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Sample records for administrative offset offset

  1. 45 CFR 1177.8 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.8 Administrative offset. (a) The... administrative offset, the National Endowment for the Humanities will send the debtor written notice of the... interest. (d) The National Endowment for the Humanities may effect an administrative offset against...

  2. 45 CFR 1177.8 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.8 Administrative offset. (a) The... administrative offset, the National Endowment for the Humanities will send the debtor written notice of the... interest. (d) The National Endowment for the Humanities may effect an administrative offset against...

  3. 45 CFR 1177.8 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.8 Administrative offset. (a) The... administrative offset, the National Endowment for the Humanities will send the debtor written notice of the... interest. (d) The National Endowment for the Humanities may effect an administrative offset against...

  4. 45 CFR 1177.8 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.8 Administrative offset. (a) The... administrative offset, the National Endowment for the Humanities will send the debtor written notice of the... interest. (d) The National Endowment for the Humanities may effect an administrative offset against...

  5. 5 CFR 179.307 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 179.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS... administrative offset regulations, and the applicable provisions of 4 CFR part 102 with respect to providing the... administrative offset regulations and with the applicable provisions of 4 CFR part 102, including providing...

  6. 45 CFR 1177.8 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... administrative offset, the National Endowment for the Humanities will send the debtor written notice of the... determination of indebtedness; and to enter into a written agreement to repay the debt and; (3) The applicable interest. (d) The National Endowment for the Humanities may effect an administrative offset against...

  7. 7 CFR 1951.102 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... administrative offset will be taken in accordance with 7 CFR part 3, subpart B and § 1951.106. (b) Definitions... under the purview of 7 CFR part 11. (12) Offsetting agency means an agency that withholds from its... CFR 3.29. FSA District Directors or other State Executive Director designees are designated to...

  8. 45 CFR 608.3 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 4 CFR 102.3(a). Before employing administrative offset, NSF will comply with the notice, hearing, review, or other procedural requirements of 31 U.S.C. 3716(a) and 4 CFR 102.3(b) and (c). Furthermore... certification required by 4 CFR 102.3(f) and offset would not be contrary to law. Before imposing...

  9. 45 CFR 608.3 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 4 CFR 102.3(a). Before employing administrative offset, NSF will comply with the notice, hearing, review, or other procedural requirements of 31 U.S.C. 3716(a) and 4 CFR 102.3(b) and (c). Furthermore... certification required by 4 CFR 102.3(f) and offset would not be contrary to law. Before imposing...

  10. 45 CFR 30.12 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....S.C. 3716(c), and implementing regulation at 31 CFR 285.4; (iii) Debts arising under, or payments... such offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K; 31 CFR 285.7; and... centralized administrative offset pursuant to and in accordance with 31 CFR 901.3(b). Debts which are...

  11. 45 CFR 30.12 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....S.C. 3716(c), and implementing regulation at 31 CFR 285.4; (iii) Debts arising under, or payments... such offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K; 31 CFR 285.7; and... centralized administrative offset pursuant to and in accordance with 31 CFR 901.3(b). Debts which are...

  12. 45 CFR 608.3 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLAIMS COLLECTION... 4 CFR 102.3(a). Before employing administrative offset, NSF will comply with the notice, hearing, review, or other procedural requirements of 31 U.S.C. 3716(a) and 4 CFR 102.3(b) and (c)....

  13. 45 CFR 608.3 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLAIMS COLLECTION... 4 CFR 102.3(a). Before employing administrative offset, NSF will comply with the notice, hearing, review, or other procedural requirements of 31 U.S.C. 3716(a) and 4 CFR 102.3(b) and (c)....

  14. 45 CFR 608.3 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLAIMS COLLECTION... 4 CFR 102.3(a). Before employing administrative offset, NSF will comply with the notice, hearing, review, or other procedural requirements of 31 U.S.C. 3716(a) and 4 CFR 102.3(b) and (c)....

  15. 6 CFR 11.4 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection by administrative offset. 11.4 Section 11.4 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.4 Collection by administrative offset. (a) General Provisions for Offset. DHS will collect debts by administrative offset pursuant to 31 CFR parts...

  16. 5 CFR 1215.28 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... effective or has significant deterrent value; and (4) Offset is best suited to further and protect the...: (1) The nature and amount of the debt and the agency's intention to collect the debt by offset...

  17. 6 CFR 11.4 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection by administrative offset. 11.4 Section 11.4 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.4... administrative offset pursuant to 31 CFR parts 900-904. (b) Centralized Offset through the Treasury...

  18. 6 CFR 11.4 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection by administrative offset. 11.4 Section 11.4 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.4... administrative offset pursuant to 31 CFR parts 900-904. (b) Centralized Offset through the Treasury...

  19. 29 CFR 100.614 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection by administrative offset. 100.614 Section 100.614 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Debt Collection Procedures § 100.614 Collection by administrative offset. (a) Application. (1) The NLRB may administratively undertake collection...

  20. 28 CFR 71.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to administrative offset. 71.44 Section 71.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS... Department of Justice § 71.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment...

  1. 5 CFR 185.144 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 185.144 Section 185.144 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.144 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or...

  2. 45 CFR 79.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 79.44 Section 79.44 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become final, or for which a judgment has...

  3. 45 CFR 79.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 79.44 Section 79.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has...

  4. 45 CFR 79.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 79.44 Section 79.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has...

  5. 45 CFR 79.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 79.44 Section 79.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has...

  6. 45 CFR 79.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 79.44 Section 79.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become final, or for which a judgment has...

  7. 14 CFR 1264.143 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 1264.143 Section 1264.143 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.143 Right to administrative offset. The amount of...

  8. 43 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty...

  9. 6 CFR 13.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 13.44 Section 13.44 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment that has...

  10. 6 CFR 13.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 13.44 Section 13.44 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment that has...

  11. 10 CFR 13.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 13.44 Section 13.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become final, or for which a judgment has been...

  12. 15 CFR 25.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 25.44 Section 25.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROGRAM Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become...

  13. 10 CFR 1013.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 1013.44 Section 1013.44 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become final, or...

  14. 29 CFR 22.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Right to administrative offset. 22.44 Section 22.44 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become final, or for which a judgment has...

  15. 22 CFR 224.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 224.44 Section 224.44 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or...

  16. 22 CFR 521.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Right to administrative offset. 521.44 Section 521.44 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 521.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which...

  17. 24 CFR 26.56 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 26.56 Section 26.56 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and....56 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment that has become...

  18. 6 CFR 13.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 13.44 Section 13.44 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment that has...

  19. 34 CFR 33.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to administrative offset. 33.44 Section 33.44 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment that has become final, or for which a judgment...

  20. 31 CFR 16.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to administrative offset. 16.44 Section 16.44 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of...

  1. 22 CFR 35.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 35.44 Section 35.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become...

  2. 49 CFR 31.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to administrative offset. 31.44 Section 31.44 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has become final, or...

  3. 40 CFR 27.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to administrative offset. 27.44 Section 27.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment which has...

  4. 47 CFR 1.1912 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Collection of Claims Owed the United States Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for... Act, except as provided for in 31 U.S.C. 3716(c) (see 31 CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax...

  5. 31 CFR 5.10 - How will Treasury entities use administrative offset (offset of non-tax Federal payments) to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Offset Program. (1) In most cases, the Financial Management Service uses the Treasury Offset Program to... transferred to the Financial Management Service under § 5.9 of this part, Treasury entities will refer any... administrative offset. See 31 U.S.C. 3716(c)(6); 31 CFR part 285, subpart A; and 31 CFR 901.3(b)....

  6. 7 CFR 1.343 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 1.343 Section 1.343 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Procedures Related to Administrative Hearings Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.343 Right to administrative...

  7. 41 CFR 105-55.011 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection by administrative offset. 105-55.011 Section 105-55.011 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 55-COLLECTION OF...

  8. 41 CFR 105-70.044 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to administrative offset. 105-70.044 Section 105-70.044 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 70-IMPLEMENTATION OF...

  9. 20 CFR 355.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to administrative offset. 355.44 Section 355.44 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS REGULATIONS UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.44 Right...

  10. 19 CFR 201.206 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt... 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, the Commission shall assess interest, penalties and administrative... of 31 CFR part 901 with respect to providing the debtor with due process. (g) Requests for...

  11. 19 CFR 201.206 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt... 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, the Commission shall assess interest, penalties and administrative... of 31 CFR part 901 with respect to providing the debtor with due process. (g) Requests for...

  12. 7 CFR 1403.7 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection by administrative offset. 1403.7 Section 1403.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES DEBT SETTLEMENT POLICIES...

  13. 10 CFR 16.13 - Procedures for centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.13 Procedures for centralized administrative offset. (a... Treasury and other Federal disbursing officials will match payments, including Federal salary payments... comply with the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR part 550, and 10 CFR part 15. Procedures...

  14. 10 CFR 16.13 - Procedures for centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.13 Procedures for centralized administrative offset. (a... Treasury and other Federal disbursing officials will match payments, including Federal salary payments... comply with the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR part 550, and 10 CFR part 15. Procedures...

  15. 10 CFR 16.13 - Procedures for centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.13 Procedures for centralized administrative offset. (a... Treasury and other Federal disbursing officials will match payments, including Federal salary payments... comply with the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR part 550, and 10 CFR part 15. Procedures...

  16. 10 CFR 16.13 - Procedures for centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.13 Procedures for centralized administrative offset. (a... Treasury and other Federal disbursing officials will match payments, including Federal salary payments... comply with the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR part 550, and 10 CFR part 15. Procedures...

  17. 10 CFR 16.13 - Procedures for centralized administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.13 Procedures for centralized administrative offset. (a... Treasury and other Federal disbursing officials will match payments, including Federal salary payments... comply with the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR part 550, and 10 CFR part 15. Procedures...

  18. 38 CFR 42.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to administrative offset. 42.44 Section 42.44 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.44 Right to...

  19. 12 CFR 308.543 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 308.543 Section 308.543 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.543 Right...

  20. 12 CFR 308.543 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 308.543 Section 308.543 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.543 Right...

  1. 12 CFR 308.543 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 308.543 Section 308.543 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.543 Right...

  2. 12 CFR 308.543 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 308.543 Section 308.543 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.543 Right...

  3. 12 CFR 308.543 - Right to administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 308.543 Section 308.543 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.543 Right...

  4. 12 CFR 1208.42 - Administrative offset prior to completion of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be promptly refunded. This section applies only to administrative offset pursuant to 31 CFR 901.3... centralized administrative offset under 31 CFR 901.3(b)(1). (b) The administrative offset is in the nature of a recoupment (i.e., FHFA may offset a payment due to the debtor when both the payment due to...

  5. 41 CFR 105-55.011 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 3716(c) (see 31 CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax Refund Offset) or the tariff laws of the United... regulations published to implement such offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part...

  6. 10 CFR 15.33 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax Refund Offset) or the tariff laws of the United States; (iv) Offsets... the guidance and standards in 31 CFR Chapter IX, parts 900-904 and 5 U.S.C. 5514. (2) This...

  7. 10 CFR 15.33 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax Refund Offset) or the tariff laws of the United States; (iv) Offsets... the guidance and standards in 31 CFR Chapter IX, parts 900-904 and 5 U.S.C. 5514. (2) This...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1912 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Payments made under the Social Security Act, except as provided for in 31 U.S.C. 3716(c) (see 31 CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax Refund Offset) or the tariff laws of the United States; (iv) Offsets...

  9. 41 CFR 105-55.011 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 3716(c) (see 31 CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax Refund Offset) or the tariff laws of the United... regulations published to implement such offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part...

  10. 10 CFR 15.33 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the guidance and standards in 31 CFR Chapter IX, parts 900-904 and 5 U.S.C. 5514. (2) This section... CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax Refund Offset) or the tariff laws of the United States; (iv)...

  11. 29 CFR 4903.22 - Administrative offset procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (access under the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) or the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a...) Failure to take the offset would substantially prejudice the government's ability to collect the debt;...

  12. 10 CFR 1015.203 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... seq.) except as provided for in 31 U.S.C. 3716(c) (see 31 CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax Refund.... 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K, and 31 CFR 285.7, Federal Salary Offset);...

  13. 10 CFR 1015.203 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... seq.) except as provided for in 31 U.S.C. 3716(c) (see 31 CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR 285.2, Tax Refund.... 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K, and 31 CFR 285.7, Federal Salary Offset);...

  14. 31 CFR 901.3 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under the Social Security Act, except as provided for in 31 U.S.C. 3716(c) (see 31 CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR... offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K, and 31 CFR 285.7,...

  15. 31 CFR 901.3 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under the Social Security Act, except as provided for in 31 U.S.C. 3716(c) (see 31 CFR 285.4, Federal Benefit Offset); (iii) Debts arising under, or payments made under, the Internal Revenue Code (see 31 CFR... offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 31 U.S.C. 3716 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K, and 31 CFR 285.7,...

  16. 19 CFR 201.202 - Purpose and scope of salary and administrative offset rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offset rules. 201.202 Section 201.202 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL... are consistent with the Office of Personnel Management regulations on salary offset, codified at 5 CFR Part 550, subpart K, and with regulations on administrative offset codified at 31 CFR part 901....

  17. 19 CFR 201.202 - Purpose and scope of salary and administrative offset rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offset rules. 201.202 Section 201.202 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL... are consistent with the Office of Personnel Management regulations on salary offset, codified at 5 CFR Part 550, subpart K, and with regulations on administrative offset codified at 31 CFR part 901....

  18. 40 CFR 13.20 - Administrative offset of general debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount; (ii) Efforts to obtain direct payment from the debtor have been, or would most likely be...) Multiple debts. Where moneys are available for offset against multiple debts of a debtor, it will be... the amount of the debt, the length of the proposed repayment period, whether the debtor is willing...

  19. 40 CFR 13.20 - Administrative offset of general debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amount; (ii) Efforts to obtain direct payment from the debtor have been, or would most likely be...) Multiple debts. Where moneys are available for offset against multiple debts of a debtor, it will be... the amount of the debt, the length of the proposed repayment period, whether the debtor is willing...

  20. 29 CFR 1450.10 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... owed by any State or local Governments; (ii) Debts arising under or payments made under the Social... the following: Written notice of the nature and amount of the debt, and the agency's intention to collect by offset; opportunity to inspect and copy agency records pertaining to the debt; opportunity...

  1. 29 CFR 1450.10 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... owed by any State or local Governments; (ii) Debts arising under or payments made under the Social... the following: Written notice of the nature and amount of the debt, and the agency's intention to collect by offset; opportunity to inspect and copy agency records pertaining to the debt; opportunity...

  2. 20 CFR 422.310 - Collection of overdue debts by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of overdue debts by administrative offset. 422.310 Section 422.310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Claims Collection § 422.310 Collection of overdue debts by administrative offset. (a) Referral to the Department of the Treasury...

  3. 5 CFR 845.206 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... debtor from other agencies in accordance with 4 CFR 102.3 except that offset from back pay awarded under the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 5596 (and 5 CFR 550.801 et seq.) will be made in accordance with § 550.805.... 5514 and 5 CFR 550.1101 et seq. Due process described in § 845.204 will apply. The questions of...

  4. 40 CFR 77.4 - Administrator's action on proposed offset plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrator's action on proposed offset plans. 77.4 Section 77.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.4 Administrator's action on proposed offset plans....

  5. 22 CFR 213.20 - Administrative offset of non-employee debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offset is feasible and that its use furthers and protects the interest of the United States. (a...-centralized administrative offsets conducted under paragraph (g) of this section, USAID first learns of the... contract. However, interest, penalty and administrative costs will continue to accrue during this...

  6. 22 CFR 213.20 - Administrative offset of non-employee debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offset is feasible and that its use furthers and protects the interest of the United States. (a...-centralized administrative offsets conducted under paragraph (g) of this section, USAID first learns of the... contract. However, interest, penalty and administrative costs will continue to accrue during this...

  7. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  8. 24 CFR 17.113 - Procedures for administrative offset: interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for administrative offset: interagency cooperation. 17.113 Section 17.113 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... offset: interagency cooperation. The Department will make use of all possible methods of cooperating...

  9. 31 CFR 256.21 - Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (See 31 CFR 285.5 for requirements for disbursing official offset of past-due delinquent, nontax debts... administrator of the Judgment Fund, Fiscal Service, in its capacity as disbursing official for the executive... Offset Program (TOP). This rule applies only to the setoff of Judgment Fund payments prior to...

  10. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  11. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  12. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  13. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  14. 20 CFR 361.14 - Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.14 Procedures for salary offset: Imposition of interest, penalties and administrative costs. Interest will be charged in accordance with 4 CFR 102.13....

