates the figure is 6 percent. The debate about Medicare's administrative expenditures, which emerged several years ago, reflects widespread confusion about these data. Critics of Medicare argue that the official reports on Medicare's overhead ignore or hide numerous types of administrative spending, such as the cost of collecting taxes and Part B premiums. Defenders of Medicare claim the official statistics are accurate. But participants on both sides of this debate fail to cite the official documents and do not analyze CMS's methodology. This article examines the controversy over the methodology CMS uses to calculate the trustees' and NHEA's measures and the sources of confusion and ignorance about them. It concludes with a discussion of how the two measures should be used.

  7. 20 CFR 641.859 - What other special rules govern the classification of costs as administrative costs or program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), all costs incurred by vendors are program costs. (See 29 CFR 99.210 for a discussion of factors... documented distributions of actual time worked or other equitable cost allocation methods. (d) Specific costs... information systems including the purchase, systems development and operating (e.g., data entry) costs...

  8. The evaluability bias in charitable giving: Saving administration costs or saving lives?

    PubMed Central

    Caviola, Lucius; Faulmüller, Nadira; Everett, Jim. A. C.; Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We describe the “evaluability bias”: the tendency to weight the importance of an attribute in proportion to its ease of evaluation. We propose that the evaluability bias influences decision making in the context of charitable giving: people tend to have a strong preference for charities with low overhead ratios (lower administrative expenses) but not for charities with high cost-effectiveness (greater number of saved lives per dollar), because the former attribute is easier to evaluate than the latter. In line with this hypothesis, we report the results of four studies showing that, when presented with a single charity, people are willing to donate more to a charity with low overhead ratio, regardless of cost-effectiveness. However, when people are presented with two charities simultaneously—thereby enabling comparative evaluation—they base their donation behavior on cost-effectiveness (Study 1). This suggests that people primarily value cost-effectiveness but manifest the evaluability bias in cases where they find it difficult to evaluate. However, people seem also to value a low overhead ratio for its own sake (Study 2). The evaluability bias effect applies to charities of different domains (Study 3). We also show that overhead ratio is easier to evaluate when its presentation format is a ratio, suggesting an inherent reference point that allows meaningful interpretation (Study 4). PMID:25279024

  9. Cost estimation when time and resources are limited: the Brief DATCAP.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Roebuck, M Christopher; McLellan, A Thomas

    2004-10-01

    The Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP) was designed in the early 1990s as a research guide to collect and analyze financial data from addiction treatment programs. The addiction research community could clearly benefit from a version of the DATCAP that reduced the time and effort required for its administration without compromising the integrity of its cost estimates. This paper introduces the Brief DATCAP and presents some preliminary findings. Initial feedback from respondents suggests that the Brief DATCAP is understandable, and easier and quicker to complete than the DATCAP. More importantly, preliminary results indicate that cost estimates from the Brief DATCAP differ from those of the longer DATCAP by less than 2%. These results have important research and policy implications because a shorter yet reasonably accurate cost instrument will enhance the feasibility and precision of future economic evaluations of addiction interventions.

  10. A prospective comparison of the costs of reusable and limited-reuse laparoscopic instruments

    PubMed Central

    DesCôteaux, Jean-Gaston; Blackmore, Kay; Parsons, Louise

    1998-01-01

    Objective To compare the cost and performance of 2 types of laparoscopic instrumentation: reusable laparoscopic hook cautery instruments and curved scissors, or limited-reuse laparoscopic hook cautery instruments and curved scissors. Design A randomized trial. Setting The operating room of a tertiary care hospital. Method All general surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures at the hospital were randomized to be supplied with either reusable or limited-reuse hook cautery and curved scissors. Instrument use was recorded, together with principal outcome measures. Outcome measures Life expectancy of the instruments, the number of cases for which they were used, the number, nature and cost of repairs, their purchase cost and surgeon satisfaction. Results Reusable hook cautery instruments were less expensive than their limited-reuse counterparts. Excellent surgeon satisfaction was reported with the use of this type of instrument. The limited-reuse curved scissors arm of the study was terminated early because of a breach in study protocol. Conclusions Reusable hook cautery instruments were better than their limited-reuse counterparts. Rigorous attempts to compare the cost of laparoscopic instruments may be limited by their rapid evolution in design and the availability of many types of instruments on the market. PMID:9575997

  11. 77 FR 46433 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlements for the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... administrative settlements for recovery ] of past response costs concerning the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site... if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that either of the...

  12. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9.... Commerce entities may have additional policies regarding how interest, penalties, and administrative...

  13. Estimating the administrative cost of regulatory noncompliance: a pilot method for quantifying the value of prevention.

    PubMed

    Emery, R J; Charlton, M A; Mathis, J L

    2000-05-01

    Routine regulatory inspections provide a valuable independent quality assurance review of radiation protection programs that ultimately serves to improve overall program performance. But when an item of non-compliance is noted, regardless of its significance or severity the ensuing notice of violation (NOV) results in an added cost to both the permit holder and the regulatory authority. Such added costs may be tangible, in the form of added work to process and resolve the NOV, or intangible, in the form of damage to organizational reputation or worker morale. If the portion of the tangible costs incurred by a regulatory agency for issuing NOVs could be quantified, the analysis could aid in the identification of agency resources that might be dedicated to other areas such as prevention. Ideally, any prevention activities would reduce the overall number of NOVs issued without impacting the routine inspection process. In this study, the administrative costs of NOV issuance and resolution was estimated by obtaining data from the professional staff of the Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control (TDH-BRC). Based a focus group model, the data indicate that approximately $106,000 in TDH-BRC personnel resources were expended to process and resolve the 6,800 NOVs issued in Texas during 1997 inspection activities. The study's findings imply that an incremental decrease in the number of NOVs issued would result in corresponding savings of agency resources. Suggested prevention activities that might be financed through any resource savings include the dissemination of common violation data to permit holders or training for improving correspondence with regulatory agencies. The significance of this exercise is that any savings experienced by an agency could enhance permittee compliance without impacting the routine inspection process.

  14. Effect of ganaxolone and THIP on operant and limited-access ethanol self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Marcia J.; Strong, Moriah N.; Ford, Matthew M.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that GABAA receptor ligands may regulate ethanol intake via effects at both synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. For example, the endogenous neurosteroid, allopregnanolone (ALLO) has a similar pharmacological profile as ethanol, and it alters ethanol intake in rodent models. Additionally, recent evidence suggests that δ-subunit containing extrasynaptic GABAA receptors may confer high sensitivity to both ethanol and neurosteroids. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ganaxolone (GAN; an ALLO analogue) and gaboxadol (THIP; a GABAA receptor agonist with selectivity for the extrasynaptic δ-subunit) on ethanol intake, drinking patterns, and bout characteristics in operant and limited access self-administration procedures. In separate studies, the effects of GAN (0 – 10 mg/kg) and THIP (2 – 16 mg/kg) were tested in C57BL/6J male mice provided with two-hour access to a two-bottle choice of water or 10% ethanol or trained to respond for 30 minutes of access to 10% ethanol. GAN had no overall significant effect on operant ethanol self-administration, but tended to decrease the latency to consume the first bout. In the limited-access procedure, GAN dose-dependently decreased ethanol intake. THIP dose-dependently decreased ethanol intake in both paradigms, altering both the consummatory and appetitive processes of operant self-administration as well as shifting the drinking patterns in both procedures. These results add to literature suggesting time-dependent effects of neurosteroids to promote the onset, and to subsequently decrease, ethanol drinking behavior, and they support a role for extrasynaptic GABAA receptor activation in ethanol reinforcement. PMID:22613838

  15. 34 CFR 373.22 - What are the limitations on indirect costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the limitations on indirect costs? 373.22 Section 373.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SPECIAL DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS...

  16. 42 CFR 447.206 - Cost limit for providers operated by units of government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Institutional governmentally-operated health care providers (i.e., hospitals, nursing facilities, and ICFs/MR... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost limit for providers operated by units of government. 447.206 Section 447.206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 48 CFR 3452.232-70 - Limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Limitation of cost or funds. 3452.232-70 Section 3452.232-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  18. The Impact of Debt Limitations and Referenda Requirements on the Cost of School District Bond Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary H.; Munley, Vincent G.

    2011-01-01

    One distinction between the markets for corporate and municipal bonds involves institutional constraints that apply to some municipal bond issues. This research focuses on how public finance institutions, in particular explicit debt limits and referenda requirements, affect the borrowing cost of individual school district bond issues. The…

  19. 24 CFR 248.161 - Mandatory sale of housing in excess of the Federal cost limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Federal cost limit. 248.161 Section 248.161 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayments and Plans of Action Under the Low Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of...

  20. 24 CFR 248.161 - Mandatory sale of housing in excess of the Federal cost limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the Federal cost limit. 248.161 Section 248.161 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayments and Plans of Action Under the Low Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of...

  1. 40 CFR 35.925-18 - Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligible land, or advance construction of minor portions of treatment works, including associated... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-18 Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award. That...

  2. 48 CFR 1832.705-270 - NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Funding 1832.705-270 NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds. (a) The contracting officer shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NASA clauses for... insert a clause substantially as stated at 1852.232-81, Contract Funding, in Section B of...

  3. 34 CFR 280.41 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 280.41 Section 280.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MAGNET SCHOOLS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM What...

  4. 34 CFR 280.41 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 280.41 Section 280.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MAGNET SCHOOLS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM What...

  5. 34 CFR 280.41 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 280.41 Section 280.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MAGNET SCHOOLS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM What...

  6. 34 CFR 280.41 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 280.41 Section 280.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MAGNET SCHOOLS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM What...

  7. 34 CFR 280.41 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 280.41 Section 280.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MAGNET SCHOOLS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM What...

  8. 40 CFR 35.925-18 - Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award. 35.925-18 Section 35.925-18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-18...

  9. 48 CFR 1832.705-270 - NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Funding 1832.705-270 NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds. (a) The contracting officer shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NASA clauses for... insert a clause substantially as stated at 1852.232-81, Contract Funding, in Section B of...

  10. 48 CFR 1832.705-270 - NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Funding 1832.705-270 NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds. (a) The contracting officer shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NASA clauses for... insert a clause substantially as stated at 1852.232-81, Contract Funding, in Section B of...

  11. 78 FR 43203 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contract Funding-Limitation of Costs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contract Funding--Limitation of Costs/Funds AGENCY: Department of... (NASA). ACTION: Notice of request for public comments regarding an extension of an existing OMB... ] published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 75163, on December 19, 2012. Two comments were received....

  12. 48 CFR 1832.705-270 - NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Funding 1832.705-270 NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds. (a) The contracting officer shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NASA clauses for... insert a clause substantially as stated at 1852.232-81, Contract Funding, in Section B of...

  13. Trade-offs limiting the evolution of coloniality: ecological displacement rates used to measure small costs.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kiyoko; Sterner, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Multicellular organisms that benefit from division of labour are presumably descended from colonial species that initially derived benefits from larger colony size, before the evolution of specialization. Life in a colony can have costs as well as benefits, but these can be hard to measure. We measured physiological costs to life in a colony using a novel method based on population dynamics, comparing growth rates of unicells and kairomone-induced colonies of a green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus against a reference co-occurring species. Coloniality negatively affected growth during the initial log growth phase, while no adverse effect was detected under nutrient-limited competitive conditions. The results point to costs associated with traits involved in rapid growth rather than those associated with efficient growth under resource scarcity. Some benefits of coloniality (e.g. defence from herbivory) may be different from when this trait evolved, but our approach shows how costs would have depended on conditions.

  14. Trade-offs limiting the evolution of coloniality: ecological displacement rates used to measure small costs

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Kiyoko; Sterner, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Multicellular organisms that benefit from division of labour are presumably descended from colonial species that initially derived benefits from larger colony size, before the evolution of specialization. Life in a colony can have costs as well as benefits, but these can be hard to measure. We measured physiological costs to life in a colony using a novel method based on population dynamics, comparing growth rates of unicells and kairomone-induced colonies of a green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus against a reference co-occurring species. Coloniality negatively affected growth during the initial log growth phase, while no adverse effect was detected under nutrient-limited competitive conditions. The results point to costs associated with traits involved in rapid growth rather than those associated with efficient growth under resource scarcity. Some benefits of coloniality (e.g. defence from herbivory) may be different from when this trait evolved, but our approach shows how costs would have depended on conditions. PMID:20739317

  15. Recent proposals to limit Medigap coverage and modify Medicare cost sharing.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2012-02-24

    As policymakers look for savings from the Medicare program, some have proposed eliminating or discouraging "first-dollar coverage" available through privately purchased Medigap policies. Medigap coverage, which beneficiaries obtain to protect themselves from Medicare's cost-sharing requirements and its lack of a cap on out-of-pocket spending, may discourage the judicious use of medical services by reducing or eliminating beneficiary cost sharing. It is estimated that eliminating such coverage, which has been shown to be associated with higher Medicare spending, and requiring some cost sharing would encourage beneficiaries to reduce their service use and thus reduce pro­gram spending. However, eliminating first-dollar coverage could cause some beneficiaries to incur higher spending or forego necessary services. Some policy proposals to eliminate first-dollar coverage would also modify Medicare's cost sharing and add an out-of-pocket spending cap for fee-for-service Medicare. This paper discusses Medicare's current cost-sharing requirements, Medigap insurance, and proposals to modify Medicare's cost sharing and eliminate first-dollar coverage in Medigap plans. It reviews the evidence on the effects of first-dollar coverage on spending, some objections to eliminating first-dollar coverage, and results of research that has modeled the impact of eliminating first-dollar coverage, modifying Medicare's cost-sharing requirements, and adding an out-of-pocket limit on beneficiaries' spending.

  16. Economic valuation through cost-benefit analysis--possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hansjürgens, Bernd

    2004-12-15

    The economic approach used to evaluate effects on human health and the environment centres around cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Thus, for most economists, economic valuation and CBA are one and the same. However, the question of the possibilities and limitations of cost-benefit analysis is one of the most controversial aspects of environmental research. In this paper, the possibilities and limitations of CBA are analysed. This is done not only by explaining the central elements of CBA, but also by commenting on criticism of it. What becomes clear is that CBA is not only a mere mechanism of monetarisation, but a heuristic model for the whole process of valuation. It can serve as a guideline for collecting the necessary data in a systematic way. The limits of CBA can be mainly seen in the non-substitutability of essential goods, irreversibility, long-term effects and inter-generational fairness.

  17. 45 CFR 2521.45 - What are the limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Your share of member support costs must be non-Federal cash. (4) The Corporation's share of health care...'s share of program costs? 2521.45 Section 2521.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs? The limitations on the Federal...

  18. 45 CFR 2521.45 - What are the limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Your share of member support costs must be non-Federal cash. (4) The Corporation's share of health care...'s share of program costs? 2521.45 Section 2521.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs? The limitations on the Federal...

  19. The Cost-Effectiveness of Repeat HIV Testing During Pregnancy in a Resource-Limited Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lena H.; Cohan, Deborah L.; Sparks, Teresa N.; Pilliod, Rachel A.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening strategies for the prevention of perinatal transmission in Uganda, a resource-limited country with high HIV prevalence and incidence. STUDY DESIGN We designed a decision-analytic model from a health care system perspective to assess the vertical transmission rates and cost-effectiveness of four different HIV screening strategies in pregnancy: 1) Rapid HIV antibody (Ab) test at initial visit (current standard of care); 2) Strategy 1 + HIV RNA at initial visit (adds detection of acute HIV); 3) Strategy 1 + repeat HIV Ab at delivery (adds detection of incident HIV); 4) Strategy 3 + HIV RNA at delivery (adds detection of acute HIV at delivery). Model estimates were derived from the literature and local sources, and life years saved were discounted at a rate of 3% per year. Based on World Health Organization guidelines, we defined our cost-effectiveness threshold as ≤3 times the gross domestic product per capita, which for Uganda was US$3300 in 2008. RESULTS Using base case estimates of 10% HIV prevalence among women entering prenatal care and 3% incidence during pregnancy, strategy 3 was incrementally the cost-effective option that led to the greatest total life years. CONCLUSION Repeat rapid HIV Ab testing at the time of labor is a cost-effective strategy even in a resource-limited setting such as Uganda. PMID:23392461

  20. The evolution of cost efficient swimming in marine mammals: limits to energetic optimization

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    Mammals re-entered the oceans less than 60 million years ago. The transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle required extreme morphological and behavioural modifications concomitant with fundamentally different locomotor mechanisms for moving on land and through water. Energetic transport costs typically reflect such different locomotor modes, but can not be discerned from the fossil record. In this study the energetic challenges associated with changing from terrestrial to aquatic locomotion in primitive marine mammals are examined by comparing the transport, maintenance and locomotor costs of extant mammals varying in degree of aquatic specialization. The results indicate that running and swimming specialists have converged on an energetic optimum for locomotion. An allometric expression, COTTOT = 7.79 mass-0.29 (r2 = 0.83, n = 6 species), describes the total cost of transport in J kg-1m-1 for swimming marine mammals ranging in size from 21 kg to 15,000 kg. This relation is indistinguishable from that describing total transport costs in running mammals. In contrast, the transitional lifestyle of semi-aquatic mammals, similar to that of ancestral marine mammals, incurs costs that are 2.4 to 5.1 times higher than locomotor specialists. These patterns suggest that primitive marine mammals confronted an energetic hurdle before returning to costs reminiscent of their terrestrial ancestry, and may have reached an evolutionary limit for energetic optimization during swimming.

  1. 76 FR 47238 - Ninth Administrative Review of Honey From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews in Part, 76 FR 5137 (January 28, 2011... Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice is published pursuant to section 751...: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results AGENCY: Import Administration, International...

  2. 13 CFR 142.34 - Are there any limitations on the right to appeal to the Administrator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are there any limitations on the right to appeal to the Administrator? 142.34 Section 142.34 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.34...

  3. 13 CFR 142.34 - Are there any limitations on the right to appeal to the Administrator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are there any limitations on the right to appeal to the Administrator? 142.34 Section 142.34 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.34...

  4. 13 CFR 142.34 - Are there any limitations on the right to appeal to the Administrator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are there any limitations on the right to appeal to the Administrator? 142.34 Section 142.34 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.34...

  5. 45 CFR 2521.45 - What are the limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the limitations on the Federal government... limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs? The limitations on the Federal government's... support: The Federal share, including Corporation and other Federal funds, of member support costs,...

  6. 45 CFR 2521.45 - What are the limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the limitations on the Federal government... limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs? The limitations on the Federal government's... support: The Federal share, including Corporation and other Federal funds, of member support costs,...

  7. 7 CFR 400.95 - Time limitations for filing and responding to requests for administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... demonstrate a physical inability to timely file the request for administrative review. ... for administrative review. 400.95 Section 400.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... administrative review. (a) A request for administrative review must be filed within 30 days of receipt of...

  8. 7 CFR 400.95 - Time limitations for filing and responding to requests for administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... demonstrate a physical inability to timely file the request for administrative review. ... for administrative review. 400.95 Section 400.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... administrative review. (a) A request for administrative review must be filed within 30 days of receipt of...

  9. 14 CFR 406.109 - Administrative law judges-powers and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (1) The administrative law judge must file with the FDMS, or instruct the party to file with the FDMS... administrative law judge must file with the FDMS a copy of each ruling and order issued by the administrative law... administrative law judge may disqualify himself or herself at any time. A party may file a motion, pursuant...

  10. Can cost sharing measures improve the function of outpatient departments of public hospitals: the opinions of administrative directors.

    PubMed

    Tsirona, Christina; Siskou, Olga; Galanis, Peter; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Tsavalias, Konstantinos; Ragkousi, Argyro; Semertziadi, Maria; Anagnostopoulou, Ioanna; Vafiadis, John; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study aiming to investigate the opinions of administrative personnel concerning the effectiveness of a cost sharing mechanism (of euro 5/visit) at public hospitals' outpatient departments. Data was derived through a structured questionnaire (developed by the researchers) which appealed to 112 administrative directors of public hospitals. Results highlighted a positive attitude concerning the function of the cost - sharing mechanism at public hospitals, a rather fair measure for the users (vulnerable groups are excluded) which probably is enhancing the monetary flow in public hospitals.

  11. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. In an investigation...