  15. 7 CFR 1403.7 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... notification and opportunity includes notice of the right to pursue an administrative appeal in accordance with... freight bills involving shipments if: (1) The carrier, without reasonable justification, has declined... bills involving shipments if: (1) Timely demand for payment was made on the carrier; (2) The carrier...

  16. 7 CFR 1403.7 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Department of Justice; or (2) When a person is indebted under a judgment in favor of CCC. (d... (including county), and, where legally available, the social security number or employer ID number of the... interest, administrative charges, and penalties, unless the Department of Justice requests that a...

  17. 45 CFR 681.44 - Is there a right to administrative offset?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is there a right to administrative offset? 681.44 Section 681.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 681.44 Is there a right...

  18. 31 CFR 256.21 - Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts? 256.21 Section 256.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE OBTAINING PAYMENTS FROM THE JUDGMENT FUND...

  19. 31 CFR 256.21 - Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (See 31 CFR 285.5 for requirements for disbursing official offset of past-due delinquent, nontax debts... administrator of the Judgment Fund, FMS, in its capacity as disbursing official for the executive branch... Program (TOP). This rule applies only to the setoff of Judgment Fund payments prior to...

  20. 31 CFR 256.21 - Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (See 31 CFR 285.5 for requirements for disbursing official offset of past-due delinquent, nontax debts... administrator of the Judgment Fund, FMS, in its capacity as disbursing official for the executive branch... Program (TOP). This rule applies only to the setoff of Judgment Fund payments prior to...

  1. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  2. Policy development for biodiversity offsets: a review of offset frameworks.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Bruce A; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks-US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) "additionality" (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) "currency" and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  3. Policy Development for Biodiversity Offsets: A Review of Offset Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenney, Bruce A.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks—US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) “additionality” (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) “currency” and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  4. Training SVMs without offset

    SciTech Connect

    Steinwart, Ingo; Hush, Don; Scovel, Clint

    2009-01-01

    We develop, analyze, and test a training algorithm for support vector machine cla.'>sifiers without offset. Key features of this algorithm are a new stopping criterion and a set of working set selection strategies that, although inexpensive, do not lead to substantially more iterations than the optimal working set selection strategy. For these working set strategies, we establish convergence rates that coincide with the best known rates for SYMs with offset. We further conduct various experiments that investigate both the run time behavior and the performed iterations of the new training algorithm. It turns out, that the new algorithm needs less iterations and run-time than standard training algorithms for SYMs with offset.

  5. 24 CFR 17.112 - Procedures for administrative offset: multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offset: multiple debts. 17.112 Section 17.112 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...: multiple debts. The Secretary will use the procedures identified in § 17.111 for the offset of multiple debts. However, when collecting multiple debts the Secretary will apply the recovered amounts to...

  6. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  7. 7 CFR 3.41 - Procedures for notification of intent to collect by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agency first learns of the existence of the amount owed by the debtor when there is insufficient time... opportunity for review. Any interest accrued or any installments coming due after the offset is initiated...

  8. 7 CFR 3.46 - Offset against tax refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offset against tax refunds. 3.46 Section 3.46 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.46 Offset against tax refunds. USDA will take action to effect administrative offset against tax refunds due to...

  9. 77 FR 53830 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to Administrative Offsets Initiated Against Former...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...., eastern standard or daylight saving time as appropriate during the year.) Unless otherwise directed by the... offset. Changes to paragraph (c) clarify the procedural time limits for filing a petition for review... discuss extensions of time with the opposing party, as is the current practice. Paragraph (d)...

  10. 77 FR 65103 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to Administrative Offsets Initiated Against Former...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ....m. and 4:45 p.m., eastern standard or daylight saving time as appropriate during the year.) Unless... these proposed changes to 39 CFR part 966 on September 4, 2012 (77 FR 53830-34). No comments were... review under part 966 following the offset. Changes to paragraph (c) clarify the procedural time...

  11. 20 CFR 422.310 - Collection of overdue debts by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... payments owed the debtor include current “disposable pay,” defined in 5 CFR 550.1103, owed by the Federal... the debt by giving us evidence showing that the debtor does not owe all or part of the amount of the... payments due the debtor through the Treasury Offset Program (TOP). TOP is a Government-wide delinquent...

  12. 20 CFR 422.310 - Collection of overdue debts by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the debtor. Federal payments owed the debtor include current “disposable pay,” defined in 5 CFR 550... debtor may request a review of the debt by giving us evidence showing that the debtor does not owe all or... delinquent debt matching and payment offset process operated by the Department of the Treasury, whereby...

  13. 20 CFR 422.310 - Collection of overdue debts by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payments owed the debtor include current “disposable pay,” defined in 5 CFR 550.1103, owed by the Federal... the debt by giving us evidence showing that the debtor does not owe all or part of the amount of the... payments due the debtor through the Treasury Offset Program (TOP). TOP is a Government-wide delinquent...

  14. 20 CFR 422.310 - Collection of overdue debts by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the debtor. Federal payments owed the debtor include current “disposable pay,” defined in 5 CFR 550... debtor may request a review of the debt by giving us evidence showing that the debtor does not owe all or... delinquent debt matching and payment offset process operated by the Department of the Treasury, whereby...

  15. 24 CFR 17.101 - Coordinating administrative offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by 31 U.S.C. 3716 and 4 CFR part 102. ... with another Federal agency. 17.101 Section 17.101 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... offset with another Federal agency. (a) When HUD is owed the debt. When the Department is owed a...

  16. 24 CFR 17.101 - Coordinating administrative offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by 31 U.S.C. 3716 and 4 CFR part 102. ... with another Federal agency. 17.101 Section 17.101 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... offset with another Federal agency. (a) When HUD is owed the debt. When the Department is owed a...

  17. 31 CFR 285.6 - Administrative offset under reciprocal agreements with states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... collection of past-due support debts (see 31 CFR 285.1 and 285.3). (b) Definitions. (1) Unless otherwise... Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DEBT COLLECTION AUTHORITIES UNDER THE DEBT COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1996 Disbursing Official Offset §...

  18. 31 CFR 285.6 - Administrative offset under reciprocal agreements with states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... apply to the offset of Federal salary payments, Federal tax refunds (see 31 CFR 285.8), or the collection of past-due support debts (see 31 CFR 285.1 and 285.3). (b) Definitions. (1) Unless otherwise... debts arising under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.), the tariff laws of...

  19. 31 CFR 285.6 - Administrative offset under reciprocal agreements with states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section does not apply to the offset of Federal salary payments, Federal tax refunds (see 31 CFR 285.8), or the collection of past-due support debts (see 31 CFR 285.1 and 285.3). (b) Definitions. (1) Unless... debts arising under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.), the tariff laws of...

  20. 5 CFR 1215.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1215.8... MANAGEMENT Salary Offset § 1215.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the amount stated in the Chairman's notice of intention to offset...

  1. Common-offset ray tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Jannaud, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    In the SMART method, exact traveltimes, used as input of reflection tomography, are computed by tracing rays that are reflected on interpreted migrated events. Since picking migrated events is easier in common offset migrated images than in common shot migrated images, a common offset raytracing has been developed. It is based on a continuation method in the source position-shooting angle domain. It consists in following in this domain iso-offset lines and determining the points of these lines corresponding to the actual sources. It allows the user to compute all the arrivals even for complex media at a low computational cost.

  2. 5 CFR 831.1005 - Offset from nondisability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offset from nondisability annuity. 831.1005 Section 831.1005 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1005 Offset from nondisability annuity. (a) OPM...

  3. 5 CFR 831.1005 - Offset from nondisability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset from nondisability annuity. 831.1005 Section 831.1005 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1005 Offset from nondisability annuity. (a) OPM...

  4. 5 CFR 179.211 - Notice of salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of salary offset. 179.211 Section 179.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.211 Notice of salary offset. (a) Upon receipt of...

  5. 5 CFR 179.212 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 179.212 Section 179.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.212 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Director or his or...

  6. 5 CFR 831.1005 - Offset from nondisability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offset from nondisability annuity. 831.1005 Section 831.1005 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1005 Offset from nondisability annuity. (a) OPM...

  7. 16 CFR 260.5 - Carbon offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carbon offsets. 260.5 Section 260.5... ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.5 Carbon offsets. (a) Given the complexities of carbon offsets, sellers... deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that a carbon offset represents emission...

  8. 16 CFR 260.5 - Carbon offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carbon offsets. 260.5 Section 260.5... ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.5 Carbon offsets. (a) Given the complexities of carbon offsets, sellers... deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that a carbon offset represents emission...

  9. 12 CFR 1408.26 - Stay of offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay of offset. 1408.26 Section 1408.26 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Administrative Offset § 1408.26 Stay of offset. (a)(1) When a creditor agency receives a debtor's request...

  10. 45 CFR 33.10 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 33.10 Section 33.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SALARY OFFSET § 33.10 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Method and source of deductions. Unless the employee and the Secretary have agreed to an alternative...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1951 - Offset against tax refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offset against tax refunds. 1.1951 Section 1... Claims Owed the United States Cooperation with the Internal Revenue Service § 1.1951 Offset against tax refunds. The Commission will take action to effect administrative offset against tax refunds due...

  12. Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

    This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

  13. Phonation Offset in Tracheoesophageal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Ousley, Teri

    2004-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers often have difficulty producing the voiced-voiceless distinction. Phonation offset (POff) as a TE speaker transitions from a vowel to a stop consonant may be altered, possibly contributing to listener misperceptions. The purposes of this study were to: (1) compare the duration of POff in TE versus laryngeal…

  14. 20 CFR 627.708 - Offset process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offset process. 627.708 Section 627.708 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING... process. (a) In accordance with section 164(d) of the Act, the primary sanction for misexpenditure of...

  15. 20 CFR 627.708 - Offset process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offset process. 627.708 Section 627.708 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING... process. (a) In accordance with section 164(d) of the Act, the primary sanction for misexpenditure of...

  16. Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160853.html Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects? Even gardening, brisk walking may reduce ... study says moderate exercise may offset some of alcohol's harmful effects. Normally, drinking raises the risk of ...

  17. 7 CFR 1951.111 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... employees from loss of federal funds through negligence and other matters. Salary offset may also be used by... 7 CFR part 766. In addition, for Farm Loan Programs direct loans, salary offset will not be... Programs guaranteed debtors, salary offset can not begin until a final loss claim has been paid....

  18. 26 CFR 1.812-5 - Offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Loss from Operations § 1.812-5 Offset. (a) Offset defined. Section 812(d) defines the term “offset... is necessary to reduce the life insurance company taxable income (computed without regard to section... taxable year as were sustained in taxable years preceding the taxable year in which the life...

  19. 31 CFR 285.7 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... offsets directly from a paying agency, rather than through TOP. See 5 CFR 550.1101 through 550.1108. (2... the same meaning as that term is defined in 5 CFR 550.1103. Federal employee means a current employee... disposable pay in accordance with 5 CFR 550.1103. (g) Offset amount. (1) The amount offset from a...

  20. 41 CFR 105-56.004 - Pre-offset notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-offset notice. 105-56.004 Section 105-56.004 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF...

  1. 41 CFR 105-56.028 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset. 105-56.028 Section 105-56.028 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF...

  2. 41 CFR 105-56.018 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset. 105-56.018 Section 105-56.018 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF...

  3. 40 CFR 13.21 - Employee salary offset-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 5705, employee training expenses under 5 U.S.C. 4108 and to other debts where collection by... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee salary offset-general. 13.21... STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 13.21 Employee salary offset—general. (a) Purpose. This...

  4. 12 CFR 608.821 - Collection by offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... administrative offset shall be accomplished in accordance with the provisions of these regulations, of 4 CFR 102.3, and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. It is not necessary for the debt to be reduced to judgment or to... degree to which the offset can be accomplished in accordance with law. This determination should...

  5. 32 CFR 1697.7 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Disability Fund or other similar funds be collected by administrative offset as provided under 5 CFR 831.1801... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coordinating offset with another federal agency... SYSTEM SALARY OFFSET § 1697.7 Coordinating offset with another federal agency. (a) The Selective...

  6. 32 CFR 1697.7 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Disability Fund or other similar funds be collected by administrative offset as provided under 5 CFR 831.1801... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordinating offset with another federal agency... SYSTEM SALARY OFFSET § 1697.7 Coordinating offset with another federal agency. (a) The Selective...

  7. 32 CFR 1697.7 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Disability Fund or other similar funds be collected by administrative offset as provided under 5 CFR 831.1801... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coordinating offset with another federal agency... SYSTEM SALARY OFFSET § 1697.7 Coordinating offset with another federal agency. (a) The Selective...

  8. 32 CFR 1697.7 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Disability Fund or other similar funds be collected by administrative offset as provided under 5 CFR 831.1801... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordinating offset with another federal agency... SYSTEM SALARY OFFSET § 1697.7 Coordinating offset with another federal agency. (a) The Selective...

  9. 32 CFR 1697.7 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Disability Fund or other similar funds be collected by administrative offset as provided under 5 CFR 831.1801... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordinating offset with another federal agency... SYSTEM SALARY OFFSET § 1697.7 Coordinating offset with another federal agency. (a) The Selective...

  10. Offset truss hex solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E. (Inventor); Sturgis, James D. (Inventor); Erikson, Raymond J. (Inventor); Waligroski, Gregg A. (Inventor); Scott, Michael A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A solar energy concentrator system comprises an offset reflector structure made up of a plurality of solar energy reflector panel sections interconnected with one another to form a piecewise approximation of a portion of a (parabolic) surface of revolution rotated about a prescribed focal axis. Each panel section is comprised of a plurality of reflector facets whose reflective surfaces effectively focus reflected light to preselected surface portions of the interior sidewall of a cylindrically shaped solar energy receiver. The longitudinal axis of the receiver is tilted at an acute angle with respect to the optical axis such that the distribution of focussed solar energy over the interior surface of the solar engine is optimized for dynamic solar energy conversion. Each reflector panel section comprises a flat, hexagonally shaped truss support framework and a plurality of beam members interconnecting diametrically opposed corners of the hexagonal framework recessed within which a plurality of (spherically) contoured reflector facets is disposed. The depth of the framework and the beam members is greater than the thickness of a reflector facet such that a reflector facet may be tilted (for controlling the effective focus of its reflected light through the receiver aperture) without protruding from the panel section.

  11. 48 CFR 225.7306 - Offset arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offset arrangements. 225.7306 Section 225.7306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM....7306 Offset arrangements. In accordance with the Presidential policy statement of April 16, 1990,...

  12. 7 CFR 1951.111 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... waiving the debt, the debtor requests waiver of the debt, and the waiver determination turns on an issue...; for example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility or truth. (iii) The....111 Salary offset. Salary offset may be used to collect debts arising from delinquent USDA...

  13. 7 CFR 1951.111 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... waiving the debt, the debtor requests waiver of the debt, and the waiver determination turns on an issue...; for example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility or truth. (iii) The....111 Salary offset. Salary offset may be used to collect debts arising from delinquent USDA...

  14. 34 CFR 30.21 - When may the Secretary offset a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may the Secretary offset a debt? 30.21 Section 30.21 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DEBT COLLECTION What Provisions Apply to Administrative Offset? General Offset Procedures § 30.21 When may the Secretary offset a debt? (a) The Secretary may offset a debt if: (1) The...

  15. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  16. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  17. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  18. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  19. Turbine blade tip with offset squealer

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2001-01-01

    An industrial turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationary shroud. The rotating blade includes a root section, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall defining an outer periphery and a tip portion having a tip cap. An offset squealer is disposed on the tip cap. The offset squealer is positioned inward from the outer periphery of the rotating blade. The offset squealer increases the flow resistance and reduces the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  20. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  1. Frequency-offset separated oscillatory fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutha, A. C.; Hessels, E. A.

    2015-11-01

    A frequency-offset separated-oscillatory-field technique is presented. The technique is a modification of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields [Phys. Rev. 76, 996 (1949), 10.1103/PhysRev.76.996], in which the frequencies of the two separated oscillatory fields are slightly offset from each other, so that the relative phase of the two fields varies continuously with time. With this technique, the detection signal oscillates in time at the offset frequency, and the resonance frequency is obtained by using a simple straight-line fit of the phase of this signal. The technique has the advantages of being insensitive to the frequency response of the experimental system, of being sensitive only to noise at the offset frequency, and of allowing systematic effects to be more cleanly resolved due to the simple lineshape.

  2. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  3. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  4. 34 CFR 31.11 - Offset process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of 4 CFR 102.4. (e) The Secretary effects an offset under this part against payments owing to an... the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108. (Authority: 5 U.S.C. 5514; 31 U.S.C. 3716) ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset process. 31.11 Section 31.11 Education Office...

  5. 34 CFR 31.11 - Offset process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of 4 CFR 102.4. (e) The Secretary effects an offset under this part against payments owing to an... the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108. (Authority: 5 U.S.C. 5514; 31 U.S.C. 3716) ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offset process. 31.11 Section 31.11 Education Office...

  6. 34 CFR 31.11 - Offset process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of 4 CFR 102.4. (e) The Secretary effects an offset under this part against payments owing to an... the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108. (Authority: 5 U.S.C. 5514; 31 U.S.C. 3716) ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offset process. 31.11 Section 31.11 Education Office...

  7. 5 CFR 831.1006 - Offset from disability or survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offset from disability or survivor annuity. 831.1006 Section 831.1006 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1006 Offset from disability...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1006 - Offset from disability or survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset from disability or survivor annuity. 831.1006 Section 831.1006 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1006 Offset from disability...

  9. 5 CFR 831.1006 - Offset from disability or survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offset from disability or survivor annuity. 831.1006 Section 831.1006 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1006 Offset from disability...

  10. 5 CFR 831.1006 - Offset from disability or survivor annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offset from disability or survivor annuity. 831.1006 Section 831.1006 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1006 Offset from disability...

  11. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  12. 13 CFR 140.2 - What is a debt and how can the SBA collect it through offset?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... collect it through offset? 140.2 Section 140.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEBT COLLECTION Offset § 140.2 What is a debt and how can the SBA collect it through offset? (a) A.... (1) Administrative offset. SBA may withhold money it owes to the debtor in order to satisfy the...

  13. 13 CFR 140.2 - What is a debt and how can the SBA collect it through offset?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... collect it through offset? 140.2 Section 140.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEBT COLLECTION Offset § 140.2 What is a debt and how can the SBA collect it through offset? (a) A.... (1) Administrative offset. SBA may withhold money it owes to the debtor in order to satisfy the...

  14. 34 CFR 30.22 - What notice does the debtor receive before the commencement of offset?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What notice does the debtor receive before the commencement of offset? 30.22 Section 30.22 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DEBT COLLECTION What Provisions Apply to Administrative Offset? General Offset Procedures § 30.22 What notice does the debtor receive before...

  15. 5 CFR 1215.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Salary Offset § 1215.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The.... (1) Upon receipt of a properly certified debt claim from another agency, deductions will be...

  16. 5 CFR 1215.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Salary Offset § 1215.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The.... (1) Upon receipt of a properly certified debt claim from another agency, deductions will be...

  17. 5 CFR 1215.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Salary Offset § 1215.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The.... (1) Upon receipt of a properly certified debt claim from another agency, deductions will be...

  18. 5 CFR 1215.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Salary Offset § 1215.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The.... (1) Upon receipt of a properly certified debt claim from another agency, deductions will be...

  19. 5 CFR 1215.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Salary Offset § 1215.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The.... (1) Upon receipt of a properly certified debt claim from another agency, deductions will be...

  20. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOEpatents

    Lunsford, James S.

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  1. Offset compensation for A/D converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, S. S.; Hurd, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Analog-to-digital (A/D) converter eliminates dc offset in final digitized signal as well as in analog input by using digital feedback for compensation. Circuit could prove useful in data processing applications in which analog-format data are entered at high rates, as in point-of-sale data input systems.

  2. Multiple bit differential detection of offset QPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analogous to multiple symbol differential detection of quadrature phase-shift-keying, a multiple bit differential detection scheme is described for offset QPSK that also exhibits continuous improvement in performance with increasing observation interval. Being derived from maximum-likelihood (ML) considerations, the proposed scheme is purported to be the most power efficient scheme for such a modulation and detection method.

  3. A Simple Joint Estimation Method of Residual Frequency Offset and Sampling Frequency Offset for DVB Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ki-Won; Cho, Yongsoo

    This letter presents a simple joint estimation method for residual frequency offset (RFO) and sampling frequency offset (STO) in OFDM-based digital video broadcasting (DVB) systems. The proposed method selects a continual pilot (CP) subset from an unsymmetrically and non-uniformly distributed CP set to obtain an unbiased estimator. Simulation results show that the proposed method using a properly selected CP subset is unbiased and performs robustly.

  4. 14 CFR 1261.603 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Collection by Offset From Indebted Government Employees § 1261.603 Procedures for...); (3) An explanation of any interest, penalties, or administrative costs included in the amount, and that such assessment must be made unless excused in accordance with 14 CFR 1261.412; (4) The right...

  5. 17 CFR 204.33 - Pre-offset notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or a change in coverage under a Federal benefits program requiring periodic deductions from pay, it... documented in the Commission's files (31 CFR 901.3(b)); (g) The employee's right to a hearing conducted by an...-offset hearing. Such hearing official will be either an administrative law judge or at the...

  6. 5 CFR 845.404 - Conditions for requesting an offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the debt; (2) Following the procedures required by 31 U.S.C. 3716 and 4 CFR 102.4; (3) Following... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for requesting an offset. 845... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEBT COLLECTION Agency Requests to OPM...

  7. 21 CFR 176.130 - Anti-offset substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anti-offset substances. 176.130 Section 176.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper...

  8. 21 CFR 176.130 - Anti-offset substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in printing and decorating paper and paperboard used for food packaging in accordance with the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Anti-offset substances. 176.130 Section 176.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  9. 21 CFR 176.130 - Anti-offset substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anti-offset substances. 176.130 Section 176.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper...

  10. Temporal offsets among solar activity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, K. B.; Vasantharaju, N.

    2014-04-01

    Temporal offsets between the time series of solar activity indicators provide important clues regarding the physical processes responsible for the cyclic variability in the solar atmosphere. Hysteresis patterns generated between any two indicators were popularly used to study their morphological features and further to understand their inter relationships. We use time series of different solar indicators to understand the possible cause-and-effect criteria between their respective source regions. Sensitivity of the upper atmosphere to the activity underneath might play an important role in introducing different evolutionary patterns in the profiles of solar indicators and in turn cause temporal offsets between them. Limitations in the observations may also cause relative shifts in the time series.

  11. 7 CFR 1951.111 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Offset procedures (7 CFR Part 3, Subpart B, § 3.32). (p) Coordination with other agencies. (1) If FmHA or... concerning debt settlement—(1) If a debtor responds to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...) Processing delinquent debts. (1) Form AD-343, “Payroll Action Request,” and FmHA or its successor...

  12. 7 CFR 1951.111 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Offset procedures (7 CFR Part 3, Subpart B, § 3.32). (p) Coordination with other agencies. (1) If FmHA or... concerning debt settlement—(1) If a debtor responds to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...) Processing delinquent debts. (1) Form AD-343, “Payroll Action Request,” and FmHA or its successor...

  13. 10 CFR 1015.209 - Tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... offset as part of Treasury's mandatory centralized offset at 31 CFR 285.2, Offset of Tax Refund to Collect Past-Due, Legally Enforceable Non-tax Debt. DOE has adopted 31 U.S.C. 3720A and 31 CFR 285.2 in... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tax refund offset. 1015.209 Section 1015.209...

  14. 10 CFR 1015.209 - Tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... offset as part of Treasury's mandatory centralized offset at 31 CFR 285.2, Offset of Tax Refund to Collect Past-Due, Legally Enforceable Non-tax Debt. DOE has adopted 31 U.S.C. 3720A and 31 CFR 285.2 in... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax refund offset. 1015.209 Section 1015.209...

  15. 45 CFR 607.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 607.8 Section 607.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be...

  16. 13 CFR 120.1722 - SBA's offset rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's offset rights. 120.1722... of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1722 SBA's offset rights. SBA shall have the right to offset any amount owed by Lender to SBA, including,...

  17. 45 CFR 607.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 607.8 Section 607.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be...

  18. 12 CFR 1408.39 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1408.39 Section 1408.39 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 1408.39 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Chairman, or designee of...

  19. 32 CFR 1697.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1697.8 Section 1697.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SALARY OFFSET § 1697.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the amount stated in...

  20. 10 CFR 16.15 - Procedures for internal salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for internal salary offset. 16.15 Section 16.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DEBTS OWED BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.15 Procedures for internal salary offset. (a) Deductions...

  1. 10 CFR 16.15 - Procedures for internal salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for internal salary offset. 16.15 Section 16.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DEBTS OWED BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.15 Procedures for internal salary offset. (a) Deductions...

  2. 10 CFR 16.15 - Procedures for internal salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for internal salary offset. 16.15 Section 16.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DEBTS OWED BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.15 Procedures for internal salary offset. (a) Deductions...

  3. 10 CFR 16.15 - Procedures for internal salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for internal salary offset. 16.15 Section 16.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DEBTS OWED BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.15 Procedures for internal salary offset. (a) Deductions...

  4. 10 CFR 16.15 - Procedures for internal salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for internal salary offset. 16.15 Section 16.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DEBTS OWED BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.15 Procedures for internal salary offset. (a) Deductions...

  5. 19 CFR 159.64 - Distribution of offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distribution of offset. 159.64 Section 159.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset § 159.64 Distribution of offset. (a) The creation of Special...

  6. 45 CFR 607.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 607.8 Section 607.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be...

  7. 17 CFR 204.38 - Pre-offset hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 204.38 Pre-offset hearing. (a) The hearing official shall determine the form and content of hearings granted under this section, pursuant to 31 CFR 901.3(e). All oral hearings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pre-offset hearing....

  8. 17 CFR 204.38 - Pre-offset hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 204.38 Pre-offset hearing. (a) The hearing official shall determine the form and content of hearings granted under this section, pursuant to 31 CFR 901.3(e). All oral hearings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pre-offset hearing....

  9. 17 CFR 204.38 - Pre-offset hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 204.38 Pre-offset hearing. (a) The hearing official shall determine the form and content of hearings granted under this section, pursuant to 31 CFR 901.3(e). All oral hearings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pre-offset hearing....

  10. 22 CFR 1007.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the amount stated in...

  11. 22 CFR 1007.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the amount stated in...

  12. 22 CFR 1007.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the amount stated in...

  13. 22 CFR 1007.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the amount stated in...

  14. 22 CFR 1007.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the amount stated in...

  15. Structure of three-dimensional turbulent offset jets with small offset distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Tachie, Mark

    2009-11-01

    An offset jet is a jet that discharges into a medium above a wall which is offset by a certain distance. The ``Coanda effect'' forces the offset jet to deflect towards the wall and eventually attaches itself to the wall. The only detailed study of three-dimensional offset jets (3DOJs) did not report the flow field in the region from the jet exit to the point where the jet attaches itself to the wall. In this region flow reversal is expected. Velocity measurements of 3DOJs were conducted using particle image velocimetry. The 3DOJs have different jet exit offset distances (h) normalized by the jet exit diameter (d) of h/d = 0.5 to 4. The Reynolds numbers based on the jet exit velocities and jet exit diameters were 5000, 10000 and 20000. The detailed flow fields of the 3DOJs were examined in terms of mean velocities, and one-point turbulence statistics. In view of the wide range of length and temporal scales that are present in turbulent flows, multi-point turbulence statistics such as two-point velocity correlations and proper orthogonal decomposition are used to document the salient features of 3DOJs.

  16. Interior micro-CT with an offset detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Kriti Sen; Gong, Hao; Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The size of field-of-view (FOV) of a microcomputed tomography (CT) system can be increased by offsetting the detector. The increased FOV is beneficial in many applications. All prior investigations, however, have been focused to the case in which the increased FOV after offset-detector acquisition can cover the transaxial extent of an object fully. Here, the authors studied a new problem where the FOV of a micro-CT system, although increased after offset-detector acquisition, still covers an interior region-of-interest (ROI) within the object. Methods: An interior-ROI-oriented micro-CT scan with an offset detector poses a difficult reconstruction problem, which is caused by both detector offset and projection truncation. Using the projection completion techniques, the authors first extended three previous reconstruction methods from offset-detector micro-CT to offset-detector interior micro-CT. The authors then proposed a novel method which combines two of the extended methods using a frequency split technique. The authors tested the four methods with phantom simulations at 9.4%, 18.8%, 28.2%, and 37.6% detector offset. The authors also applied these methods to physical phantom datasets acquired at the same amounts of detector offset from a customized micro-CT system. Results: When the detector offset was small, all reconstruction methods showed good image quality. At large detector offset, the three extended methods gave either visible shading artifacts or high deviation of pixel value, while the authors’ proposed method demonstrated no visible artifacts and minimal deviation of pixel value in both the numerical simulations and physical experiments. Conclusions: For an interior micro-CT with an offset detector, the three extended reconstruction methods can perform well at a small detector offset but show strong artifacts at a large detector offset. When the detector offset is large, the authors’ proposed reconstruction method can outperform the three

  17. Frequency-offset separated oscillatory fields technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezginov, N.; Vutha, A. C.; Ferchichi, I.; Storry, C. H.; Hessels, E. A.

    2015-05-01

    Improved measurements in atomic hydrogen are needed to shed light on the proton radius puzzle. We are measuring the Lamb shift in hydrogen (n = 2 ,S1 / 2 -->P1 / 2) using a frequency-offset separated oscillatory fields (FOSOF) method. The advantages of this method include its insensitivity to atomic beam intensity fluctuations and the microwave-system frequency response. We present experimental results obtained with this method, towards a new measurement of the proton charge radius. We acknowledge funding from NSERC, CFI, CRC, ORF, and NIST.

  18. 12 CFR 608.841 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. 608.841 Section 608.841 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.841 Requesting current paying...

  19. 12 CFR 608.841 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. 608.841 Section 608.841 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.841 Requesting current paying...

  20. 12 CFR 608.841 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. 608.841 Section 608.841 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.841 Requesting current paying...

  1. 12 CFR 608.841 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. 608.841 Section 608.841 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.841 Requesting current paying...

  2. 12 CFR 608.841 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. 608.841 Section 608.841 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.841 Requesting current paying...

  3. 41 CFR 105-56.006 - Petition for pre-offset hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petition for pre-offset hearing. 105-56.006 Section 105-56.006 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET...

  4. 41 CFR 105-56.007 - Pre-offset oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-offset oral hearing. 105-56.007 Section 105-56.007 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS...

  5. 19 CFR 201.207 - Administrative offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.207 Administrative... Office of Personnel Management; and (3) The Commission has complied with the requirements of 31 CFR...

  6. 19 CFR 201.207 - Administrative offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.207 Administrative... Office of Personnel Management; and (3) The Commission has complied with the requirements of 31 CFR...

  7. IQ Imbalance Estimation Scheme in the Presence of DC Offset and Frequency Offset in the Frequency Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Mamiko; Takayama, Shuzo; Sanada, Yukitoshi

    Direct conversion receivers in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems suffer from direct current (DC) offset, frequency offset, and IQ imbalance. We have proposed an IQ imbalance estimation scheme in the presence of DC offset and frequency offset, which uses preamble signals in the time domain. In this scheme, the DC offset is eliminated by a differential filter. However, the accuracy of IQ imbalance estimation is deteriorated when the frequency offset is small. To overcome this problem, a new IQ imbalance estimation scheme in the frequency domain with the differential filter has been proposed in this paper. The IQ imbalance is estimated with pilot subcarriers. Numerical results obtained through computer simulation show that estimation accuracy and bit error rate (BER) performance can be improved even if the frequency offset is small.

  8. OFFSET - RAY TRACING OPTICAL ANALYSIS OF OFFSET SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR SPACE STATION SOLAR DYNAMIC POWER SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, K.

    1994-01-01

    OFFSET is a ray tracing computer code for optical analysis of a solar collector. The code models the flux distributions within the receiver cavity produced by reflections from the solar collector. It was developed to model the offset solar collector of the solar dynamic electric power system being developed for Space Station Freedom. OFFSET has been used to improve the understanding of the collector-receiver interface and to guide the efforts of NASA contractors also researching the optical components of the power system. The collector for Space Station Freedom consists of 19 hexagonal panels each containing 24 triangular, reflective facets. Current research is geared toward optimizing flux distribution inside the receiver via changes in collector design and receiver orientation. OFFSET offers many options for experimenting with the design of the system. The offset parabolic collector model configuration is determined by an input file of facet corner coordinates. The user may choose other configurations by changing this file, but to simulate collectors that have other than 19 groups of 24 triangular facets would require modification of the FORTRAN code. Each of the roughly 500 facets in the assembled collector may be independently aimed to smooth out, or tailor, the flux distribution on the receiver's wall. OFFSET simulates the effects of design changes such as in receiver aperture location, tilt angle, and collector facet contour. Unique features of OFFSET include: 1) equations developed to pseudo-randomly select ray originating sources on the Sun which appear evenly distributed and include solar limb darkening; 2) Cone-optics technique used to add surface specular error to the ray originating sources to determine the apparent ray sources of the reflected sun; 3) choice of facet reflective surface contour -- spherical, ideal parabolic, or toroidal; 4) Gaussian distributions of radial and tangential components of surface slope error added to the surface normals at

  9. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  10. N-hexane neuropathy in offset printers.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C M; Yu, C W; Fong, K Y; Leung, S Y; Tsin, T W; Yu, Y L; Cheung, T F; Chan, S Y

    1993-01-01

    In an offset printing factory with 56 workers, 20 (36%) developed symptomatic peripheral neuropathy due to exposure to n-hexane. Another 26 workers (46%) were found to have subclinical neuropathy. The initial change in the nerve conduction study was reduced amplitude of the sensory action potentials, followed by reduced amplitude of the motor action potentials, reduction in motor conduction velocities and increase in distal latencies. These changes indicate primary axonal degeneration with secondary demyelination. Sural nerve biopsy in a severe case showed giant axonal swellings due to accumulation of 10nm neurofilaments, myelin sheath attenuation and widening of nodal gaps. The development of neuropathy bore no direct relationship to the duration of exposure, hence factors such as individual susceptibility may be important. Optic neuropathy and CNS involvement were uncommon and autonomic neuropathy was not encountered. Images PMID:8505647

  11. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  12. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    PubMed

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches.