  12. Delivering pediatric HIV care in resource-limited settings: cost considerations in an expanded response.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Michael A; Phelps, B Ryan; Desmond, Chris; Sugandhi, Nandita; Omeogu, Chinyere; Jamieson, David; Ahmed, Saeed; Reuben, Elan; Muhe, Lulu; Kellerman, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    If children are to be protected from HIV, the expansion of PMTCT programs must be complemented by increased provision of paediatric treatment. This is expensive, yet there are humanitarian, equity and children's rights arguments to justify the prioritization of treating HIV-infected children. In the context of limited budgets, inefficiencies cost lives, either through lower coverage or less effective services. With the goal of informing the design and expansion of efficient paediatric treatment programs able to utilize to greatest effect the available resources allocated to the treatment of HIV-infected children, this article reviews what is known about cost drivers in paediatric HIV interventions, and makes suggestions for improving efficiency in paediatric HIV programming. High-impact interventions known to deliver disproportional returns on investment are highlighted and targeted for immediate scale-up. Progress will carry a cost - increased funding, as well as additional data on intervention costs and outcomes, will be required if universal access of HIV-infected children to treatment is to be achieved and sustained. PMID:24361627

  13. Delivering pediatric HIV care in resource-limited settings: cost considerations in an expanded response.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Michael A; Phelps, B Ryan; Desmond, Chris; Sugandhi, Nandita; Omeogu, Chinyere; Jamieson, David; Ahmed, Saeed; Reuben, Elan; Muhe, Lulu; Kellerman, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    If children are to be protected from HIV, the expansion of PMTCT programs must be complemented by increased provision of paediatric treatment. This is expensive, yet there are humanitarian, equity and children's rights arguments to justify the prioritization of treating HIV-infected children. In the context of limited budgets, inefficiencies cost lives, either through lower coverage or less effective services. With the goal of informing the design and expansion of efficient paediatric treatment programs able to utilize to greatest effect the available resources allocated to the treatment of HIV-infected children, this article reviews what is known about cost drivers in paediatric HIV interventions, and makes suggestions for improving efficiency in paediatric HIV programming. High-impact interventions known to deliver disproportional returns on investment are highlighted and targeted for immediate scale-up. Progress will carry a cost - increased funding, as well as additional data on intervention costs and outcomes, will be required if universal access of HIV-infected children to treatment is to be achieved and sustained.

  14. Limited By Cost: The Case Against Humans In The Scientific Exploration Of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Andrew J.

    2001-11-01

    Human space flight represents a heady mix of bravery and drama which can be inspirational to nations and to humankind but at huge economic cost. Due to the current high launch costs only a handful of people have ventured beyond low Earth orbit and walked on the Moon, propelled by aspirations related more to the Cold War than to science. Problems with reusable launch vehicle development mean that severe launch cost limitations will exist for some time. Meanwhile, cheaper robotic probes have visited all the planets except Pluto, flown by comets, landed on Mars, Venus and an asteroid, have probed Jupiter's atmosphere and studied the Universe beyond our own solar system with telescopes. Using these data we are determining mankind's place in the Universe. Public interest in the historic Eros landing eclipsed a simultaneous space walk at the fledgling International Space Station and the Mars Pathfinder landing generated hundreds of millions of website hits in a few days. Given the fact that hundreds of Mars missions could be flown for the still-escalating cost of the International Space Station, the unsuitability of human bodies for deep space exploration, and the advances in 3-d and virtual reality techniques, we discuss whether human exploration needs a place in a realistic, useful and inspirational space programme.

  15. 10 CFR 719.32 - For what costs is the contractor, or Department retained counsel, limited to reimbursement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false For what costs is the contractor, or Department retained counsel, limited to reimbursement of actual costs only? 719.32 Section 719.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Reimbursement of Costs Subject to This Part § 719.32 For what...

  16. 25 CFR 513.5 - What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 513.5 What is the Commission's policy on interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs? (a) Interest. (1) The...

  17. 45 CFR 156.480 - Oversight of the administration of the cost-sharing reductions and advance payments of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Health Insurance Issuer Responsibilities With Respect to Advance Payments of the Premium Tax Credit and Cost... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oversight of the administration of the...

  18. Regulatory and cost barriers are likely to limit biosimilar development and expected savings in the near future.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Henry G; Guha, Rahul; Salgado, Maria

    2014-06-01

    In March 2010 Congress established an abbreviated Food and Drug Administration approval pathway for biosimilars-drugs that are very similar but not identical to a reference biological product and cost less. Because bringing biosimilars to the market currently requires large investments of money, fewer biosimilars are expected to enter the biologics market than has been the case with generic drugs entering the small-molecule drug market. Additionally, given the high regulatory hurdles to obtaining interchangeability-which would allow pharmacists to substitute a biosimilar for its reference product, subject to evolving state substitution laws-most biosimilars will likely compete as therapeutic alternatives instead of as therapeutic equivalents. In other words, biosimilars will need to compete with their reference product on the basis of quality; price; and manufacturer's reputation with physicians, insurers, and patient groups. Biosimilars also will face dynamic competition from new biologics in the same therapeutic class-including "biobetters," which offer incremental improvements on reference products, such as extended duration of action. The prospects for significant cost savings from the use of biosimilars appear to be limited for the next several years, but their use should increase over time because of both demand- and supply-side factors.

  19. Regulatory and cost barriers are likely to limit biosimilar development and expected savings in the near future.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Henry G; Guha, Rahul; Salgado, Maria

    2014-06-01

    In March 2010 Congress established an abbreviated Food and Drug Administration approval pathway for biosimilars-drugs that are very similar but not identical to a reference biological product and cost less. Because bringing biosimilars to the market currently requires large investments of money, fewer biosimilars are expected to enter the biologics market than has been the case with generic drugs entering the small-molecule drug market. Additionally, given the high regulatory hurdles to obtaining interchangeability-which would allow pharmacists to substitute a biosimilar for its reference product, subject to evolving state substitution laws-most biosimilars will likely compete as therapeutic alternatives instead of as therapeutic equivalents. In other words, biosimilars will need to compete with their reference product on the basis of quality; price; and manufacturer's reputation with physicians, insurers, and patient groups. Biosimilars also will face dynamic competition from new biologics in the same therapeutic class-including "biobetters," which offer incremental improvements on reference products, such as extended duration of action. The prospects for significant cost savings from the use of biosimilars appear to be limited for the next several years, but their use should increase over time because of both demand- and supply-side factors. PMID:24889955

  20. Individual social security accounts: issues in assessing administrative feasibility and costs.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Salisbury, D L

    1998-11-01

    Whether to add individual accounts (IAs) to the Social Security system is a highly political issue. But almost lost in the debate so far have been any practical considerations about how to administer such accounts. Any discussion of whether to create individual accounts must also address the basic but critical questions of how they would work: Who would run them? What would they cost? Logistically, are they even possible? This EBRI Issue Brief provides an overview of the most salient administrative issues facing the current Social Security reform debate--issues that challenge proponents to carefully think through how their proposals could be implemented so as to achieve their policy goals. The options and difficulties in administering IAs raise concerns that cut across ideology. The object of this report is neither to dissuade the advocates nor support the critics of individual accounts. Rather, it is to bring practical considerations to a political debate that has largely ignored the pragmatic challenges of whether IAs would be too complex for participants to understand or too difficult for record keepers to administer. The major findings in this analysis include: Adding individual accounts to Social Security could be the largest undertaking in the history of the U.S. financial market, and no system to date has the capacity to administer such a system. The number of workers currently covered by Social Security--the largest single entitlement program in the nation--is at least four times higher than the combined number of all tax-favored employment-based retirement accounts in the United States, which are administered by hundreds of entities. Direct comparisons between employment-based retirement savings plans and Social Security reform are tenuous at best. Social Security covers workers and businesses that are disproportionately excluded from employment-based plans. Because of these differences, a system of individual Social Security accounts would be more

  1. The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available. PMID:22022632

  2. Cost-appropriateness of whole body vs limited bone imaging for suspected focal sports injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.E.

    1986-07-01

    Bone imaging has been recognized as a useful diagnostic tool in detecting the presence of focal musculoskeletal injury when radiographs are normal. A retrospective review of bone images in a small number of amateur athletes indicates that secondary injuries were commonly detected at sites different from the site of musculoskeletal pain being evaluated for injury. While a larger study will be necessary to confirm the data, this review suggests that it is medically justified and cost-appropriate to perform imaging of the entire skeleton as opposed to imaging limited to the anatomic site of pain and suspected injury.

  3. 78 FR 48434 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... compromise of past and projected future oversight costs concerning the Carter Carburetor Superfund Site in St... comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the compromise of costs...

  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Costs of Administration of an OSCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusimano, Michael D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study compared the costs of a six-station structured oral examination and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for a surgery clerkship, assessing both faculty and materials costs. The OSCE was found to be more time consuming and expensive. Cost-cutting measures and guidelines to assist medical schools in selecting test type are…

  5. Tough Choices: A Guide to Administrative Cost Management in Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, Rosslyn, VA.

    This guide is a product of a study conducted as part of a broader effort by the Department of Education to identify the causes of rising college costs and find and disseminate ways to contain these costs. In institutions of higher education most costs are manageable and can be contained without jeopardizing key services. This can be achieved by…

  6. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Government will pay no aggregate increased costs. (b) Submit to the CFAO a description of any cost accounting... Disclosure Statement, if applicable), and any written statement that the cost impact of the change is... as may be mutually agreed to by the CFAO and the Contractor) before implementation of the change.......

  7. Processing power limits social group size: computational evidence for the cognitive costs of sociality.

    PubMed

    Dávid-Barrett, T; Dunbar, R I M

    2013-08-22

    Sociality is primarily a coordination problem. However, the social (or communication) complexity hypothesis suggests that the kinds of information that can be acquired and processed may limit the size and/or complexity of social groups that a species can maintain. We use an agent-based model to test the hypothesis that the complexity of information processed influences the computational demands involved. We show that successive increases in the kinds of information processed allow organisms to break through the glass ceilings that otherwise limit the size of social groups: larger groups can only be achieved at the cost of more sophisticated kinds of information processing that are disadvantageous when optimal group size is small. These results simultaneously support both the social brain and the social complexity hypotheses.

  8. Processing power limits social group size: computational evidence for the cognitive costs of sociality

    PubMed Central

    Dávid-Barrett, T.; Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2013-01-01

    Sociality is primarily a coordination problem. However, the social (or communication) complexity hypothesis suggests that the kinds of information that can be acquired and processed may limit the size and/or complexity of social groups that a species can maintain. We use an agent-based model to test the hypothesis that the complexity of information processed influences the computational demands involved. We show that successive increases in the kinds of information processed allow organisms to break through the glass ceilings that otherwise limit the size of social groups: larger groups can only be achieved at the cost of more sophisticated kinds of information processing that are disadvantageous when optimal group size is small. These results simultaneously support both the social brain and the social complexity hypotheses. PMID:23804623

  9. Quantifying limitations in chemotherapy data in administrative health databases: implications for measuring the quality of colorectal cancer care.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Robin; Rayson, Daniel; Porter, Geoffrey A; Grunfeld, Eva

    2011-08-01

    Reliable chemotherapy data are critical to evaluate the quality of care for patients with colorectal cancer who are treated with curative intent. In Canada, limitations in the availability and completeness of chemotherapy data exist in many administrative health databases. In this paper, we discuss these limitations and present findings from a chart review in Nova Scotia that quantifies the completeness of chemotherapy capture in existing databases. The results demonstrate that even basic information on cancer treatment in administrative databases can be insufficient to perform the types of analyses that most decision-makers require for quality-of-care measurement.