  13. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    PubMed

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches. PMID:22956430

  14. 41 CFR 105-56.007 - Pre-offset oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-offset oral hearing... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.007 Pre-offset oral hearing. (a) The Agency... employee, and/or his or her representative, will explain their case in the form of an oral...

  15. 41 CFR 105-56.007 - Pre-offset oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-offset oral hearing... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.007 Pre-offset oral hearing. (a) The Agency... employee, and/or his or her representative, will explain their case in the form of an oral...

  16. 41 CFR 105-56.007 - Pre-offset oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-offset oral hearing... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.007 Pre-offset oral hearing. (a) The Agency... employee, and/or his or her representative, will explain their case in the form of an oral...

  17. 41 CFR 105-56.007 - Pre-offset oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-offset oral hearing... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.007 Pre-offset oral hearing. (a) The Agency... employee, and/or his or her representative, will explain their case in the form of an oral...

  18. 41 CFR 105-56.008 - Pre-offset paper hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-offset paper hearing. 105-56.008 Section 105-56.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.008 Pre-offset paper hearing. If a hearing is to...

  19. 7 CFR 1951.106 - Offset of payments to entities related to debtors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Payments to USDA Agency Borrowers § 1951.106 Offset of payments to entities related to debtors. (a) General. Collections of delinquent debts through administrative offset will be in accordance with 7 CFR... enforceable right under state law or Federal law, including program regulations at 7 CFR 792.7(l) and...

  20. 41 CFR 105-56.008 - Pre-offset paper hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-offset paper hearing. 105-56.008 Section 105-56.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.008 Pre-offset paper hearing. If a hearing is to...

  1. 29 CFR 4903.31 - Eligibility of debt for tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with IRS regulations (26 CFR 301.6402-6 (c) and (d)). The PBGC may refer a past-due, legally... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility of debt for tax refund offset. 4903.31 Section... AND ADMINISTRATIVE RULES AND PROCEDURES DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 4903.31 Eligibility...

  2. 41 CFR 105-56.008 - Pre-offset paper hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-offset paper hearing. 105-56.008 Section 105-56.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.008 Pre-offset paper hearing. If a hearing is to...

  3. 41 CFR 105-56.008 - Pre-offset paper hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-offset paper hearing. 105-56.008 Section 105-56.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.008 Pre-offset paper hearing. If a hearing is to...

  4. 41 CFR 105-56.008 - Pre-offset paper hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-offset paper hearing. 105-56.008 Section 105-56.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.008 Pre-offset paper hearing. If a hearing is to...

  5. Behavioral healthcare risk-sharing and medical cost offset.

    PubMed

    Melek, S P

    1996-10-01

    Medical offset savings have been demonstrated clearly and repeatedly in a variety of settings. Taking advantage of these savings improves quality of care and lowers direct healthcare expenditures. However, most organized systems of care lack the infrastructure or incentives to measure offset savings, nor can they recycle these savings to find the behavioral services required to produce cost off-sets. The author provides actuarial models and case studies to demonstrate how this problem can be solved. PMID:10161573

  6. Fast Offset Laser Phase-Locking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaddock, Daniel; Ware, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a simplified block diagram of an improved optoelectronic system for locking the phase of one laser to that of another laser with an adjustable offset frequency specified by the user. In comparison with prior systems, this system exhibits higher performance (including higher stability) and is much easier to use. The system is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and operates almost entirely digitally; hence, it is easily adaptable to many different systems. The system achieves phase stability of less than a microcycle. It was developed to satisfy the phase-stability requirement for a planned spaceborne gravitational-wave-detecting heterodyne laser interferometer (LISA). The system has potential terrestrial utility in communications, lidar, and other applications. The present system includes a fast phasemeter that is a companion to the microcycle-accurate one described in High-Accuracy, High-Dynamic-Range Phase-Measurement System (NPO-41927), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 22. In the present system (as in the previously reported one), beams from the two lasers (here denoted the master and slave lasers) interfere on a photodiode. The heterodyne photodiode output is digitized and fed to the fast phasemeter, which produces suitably conditioned, low-latency analog control signals which lock the phase of the slave laser to that of the master laser. These control signals are used to drive a thermal and a piezoelectric transducer that adjust the frequency and phase of the slave-laser output. The output of the photodiode is a heterodyne signal at the difference between the frequencies of the two lasers. (The difference is currently required to be less than 20 MHz due to the Nyquist limit of the current sampling rate. We foresee few problems in doubling this limit using current equipment.) Within the phasemeter, the photodiode-output signal is digitized to 15 bits at a sampling frequency of 40 MHz by use of the same analog

  7. Economic and ecological outcomes of flexible biodiversity offset systems.

    PubMed

    Habib, Thomas J; Farr, Daniel R; Schneider, Richard R; Boutin, Stan

    2013-12-01

    The commonly expressed goal of biodiversity offsets is to achieve no net loss of specific biological features affected by development. However, strict equivalency requirements may complicate trading of offset credits, increase costs due to restricted offset placement options, and force offset activities to focus on features that may not represent regional conservation priorities. Using the oil sands industry of Alberta, Canada, as a case study, we evaluated the economic and ecological performance of alternative offset systems targeting either ecologically equivalent areas (vegetation types) or regional conservation priorities (caribou and the Dry Mixedwood natural subregion). Exchanging dissimilar biodiversity elements requires assessment via a generalized metric; we used an empirically derived index of biodiversity intactness to link offsets with losses incurred by development. We considered 2 offset activities: land protection, with costs estimated as the net present value of profits of petroleum and timber resources to be paid as compensation to resource tenure holders, and restoration of anthropogenic footprint, with costs estimated from existing restoration projects. We used the spatial optimization tool MARXAN to develop hypothetical offset networks that met either the equivalent-vegetation or conservation-priority targets. Networks that required offsetting equivalent vegetation cost 2-17 times more than priority-focused networks. This finding calls into question the prudence of equivalency-based systems, particularly in relatively undeveloped jurisdictions, where conservation focuses on limiting and directing future losses. Priority-focused offsets may offer benefits to industry and environmental stakeholders by allowing for lower-cost conservation of valued ecological features and may invite discussion on what land-use trade-offs are acceptable when trading biodiversity via offsets. Resultados Económicos y Ecológicos de Sistemas de Compensación de

  8. Economic and ecological outcomes of flexible biodiversity offset systems.

    PubMed

    Habib, Thomas J; Farr, Daniel R; Schneider, Richard R; Boutin, Stan

    2013-12-01

    The commonly expressed goal of biodiversity offsets is to achieve no net loss of specific biological features affected by development. However, strict equivalency requirements may complicate trading of offset credits, increase costs due to restricted offset placement options, and force offset activities to focus on features that may not represent regional conservation priorities. Using the oil sands industry of Alberta, Canada, as a case study, we evaluated the economic and ecological performance of alternative offset systems targeting either ecologically equivalent areas (vegetation types) or regional conservation priorities (caribou and the Dry Mixedwood natural subregion). Exchanging dissimilar biodiversity elements requires assessment via a generalized metric; we used an empirically derived index of biodiversity intactness to link offsets with losses incurred by development. We considered 2 offset activities: land protection, with costs estimated as the net present value of profits of petroleum and timber resources to be paid as compensation to resource tenure holders, and restoration of anthropogenic footprint, with costs estimated from existing restoration projects. We used the spatial optimization tool MARXAN to develop hypothetical offset networks that met either the equivalent-vegetation or conservation-priority targets. Networks that required offsetting equivalent vegetation cost 2-17 times more than priority-focused networks. This finding calls into question the prudence of equivalency-based systems, particularly in relatively undeveloped jurisdictions, where conservation focuses on limiting and directing future losses. Priority-focused offsets may offer benefits to industry and environmental stakeholders by allowing for lower-cost conservation of valued ecological features and may invite discussion on what land-use trade-offs are acceptable when trading biodiversity via offsets. Resultados Económicos y Ecológicos de Sistemas de Compensación de

  9. Induced CMB quadrupole from pointing offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Adam; Scott, Douglas; Sigurdson, Kris E-mail: dscott@phas.ubc.ca

    2011-01-01

    Recent claims in the literature have suggested that the WMAP quadrupole is not primordial in origin, and arises from an aliasing of the much larger dipole field because of incorrect satellite pointing. We attempt to reproduce this result and delineate the key physics leading to the effect. We find that, even if real, the induced quadrupole would be smaller than the WMAP value. We discuss reasons why the WMAP data are unlikely to suffer from this particular systematic effect, including the implications for observations of point sources. Given this evidence against the reality of the effect, the similarity between the pointing-offset-induced signal and the actual quadrupole then appears to be quite puzzling. However, we find that the effect arises from a convolution between the gradient of the dipole field and anisotropic coverage of the scan direction at each pixel. There is something of a directional conspiracy here — the dipole signal lies close to the Ecliptic Plane, and its direction, together with the WMAP scan strategy, results in a strong coupling to the Y{sub 2,−1} component in Ecliptic co-ordinates. The dominant strength of this component in the measured quadrupole suggests that one should exercise increased caution in interpreting its estimated amplitude. The Planck satellite has a different scan strategy which does not so directly couple the dipole and quadrupole in this way and will soon provide an independent measurement.

  10. Onset and Offset as Determinants of the Simon Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Lucia; Gherri, Elena; Lupianez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence and the characteristics of the Simon effect for onset and offset targets when these stimuli are randomly intermixed. In Experiment 1, two possible target locations were occupied by an occluder. On onset trials, a target appeared above an occluder, while on offset trials one of the occluders disappeared, revealing the…

  11. 19 CFR 201.208 - Tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax refund offset. 201.208 Section 201.208 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.208 Tax refund offset. (a) Scope. The provisions of 26 U.S.C. 6402(d) and 31 U.S.C....

  12. The Impact of Student Earnings in Offsetting "Unmet Need."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampen, Jacob O.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Student financial aid grants often fall short of amounts suggested by standard needs analysis systems, creating "unmet need," which some students try to offset with employment earnings. This study indicates that employed aid recipients can often offset unmet need, while nonworking recipients are at a financial disadvantage. Includes five tables,…

  13. 7 CFR 760.111 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.111 Section 760.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.111 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any...

  14. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  15. 7 CFR 760.911 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.911 Section 760.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... § 760.911 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will be...

  16. 7 CFR 760.1108 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.1108 Section 760.1108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Program § 760.1108 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will...

  17. 7 CFR 1416.9 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 1416.9 Section 1416.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Programs § 1416.9 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  18. 7 CFR 760.1108 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.1108 Section 760.1108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Program § 760.1108 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any payment to any participant will...

  19. 7 CFR 760.820 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.820....820 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... payments found at part 1404 of this title. (c) A debt or claim may be settled according to part 792 of...

  20. 7 CFR 760.820 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.820....820 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... payments found at part 1404 of this title. (c) A debt or claim may be settled according to part 792 of...

  1. 7 CFR 760.111 - Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. 760.111 Section 760.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.111 Offsets, assignments, and debt settlement. (a) Any...

  2. Offsetting Behavior and Adaptation: How Students Respond to Hard Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura E.; Delmontagne, Emma M.; Wood, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Do students engage in offsetting behavior, adapting their study effort to the difficulty of learning? The authors present the results of survey research intended to test for the presence of offsetting behavior at a regional university. Instead of trying to determine whether students study less when learning is easier, we check to see whether…

  3. 45 CFR 1179.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1179.8 Section 1179.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.8 Procedures for...

  4. 45 CFR 1179.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1179.8 Section 1179.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.8 Procedures for...

  5. 14 CFR 1261.603 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Collection by Offset From Indebted Government Employees § 1261.603 Procedures for... both the employee and the authorized agency official (see 14 CFR 1261.402) and documented in NASA's... employee from the United States (as provided in 14 CFR part 1261 subpart 1261.5, including offset from...

  6. 45 CFR 1179.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1179.8 Section 1179.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.8 Procedures for...

  7. 45 CFR 1179.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1179.8 Section 1179.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.8 Procedures for...

  8. 45 CFR 1179.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1179.8 Section 1179.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.8 Procedures for...

  9. Using hob offset to balance dynamic strength in spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Chuen-Huei; Lin, Hsi Hsiang; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study on the effect of hob offset on the dynamic tooth strength of spur gears. The study was limited to equal and opposite offset values applied to the pinion and gear to maintain the standard operating center distance. The analysis presented in this paper was performed using a new version of the NASA gear dynamics code DANST. The operating speed of the transmission has a significant influence on the amount of hob offset required to equalize the dynamic stresses in the pinion and gear. In the transmission studied, at low speeds, the optimum hob offset value was found to fluctuate. At higher speeds, the optimum value was constrained by the minimum allowed thickness at the tip of the pinion tooth. For gears that must operate over a range of speeds, an average offset value may be used. Spur gears designed with the procedure presented here can have significant improvements in load capacity.

  10. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  11. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  12. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  13. An intercomparison of the thermal offset for different pyranometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, G.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.

    2016-07-01

    An unprecedented intensive intercomparison campaign focused on the experimental measurement of the thermal offset of pyranometers has been conducted at Badajoz (Spain) with the participation of three main manufacturers. The purpose of this study is to compare the thermal offset of six commercially available pyranometers, being some of them widely used and others recently commercialized. In this campaign, the capping methodology has been used to experimentally measure the daytime thermal offset of the pyranometers. Thus, a short but intense campaign has been conducted in two selected summer days under clear-sky conditions, covering a large range of solar zenith angle, irradiance, and temperature. Along the campaign, a total of 305 capping events have been performed, 61 for each pyranometer. The daytime thermal offset obtained for different pyranometers ranges between 0 and -16.8 W/m2 depending on the environmental conditions, being sometimes notably higher than values estimated indoors by manufacturers. The thermal offset absolute value of all instruments shows a diurnal cycle, increasing from sunrise to central hours of the day and decreasing from midafternoon to sunset. The analysis demonstrates that thermal offset is notably higher and more variable during daytime than during nighttime, requiring specific daytime measurements. Main results emphasize the key role played by wind speed in modulating the thermal offset.

  14. The femoral head/neck offset and hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Beaulé, P E; Harvey, N; Zaragoza, E; Le Duff, M J; Dorey, F J

    2007-01-01

    Because the femoral head/neck junction is preserved in hip resurfacing, patients may be at greater risk of impingement, leading to abnormal wear patterns and pain. We assessed femoral head/neck offset in 63 hips undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and in 56 hips presenting with non-arthritic pain secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. Most hips undergoing resurfacing (57%; 36) had an offset ratio offset at operation than the rest of the group. In the non-arthritic hips the mean offset ratio was 0.137 (0.04 to 0.23), with the offset ratio correlating negatively to an increasing alpha angle. An offset ratio or= 50.5 degrees. Most hips undergoing resurfacing have an abnormal femoral head/neck offset, which is best assessed in the sagittal plane. PMID:17259408

  15. Widely tunable laser frequency offset lock with 30 GHz range and 5 THz offset.

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, J; Noom, D W E; Salumbides, E J; Sheridan, K T; Ubachs, W; Koelemeij, J C J

    2013-06-17

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile method to greatly extend the tuning range of optical frequency shifting devices, such as acousto-optic modulators (AOMs). We use this method to stabilize the frequency of a tunable narrow-band continuous-wave (CW) laser to a transmission maximum of an external Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with a tunable frequency offset. This is achieved through a servo loop which contains an in-loop AOM for simple radiofrequency (RF) tuning of the optical frequency over the full 30 GHz mode-hop-free tuning range of the CW laser. By stabilizing the length of the FPI to a stabilized helium-neon (HeNe) laser (at 5 THz offset from the tunable laser) we simultaneously transfer the ~ 1 MHz absolute frequency stability of the HeNe laser to the entire 30 GHz range of the tunable laser. Thus, our method allows simple, wide-range, fast and reproducible optical frequency tuning and absolute optical frequency measurements through RF electronics, which is here demonstrated by repeatedly recording a 27-GHz-wide molecular iodine spectrum at scan rates up to 500 MHz/s. General technical aspects that determine the performance of the method are discussed in detail.

  16. Venus' center of figure-center of mass offset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Schubert, Gerald; Ford, Peter G.

    1994-01-01

    Magellan altimetry data reveal that the center of figure (CF) of Venus is displaced approximately 280 m from its center of mass (CM) toward 4.4 deg S, 135.8 deg E, a location in Aphrodite Terra. This offset is smaller than those of other terrestrial planets but larger than the estimated error, which is no more than a few tens of meters. We examine the possibility that the CF-CM offset is related to specific geologic provinces on Venus by deriving three simple models for the offset: a thick-crust model, a hotspot model, and a thick-lithosphere model. The offset caused by a region of thick crust depends upon the region's extent, the crust-mantle density contrast, and the thickness of excess crust. A hotspot-related offset depends on the extent of the thermally anomalous region and the magnitude of the thermal anomaly. Offset due to a region of thick lithosphere depends upon the extent of the region, the average temperature contrast across the lithosphere, and the amount of excess lithosphere. We apply the three models to Venus plateau-shaped highlands, volcanic rises, and lowlands, respectively, in an attempt to match the observed CF-CM offset location and magnitude. The influence of most volcanic rises and of Ishtar Terra on the CF-CM offset must be quite small if we are to explain the direction of the observed offset. The lack of influence of volcanic rises can be explained if the related thermal anomalies are limited to a few hundred degrees or less and are plume-shaped (i.e., characterized by a flattened sublithospheric `head' with a narrow cylindrical feeder `tail'). The unimportance of Ishtar Terra is most easily explained if it lies atop a significant mantle downwelling.

  17. Offset quadrature communications with decision-feedback carrier synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Smith, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    In order to accommodate a quadrature amplitude-shift-keyed (QASK) signal, Simon and Smith (1974) have modified the decision-feedback loop which tracks a quadrature phase-shift-keyed (QPSK). In the investigation reported approaches are considered to modify the loops in such a way that offset QASK signals can be tracked, giving attention to the special case of an offset QPSK. The development of the stochastic integro-differential equation of operation for a decision-feedback offset QASK loop is discussed along with the probability density function of the phase error process.

  18. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  19. Estimation of frequency offset in mobile satellite modems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, W. G.; Rice, M.; Mclean, A. N.

    1993-01-01

    In mobilesat applications, frequency offset on the received signal must be estimated and removed prior to further modem processing. A straightforward method of estimating the carrier frequency offset is to raise the received MPSK signal to the M-th power, and then estimate the location of the peak spectral component. An analysis of the lower signal to noise threshold of this method is carried out for BPSK signals. Predicted thresholds are compared to simulation results. It is shown how the method can be extended to pi/M MPSK signals. A real-time implementation of frequency offset estimation for the Australian mobile satellite system is described.

  20. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  1. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  2. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  3. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  4. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  5. Analysis of DC offset Influence on Transient Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, J.; Zhou, G. H.

    2006-10-01

    Based on the characteristic of transient signal and the principle of floating-point data acquisition circuit, the influences of DC offset on transient signal are analyzed. And the conclusion can be obtained that the singularity and saturation distortions in transient signals can be produced by DC offset through the detailed principle analysis, the limits calculation of DC offset, and waveform simulation while the DC offset is present in floating-point amplifier circuit of floating-point data acquisition circuit. At the same time, the distributions of distortions in those conditions that the single and several theoretic transient signals and also in actual measured transient signal are compared and discussed. Finally, the corresponding solutions are given according to the main factors which produce the waveform distortion. In a word, this research can provide useful references for the adjustment of floating-point receiver and the analysis of waveform distortion.

  6. Experimental Vibration Melting Without Offset: Post-Shock Materials Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spray, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    Experiments have been performed on Westerly granite using linear friction welding apparatus to induce oscillatory slip. This can explain the production of friction melts in faults displaying negligible offset, yet significant displacement.

  7. Injury Mechanisms and Severity in Narrow Offset Frontal Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Pintar, Frank A.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Maiman, Dennis J.

    2008-01-01

    Current standard frontal crash tests include full frontal or 40% offset. Frontal impacts with offsets less than 40% and corner impacts have received little attention. Because of the limited engagement of vehicle structures that would permit less energy dissipation, these crashes have the potential for severe trauma to the near-side occupant. Narrow offset and corner-impact crashes under a frontal impact classification were analyzed using data obtained from the United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration crash databases: Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) and the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) 2000–2006. A subset of crashes that could be defined clearly as narrow offset crashes were then examined. The Collision Damage Classification (CDC) classification was used to obtain only crashes with a “FLEE” code for drivers and a “FREE” code for right front passengers. These codes were used to separate out crashes that had bumper and lower vehicle engagement and less than 41 cm of front vehicle damage. The NASS data indicated that corner impacts (“Y” and “Z” type) and narrow overlap (“L” and “R” type) constitute 26 % each of all frontal impacts. When occupants were severely injured in frontal crashes 20 % of the occupants were in “L” and “R” type crashes and 31 % were in “Y” and “Z” type crashes. The percentage of near side “FLEE” and “FREE” crash occupants with severe injuries by body region demonstrated that head, thorax, upper, and lower extremity injuries dominate the data set. For the 71 CIREN cases, lower extremity injuries dominated. The injury severity score did not correlate well with assumed severity parameters like extent of crush and delta-V, however, crashes with extent zones 2–5 had a greater percentage of occupants with chest and spine injuries than crashes with extent zones 6–9. Vehicle rotation after front impact in extent zone 2

  8. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Jake; Ray, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Positional offsets appear in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series for a variety of reasons. Antenna or radome changes are the most common cause for these discontinuities. Many others are from earthquakes, receiver changes, and different anthropogenic modifications at or near the stations. Some jumps appear for unknown or undocumented reasons. The accurate determination of station velocities, and therefore geophysical parameters and terrestrial reference frames, requires that positional offsets be correctly found and compensated. Williams (2003) found that undetected offsets introduce a random walk error component in individual station time series. The topic of detecting positional offsets has received considerable attention in recent years (e.g., Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment; DOGEx), and most research groups using GNSS have adopted a combination of manual and automated methods for finding them. The removal of a positional offset is usually handled by estimating the average station position on both sides of the discontinuity, assuming a constant, continuous velocity. This is sufficient in the absence of time-correlated errors. However, GNSS time series contain systematic and power-law errors (white to random walk noise). In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact to both individual station results and the overall stability of the global reference frame from adding increasing numbers of positional discontinuities. We use the International GNSS Service (IGS) weekly SINEX files, and iteratively insert positional offset parameters at the midpoint of each data segment. Each iteration includes a restacking of the modified SINEX files using the CATREF software from Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) to estimate: regularized station positions, secular velocities, Earth orientation parameters, Helmert frame alignment parameters, and the empirical shifts across all positional discontinuities. A comparison of the

  9. 19 CFR 201.208 - Tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax refund offset. 201.208 Section 201.208 Customs... § 201.208 Tax refund offset. (a) Scope. The provisions of 26 U.S.C. 6402(d) and 31 U.S.C. 3720A... from the tax refund due a taxpayer when other collection efforts have failed to recover the amount...

  10. 19 CFR 201.208 - Tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax refund offset. 201.208 Section 201.208 Customs... § 201.208 Tax refund offset. (a) Scope. The provisions of 26 U.S.C. 6402(d) and 31 U.S.C. 3720A... from the tax refund due a taxpayer when other collection efforts have failed to recover the amount...

  11. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Selection and Spectroscopic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.; Pooley, David

    2016-09-01

    We present a sample of 18 optically selected and X-ray-detected spatially offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In nine systems, the X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) is spatially offset from the galactic stellar core that is located within the 3″ diameter SDSS spectroscopic fiber. In 11 systems, the X-ray AGN is spatially offset from a stellar core that is located outside the fiber, with an overlap of two. To build the sample, we cross-matched Type II AGNs selected from the SDSS galaxy catalog with archival Chandra imaging and employed our custom astrometric and registration procedure. The projected angular (physical) offsets span a range of 0.″6 (0.8 kpc) to 17.″4 (19.4 kpc), with a median value of 2.″7 (4.6 kpc). The offset nature of an AGN is an unambiguous signature of a galaxy merger, and these systems can be used to study the properties of AGNs in galaxy mergers without the biases introduced by morphological merger selection techniques. In this paper (Paper I), we use our sample to assess the kinematics of AGN photoionized gas in galaxy mergers. We find that spectroscopic offset AGN selection may be up to {89}-16+7% incomplete due to small projected velocity offsets. We also find that the magnitude of the velocity offsets are generally larger than expected if our spatial selection introduces a bias toward face-on orbits, suggesting the presence of complex kinematics in the emission line gas of AGNs in galaxy mergers.

  12. Carbon offsets, reversal risk and US climate policy

    PubMed Central

    Mignone, Bryan K; Hurteau, Matthew D; Chen, Yihsu; Sohngen, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Background One controversial issue in the larger cap-and-trade debate is the proper use and certification of carbon offsets related to changes in land management. Advocates of an expanded offset supply claim that inclusion of such activities would expand the scope of the program and lower overall compliance costs, while opponents claim that it would weaken the environmental integrity of the program by crediting activities that yield either nonexistent or merely temporary carbon sequestration benefits. Our study starts from the premise that offsets are neither perfect mitigation instruments nor useless "hot air." Results We show that offsets provide a useful cost containment function, even when there is some threat of reversal, by injecting additional "when-flexibility" into the system. This allows market participants to shift their reduction requirements to periods of lower cost, thereby facilitating attainment of the least-cost time path without jeopardizing the cumulative environmental integrity of the system. By accounting for market conditions in conjunction with reversal risk, we develop a simple offset valuation methodology, taking into account the two most important factors that typically lead offsets to be overvalued or undervalued. Conclusion The result of this paper is a quantitative "model rule" that could be included in future legislation or used as a basis for active management by a future "carbon fed" or other regulatory authority with jurisdiction over the US carbon market to actively manage allowance prices. PMID:19527489

  13. 45 CFR 33.12 - Salary offset when the Department is the paying agency but not the creditor agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salary offset when the Department is the paying agency but not the creditor agency. 33.12 Section 33.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SALARY OFFSET § 33.12 Salary offset when the Department is the paying agency but not the creditor agency. (a)...

  14. Estimation of satellite antenna phase center offsets for Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, P.; Fritsche, M.; Dach, R.; Schmid, R.; Montenbruck, O.; Uhlemann, M.; Prange, L.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite antenna phase center offsets for the Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites are estimated by two different analysis centers based on tracking data of a global GNSS network. The mean x- and y-offsets could be determined with a precision of a few centimeters. However, daily estimates of the x-offsets of the IOV satellites show pronounced systematic effects with a peak-to-peak amplitude of up to 70 cm that depend on the orbit model and the elevation of the Sun above the orbital plane. For the IOV y-offsets, no dependence on the orbit model exists but the scatter strongly depends on the elevation of the Sun above the orbital plane. In general, these systematic effects are significantly smaller for the FOC satellites. The z-offsets of the two analysis centers agree within the 10-15 cm level, and the time series do not show systematic effects. The application of an averaged Galileo satellite antenna model obtained from the two solutions results in a reduction of orbit day boundary discontinuities by up to one third—even if an independent software package is used.

  15. Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback Based on Polyphase Difference Amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Zanchi, Marta G.; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

    2010-01-01

    A modified Cartesian feedback method called “frequency-offset Cartesian feedback” and based on polyphase difference amplifiers is described that significantly reduces the problems associated with quadrature errors and DC-offsets in classic Cartesian feedback power amplifier control systems. In this method, the reference input and feedback signals are down-converted and compared at a low intermediate frequency (IF) instead of at DC. The polyphase difference amplifiers create a complex control bandwidth centered at this low IF, which is typically offset from DC by 200–1500 kHz. Consequently, the loop gain peak does not overlap DC where voltage offsets, drift, and local oscillator leakage create errors. Moreover, quadrature mismatch errors are significantly attenuated in the control bandwidth. Since the polyphase amplifiers selectively amplify the complex signals characterized by a +90° phase relationship representing positive frequency signals, the control system operates somewhat like single sideband (SSB) modulation. However, the approach still allows the same modulation bandwidth control as classic Cartesian feedback. In this paper, the behavior of the polyphase difference amplifier is described through both the results of simulations, based on a theoretical analysis of their architecture, and experiments. We then describe our first printed circuit board prototype of a frequency-offset Cartesian feedback transmitter and its performance in open and closed loop configuration. This approach should be especially useful in magnetic resonance imaging transmit array systems. PMID:20814450

  16. 19 CFR 201.204 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Penalties, and Administrative Costs. Where the Commission is the creditor agency, it shall assess interest, penalties, and administrative costs pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9. (k) Refunds. (1) Where the... concerning interest, penalties, and administrative costs, including a statement that such assessments must...

  17. 19 CFR 201.204 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Penalties, and Administrative Costs. Where the Commission is the creditor agency, it shall assess interest, penalties, and administrative costs pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9. (k) Refunds. (1) Where the... concerning interest, penalties, and administrative costs, including a statement that such assessments must...

  18. 19 CFR 201.204 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Penalties, and Administrative Costs. Where the Commission is the creditor agency, it shall assess interest, penalties, and administrative costs pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9. (k) Refunds. (1) Where the... concerning interest, penalties, and administrative costs, including a statement that such assessments must...

  19. 19 CFR 201.204 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Penalties, and Administrative Costs. Where the Commission is the creditor agency, it shall assess interest, penalties, and administrative costs pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9. (k) Refunds. (1) Where the... concerning interest, penalties, and administrative costs, including a statement that such assessments must...

  20. 19 CFR 201.204 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Penalties, and Administrative Costs. Where the Commission is the creditor agency, it shall assess interest, penalties, and administrative costs pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9. (k) Refunds. (1) Where the... concerning interest, penalties, and administrative costs, including a statement that such assessments must...

  1. Diffraction profile synthesis applied to offset dual reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, R. I.

    1985-05-01

    During the last 15 years, in work carried out at a research center, the physical optics method has been applied directly to the synthesis process itself. It is pointed out that the results of this method, known as Diffraction Profile Synthesis (DPS), are Cassegrain antennas with efficiencies superior to those of any ray optics design. Thus, the reflectors generated by this process realize the theoretical maximum efficiency for any given size of antenna. Attention is given to the diffraction profile synthesis, the extension of DPS, spherical wave expansions, the application to offset reflectors, the main reflector focussed field, the near-field feed pattern, reflector perturbations, profile smoothing, high efficiency offset Gregorian, the offset Gregorian with Hansen distribution, and the low sidelobe elliptical antenna.

  2. Computational Analyses of Offset Stream Nozzles for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance, III; Foster, Lancert; Wiese,Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Wind computational fluid dynamics code was used to perform a series of simulations on two offset stream nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction. The first concept used an S-duct to direct the secondary stream to the lower side of the nozzle. The second concept used vanes to turn the secondary flow downward. The analyses were completed in preparation of tests conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The offset stream nozzles demonstrated good performance and reduced the amount of turbulence on the lower side of the jet plume. The computer analyses proved instrumental in guiding the development of the final test configurations and giving insight into the flow mechanics of offset stream nozzles. The computational predictions were compared with flowfield results from the jet rig testing and showed excellent agreement.

  3. 28 CFR 11.8 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., penalties, and administrative costs, including a statement that such assessments must be made unless excused... postponed. Decisions not timely rendered shall result in the waiver of penalty and interest costs. The... administrative costs. Where the Department is the creditor agency, it shall assess interest, penalties,...

  4. 28 CFR 11.8 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., penalties, and administrative costs, including a statement that such assessments must be made unless excused... postponed. Decisions not timely rendered shall result in the waiver of penalty and interest costs. The... administrative costs. Where the Department is the creditor agency, it shall assess interest, penalties,...

  5. 28 CFR 11.8 - Salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., penalties, and administrative costs, including a statement that such assessments must be made unless excused... postponed. Decisions not timely rendered shall result in the waiver of penalty and interest costs. The... administrative costs. Where the Department is the creditor agency, it shall assess interest, penalties,...

  6. 40 CFR 93.163 - Timing of offsets and mitigation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of offsets and mitigation... offsets and mitigation measures. (a) The emissions reductions from an offset or mitigation measure used to... offset or mitigation measure with emissions reductions in another year will not: (i) Cause or...

  7. 40 CFR 93.163 - Timing of offsets and mitigation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of offsets and mitigation... offsets and mitigation measures. (a) The emissions reductions from an offset or mitigation measure used to... offset or mitigation measure with emissions reductions in another year will not: (i) Cause or...