  10. Quantifying limitations in chemotherapy data in administrative health databases: implications for measuring the quality of colorectal cancer care.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Robin; Rayson, Daniel; Porter, Geoffrey A; Grunfeld, Eva

    2011-08-01

    Reliable chemotherapy data are critical to evaluate the quality of care for patients with colorectal cancer who are treated with curative intent. In Canada, limitations in the availability and completeness of chemotherapy data exist in many administrative health databases. In this paper, we discuss these limitations and present findings from a chart review in Nova Scotia that quantifies the completeness of chemotherapy capture in existing databases. The results demonstrate that even basic information on cancer treatment in administrative databases can be insufficient to perform the types of analyses that most decision-makers require for quality-of-care measurement. PMID:22851984

  11. The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hermansen, Sigurd W.; Leitzmann, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the “gold standard” for ascertainment of US mortality, high search costs per year and per subject for large cohorts warrant consideration of less costly alternatives. In this study, for 1995–2001 deaths, the authors compared matches of a random sample of 11,968 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study subjects to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF) and commercial list updates (CLU) with matches of those subjects to the NDI. They examined how varying the lower limits of estimated DMF match probabilities (m scores of 0.60, 0.20, and 0.05) altered the benefits and costs of mortality ascertainment. Observed DMF/CLU ascertainment of NDI-identified decedents increased from 89.8% to 95.1% as m decreased from 0.60 (stringent) to 0.20 (less stringent) and increased further to 96.4% as m decreased to 0.05 (least stringent). At these same cutpoints, the false-match probability increased from 0.4% of the sample to 0.6% and then 2.3%. Limiting NDI cause-of-death searches to subjects found in DMF searches using less stringent match criteria, further supplemented by CLU vital status updates, improves vital status assessment while increasing substantially the cost-effectiveness of ascertaining mortality in large prospective cohort studies. PMID:19251755

  12. Plant process computer replacements - techniques to limit installation schedules and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.; Olson, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Plant process computer systems, a standard fixture in all nuclear power plants, are used to monitor and display important plant process parameters. Scanning thousands of field sensors and alarming out-of-limit values, these computer systems are heavily relied on by control room operators. The original nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendor for the power plant often supplied the plant process computer. Designed using sixties and seventies technology, a plant's original process computer has been obsolete for some time. Driven by increased maintenance costs and new US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations such as NUREG-0737, Suppl. 1, many utilities have replaced their process computers with more modern computer systems. Given that computer systems are by their nature prone to rapid obsolescence, this replacement cycle will likely repeat. A process computer replacement project can be a significant capital expenditure and must be performed during a scheduled refueling outage. The object of the installation process is to install a working system on schedule. Experience gained by supervising several computer replacement installations has taught lessons that, if applied, will shorten the schedule and limit the risk of costly delays. Examples illustrating this technique are given. This paper and these examples deal only with the installation process and assume that the replacement computer system has been adequately designed, and development and factory tested.

  13. Initial investigation into lower-cost CT for resource limited regions of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, James T., III; Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul; Li, Christina M.; Kigongo, Christopher J. N.

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an initial investigation into means for producing lower-cost CT scanners for resource limited regions of the world. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, intermediate level medical facilities serving millions have no CT machines, and lack the imaging resources necessary to determine whether certain patients would benefit from being transferred to a hospital in a larger city for further diagnostic workup or treatment. Low-cost CT scanners would potentially be of immense help to the healthcare system in such regions. Such scanners would not produce state-of-theart image quality, but rather would be intended primarily for triaging purposes to determine the patients who would benefit from transfer to larger hospitals. The lower-cost scanner investigated here consists of a fixed digital radiography system and a rotating patient stage. This paper describes initial experiments to determine if such a configuration is feasible. Experiments were conducted using (1) x-ray image acquisition, a physical anthropomorphic chest phantom, and a flat-panel detector system, and (2) a computer-simulated XCAT chest phantom. Both the physical phantom and simulated phantom produced excellent image quality reconstructions when the phantom was perfectly aligned during acquisition, but artifacts were noted when the phantom was displaced to simulate patient motion. An algorithm was developed to correct for motion of the phantom and demonstrated success in correcting for 5-mm motion during 360-degree acquisition of images. These experiments demonstrated feasibility for this approach, but additional work is required to determine the exact limitations produced by patient motion.

  14. Subcutaneous vs intravenous administration of immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an Italian cost-minimization analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Carlo; Lopiano, Leonardo; Cocito, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Prior researches have suggested that home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is equally effective and can be less expensive than hospital-based intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients. This economic evaluation aims at comparing costs of SCIG vs IVIG for CIDP patients in Italy. A 1-year model-based cost-minimization analysis basically populated via neurologists' opinion was undertaken from a societal perspective. Health care resources included immunoglobulin; drugs for premedication and complications (rash, headache, and hypertension) management; time of various health care professionals; pump for SCIG self-administration; infusion disposables. Non-health care resources encompassed transport and parking; losses of working and leisure time for patients and caregivers. Unit or yearly costs for resources valuation were mainly obtained from published sources. Costs were expressed in Euro () 2013. An extensive one-way sensitivity analysis (OWSA) and a scenario SA tested the robustness of the base case findings. Overall costs per patient amount to 49,534.75 (SCIG) and 50,895.73 (IVIG); saving in favour of SCIG reaches 1360.98. For both SCIG and IVIG, the cost driver was immunoglobulin (94.06 vs 86.06 % of the overall costs, respectively). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the consistency of the baseline results. SCIG may be a cost-saving therapy for Italian CIDP patients.

  15. Estimating the cost of diabetes mellitus-related events from inpatient admissions in Sweden using administrative hospitalization data.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Clarke, Philip; Hayes, Alison; Gudbjornsdottir, Soffia

    2009-01-01

    To estimate short- and long-term costs of inpatient hospitalization in Sweden for major diabetes mellitus-related events. Costs were estimated using administrative hospital data from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, which is linked to the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Data were available for 179 749 patients with diabetes in Sweden from 1998 to 2003 (mean and median duration of 6 years' follow-up). Costing of inpatient admissions was based on Nordic diagnosis-related groups (NordDRG). Multiple regression analysis (linear and generalizing estimating equation models) was used to estimate inpatient care costs controlling for age, sex and co-morbidities. The data on hospitalizations were converted to costs (euro) using 2003 exchange rates. The average annual costs (linear model) associated with inpatient admissions for a 60-year-old male in the year the first event first occurred were as follows: euro6488 (95% CI 5034, 8354) for diabetic coma; euro6850 (95% CI 6514, 7204) for heart failure; euro7853 (95% CI 7559, 8144) for non-fatal stroke; euro8121 (95% CI 7104, 9128) for peripheral circulatory complications; euro8736 (95% CI 8474, 9001) for non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI); euro10 360 (95% CI 10 085, 10 643) for ischaemic heart disease; euro11 411 (95% CI 10 298, 12 654) for renal failure; and euro14 949 (95% CI 13 849, 16 551) for amputation. On average, the costs were higher when co-morbidity was accounted for (e.g. MI with co-morbidity was twice as costly as MI alone). Average hospital inpatient costs associated with common diabetes-related events can be estimated using panel data regression methods. These could assist in modelling of long-term costs of diabetes and in evaluating the cost effectiveness of improving care.

  16. 77 FR 44238 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Resources Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri, for recovery of past response costs concerning the Big River... received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper,...

  17. 78 FR 77673 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... recovery of past response costs concerning the Cadie Auto Salvage Site in Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois... comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is...

  18. 76 FR 26291 - Proposed CERCLA AdministrativeCost Recovery” Settlement; the Doe Run Resources Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Big River Mine Tailings Superfund Site, St... facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or...

  19. 78 FR 74128 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... recovery of past response costs concerning the Cadie Auto Salvage Site in Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois... comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is...

  20. Estimating Lifetime Costs of Social Care: A Bayesian Approach Using Linked Administrative Datasets from Three Geographical Areas.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2015-12-01

    We estimated lifetime costs of publicly funded social care, covering services such as residential and nursing care homes, domiciliary care and meals. Like previous studies, we constructed microsimulation models. However, our transition probabilities were estimated from longitudinal, linked administrative health and social care datasets, rather than from survey data. Administrative data were obtained from three geographical areas of England, and we estimated transition probabilities in each of these sites flexibly using Bayesian methods. This allowed us to quantify regional variation as well as the impact of structural and parameter uncertainty regarding the transition probabilities. Expected lifetime costs at age 65 were £20,200-27,000 for men and £38,700-49,000 for women, depending on which of the three areas was used to calibrate the model. Thus, patterns of social care spending differed markedly between areas, with mean costs varying by almost £10,000 (25%) across the lifetime for people of the same age and gender. Allowing for structural and parameter uncertainty had little impact on expected lifetime costs, but slightly increased the risk of very high costs, which will have implications for insurance products for social care through increasing requirements for capital reserves. PMID:25385010

  1. Estimating Lifetime Costs of Social Care: A Bayesian Approach Using Linked Administrative Datasets from Three Geographical Areas.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2015-12-01

    We estimated lifetime costs of publicly funded social care, covering services such as residential and nursing care homes, domiciliary care and meals. Like previous studies, we constructed microsimulation models. However, our transition probabilities were estimated from longitudinal, linked administrative health and social care datasets, rather than from survey data. Administrative data were obtained from three geographical areas of England, and we estimated transition probabilities in each of these sites flexibly using Bayesian methods. This allowed us to quantify regional variation as well as the impact of structural and parameter uncertainty regarding the transition probabilities. Expected lifetime costs at age 65 were £20,200-27,000 for men and £38,700-49,000 for women, depending on which of the three areas was used to calibrate the model. Thus, patterns of social care spending differed markedly between areas, with mean costs varying by almost £10,000 (25%) across the lifetime for people of the same age and gender. Allowing for structural and parameter uncertainty had little impact on expected lifetime costs, but slightly increased the risk of very high costs, which will have implications for insurance products for social care through increasing requirements for capital reserves.