  8. 40 CFR 93.163 - Timing of offsets and mitigation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of offsets and mitigation... offsets and mitigation measures. (a) The emissions reductions from an offset or mitigation measure used to... offset or mitigation measure with emissions reductions in another year will not: (i) Cause or...

  9. 40 CFR 93.163 - Timing of offsets and mitigation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Timing of offsets and mitigation... offsets and mitigation measures. (a) The emissions reductions from an offset or mitigation measure used to... offset or mitigation measure with emissions reductions in another year will not: (i) Cause or...

  10. 40 CFR 93.163 - Timing of offsets and mitigation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of offsets and mitigation... offsets and mitigation measures. (a) The emissions reductions from an offset or mitigation measure used to... offset or mitigation measure with emissions reductions in another year will not: (i) Cause or...

  11. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment...

  12. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment...

  13. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment...

  14. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment...

  15. A 3D measurement of the offset in paleoseismological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrater, Marta; Echeverria, Anna; Masana, Eulàlia; Martínez-Díaz, José J.; Sharp, Warren D.

    2016-05-01

    The slip rate of a seismogenic fault is a crucial parameter for establishing the contribution of the fault to the seismic hazard. It is calculated from measurements of the offset of linear landforms, such channels, produced by the fault combined with their age. The three-dimensional measurement of offset in buried paleochannels is subject to uncertainties that need to be quantitatively assessed and propagated into the slip rate. Here, we present a set of adapted scripts to calculate the net, lateral and vertical tectonic offset components caused by faults, together with their associated uncertainties. This technique is applied here to a buried channel identified in the stratigraphic record during a paleoseismological study at the El Saltador site (Alhama de Murcia fault, Iberian Peninsula). After defining and measuring the coordinates of the key points of a buried channel in the walls of eight trenches excavated parallel to the fault, we (a) adjusted a 3D straight line to these points and then extrapolated the tendency of this line onto a simplified fault plane; (b) repeated these two steps for the segment of the channel in the other side of the fault; and (c) measured the distance between the two resulting intersection points with the fault plane. In doing so, we avoided the near fault modification of the channel trace and obtained a three-dimensional measurement of offset and its uncertainty. This methodology is a substantial modification of previous procedures that require excavating progressively towards the fault, leading to possible underestimation of offset due to diffuse deformation near the fault. Combining the offset with numerical dating of the buried channel via U-series on soil carbonate, we calculated a maximum estimate of the net slip rate and its vertical and lateral components for the Alhama de Murcia fault.

  16. Pulsar Pair Cascades in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PC) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L(sub sd). We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L(sub pair) is proportional to L(sub sd), with L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -3) L(sub sd) for normal pulsars and L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -2) L(sub sd) for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  17. Modeling the Observability of Recoiling Black Holes as Offset Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecha, Laura; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker; Sijacki, Debora; Snyder, Gregory; Bird, Simeon; Nelson, Dylan; Xu, Dandan; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The merger of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) imparts a gravitational-wave (GW) recoil kick to the remnant SMBH. In extreme cases these kicks may be thousands of km/s -- enough to easily eject them from their host galaxies. Moderate recoil kicks may also cause substantial displacements of the SMBH, however. An actively-accreting, recoiling SMBH may be observable as an offset quasar. Prior to the advent of a space-based GW observatory, detections of these offset quasars may offer the best chance for identifying recent SMBH mergers. Indeed, observational searches for recoiling quasars have already identified several promising candidates. However, systematic searches for recoils are currently hampered by large uncertainties regarding how often offset quasars should be observable, where they are most likely to be found, and whether BH spin alignment prior to merger is efficient at suppressing large recoils. Motivated by this, we have developed a model for the observable population of recoiling quasars in a cosmological framework, utilizing detailed information about the progenitor galaxies from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations (the Illustris Project). The model for offset quasar lifetimes includes a physically-motivated, time-dependent model for accretion onto kicked SMBHs, and results are analyzed for a range of possible BH spin alignment models. We find that the observability of offset quasars depends strongly on the efficiency of pre-merger spin alignment, with promising indications that observations of recoils could distinguish between at least the extreme limits of spin alignment models. Our results also suggest that observable offset quasars should inhabit preferred types of host galaxies, where again these populations depend on the degree of pre-merger spin alignment. These findings will be valuable for planned and future dedicated searches for recoiling quasars, and they indicate that such objects might be used to place indirect

  18. 7 CFR 1951.136 - Procedures for Department of Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Rural Housing Service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... centralized administrative offset (TOP), Internal Revenue Service offset administered through TOP and Treasury... exclusion criteria, may be excluded from TOP or Cross-Servicing. (b) A 60 day due process notice will be sent to borrowers subject to TOP or Cross-Servicing. The borrower will be given 60 days to resolve...

  19. The offset equivalent magnetic induction for Hall microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Căruntu, George; Panait, Cornel

    2009-01-01

    An essential parameter in the setting up of the performance of the measurement systems that uses Hall microsensors is the magnetic offset of such devices. This paperwork presents the structure, the operating conditions, and the main characteristic for the Hall plates and for bipolar lateral magnetotransistor. By using numerical simulation, the values of the offset-equivalent magnetic induction for the two analysed devices are compared and it is also emphasised the way in which choosing the geometry and the material features allows getting high-performance sensors.

  20. 5 CFR 179.209 - Voluntary repayment agreement as alternative to salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary repayment agreement as alternative to salary offset. 179.209 Section 179.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... has agreed in writing to deduction of a greater amount (5 CFR 550.1104(i)). (2) Any proposal...

  1. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost offset policy. 551.8 Section 551.8 Postal... tracked include: (1) Costs that the Postal Service determines to be inconsequentially small, which include... differential revenue include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Packaging costs in excess of the...

  2. 45 CFR 607.4 - Notice requirements before offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unless excused in accordance with the Federal Claims Collections Standards at 4 CFR 101.1; (5) The... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice requirements before offset. 607.4 Section 607.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  3. 7 CFR 1430.217 - Offsets and withholdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsets and withholdings. 1430.217 Section 1430.217 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss...

  4. Reconnaissance amplitude versus offset techniques in the Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.; Gullette, K.

    1996-08-01

    Reconnaissance AVO (amplitude vs. offset) techniques have been invaluable in allowing the analyses and mapping of AVO on large-volume data sets in the Nigerian Niger Delta. Forward modelling of rock properties derived from well data on the shelf and regional ties of common depth point gathers to well control show that a shale on hydrocarbon bearing sand typically generates increasing amplitude with offset [Class 2 and Class 3 type anomalies of the Rutherford and Williams (1989) classification]. Consequently, processing and display techniques have been developed that distinguish the increasing amplitude with offset response associated with hydrocarbon bearing sands from the flatter AVO response of background water wet sands and shales. Attributes are created from angle stacks rather than by analyses of individual common depth point gathers over an entire data set. We show examples of a new AVO attribute which we call the Enhanced Restricted Gradient that highlights Class 2 and Class 3 type AVO anomalies more clearly than some of the standard AVO attributes used in the industry. The techniques described here provide a cost-effective and practical way of evaluating AVO character on large volume 2D and 3D data sets and should also be useful in other areas worldwide where hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs generate increasing amplitude with offset.

  5. 45 CFR 607.4 - Notice requirements before offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unless excused in accordance with the Federal Claims Collections Standards at 4 CFR 101.1; (5) The... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice requirements before offset. 607.4 Section 607.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  6. 45 CFR 607.4 - Notice requirements before offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 607.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... employee's pay unless the employee is provided with written notice signed by the Chief Financial Officer of the debt at least 30 days before salary offset commences. (b) The written notice shall contain: (1)...

  7. 45 CFR 607.4 - Notice requirements before offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 607.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... employee's pay unless the employee is provided with written notice signed by the Chief Financial Officer of the debt at least 30 days before salary offset commences. (b) The written notice shall contain: (1)...

  8. 45 CFR 607.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 607.8 Section 607.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY... period must not exceed 15% of disposable pay unless the employee has agreed in writing to a deduction...

  9. 45 CFR 607.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 607.8 Section 607.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY... period must not exceed 15% of disposable pay unless the employee has agreed in writing to a deduction...

  10. Proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    This report presents proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop, held February 10-11 in Palo Alto, California. Twenty-two papers were presented on various aspects of AOA by utilities, EPRI Robust Fuel Program contractors, staff from EPRI and universities, international researchers, and equipment vendors.

  11. 75 FR 62348 - Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN55 Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services AGENCY: Department... to amend its regulations concerning the reimbursement of medical care and services delivered to... payers are required to reimburse VA for costs related to care provided by VA to a veteran covered...

  12. 76 FR 24406 - Collection by Offset From Indebted Government Employees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... another statute (e.g., travel advances in 5 U.S.C. 5705 and employee training expenses in 5 U.S.C. 4108... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 550 RIN 3206-AM14 Collection by Offset From Indebted Government Employees... to reflect this change (see 74 FR 68537, December 28, 2009). To avoid any undue hardship,...

  13. 5 CFR 179.206 - Notice requirements before offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the FCCS, 4 CFR 101.1 et seq. (§ 179.214); (5) The employee's right to inspect and copy all records of... schedule for repayment of the debt in lieu of offset (4 CFR 102.2(e)). The agreement must contain terms... CFR 550.1104(i)). (7) The right to a hearing conducted by an impartial hearing official...

  14. 5 CFR 179.206 - Notice requirements before offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the FCCS, 4 CFR 101.1 et seq. (§ 179.214); (5) The employee's right to inspect and copy all records of... schedule for repayment of the debt in lieu of offset (4 CFR 102.2(e)). The agreement must contain terms... CFR 550.1104(i)). (7) The right to a hearing conducted by an impartial hearing official...

  15. Applications of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy to defense and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Hopkins, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) allows for sub-surface and through barrier detection and has applications in drug analysis, cancer detection, forensic science, as well as defense and security. This paper reviews previous efforts in SORS and other through barrier Raman techniques and presents a discussion on current research in defense and security applications.

  16. 12 CFR 1408.22 - Notice requirements before offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR parts 103 and 104); (10) The amount of accrued interest and the... appropriate under 5 U.S.C. chapter 75; 5 CFR part 752, or any other applicable statute or regulation; (14) The... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice requirements before offset....

  17. 7 CFR 636.15 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... withholdings found at 7 CFR part 1403 of this title will be applicable to cost-share agreement payments. (b) WHIP participants may assign any payments in accordance with 7 CFR part 1404. ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.15 Offsets...

  18. 7 CFR 636.15 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... withholdings found at 7 CFR part 1403 of this title will be applicable to cost-share agreement payments. (b) WHIP participants may assign any payments in accordance with 7 CFR part 1404. ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.15 Offsets...

  19. 7 CFR 636.15 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... withholdings found at 7 CFR part 1403 of this title will be applicable to cost-share agreement payments. (b) WHIP participants may assign any payments in accordance with 7 CFR part 1404. ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.15 Offsets...

  20. 7 CFR 636.15 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... withholdings found at 7 CFR part 1403 of this title will be applicable to cost-share agreement payments. (b) WHIP participants may assign any payments in accordance with 7 CFR part 1404. ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.15 Offsets...

  1. 7 CFR 636.15 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at 7 CFR part 1403 of this title shall be applicable to cost-share agreement payments. (b) WHIP participants may assign any payments in accordance with 7 CFR part 1404. ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.15 Offsets...

  2. 38 CFR 1.912 - Collection by offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the procedures set forth in 31 CFR 901.3, as well as 31 CFR part 285, VA shall collect debts... 31 CFR 901.3(b), as well as 31 CFR part 285, VA shall refer past due, legally enforceable non-tax... deferral of offset (for example, if VA first learns of the debt when there is insufficient time before...

  3. 12 CFR 1073.501 - Tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of 31 U.S.C. 3720A under the procedures established in 31 CFR 285.2. ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tax refund offset. 1073.501 Section 1073.501 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION PROCEDURES FOR BUREAU DEBT COLLECTION...

  4. 45 CFR 607.4 - Notice requirements before offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice requirements before offset. 607.4 Section 607.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... unless excused in accordance with the Federal Claims Collections Standards at 4 CFR 101.1; (5)...

  5. 12 CFR 1408.21 - Collection by offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accomplished in accordance with the provisions of these regulations, 4 CFR 102.3, and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K... considering all relevant factors, including the following: (1) The degree to which the offset can be..., regulatory, and contractual requirements; (2) The degree to which the Corporation is certain that...

  6. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  7. Anisotropic parameter estimation using velocity variation with offset analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Herawati, I.; Saladin, M.; Pranowo, W.; Winardhie, S.; Priyono, A.

    2013-09-09

    Seismic anisotropy is defined as velocity dependent upon angle or offset. Knowledge about anisotropy effect on seismic data is important in amplitude analysis, stacking process and time to depth conversion. Due to this anisotropic effect, reflector can not be flattened using single velocity based on hyperbolic moveout equation. Therefore, after normal moveout correction, there will still be residual moveout that relates to velocity information. This research aims to obtain anisotropic parameters, ε and δ, using two proposed methods. The first method is called velocity variation with offset (VVO) which is based on simplification of weak anisotropy equation. In VVO method, velocity at each offset is calculated and plotted to obtain vertical velocity and parameter δ. The second method is inversion method using linear approach where vertical velocity, δ, and ε is estimated simultaneously. Both methods are tested on synthetic models using ray-tracing forward modelling. Results show that δ value can be estimated appropriately using both methods. Meanwhile, inversion based method give better estimation for obtaining ε value. This study shows that estimation on anisotropic parameters rely on the accuracy of normal moveout velocity, residual moveout and offset to angle transformation.

  8. Going, Going, Gone: Localizing Abrupt Offsets of Moving Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Gerrit W.; Nijhawan, Romi

    2009-01-01

    When a moving object abruptly disappears, this profoundly influences its localization by the visual system. In Experiment 1, 2 aligned objects moved across the screen, and 1 of them abruptly disappeared. Observers reported seeing the objects misaligned at the time of the offset, with the continuing object leading. Experiment 2 showed that the…

  9. 7 CFR 1470.35 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agencies of the United States Government. The regulations governing offsets and withholdings found at 7 CFR... assign any payments in accordance with regulations governing assignment of payment found at 7 CFR part... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.217 - Offsets and withholdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offsets and withholdings. 1430.217 Section 1430.217 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss...

  11. 7 CFR 1430.217 - Offsets and withholdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offsets and withholdings. 1430.217 Section 1430.217 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss...

  12. The Nature of Active Galactic Nuclei with Velocity Offset Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Sánchez, F.; Comerford, J.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.

    2016-10-01

    We obtained Keck/OSIRIS near-IR adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectroscopy to probe the morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in four velocity-offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects possess optical emission lines that are offset in velocity from systemic as measured from stellar absorption features. At a resolution of ∼0.″18, OSIRIS allows us to distinguish which velocity offset emission lines are produced by the motion of an AGN in a dual supermassive black hole system, and which are produced by outflows or other kinematic structures. In three galaxies, J1018+2941, J1055+1520, and J1346+5228, the spectral offset of the emission lines is caused by AGN-driven outflows. In the remaining galaxy, J1117+6140, a counterrotating nuclear disk is observed that contains the peak of Paα emission 0.″2 from the center of the galaxy. The most plausible explanation for the origin of this spatially and kinematically offset peak is that it is a region of enhanced Paα emission located at the intersection zone between the nuclear disk and the bar of the galaxy. In all four objects, the peak of ionized gas emission is not spatially coincident with the center of the galaxy as traced by the peak of the near-IR continuum emission. The peaks of ionized gas emission are spatially offset from the galaxy centers by 0.″1–0.″4 (0.1–0.7 kpc). We find that the velocity offset originates at the location of this peak of emission, and the value of the offset can be directly measured in the velocity maps. The emission-line ratios of these four velocity-offset AGNs can be reproduced only with a mixture of shocks and AGN photoionization. Shocks provide a natural explanation for the origin of the spatially and spectrally offset peaks of ionized gas emission in these galaxies. Based on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the

  13. Detection of object onsets and offsets: Does the primacy of onset persist even with bias for detecting offset?

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Maria J; Yamamoto, Naohide

    2016-10-01

    Onset primacy is a robust visual phenomenon in which appearance of new objects (onsets) in a scene more effectively captures observers' attention compared with disappearance of previously viewed objects (offsets). We hypothesized that the human attentional system is programmed by default to prioritize the processing of onsets, because quick detection of them is advantageous in most situations. However, the attentional priority may be able to flexibly adapt to the detection of object offsets depending on observers' behavioral goals. To test these hypotheses, two experiments were conducted in which participants were biased toward finding offset of an existing object through top-down and bottom-up manipulations. Results showed that although onset primacy was reduced to some degree under strong offset bias, in general participants continued to detect onsets efficiently. These findings did not eliminate the possibility of attentional flexibility, but they do demonstrate the robustness of onset primacy, suggesting that environmental demands or motivational factors would need to be sufficiently strong for people to switch to an adaptive attentional mode. PMID:27495326

  14. Spatial Stroop and spatial orienting: the role of onset versus offset cues.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunming; Lupiáñez, Juan; Fu, Xiaolan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-05-01

    The present study investigated whether offset cues have the same attentional consequences in the spatial Stroop effect as onset cues. Experiments 1 and 2 compared the attentional effects of onset-offset cues versus offset cues on the spatial Stroop effect, whereas Experiment 3 compared the attentional effects of onset versus offset cues. Across these experiments, independent of cue type (onset-offset or onset vs. offset) and even at long stimulus-onset asynchrony, attentional cueing did not revert into inhibition of return and was modulated by spatial Stroop with greater cueing effects for incongruent arrow's direction and position. In addition, onset-offset or onset and offset cues produced comparable cueing effects in the location-direction congruent condition, and onset-offset or onset cues produced greater facilitation than offset cues in the incongruent condition. From a different perspective, peripheral cueing modulated the spatial Stroop effect in the same direction for onset-offset or onset and offset cues, although the reduction in spatial Stroop at cued locations was smaller with offset than with onset-offset or onset cues.