  2. 77 FR 19619 - Notice of Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Administrative Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). Pursuant to the time limits for... Administrative Review of the Suspension Agreement on Hot-Rolled Flat- Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from... Review of the Suspension Agreement on Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from...

  3. 77 FR 74006 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Capitol Dial, Inc., for recovery of past response costs concerning the Radiation--Former Air Capitol Dial.... Total past costs for the Site are approximately $600,000. The settlement includes a covenant not to sue... facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or...

  4. 77 FR 22785 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Estate of Benjamin C. Schilberg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past... settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement...

  5. Fitness costs limit the development of resistance to indoxacarb and deltamethrin in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Ahmad, Munir; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-12-01

    Insecticide resistance in Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been documented from all over the world and is often associated with reduced fitness. Fitness costs could delay the development of resistance depending upon the prevailing conditions. We were interested in establishing whether a field-collected population from Washington County, MS, was resistant to spinosad, indoxacarb, and deltamethrin and whether any such resistance was associated with fitness costs. Bioassays results showed that the insecticides were equally toxic to the field population. Upon laboratory selection (generations [G]3 to G8), the resistance ratio increased only 2-, 3-, and 1-fold for spinosad, deltamethrin, and indoxacarb, respectively, compared with the field population. In contrast, the resistance ratios increased 213-, 65-, and 55-fold compared with an unselected population at G9. The estimated realized heritability (h2) after six generations of selection was 0.17, 0.03, and 0.12, respectively, and the number of generations required for 10-fold increase in LC50 of Spino-SEL, Indoxa-SEL, and Delta-SEL was estimated to be 14.3, 50, and 14.3. Comparison of life traits between the selected and unselected populations revealed that the selected populations laid a significantly lower number of eggs and that a lower percentage of eggs hatched. This also was reflected in both the net replacement rate and the intrinsic rate of population increase, which were both lower for the selected populations. It also was observed that the mean relative growth rate of the larvae was lower for the selected populations; not only did the larvae take longer to pupate but the mean weight of the prepupae from the selected populations was lower. Our data suggest that due to fitness costs the development of resistance to the insecticides was limited such that after six generations of selection the larvae were no less susceptible to the insecticides than the field population although were

  6. Prevalence and cost of medication nonadherence in Parkinson's disease: evidence from administrative claims data.

    PubMed

    Davis, Keith L; Edin, Heather M; Allen, Jeffery K

    2010-03-15

    We estimated the prevalence of medication nonadherence in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the association between treatment nonadherence and healthcare costs. Insurance claims from over 30 US health plans were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: PD diagnosis, >or=1 PD-related prescription between 1/1/1997 and 12/31/2004, continuous health plan enrollment for >or=6 months before and >or=12 months after first PD prescription. Adherence, all-cause healthcare utilization, and all-cause costs were evaluated over 12 months post-treatment initiation. Adherence was measured using the medication possession ratio (MPR), with MPR < 0.8 defining nonadherence. Among patients identified for inclusion (N = 3,119), 58% were male and mean age was 69 years. Mean MPR was 0.58 and 61% of patients were nonadherent. Unadjusted mean medical costs were significantly higher (P < 0.01) among nonadherers ($15,826) compared with adherers ($9,228), although nonadherers had lower prescription drug costs ($2,684 vs. $3,854; P < 0.05). After controlling for confounders in multivariable analyses, a large positive relationship between nonadherence and both medical and total healthcare costs remained (+$3,451, P < 0.0001 and +$2,383, P = 0.0053, respectively). Medication adherence in PD is suboptimal and nonadherence may be associated with increased healthcare costs despite offsets from reduced drug intake. Efforts to promote medication adherence in PD may lead to cost savings for managed care systems. PMID:20131374

  7. Confronting the challenge of greenline parks: Limits of the traditional administrative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Elizabeth H.; Douglas Wellman, J.

    1991-05-01

    The National Park Service, like other natural resource management agencies, has adopted the traditional model of public administration, which emphasizes efficiency, effectiveness, economy, and dichotomy between politics and administration. This approach is particularly ineffective in greenline parks and increasingly inappropriate in traditional areas. In an era of ecological interdependence, relationships with other agencies and jurisdictions and with adjacent as well as noncontiguous landowners are as important as controlling visitors. Recreation managers need to develop more skill in negotiation, cooperation, coordination, and interpersonal communication if they are to preserve and protect park resources.

  8. 45 CFR 2521.95 - To what extent may I use grant funds for administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meeting operational matching requirements under the Corporation's award; (2) Specify that a fixed rate of five percent or less (not subject to supporting cost documentation) of total Corporation funds...

  9. 13 CFR 120.883 - Eligible administrative costs for 504 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) CDC processing fee; (d) Borrower's out-of-pocket costs associated with 504 loan and Debenture closing...) CDC Closing Fee (see § 120.971(a)(2)) up to a maximum of $2,500; and (f) Underwriters' fee....

  10. 13 CFR 120.883 - Eligible administrative costs for 504 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) CDC processing fee; (d) Borrower's out-of-pocket costs associated with 504 loan and Debenture closing...) CDC Closing Fee (see § 120.971(a)(2)) up to a maximum of $2,500; and (f) Underwriters' fee....

  11. 13 CFR 120.883 - Eligible administrative costs for 504 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) CDC processing fee; (d) Borrower's out-of-pocket costs associated with 504 loan and Debenture closing...) CDC Closing Fee (see § 120.971(a)(2)) up to a maximum of $2,500; and (f) Underwriters' fee....

  12. 13 CFR 120.883 - Eligible administrative costs for 504 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) CDC processing fee; (d) Borrower's out-of-pocket costs associated with 504 loan and Debenture closing...) CDC Closing Fee (see § 120.971(a)(2)) up to a maximum of $2,500; and (f) Underwriters' fee....

  13. 13 CFR 120.883 - Eligible administrative costs for 504 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) CDC processing fee; (d) Borrower's out-of-pocket costs associated with 504 loan and Debenture closing...) CDC Closing Fee (see § 120.971(a)(2)) up to a maximum of $2,500; and (f) Underwriters' fee....

  14. 78 FR 25082 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... settlement with The Doe Run Resources Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri, for recovery of past response costs... settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement...

  15. 78 FR 42944 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    .... Louis, Missouri, for the compromise of past and projected future oversight costs concerning the Carter... settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the compromise of...

  16. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential...

  17. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential...

  18. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential...

  19. 29 CFR 4.123 - Administrative limitations, variances, tolerances, and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exemptions. 4.123 Section 4.123 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE... administrative action under section 4(b) is not made by the headquarters office of the contracting agency to which the contract services are to be provided, the views of such office on the matter should...

  20. 29 CFR 4.123 - Administrative limitations, variances, tolerances, and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exemptions. 4.123 Section 4.123 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE... administrative action under section 4(b) is not made by the headquarters office of the contracting agency to which the contract services are to be provided, the views of such office on the matter should...

  1. 48 CFR 22.1003-4 - Administrative limitations, variations, tolerances, and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (including credit cards, debit cards, purchase cards, smart cards, and similar card services). (iii) Hotel... labor standards (41 U.S.C. 6707(b)). See 29 CFR 4.123 for a listing of administrative exemptions... maintenance, calibration, or repair of such equipment. As defined at 29 CFR 4.123(e)(1)(ii)(B)— (A)...

  2. 78 FR 43972 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Limited Syria Waiver for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...). See 69 FR 26766 (May 14, 2004). In addition, BIS later made administrative changes to General Order No.... See 74 FR 77115 (Dec. 12, 2011). On June 12, 2013, the Secretary of State exercised authority..., 2001 (3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002)), as amended by Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013, 78...

  3. Limitations on Change: Current Conditions Influencing Academic Intransigence in Educational Administration Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Connie Stokes; Pounder, Diana G.

    An analysis of academic intransigence (resistance to change) in educational administrative preparation programs is presented in this paper. Drawing upon two conceptual frameworks, the stakeholder perspective and Porter's (1980) five-force model of industry structure and competitive influence, two factors contributing to academic intransigence are…

  4. 26 CFR 301.7430-8 - Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code. 301.7430-8 Section 301.7430-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...

  5. 24 CFR 1003.501 - Applicability of uniform administrative requirements and cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ‘high-risk’ grantees”. (4) Section 85.20, “Standards for financial management systems,” except paragraph... 24 CFR part 44) and with the following sections of 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative... and suspended parties”. (13) Section 85.36, “Procurement,” except paragraphs (a) States,...

  6. 24 CFR 1003.501 - Applicability of uniform administrative requirements and cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ‘high-risk’ grantees”. (4) Section 85.20, “Standards for financial management systems,” except paragraph... 24 CFR part 44) and with the following sections of 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative... and suspended parties”. (13) Section 85.36, “Procurement,” except paragraphs (a) States,...

  7. 34 CFR 461.40 - What are the State and local administrative costs requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE...'s award from the SEA must be expended for adult education instructional activities. (2) The... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the State and local administrative...

  8. 34 CFR 461.40 - What are the State and local administrative costs requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE...'s award from the SEA must be expended for adult education instructional activities. (2) The... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the State and local administrative...

  9. 34 CFR 461.40 - What are the State and local administrative costs requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE...'s award from the SEA must be expended for adult education instructional activities. (2) The... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the State and local administrative...

  10. 34 CFR 461.40 - What are the State and local administrative costs requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE...'s award from the SEA must be expended for adult education instructional activities. (2) The... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the State and local administrative...

  11. 34 CFR 461.40 - What are the State and local administrative costs requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE...'s award from the SEA must be expended for adult education instructional activities. (2) The... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the State and local administrative...

  12. 24 CFR 1003.501 - Applicability of uniform administrative requirements and cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 CFR part 44) and with the following sections of 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative...) Section 85.33, “Supplies”. (11) Section 85.34, “Copyrights”. (12) Section 85.35, “Subawards to debarred... retention period referenced in § 85.42(b) pertaining to individual ICDBG activities starts from the date...

  13. 41 CFR 105-55.016 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year preceding the adjustment exceeds the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year in which the debt was determined or last adjusted. Increases to administrative debts will be computed annually. GSA will use...