  15. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Jake; Ray, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Positional offsets appear in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series for a variety of reasons. Antenna or radome changes are the most common cause for these discontinuities. Many others are from earthquakes, receiver changes, and different anthropogenic modifications at or near the stations. Some jumps appear for unknown or undocumented reasons. Accurate determination of station velocities, and therefore geophysical parameters and terrestrial reference frames, requires that positional offsets be correctly found and compensated. Williams (2003) found that undetected offsets introduce a random walk error component in individual station time series. The topic of detecting positional offsets has received considerable attention in recent years (e.g., Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment; DOGEx), and most research groups using GNSS have adopted a mix of manual and automated methods for finding them. The removal of a positional offset from a time series is usually handled by estimating the average station position on both sides of the discontinuity. Except for large earthquake events, the velocity is usually assumed constant and continuous across the positional jump. This approach is sufficient in the absence of time-correlated errors. However, GNSS time series contain periodic and power-law (flicker) errors. In this paper, we evaluate the impact to individual station results and the overall stability of the global reference frame from adding increasing numbers of positional discontinuities. We use the International GNSS Service (IGS) weekly SINEX files, and iteratively insert positional offset parameters. Each iteration includes a restacking of the modified SINEX files using the CATREF software from Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN). Comparisons of successive stacked solutions are used to assess the impacts on the time series of x-pole and y-pole offsets, along with changes in regularized position and secular velocity

  16. 20 CFR 361.11 - Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin. 361.11 Section 361.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  17. 20 CFR 361.13 - Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. 361.13 Section 361.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  18. 20 CFR 361.10 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. 361.10 Section 361.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY...

  19. 20 CFR 361.13 - Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. 361.13 Section 361.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  20. 20 CFR 361.12 - Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection. 361.12 Section 361.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  1. 20 CFR 361.12 - Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection. 361.12 Section 361.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  2. 20 CFR 361.10 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. 361.10 Section 361.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY...

  3. 20 CFR 361.12 - Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection. 361.12 Section 361.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  4. 20 CFR 361.11 - Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin. 361.11 Section 361.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  5. 20 CFR 361.11 - Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin. 361.11 Section 361.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  6. 20 CFR 361.11 - Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin. 361.11 Section 361.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  7. 20 CFR 361.11 - Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin. 361.11 Section 361.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  8. 20 CFR 361.12 - Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection. 361.12 Section 361.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  9. 20 CFR 361.10 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. 361.10 Section 361.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY...

  10. 20 CFR 361.13 - Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. 361.13 Section 361.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  11. 20 CFR 361.12 - Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection. 361.12 Section 361.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  12. 20 CFR 361.13 - Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. 361.13 Section 361.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  13. 20 CFR 361.13 - Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. 361.13 Section 361.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT...

  14. 20 CFR 361.10 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. 361.10 Section 361.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY...

  15. 20 CFR 361.10 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. 361.10 Section 361.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES RECOVERY OF DEBTS OWED TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY...

  16. 17 CFR 204.43 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the centralized administrative offset procedures in 5 CFR 550.1108 shall be attempted before applying... these regulations and pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR 550.1109 the Commission must: (1) Certify, in... its debt claim to the employee's paying agency for collection as provided in 5 CFR...

  17. 49 CFR 1017.9 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... administrative offset have been approved by the Office of Personnel Management, and that the provisions of 4 CFR..., and procedures of OPM; and (iii) The Board has complied with the requirements of 4 CFR 102.3... under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR 1108 must be provided and a properly certified debt claim received...

  18. 49 CFR 1017.9 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... administrative offset have been approved by the Office of Personnel Management, and that the provisions of 4 CFR..., and procedures of OPM; and (iii) The Board has complied with the requirements of 4 CFR 102.3... under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR 1108 must be provided and a properly certified debt claim received...

  19. 17 CFR 204.43 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the centralized administrative offset procedures in 5 CFR 550.1108 shall be attempted before applying... these regulations and pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR 550.1109 the Commission must: (1) Certify, in... its debt claim to the employee's paying agency for collection as provided in 5 CFR...

  20. 49 CFR 1017.9 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... administrative offset have been approved by the Office of Personnel Management, and that the provisions of 4 CFR..., and procedures of OPM; and (iii) The Board has complied with the requirements of 4 CFR 102.3... under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR 1108 must be provided and a properly certified debt claim received...

  1. 49 CFR 1017.9 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administrative offset have been approved by the Office of Personnel Management, and that the provisions of 4 CFR..., and procedures of OPM; and (iii) The Board has complied with the requirements of 4 CFR 102.3... under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR 1108 must be provided and a properly certified debt claim received...

  2. 17 CFR 204.43 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the centralized administrative offset procedures in 5 CFR 550.1108 shall be attempted before applying... these regulations and pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR 550.1109 the Commission must: (1) Certify, in... its debt claim to the employee's paying agency for collection as provided in 5 CFR...

  3. 49 CFR 1017.9 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... administrative offset have been approved by the Office of Personnel Management, and that the provisions of 4 CFR..., and procedures of OPM; and (iii) The Board has complied with the requirements of 4 CFR 102.3... under 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR 1108 must be provided and a properly certified debt claim received...

  4. 17 CFR 204.43 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the centralized administrative offset procedures in 5 CFR 550.1108 shall be attempted before applying... these regulations and pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR 550.1109 the Commission must: (1) Certify, in... its debt claim to the employee's paying agency for collection as provided in 5 CFR...

  5. 17 CFR 204.43 - Coordinating offset with another federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the centralized administrative offset procedures in 5 CFR 550.1108 shall be attempted before applying... these regulations and pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5514, 5 CFR 550.1109 the Commission must: (1) Certify, in... its debt claim to the employee's paying agency for collection as provided in 5 CFR...

  6. What is a realistic frontal-offset test procedure?

    PubMed

    Scheunert, D; Justen, R; Herrmann, R; Zeidler, F; Decker, J; Kallina, I

    1994-06-01

    With an increasing number of vehicles satisfying the FMVSS 208 Flat Barrier Impact Test and increasing belt usage, a high reduction of occupant injuries in general and a change from acceleration-induced to intrusion-induced injury mechanisms has been observed in Europe. The significance of intrusion-induced injury mechanisms associated with offset frontal impacts is assuming greater importance. Beginning in 1978, in response to this challenge, Mercedes-Benz has emphasized front structural countermeasures that have been found to be effective in the frequent asymmetrical frontal impacts. As an internal test, an offset impact with 40% overlap against a rigid barrier was defined. The relationship between actual accident frontal-overlap damage and barrier-test overlap values is explored in the paper. The results support the view that if a test of this type and associated design countermeasures were adopted by all vehicle manufacturers, a significant reduction of injuries would take place.

  7. Band offsets in c-Si/Si-XII heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Jamal I.; Malone, Brad D.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2014-08-01

    Silicon has a rich phase diagram with a multitude of phases existing over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, in addition to the common cubic silicon (c-Si) phase. One such phase, Si-XII, was first observed less than 2 decades ago in diamond anvil experiments, and more recently as a product of nanoindentation. In some of these latter experiments, I-V measurements were performed to characterize the c-Si/Si-XII interface that results when Si-XII is formed in cubic silicon substrates. In this paper we describe calculations of the band offsets in c-Si/Si-XII heterojunctions. We find that the heterojunction is of Type I and that the band offsets are estimated to be ΔEv=0.3 eV and ΔEc=0.5 eV for the valence bands and conduction bands, respectively.

  8. Limitations on near-surface correction for multicomponent offset VSP

    SciTech Connect

    Macbeth, C.; Li, X.Y.; Horne, S.

    1994-12-31

    Multicomponent data are degraded due to near-surface scattering and non-ideal or unexpected source behavior. These effects cannot be neglected when interpreting relative wavefield attributes derived from compressional and shear waves. They confuse analyses based on standard scalar procedures and a prima facia interpretation of the vector wavefield properties. Here, the authors highlight two unique polar matrix decompositions for near-surface correction in offset VSPs, consider their inherent mathematical constraints and how they impact on subsurface interpretation. The first method is applied to a four component subset of a six component field data from a configuration of three concentric rings and walkaway source positions forming offset VSPs in the Cymric field, California. The correction appears successful in automatically converting the wavefield into its ideal form, and the qSl polarizations scatter around N15{degree}E in agreement with the layer stripping of Winterstein and Meadows (1991).

  9. What is a realistic frontal-offset test procedure?

    PubMed

    Scheunert, D; Justen, R; Herrmann, R; Zeidler, F; Decker, J; Kallina, I

    1994-06-01

    With an increasing number of vehicles satisfying the FMVSS 208 Flat Barrier Impact Test and increasing belt usage, a high reduction of occupant injuries in general and a change from acceleration-induced to intrusion-induced injury mechanisms has been observed in Europe. The significance of intrusion-induced injury mechanisms associated with offset frontal impacts is assuming greater importance. Beginning in 1978, in response to this challenge, Mercedes-Benz has emphasized front structural countermeasures that have been found to be effective in the frequent asymmetrical frontal impacts. As an internal test, an offset impact with 40% overlap against a rigid barrier was defined. The relationship between actual accident frontal-overlap damage and barrier-test overlap values is explored in the paper. The results support the view that if a test of this type and associated design countermeasures were adopted by all vehicle manufacturers, a significant reduction of injuries would take place. PMID:8011047

  10. Calorie Offsets: Environmental Policy for the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity continues to challenge the public’s health, effective policy solutions are wanting. Borrowing from environmental protection efforts, we explored the potential for a “calorie offset” regulatory mechanism, which is similar to the carbon emission offsets used to curb greenhouse gas emissions, to mitigate the harmful health externalities of unhealthy food production. This approach might have a number of advantages over traditional policy tools, and warrants attention from health policymakers and industry alike. PMID:26066923

  11. Medical cost offsets from prescription drug utilization among Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, M Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This brief commentary extends earlier work on the value of adherence to derive medical cost offset estimates from prescription drug utilization. Among seniors with chronic vascular disease, 1% increases in condition-specific medication use were associated with significant (P  less than  0.001) reductions in gross nonpharmacy medical costs in the amounts of 0.63% for dyslipidemia, 0.77% for congestive heart failure, 0.83% for diabetes, and 1.17% for hypertension. PMID:25278321

  12. High-Precision Head Positioning Using Multiple Offset Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Makoto; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Sato, Isamu

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes a new tracking technique with a multiple beam mechanism that will lead to low profile optical disk storage units with faster access speeds. In this technique, data tracking involves selection among multiple beams with minute offsets. It can accommodate four-beam laser diodes while assuring twice the tracking accuracy and ten times the tracking bandwidth of conventional approaches. Its servo performance depends on the total distance between the two outermost beams in the beam series on the medium.

  13. Error analysis for the Fourier domain offset estimation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ling; He, Jieling; He, Yi; Yang, Jinsheng; Li, Xiqi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-02-01

    The offset estimation algorithm is crucial for the accuracy of the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. Recently, the Fourier Domain Offset (FDO) algorithm has been proposed for offset estimation. Similar to other algorithms, the accuracy of FDO is affected by noise such as background noise, photon noise, and 'fake' spots. However, no adequate quantitative error analysis has been performed for FDO in previous studies, which is of great importance for practical applications of the FDO. In this study, we quantitatively analysed how the estimation error of FDO is affected by noise based on theoretical deduction, numerical simulation, and experiments. The results demonstrate that the standard deviation of the wobbling error is: (1) inversely proportional to the raw signal to noise ratio, and proportional to the square of the sub-aperture size in the presence of background noise; and (2) proportional to the square root of the intensity in the presence of photonic noise. Furthermore, the upper bound of the estimation error is proportional to the intensity of 'fake' spots and the sub-aperture size. The results of the simulation and experiments agreed with the theoretical analysis.

  14. Multi-offset GPR methods for hyporheic zone investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brosten, T.R.; Bradford, J.H.; McNamara, J.P.; Gooseff, M.N.; Zarnetske, J.P.; Bowden, W.B.; Johnston, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity of stream sediments has a direct effect on hyporheic exchange patterns and rates. Improved estimates of porosity heterogeneity will yield enhanced simulation of hyporheic exchange processes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) velocity measurements are strongly controlled by water content thus accurate measures of GPR velocity in saturated sediments provides estimates of porosity beneath stream channels using petrophysical relationships. Imaging the substream system using surface based reflection measurements is particularly challenging due to large velocity gradients that occur at the transition from open water to saturated sediments. The continuous multi-offset method improves the quality of subsurface images through stacking and provides measurements of vertical and lateral velocity distributions. We applied the continuous multi-offset method to stream sites on the North Slope, Alaska and the Sawtooth Mountains near Boise, Idaho, USA. From the continuous multi-offset data, we measure velocity using reflection tomography then estimate water content and porosity using the Topp equation. These values provide detailed measurements for improved stream channel hydraulic and thermal modelling. ?? 2009 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  15. The analysis of plane discontinuities in offset cylindrical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Homentcovschi, Dorel; Miles, Ronald N

    2015-06-01

    This paper applies the re-expansion method for analyzing the effects on the sound field due to planar discontinuities at the junction of two offset circular acoustic waveguides. The normal modes in the two waveguides are expanded at the junction plane into a system of functions accounting for velocity singularities at the corner points. As the new expansion has a high convergence order, only a few terms have to be considered for obtaining the solution of most practical problems. This paper gives the equivalent impedance accounting for nonplanar waves into a plane-wave analysis. The last section of the paper applies the re-expansion technique to the case of two offset pipes (step discontinuity) and to that of an offset aperture in a cylindrical pipe (diaphragm-type discontinuity). The plots of the discontinuity inductance, characterized by Karal's factor, are quite similar but the values in the second case are 1.5-2 times larger, showing that the diaphragm-type discontinuity excites much more nonplanar evanescent modes than the step discontinuity.

  16. Multidimensional analyses of voicing offsets and onsets in female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Laura L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lucero, Jorge C.

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates cross-speaker differences in the factors that predict voicing thresholds during abduction-adduction gestures in six normal women. Measures of baseline airflow, pulse amplitude, subglottal pressure, and fundamental frequency were made at voicing offset and onset during intervocalic /h/, produced in varying vowel environments and at different loudness levels, and subjected to relational analyses to determine which factors were most strongly related to the timing of voicing cessation or initiation. The data indicate that (a) all speakers showed differences between voicing offsets and onsets, but the degree of this effect varied across speakers; (b) loudness and vowel environment have speaker-specific effects on the likelihood of devoicing during /h/; and (c) baseline flow measures significantly predicted times of voicing offset and onset in all participants, but other variables contributing to voice timing differed across speakers. Overall, the results suggest that individual speakers have unique methods of achieving phonatory goals during running speech. These data contribute to the literature on individual differences in laryngeal function, and serve as a means of evaluating how well laryngeal models can reproduce the range of voicing behavior used by speakers during running speech tasks.

  17. Joint Estimation of Carrier Frequency Offset and I/Q Imbalance in the Presence of Time-Varying DC Offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, Umut; Lin, Hai; Yamashita, Katsumi

    Due to the importance of maintaining the orthogonality among subcarriers, the estimation of carrier frequency offset (CFO) is a crucial issue in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The CFO estimation becomes complicated in OFDM direct-conversion receivers (DCRs), where additional analog impairments such as I/Q imbalance and time-varying DC offset (TV-DCO) exist. In this paper, we propose a novel joint estimation method for CFO and I/Q imbalance in the presence of TV-DCO. By using the linear property of the TV-DCO and employing a periodic pilot sequence, the desired estimates can be obtained in closed-form. Simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed method.