  14. The Costs of Delivering Integrated HIV and Sexual Reproductive Health Services in Limited Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Sweeney, Sedona; Darsamo, Vanessa; Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Guinness, Lorna; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Muketo, Esther; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Warren, Charlotte E.; Mayhew, Susannah; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present evidence on the total costs and unit costs of delivering six integrated sexual reproductive health and HIV services in a high and medium HIV prevalence setting, in order to support policy makers and planners scaling up these essential services. Design A retrospective facility based costing study conducted in 40 non-government organization and public health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland. Methods Economic and financial costs were collected retrospectively for the year 2010/11, from each study site with an aim to estimate the cost per visit of six integrated HIV and SRH services. A full cost analysis using a combination of bottom-up and step-down costing methods was conducted from the health provider’s perspective. The main unit of analysis is the economic unit cost per visit for each service. Costs are converted to 2013 International dollars. Results The mean cost per visit for the HIV/SRH services ranged from $Int 14.23 (PNC visit) to $Int 74.21 (HIV treatment visit). We found considerable variation in the unit costs per visit across settings with family planning services exhibiting the least variation ($Int 6.71-52.24) and STI treatment and HIV treatment visits exhibiting the highest variation in unit cost ranging from ($Int 5.44-281.85) and ($Int 0.83-314.95), respectively. Unit costs of visits were driven by fixed costs while variability in visit costs across facilities was explained mainly by technology used and service maturity. Conclusion For all services, variability in unit costs and cost components suggest that potential exists to reduce costs through better use of both human and capital resources, despite the high proportion of expenditure on drugs and medical supplies. Further work is required to explore the key drivers of efficiency and interventions that may facilitate efficiency improvements. PMID:25933414

  15. 78 FR 940 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, as Amended, Former W&J Lanyon Zinc Works Superfund Site... with MCP Industries, Inc., for compromise of past response costs concerning the Former W&J Lanyon Zinc... Zinc Works Superfund Site, EPA Docket No. CERCLA-07-2012-0012. Comments should be addressed to:...

  16. 76 FR 14968 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Eugenio Painting Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... of past response costs concerning the Industrial Street Drum Site in Dearborn, Michigan with the... settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is... EPA's designee on or before close of business on April 18, 2011 to be assured of...

  17. 76 FR 14659 - Proposed CERCLA AdministrativeCost Recovery” Settlement; The Goldfield Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... of past and projected future response costs concerning the Newton County Mine Tailings Superfund Site in Newton County, Missouri with the following settling party: The Goldfield Corporation. The... Street, Kansas City, KS 66101, 913-551-7567. Comments should reference the Newton County Mine...

  18. 76 FR 54223 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Logistics Base Barstow, CA AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with... for the Recovery of Past Costs in the Matter of Marine Corps Logistics Base, Yermo Annex, Barstow... Marine Corps Logistics Base in Barstow, California (the ``Site''), located in San Bernardino...

  19. Costs of mating competition limit male lifetime breeding success in polygynous mammals.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Although differences in breeding lifespan are an important source of variation in male fitness, the factors affecting the breeding tenure of males have seldom been explored. Here, we use cross-species comparisons to investigate the correlates of breeding lifespan in male mammals. Our results show that male breeding lifespan depends on the extent of polygyny, which reflects the relative intensity of competition for access to females. Males have relatively short breeding tenure in species where individuals have the potential to monopolize mating with multiple females, and longer ones where individuals defend one female at a time. Male breeding tenure is also shorter in species in which females breed frequently than in those where females breed less frequently, suggesting that the costs of guarding females may contribute to limiting tenure length. As a consequence of these relationships, estimates of skew in male breeding success within seasons overestimate skew calculated across the lifetime and, in several polygynous species, variance in lifetime breeding success is not substantially higher in males than in females.

  20. [Iron substitution in outpatients in Switzerland: Increase of costs associated with intravenous administration].

    PubMed

    Giger, Max; Achermann, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Iron anaemia and iron-deficient erythropoiesis are treated with oral iron supplements. For chronic haemodialysis or in the case of therapy failure or intolerance to oral iron therapy, intravenous supplements are administered. The costs of iron supplements borne by statutory health care insurance had strongly increased during the observation period from 2006 to 2010. Based on the invoice data of a large health insurance company with a market share of around 18 %, prescription data of iron preparations and laboratory tests were analysed and extrapolated to the Swiss population. During the 5-year observation period, costs of intravenous iron substitution increased by 16.5 m EUR (340.3 %) and the number of individuals treated by 243.5 %. A sharp rise was observed in women of menstruating age, which was mainly due to prescriptions issued by primary care physicians. More than 8 % of intravenous iron substitutions were administered without prior laboratory analysis,and must therefore be regarded as off-label use. A cost-benefit analysis is needed to demonstrate the additional value of intravenous over oral iron supplementation, and intravenous iron supplementation should be administered only to patients with proven iron deficiency.

  1. Cost efficient operations: Challenge from NASA administrator and lessons learned from hunting sacred cows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Casasanta, Ralph; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Hawkins, Frederick J.; Burke, Eugene S., Jr.; Todd, Jacqueline E.; Bell, Jerome A.; Miller, Raymond E.; Willoughby, John K.; Gardner, Jo Anne

    1996-01-01

    The conclusions and recommendations that resulted from NASA's Hunting Sacred Cows Workshop are summarized, where a sacred cow is a belief or assumption that is so well established that it appears to be unreasonably immune to criticism. A link was identified between increased complexity and increased costs, especially in relation to automation and autonomy. An identical link was identified for outsourcing and commercialization. The work of NASA's Cost Less team is reviewed. The following conclusions were stated by the Cost Less team and considered at the workshop: the way Nasa conducts business must change; NASA makes its best contributions to the public areas not addressed by other government organizations; the management tool used for the last 30 years is no longer suitable; the most important work on any program or project is carried out before the development or operations stages; automation should only be used to achieve autonomy if the reasons for automation are well understood, and NASA's most critical resources are its personnel.

  2. [Iron substitution in outpatients in Switzerland: Increase of costs associated with intravenous administration].

    PubMed

    Giger, Max; Achermann, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Iron anaemia and iron-deficient erythropoiesis are treated with oral iron supplements. For chronic haemodialysis or in the case of therapy failure or intolerance to oral iron therapy, intravenous supplements are administered. The costs of iron supplements borne by statutory health care insurance had strongly increased during the observation period from 2006 to 2010. Based on the invoice data of a large health insurance company with a market share of around 18 %, prescription data of iron preparations and laboratory tests were analysed and extrapolated to the Swiss population. During the 5-year observation period, costs of intravenous iron substitution increased by 16.5 m EUR (340.3 %) and the number of individuals treated by 243.5 %. A sharp rise was observed in women of menstruating age, which was mainly due to prescriptions issued by primary care physicians. More than 8 % of intravenous iron substitutions were administered without prior laboratory analysis,and must therefore be regarded as off-label use. A cost-benefit analysis is needed to demonstrate the additional value of intravenous over oral iron supplementation, and intravenous iron supplementation should be administered only to patients with proven iron deficiency. PMID:23916272

  3. 5 CFR 530.203 - Administration of aggregate limitation on pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (2) An employee covered by a performance appraisal system that has been certified under 5 CFR part... system under 5 CFR part 430, subpart D. (c) The aggregate limitations described in paragraphs (a) and (b...), would cause the employee's aggregate compensation to exceed the rate for level I of the...

  4. Optimal number of minimal repairs with cumulative repair cost limit for a two-unit system with failure rate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Min-Tsai; Yan, Huey

    2016-01-01

    A discrete replacement model is presented that includes a cumulative repair cost limit for a two-unit system with failure rate interactions between the units. We assume a failure in unit 1 causes the failure rate in unit 2 to increase, whereas a failure in unit 2 causes a failure in unit 1, resulting in a total system failure. If unit 1 fails and the cumulative repair cost till to this failure is less than a limit L, then unit 1 is repaired. If there is a failure in unit 1 and the cumulative repair cost exceeds L or the number of failures equals n, the entire system is preventively replaced. The system is also replaced at a total failure, and such replacement cost is higher than the preventive replacement cost. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness are proved.

  5. Comparing change readiness, quality improvement, and cost management among Veterans Administration, for-profit, and nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed

    West, T D

    1998-01-01

    Health care organizations throughout the country are facing increasing pressure to improve their quality of care while reducing cost. This article describes a model of organizational change and develops a change readiness matrix that managers can use to benchmark their organization's performance on three dimensions: (1) change readiness, (2) quality improvement, and (3) cost management. The model and the matrix combine to offer managers a framework for pursuing organizational change and operational innovation within their organization. A survey methodology is used to compare VA hospitals (n = 44), for-profit hospitals (n = 108), and nonprofit hospitals (n = 449) on the three performance dimensions. The results indicate that Veterans Administration hospitals react differently than either for-profit or nonprofit hospitals on these dimensions. However, responses from for-profit and nonprofit hospitals were not significantly different from each other. Additional insights are presented into how hospitals in general can facilitate the organizational change process.

  6. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  7. Preparation, In Vivo Administration, Dose-Limiting Toxicities, and Antineoplastic Activity of Cytochalasin B

    PubMed Central

    Trendowski, Matthew; Zoino, Joseph N.; Christen, Timothy D.; Acquafondata, Christopher; Fondy, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    An effective and inexpensive protocol for producing cytochalasins A and B is being disclosed to propose a viable method by which to examine the in vivo antineoplastic activity of these congeners in preclinical tumor-bearing mammalian models. In addition, we determine the maximum tolerated doses of cytochalasin B using multiple routes and formulations, characterize the tissue distribution of intravenous bolus cytochalasin B, and assess the in vivo antineoplastic activity of cytochalasin B in comparison in doxorubicin in Balb/c mice challenged intradermally with M109 murine lung carcinoma. We also examine the effects of cytochalasin B against several other murine neoplastic cell lines (Lewis lung, LA4, B16F10, and M5076). Finally, we examine a potential mechanism of the antimetastatic activity of cytochalasin B by observing the effects of the agent on the secretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNACase) by B16BL6 and B16F10 murine melanomas in vitro. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: 1) Cytochalasin B can be safely administered intravenously, intraperitoneally, and subcutaneously in murine models, with the maximum tolerated dose of all routes of administration being increased by liposome encapsulation. 2) Cytochalasin B can significantly inhibit the growth of tumors in mice challenged with M109, Lewis lung, LA4, B16F10, or M5076, producing long-term survival against lung carcinomas and adenocarcinomas (M109, Lewis lung, and LA4) and B16F10 melanoma, but not M5076 sarcoma. These effects were comparable to intraperitoneally administered doxorubicin. 4) Low concentrations of cytochalasin B inhibit the secretion of GlcNACase, indicating that cytochalasin B may inhibit metastatic progression by mechanisms not directly associated with its influence on cell adhesion and motility. PMID:26310377

  8. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  9. Guidance on administrative response cost settlements under Section 122(h) of CERCLA and administrative cashout settlements with peripheral parties under Section 122(h) of CERCLA and Attorney General authority. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, B.; Gelber, B.

    1998-09-30

    The purpose of this memorandum and its attachments is to provide guidance on administrative response cost settlements entered under Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, and on administrative ``cashout`` settlements with peripheral parties under Section 122(h)(1) of CERLCA and the authority of the Attorney General. Part 1 of this memorandum provides an overview of the guidance and explains the context in which the attached model settlements should be used. Part 2 of this memorandum explains the statutory provision, defines relevant terms, discusses the various types of administrative response cost settlements and the scope of covenants not to sue and reservations of rights in those settlements, provides guidance on amount of payment and use of premiums in future cost settlements, provides guidance on amount of payment and use of premiums in future cost settlements, and briefly discusses contribution protection clauses in such settlements. Part 3 outlines how administrative response cost settlements should be documented by the Regions and, when necessary, reviewed and approved by the Department of Justice (DOJ or the Department) and/or the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance in EPA Headquarters (OECA). Part 4 explains the public comment requirements for administrative response cost settlements. Finally, Part 5 addresses enforcement of such settlements.

  10. The Economics of Perception: Potential Effect regarding Institutional Uses of Recovered Facilities and Administrative Costs upon a Faculty Member's Decision to Engage in Sponsored Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Anne Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    There is one aspect of sponsored research associated with higher education's research enterprise that often places the institution's research administrators and the institution's faculty members in conflict with each other; the recovery of Facilities and Administrative (F&A) costs associated with sponsored research projects (Sedwick, 2009;…

  11. Lower net pressure reverse osmosis membranes and systems - cost and performance advantages and limitations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kremen, S.S.; Hull, C.E.; Jhawar, M.

    1982-06-01

    Reverse osmosis systems are generally designed and utilized on the basis of reference membrane water flux and desalting performance at 400 psi net driving pressure (NDP). Membranes now being offered and tested at a preliminary commercial stage are capable of equivalent performance at 200 psi NDP. These membranes offer immediately obvious savings in energy costs for reverse osmosis desalting and water reclamation. In addition, they can make a most important contribution to reduced membrane replacement costs and improved permeate quality when operating on high salinity feeds at higher recovery levels. A number of hypothetical cases were developed and tabulated, assuming a 200 psi NDP sea water membrane was available. Substantial benefits could be expected if such a membrane could be developed and reduced to practice. Additional cost savings and performance improvements can be realized by operating the 200 psi NDP membranes at somewhat higher applied pressures which preserve or enhance NDP.

  12. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... actual costs incurred, including, but not limited to, its direct costs and indirect costs as...

  13. Limiting the Number of Lumens in Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters to Improve Outcomes and Reduce Cost: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Ratz, David; Hofer, Timothy; Flanders, Scott A; Saint, Sanjay; Chopra, Vineet

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND The number of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lumens is associated with thrombotic and infectious complications. Because multilumen PICCs are not necessary in all patients, policies that limit their use may improve safety and cost. OBJECTIVE To design a simulation-based analysis to estimate outcomes and cost associated with a policy that encourages single-lumen PICC use. METHODS Model inputs, including risk of complications and costs associated with single- and multilumen PICCs, were obtained from available literature and a multihospital collaborative quality improvement project. Cost savings and reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infection and deep vein thrombosis events from institution of a single-lumen PICC default policy were reported. RESULTS According to our model, a hospital that places 1,000 PICCs per year (25% of which are single-lumen and 75% multilumen) experiences annual PICC-related maintenance and complication costs of $1,228,598 (95% CI, $1,053,175-$1,430,958). In such facilities, every 5% increase in single-lumen PICC use would prevent 0.5 PICC-related central line-associated bloodstream infections and 0.5 PICC-related deep vein thrombosis events, while saving $23,500. Moving from 25% to 50% single-lumen PICC utilization would result in total savings of $119,283 (95% CI, $74,030-$184,170) per year. Regardless of baseline prevalence, a single-lumen default PICC policy would be associated with approximately 10% cost savings. Findings remained robust in multiway sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION Hospital policies that limit the number of PICC lumens may enhance patient safety and reduce healthcare costs. Studies measuring intended and unintended consequences of this approach, followed by rapid adoption, appear necessary. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:811-817.

  14. The Benefits, Limitations, and Cost-Effectiveness of Advanced Technologies in the Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Vigersky, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia mitigation is critical for appropriately managing patients with diabetes. Advanced technologies are becoming more prevalent in diabetes management, but their benefits have been primarily judged on the basis of hemoglobin A1c. A critical appraisal of the effectiveness and limitations of advanced technologies in reducing both A1c and hypoglycemia rates has not been previously performed. Methods: The cost of hypoglycemia was estimated using literature rates of hypoglycemia events resulting in hospitalizations. A literature search was conducted on the effect on A1c and hypoglycemia of advanced technologies. The cost-effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and real-time continuous glucose monitors (RT-CGM) was reviewed. Results: Severe hypoglycemia in insulin-using patients with diabetes costs $4.9-$12.7 billion. CSII reduces A1c in some but not all studies. CSII improves hypoglycemia in patients with high baseline rates. Bolus calculators improve A1c and improve the fear of hypoglycemia but not hypoglycemia rates. RT-CGM alone and when combined with CSII improve A1c with a neutral effect on hypoglycemia rates. Low-glucose threshold suspend systems reduce hypoglycemia with a neutral effect on A1c, and low-glucose predictive suspend systems reduce hypoglycemia with a small increase in plasma glucose levels. In short-term studies, artificial pancreas systems reduce both hypoglycemia rates and plasma glucose levels. CSII and RT-CGM are cost-effective technologies, but their wide adoption is limited by cost, psychosocial, and educational factors. Conclusions: Most currently available technologies improve A1c with a neutral or improved rate of hypoglycemia. Advanced technologies appear to be cost-effective in diabetes management, especially when including the underlying cost of hypoglycemia. PMID:25555391

  15. Medicaid program; elimination of reimbursement under Medicaid for school administration expenditures and costs related to transportation of school-age children between home and school. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-12-28

    Under the Medicaid program, Federal payment is available for the costs of administrative activities "as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan." This final rule eliminates Federal Medicaid payment for the costs of certain school-based administrative and transportation activities because the Secretary has found that these activities are not necessary for the proper and efficient administration of the Medicaid State plan and are not within the definition of the optional transportation benefit. Based on these determinations, under this final rule, Federal Medicaid payments will no longer be available for administrative activities performed by school employees or contractors, or anyone under the control of a public or private educational institution, and for transportation from home to school. In addition, this final rule responds to public comments received on the September 7, 2007 proposed rule. PMID:18426056

  16. Limited encoding of effort by dopamine neurons in a cost-benefit trade-off task

    PubMed Central

    Pasquereau, Benjamin; Turner, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Animals are thought to evaluate the desirability of action options using a unified scale that combines predicted benefits (“rewards”), costs, and the animal’s internal motivational state. Midbrain dopamine neurons have long been associated with the reward part of this equation, but it is unclear whether these neurons also estimate the costs of taking an action. We studied the spiking activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during a reaching task in which the energetic costs incurred (friction loads) and the benefits gained (drops of food) were manipulated independently. Although the majority of dopamine neurons encoded the upcoming reward alone, a subset predicted net utility of a course of action by signaling the expected reward magnitude, discounted by the invested cost in terms of physical effort. In addition, the tonic activity of some dopamine neurons was slowly reduced in conjunction with the accumulated trials, which is consistent with the hypothesized role for tonic dopamine in the invigoration or motivation of instrumental responding. The present results shed light on an oft-hypothesized role for dopamine in the regulation of the balance in natural behaviors between the energy expended and the benefits gained, which could explain why dopamine disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, lead to a breakdown of that balance. PMID:23658169

  17. Local Property Tax Limitations vs. School District Employee Pension Costs in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.; Shrom, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    In Pennsylvania as in many other states, employee pension costs are a significant source of financial pressure for school districts (Zeehandelaar and Northern 2013, Pennsylvania Public Employees' Retirement Commission 2013). In order to gain greater insight into the nature of Pennsylvania school districts' financial burden related to…

  18. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  19. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  20. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  1. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  2. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  3. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  4. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  5. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of...

  6. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of organizations and... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  7. Strategies for Providing Low-Cost Water Immersion Therapy With Limited Resources.

    PubMed

    Brickhouse, Brenda; Isaacs, Christine; Batten, Meghann; Price, Amber

    At our university-affiliated medical center, a major renovation of the women's health and birthing unit resulted in the temporary loss of the permanent tub used for water immersion therapy during labor. Because 40 percent of the women in the nurse-midwifery practice utilize hydrotherapy, we undertook a rigorous search for an interim solution. We developed a safe and cost-effective strategy that can be easily replicated and utilized by others to provide hydrotherapy for laboring women. PMID:26682659

  8. Limiting the costs of mutalism: multiple modes of interaction between yuccas and yucca moths

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, J. F.; Bao, T.

    1999-01-01

    In pollination–seed predation mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths, conflicts of interest exist for yuccas, because benefits of increased pollination may be outweighed by increased seed consumption. These conflicts raise the problem of what limits seed consumption, and ultimately what limits or regulates moth populations. Although the current hypothesis is that yuccas should selectively abscise flowers with high numbers of yucca-moth eggs, within-inflorescence selective abscission occurs in only one of the three moth–yucca systems that we studied. It occurs only when oviposition directly damages developing ovules, and does not, therefore, provide a general explanation for the resolution of moth–yucca conflicts. Within-locule egg mortality provides an alternative and stronger mechanism for limiting seed damage, and generating density-dependent mortality for yucca-moth populations. However, the most important feature of moth–yucca systems is that they are diverse, encompassing multiple modes of interaction, each with different consequences for limiting and regulating yucca moths.

  9. Fitness costs limit influenza A virus hemagglutinin glycosylation as an immune evasion strategy.

    PubMed

    Das, Suman R; Hensley, Scott E; David, Alexandre; Schmidt, Loren; Gibbs, James S; Puigbò, Pere; Ince, William L; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2011-12-20

    Here, we address the question of why the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) does not escape immunity by hyperglycosylation. Uniquely among dozens of monoclonal antibodies specific for A/Puerto Rico/8/34, escape from H28-A2 neutralization requires substitutions introducing N-linked glycosylation at residue 131 or 144 in the globular domain. This escape decreases viral binding to cellular receptors, which must be compensated for by additional substitutions in HA or neuraminidase that enable viral replication. Sequence analysis of circulating H1 influenza viruses confirms the in vivo relevance of our findings: natural occurrence of glycosylation at residue 131 is always accompanied by a compensatory mutation known to increase HA receptor avidity. In vaccinated mice challenged with WT vs. H28-A2 escape mutants, the selective advantage conferred by glycan-mediated global reduction in antigenicity is trumped by the costs of diminished receptor avidity. These findings show that, although N-linked glycosylation can broadly diminish HA antigenicity, fitness costs restrict its deployment in immune evasion.

  10. Costs of a limited patient notification exercise following infection control failures in a dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Conrad, D; Dardamissis, E; Oyinloye, A; Vivancos, R; Ratcliffe, P

    2011-08-01

    In February 2008, a primary care trust in Cheshire Merseyside was notified of failures in the infection control practises of a dentist working in a large group practice. On advice from national experts, a look-back was undertaken to identify any patients infected with hepatitis followed by a notification exercise of patients who had received invasive treatment immediately afterwards. One patient with hepatitis C (HCV) was identified. Sixty patients were notified by letter and offered advice and HCV screening. The total cost of the patient notification exercise (PNE) was estimated at £85,936, equating to £1,562.47 per patient who responded to the notification (55), or £2,455.31 per patient screened (35). All results were negative. While this adds to evidence that the risk to patients in such incidents is small, failing to investigate the possibility that BBV transmission has occurred would carry public health, reputational and legal risks. Conducting a PNE in the first instance for those patients at highest risk, with the option of extending it if evidence of patient-to-patient transmission is found, ensures that the total costs of dealing appropriately with such incidents - while still substantial - are at least kept to a minimum. PMID:21869792

  11. Effects of cryptic mortality and the hidden costs of using length limits in fishery management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins, L.G.; Catalano, M.J.; Allen, M.S.; Pine, William E.; Walters, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Fishery collapses cause substantial economic and ecological harm, but common management actions often fail to prevent overfishing. Minimum length limits are perhaps the most common fishing regulation used in both commercial and recreational fisheries, but their conservation benefits can be influenced by discard mortality of fish caught and released below the legal length. We constructed a computer model to evaluate how discard mortality could influence the conservation utility of minimum length regulations. We evaluated policy performance across two disparate fish life-history types: short-lived high-productivity (SLHP) and long-lived low-productivity (LLLP) species. For the life-history types, fishing mortality rates and minimum length limits that we examined, length limits alone generally failed to achieve sustainability when discard mortality rate exceeded about 0.2 for SLHP species and 0.05 for LLLP species. At these levels of discard mortality, reductions in overall fishing mortality (e.g. lower fishing effort) were required to prevent recruitment overfishing if fishing mortality was high. Similarly, relatively low discard mortality rates (>0.05) rendered maximum yield unobtainable and caused a substantial shift in the shape of the yield response surfaces. An analysis of fishery efficiency showed that length limits caused the simulated fisheries to be much less efficient, potentially exposing the target species and ecosystem to increased negative effects of the fishing process. Our findings suggest that for overexploited fisheries with moderate-to-high discard mortality rates, reductions in fishing mortality will be required to meet management goals. Resource managers should carefully consider impacts of cryptic mortality sources (e.g. discard mortality) on fishery sustainability, especially in recreational fisheries where release rates are high and effort is increasing in many areas of the world. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Limiting the public cost of stationary battery deployment by combining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, A.; Battke, B.; Beuse, M. D.; Clausdeinken, J. H.; Schmidt, T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Batteries could be central to low-carbon energy systems with high shares of intermittent renewable energy sources. However, the investment attractiveness of batteries is still perceived as low, eliciting calls for policy to support deployment. Here we show how the cost of battery deployment can potentially be minimized by introducing an aspect that has been largely overlooked in policy debates and underlying analyses: the fact that a single battery can serve multiple applications. Batteries thereby can not only tap into different value streams, but also combine different risk exposures. To address this gap, we develop a techno-economic model and apply it to the case of lithium-ion batteries serving multiple stationary applications in Germany. Our results show that batteries could be attractive for investors even now if non-market barriers impeding the combination of applications were removed. The current policy debate should therefore be refocused so as to encompass the removal of such barriers.

  13. Limiting the public cost of stationary battery deployment by combining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, A.; Battke, B.; Beuse, M. D.; Clausdeinken, J. H.; Schmidt, T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Batteries could be central to low-carbon energy systems with high shares of intermittent renewable energy sources. However, the investment attractiveness of batteries is still perceived as low, eliciting calls for policy to support deployment. Here we show how the cost of battery deployment can potentially be minimized by introducing an aspect that has been largely overlooked in policy debates and underlying analyses: the fact that a single battery can serve multiple applications. Batteries thereby can not only tap into different value streams, but also combine different risk exposures. To address this gap, we develop a techno-economic model and apply it to the case of lithium-ion batteries serving multiple stationary applications in Germany. Our results show that batteries could be attractive for investors even now if non-market barriers impeding the combination of applications were removed. The current policy debate should therefore be refocused so as to encompass the removal of such barriers.

  14. Persistent palatable food preference in rats with a history of limited and extended access to methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Daniele; Zeric, Tamara; Thorndike, Eric B; Venniro, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that when given a mutually exclusive choice between cocaine and palatable foods, most rats prefer the non-drug rewards over cocaine. Here, we used a discrete choice procedure to assess whether palatable food preference generalizes to rats with a history of limited (3 hours/day) or extended (6 or 9 hours/day) access to methamphetamine self-administration. On different daily sessions, we trained rats to lever-press for either methamphetamine (0.1-0.2 mg/kg/infusion) or palatable food (five pellets per reward delivery) for several weeks; regular food was freely available. We then assessed food-methamphetamine preference either during training, after priming methamphetamine injections (0.5-1.0 mg/kg), following a satiety manipulation (palatable food exposure in the home cage) or after 21 days of withdrawal from methamphetamine. We also assessed progressive ratio responding for palatable food and methamphetamine. We found that independent of the daily drug access conditions and the withdrawal period, the rats strongly preferred the palatable food over methamphetamine, even when they were given free access to the palatable food in the home cage. Intake of methamphetamine and progressive ratio responding for the drug, both of which increased or escalated over time, did not predict preference in the discrete choice test. Results demonstrate that most rats strongly prefer palatable food pellets over intravenous methamphetamine, confirming previous studies using discrete choice procedures with intravenous cocaine. Results also demonstrate that escalation of drug self-administration, a popular model of compulsive drug use, is not associated with a cardinal feature of human addiction of reduced behavioral responding for non-drug rewards.

  15. Persistent palatable food preference in rats with a history of limited and extended access to methamphetamine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Daniele; Zeric, Tamara; Thorndike, Eric B; Venniro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that when given a mutually exclusive choice between cocaine and palatable foods most rats prefer the non-drug rewards over cocaine. Here, we used a discrete choice procedure to assess whether palatable food preference generalizes to rats with a history of limited (3 hr/day) or extended (6 or 9 hr/day) access to methamphetamine self-administration. On different daily sessions, we trained rats to lever-press for either methamphetamine (0.1–0.2 mg/kg/infusion) or palatable food (5 pellets per reward delivery) for several weeks; regular food was freely available. We then assessed food-methamphetamine preference either during training, after priming methamphetamine injections (0.5–1.0 mg/kg), following a satiety manipulation (palatable food exposure in the home cage), or after 21 days of withdrawal from methamphetamine. We also assessed progressive ratio responding for palatable food and methamphetamine. We found that independent of the daily drug access conditions and the withdrawal period, the rats strongly preferred the palatable food over methamphetamine, even when they were given free access to the palatable food in the home cage. Intake of methamphetamine and progressive ratio responding for the drug, both of which increased or escalated over time, did not predict preference in the discrete choice test. Results demonstrate that most rats strongly prefer palatable food pellets over intravenous methamphetamine, confirming previous studies using discrete choice procedures with intravenous cocaine. Results also demonstrate that escalation of drug self-administration, a popular model of compulsive drug use, is not associated with a cardinal feature of human addiction of reduced behavioral responding for non-drug rewards. PMID:25582886

  16. 75 FR 49888 - Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... and Partial Rescission of the 2008-2009 Administrative Review, 75 FR 18812 (April 13, 2010). The... Administrative Review: Certain Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China AGENCY: Import... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tissue...

  17. Local infiltration of rabies immunoglobulins without systemic intramuscular administration: An alternative cost effective approach for passive immunization against rabies

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Gaunta, Pyare Lal; Belludi, Ashwin Yajaman

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Presently the dose of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) which is an integral part of rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is calculated based on body weight though the recommendation is to infiltrate the wound(s). This practice demands large quantities of RIG which may be unaffordable to many patients. In this background, we conducted this study to know if the quantity and cost of RIG can be reduced by restricting passive immunization to local infiltration alone and avoiding systemic intramuscular administration based on the available scientific evidence. Two hundred and sixty nine category III patients bitten by suspect or confirmed rabid dogs/animals were infiltrated with equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIGs) in and around the wound. The quantity of ERIG used was proportionate to the size and number of wounds irrespective of their body weight. They were followed with a regular course of rabies vaccination by intra-dermal route. As against 363 vials of RIGs required for all these cases as per current recommendation based on body weight, they required only 42 vials of 5ml RIG. Minimum dose of RIGs given was 0.25 ml and maximum dose given was 8 ml. On an average 1.26 ml of RIGs was required per patient that costs Rs. 150 ($3). All the patients were followed for 9 months and they were healthy and normal at the end of observation period. With local infiltration, that required small quantities of RIG, the RIGs could be made available to all patients in times of short supply in the market. A total of 30 (11%) serum samples of patients were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and all showed antibody titers >0.5 IU/mL by day 14. In no case the dose was higher than that required based on body weight and no immunosuppression resulted. To conclude, this pilot study shows that local infiltration of RIG need to be considered in times of non-availability in the market or unaffordability by poor patients

  18. 29 CFR 4903.6 - How will PBGC add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a debt owed to PBGC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative costs on PBGC debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717, 31 CFR 901.9 and other... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will PBGC add interest, penalty charges, and... Procedures To Collect Debts Owed to PBGC § 4903.6 How will PBGC add interest, penalty charges,...

  19. 34 CFR 692.72 - May a State use the funds it receives under the SLEAP Program to pay administrative costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a State use the funds it receives under the SLEAP... Is the Amount of Assistance and How May It Be Used? § 692.72 May a State use the funds it receives under the SLEAP Program to pay administrative costs? A State may not use any of the funds it...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7430-8 - Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for violations of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code. 301.7430-8 Section 301.7430-8 Internal... Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code. (a... Service relating to the willful violation of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code only if...