  18. 29 CFR 102.168 - Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope. 102... REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Debt Collection Procedures By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.168 Federal income... that will be followed in order to implement the Federal income tax refund offset procedures set...

  19. 29 CFR 102.168 - Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope. 102... REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Debt Collection Procedures By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.168 Federal income... that will be followed in order to implement the Federal income tax refund offset procedures set...

  20. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086....

  1. 45 CFR 303.102 - Collection of overdue support by State income tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collection of overdue support by State income tax... support by State income tax refund offset. (a) Overdue support qualifying for offset. Overdue support qualifies for State income tax refund offset if: (1) There has been an assignment of the support...

  2. 29 CFR 102.168 - Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope. 102... REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Debt Collection Procedures By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.168 Federal income... that will be followed in order to implement the Federal income tax refund offset procedures set...

  3. 45 CFR 303.102 - Collection of overdue support by State income tax refund offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Collection of overdue support by State income tax... support by State income tax refund offset. (a) Overdue support qualifying for offset. Overdue support qualifies for State income tax refund offset if: (1) There has been an assignment of the support...

  4. 29 CFR 102.168 - Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope. 102... REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Debt Collection Procedures By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.168 Federal income... that will be followed in order to implement the Federal income tax refund offset procedures set...

  5. 29 CFR 102.168 - Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal income tax refund offset; purpose and scope. 102... REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Debt Collection Procedures By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.168 Federal income... that will be followed in order to implement the Federal income tax refund offset procedures set...

  6. 16 CFR 1027.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been followed; and (vi) If the employee has already separated... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... OFFSET § 1027.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The CPSC as the creditor agency....

  7. 22 CFR 34.12 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... Salary Offset § 34.12 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When STATE is owed a debt...

  8. 24 CFR 17.85 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... has been given the procedural rights required by 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another... Government Salary Offset § 17.85 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When HUD is owed...

  9. 22 CFR 34.12 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... Salary Offset § 34.12 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When STATE is owed a debt...

  10. 22 CFR 34.12 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... Salary Offset § 34.12 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When STATE is owed a debt...

  11. 22 CFR 34.12 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... Salary Offset § 34.12 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When STATE is owed a debt...

  12. 24 CFR 17.85 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... has been given the procedural rights required by 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another... Government Salary Offset § 17.85 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When HUD is owed...

  13. 24 CFR 17.126 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee has been given the procedural rights required by 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another... Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.126 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When HUD...

  14. 16 CFR 1027.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been followed; and (vi) If the employee has already separated... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... OFFSET § 1027.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The CPSC as the creditor agency....

  15. 24 CFR 17.85 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... has been given the procedural rights required by 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another... Government Salary Offset § 17.85 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When HUD is owed...

  16. 45 CFR 607.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a debt, including the amount of the debt, and that the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When the NSF is...

  17. 45 CFR 607.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a debt, including the amount of the debt, and that the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When the NSF is...

  18. 16 CFR 1027.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been followed; and (vi) If the employee has already separated... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... OFFSET § 1027.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The CPSC as the creditor agency....

  19. 45 CFR 607.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a debt, including the amount of the debt, and that the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When the NSF is...

  20. 45 CFR 607.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a debt, including the amount of the debt, and that the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When the NSF is...

  1. 16 CFR 1027.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been followed; and (vi) If the employee has already separated... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... OFFSET § 1027.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The CPSC as the creditor agency....

  2. 45 CFR 607.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a debt, including the amount of the debt, and that the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When the NSF is...

  3. 24 CFR 17.126 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee has been given the procedural rights required by 5 U.S.C. 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another... Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.126 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When HUD...

  4. 22 CFR 34.12 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 5514 and 5 CFR part 550, subpart K. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal agency... Salary Offset § 34.12 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) When STATE is owed a debt...

  5. 16 CFR 1027.7 - Coordinating offset with another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the provisions of 5 CFR 550.1108 have been followed; and (vi) If the employee has already separated... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coordinating offset with another Federal... OFFSET § 1027.7 Coordinating offset with another Federal agency. (a) The CPSC as the creditor agency....

  6. 26 CFR 301.6402-6 - Offset of past-due, legally enforceable debt against overpayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offset of past-due, legally enforceable debt... to the Service for offset before November 15, 1992), the debt is referred for offset within ten years... support assigned to a State under section 402(a)(26) or section 471(a)(17) of the Social Security...

  7. 20 CFR 408.945 - When will we suspend tax refund offset?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we suspend tax refund offset? 408... WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Tax Refund Offset § 408.945 When will we suspend tax refund offset? If, within 60 days of the date of the notice described in § 408.941 of this...

  8. Band offsets and band bending at heterovalent semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, A.; Bass, U.; Mahapatra, S.; Schumacher, C.; Geurts, J.; Brunner, K.

    2010-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of band offsets and band bending at heterovalent semiconductor heterointerfaces. A perfectly abrupt heterovalent interface is usually thermodynamically unstable, and atomic intermixing of materials with different numbers of valence electrons causes large variations in band offsets and local doping density, depending on the spatial arrangement of atoms at the interface. The studied prototypical II-VI/III-V semiconductor interfaces are n -doped ZnSe/GaAs (001) heterostructures with varied composition profiles close to the interface, which were realized by molecular-beam epitaxy with different amounts of Zn or Se predeposited on n -GaAs prior to n -ZnSe layer growth. The samples are characterized by temperature-dependent electrical transport across the interface, electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction. We find that the potential barrier in the conduction band at a Zn-rich n -ZnSe/ n -GaAs interface is as high as 550 meV and it gradually decreases with Se predeposition down to about 70 meV. A large depletion region at the heterointerface, about 50 nm wide, is assigned to significant intermixing of acceptor-type atoms, resulting in an effective electron deficit of 1.5×1013cm-2 . The depletion width and the acceptor density around the interface are nearly independent from the growth start procedure. Se predeposition, however, partially shifts the depletion region at the heterointerface from GaAs into ZnSe, compared to Zn predeposition. The results are discussed on the basis of a band-bending model accounting for variable band offsets, interface state density and atomic interdiffusion profiles depending on growth start.

  9. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU habitats and birds directives.

    PubMed

    Regnery, Baptiste; Couvet, Denis; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity offsets are intended to achieve no net loss of biodiversity due to economic and human development. A variety of biodiversity components are addressed by offset policies. It is required that loss of protected species due to development be offset under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives in Europe. We call this type of offset a species-equality offset because the offset pertains to the same species affected by the development project. Whether species equality can be achieved by offset design is unknown. We addressed this gap by reviewing derogation files (i.e., specific files that describe mitigation measures to ensure no net loss under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives) from 85 development projects in France (2009-2010). We collected information on type of effect (reversible vs. irreversible) and characteristics of affected and offset sites (i.e., types of species, total area). We analyzed how the type of effect and the affected-site characteristics influenced the occurrence of offset measures. The proportion of species targeted by offset measures (i.e., offset species) increased with the irreversibility of the effect of development and the conservation status of the species affected by development (i.e., affected species). Not all effects on endangered species (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) were offset; on average, 82% of affected species would be offset. Twenty-six percent of species of least concern were offset species. Thirty-five percent of development projects considered all affected species in their offset measures. Species richness was much lower in offset sites than in developed sites even after offset proposals. For developed areas where species richness was relatively high before development, species richness at offset sites was 5-10 times lower. The species-equality principle appears to have been applied only partially in offset policies, as in the EU directives. We suggest the application of this principle

  10. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU habitats and birds directives.

    PubMed

    Regnery, Baptiste; Couvet, Denis; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity offsets are intended to achieve no net loss of biodiversity due to economic and human development. A variety of biodiversity components are addressed by offset policies. It is required that loss of protected species due to development be offset under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives in Europe. We call this type of offset a species-equality offset because the offset pertains to the same species affected by the development project. Whether species equality can be achieved by offset design is unknown. We addressed this gap by reviewing derogation files (i.e., specific files that describe mitigation measures to ensure no net loss under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives) from 85 development projects in France (2009-2010). We collected information on type of effect (reversible vs. irreversible) and characteristics of affected and offset sites (i.e., types of species, total area). We analyzed how the type of effect and the affected-site characteristics influenced the occurrence of offset measures. The proportion of species targeted by offset measures (i.e., offset species) increased with the irreversibility of the effect of development and the conservation status of the species affected by development (i.e., affected species). Not all effects on endangered species (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) were offset; on average, 82% of affected species would be offset. Twenty-six percent of species of least concern were offset species. Thirty-five percent of development projects considered all affected species in their offset measures. Species richness was much lower in offset sites than in developed sites even after offset proposals. For developed areas where species richness was relatively high before development, species richness at offset sites was 5-10 times lower. The species-equality principle appears to have been applied only partially in offset policies, as in the EU directives. We suggest the application of this principle

  11. Fracture characterization from near-offset VSP inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, S. |; MacBeth, C.; Queen, J.; Rizer, W.; Cox, V.

    1997-01-01

    A global optimization method incorporating a ray-tracing scheme is used to invert observations of shear-wave splitting from two near-offset VSPs recorded at the Conoco Borehole Test Facility, Kay County, Oklahoma. Inversion results suggest that the seismic anisotropy is due to a non-vertical fracture system. This interpretation is constrained by the VSP acquisition geometry for which two sources are employed along near diametrically opposite azimuths about the well heads. A correlation is noted between the time-delay variations between the fast and slow split shear waves and the sandstone formations.

  12. Luminosity Optimization With Offset, Crossing Angle, and Distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, T.O.; /SLAC

    2005-06-15

    In a linear collider, sources of beam jitter due to kicker noise, quadrupole vibration and long-range transverse wakefields will lead to beam offsets and tilts at the Intersection Point (IP). In addition, sources of emittance dilution such as short-range transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will lead to internal beam distortions. When the IP disruption parameter is large, these beam imperfections will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. In this paper, we study the luminosity loss and then the optimization required to partially cancel the luminosity loss both analytically and with direct simulation.

  13. Reduction of Phase Ambiguity in an Offset-QPSK Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Jeff; Kinman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Proposed modifications of an offset-quadri-phase-shift keying (offset-QPSK) transmitter and receiver would reduce the amount of signal processing that must be done in the receiver to resolve the QPSK fourfold phase ambiguity. Resolution of the phase ambiguity is necessary in order to synchronize, with the received carrier signal, the signal generated by a local oscillator in a carrier-tracking loop in the receiver. Without resolution of the fourfold phase ambiguity, the loop could lock to any of four possible phase points, only one of which has the proper phase relationship with the carrier. The proposal applies, more specifically, to an offset-QPSK receiver that contains a carrier-tracking loop like that shown in Figure 1. This carrier-tracking loop does not resolve or reduce the phase ambiguity. A carrier-tracking loop of a different design optimized for the reception of offset QPSK could reduce the phase ambiguity from fourfold to twofold, but would be more complex. Alternatively, one could resolve the fourfold phase ambiguity by use of differential coding in the transmitter, at a cost of reduced power efficiency. The proposed modifications would make it possible to reduce the fourfold phase ambiguity to twofold, with no loss in power efficiency and only relatively simple additional signal-processing steps in the transmitter and receiver. The twofold phase ambiguity would then be resolved by use of a unique synchronization word, as is commonly done in binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). Although the mathematical and signal-processing principles underlying the modifications are too complex to explain in detail here, the modifications themselves would be relatively simple and are best described with the help of simple block diagrams (see Figure 2). In the transmitter, one would add a unit that would periodically invert bits going into the QPSK modulator; in the receiver, one would add a unit that would effect different but corresponding inversions of bits coming out

  14. 36 CFR 1201.51 - How will NARA request that my debt to NARA be collected by offset against some payment that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... debt to NARA be collected by offset against some payment that another Federal agency owes me? 1201.51 Section 1201.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES COLLECTION OF CLAIMS Administrative Offset § 1201.51 How will NARA request that my debt to NARA...

  15. Using offsets to mitigate environmental impacts of major projects: A stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nigel; Evans, Megan; Rice, John; Lodhia, Sumit; Gibbons, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Global patterns of development suggest that as more projects are initiated, business will need to find acceptable measures to conserve biodiversity. The application of environmental offsets allows firms to combine their economic interests with the environment and society. This article presents the results of a multi-stakeholder analysis related to the design of offsets principles, policies, and regulatory processes, using a large infrastructure projects context. The results indicate that business was primarily interested in using direct offsets and other compensatory measures, known internationally as indirect offsets, to acquit their environmental management obligations. In contrast, the environmental sector argued that highly principled and scientifically robust offsets programs should be implemented and maintained for enduring environmental protection. Stakeholder consensus stressed the importance of offsets registers with commensurate monitoring and enforcement. Our findings provide instructive insights into the countervailing views of offsets policy stakeholders.

  16. A Computer Simulation of the System-Wide Effects of Parallel-Offset Route Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Santiago, Confesor; Pankok, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Most aircraft managed by air-traffic controllers in the National Airspace System are capable of flying parallel-offset routes. This paper presents the results of two related studies on the effects of increased use of offset routes as a conflict resolution maneuver. The first study analyzes offset routes in the context of all standard resolution types which air-traffic controllers currently use. This study shows that by utilizing parallel-offset route maneuvers, significant system-wide savings in delay due to conflict resolution of up to 30% are possible. It also shows that most offset resolutions replace horizontal-vectoring resolutions. The second study builds on the results of the first and directly compares offset resolutions and standard horizontal-vectoring maneuvers to determine that in-trail conflicts are often more efficiently resolved by offset maneuvers.

  17. Using offsets to mitigate environmental impacts of major projects: A stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nigel; Evans, Megan; Rice, John; Lodhia, Sumit; Gibbons, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Global patterns of development suggest that as more projects are initiated, business will need to find acceptable measures to conserve biodiversity. The application of environmental offsets allows firms to combine their economic interests with the environment and society. This article presents the results of a multi-stakeholder analysis related to the design of offsets principles, policies, and regulatory processes, using a large infrastructure projects context. The results indicate that business was primarily interested in using direct offsets and other compensatory measures, known internationally as indirect offsets, to acquit their environmental management obligations. In contrast, the environmental sector argued that highly principled and scientifically robust offsets programs should be implemented and maintained for enduring environmental protection. Stakeholder consensus stressed the importance of offsets registers with commensurate monitoring and enforcement. Our findings provide instructive insights into the countervailing views of offsets policy stakeholders. PMID:27173891

  18. Reproduction of Hip Offset and Leg Length in Navigated Total Hip Arthroplasty: How Accurate Are We?

    PubMed

    Ellapparadja, Pregash; Mahajan, Vivek; Deakin, Angela H; Deep, Kamal

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses how accurately we can restore hip offset and leg length in navigated total hip arthroplasty (THA). 152 consecutive patients with navigated THA formed the study group. The contra-lateral hip formed control for measuring hip offset and leg length. All radiological measurements were made using Orthoview digital software. In the normal hip offset group, the mean is 75.73 (SD- 8.61). In the reconstructed hip offset group, the mean is 75.35 (SD - 7.48). 95.39% had hip offset within 6 mm of opposite side while 96.04% had leg length restored within 6 mm of contra-lateral side. Equivalence test revealed that the two groups of hip offsets were essentially the same. We conclude that computer navigation can successfully reproduce hip offset and leg length accurately.

  19. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    PubMed

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required.

  20. Tidally Induced Offset Disks in Magellanic Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardy, Stephen A.; D'Onghia, Elena; Athanassoula, E.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Sheth, Kartik

    2016-08-01

    Magellanic spiral galaxies are a class of one-armed systems that often exhibit an offset stellar bar and are rarely found around massive spiral galaxies. Using a set of N-body and hydrodynamic simulations, we consider a dwarf-dwarf galaxy interaction as the driving mechanism for the formation of this peculiar class of systems. We investigate here the relation between the dynamical, stellar, and gaseous disk center and the bar. In all our simulations the bar center always coincides with the dynamical center, while the stellar disk becomes highly asymmetric during the encounter, causing the photometric center of the Magellanic galaxy disk to become mismatched with both the bar and the dynamical center. The disk asymmetries persist for almost 2 Gyr, the time that it takes for the disk to be recentered with the bar, and well after the companion has passed. This explains the nature of the offset bar found in many Magellanic-type galaxies, including the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and NGC 3906. In particular, these results, once applied to the LMC, suggest that the dynamical center should reside in the bar center instead of the H i center as previously assumed, pointing to a variation in the current estimate of the north component of the LMC proper motion.

  1. Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, E.

    2016-05-01

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co- I p direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P RF absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  2. Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback for MRI Power Amplifier Linearization

    PubMed Central

    Zanchi, Marta Gaia; Stang, Pascal; Kerr, Adam; Pauly, John Mark; Scott, Greig Cameron

    2011-01-01

    High-quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires precise control of the transmit radio-frequency field. In parallel excitation applications such as transmit SENSE, high RF power linearity is essential to cancel aliased excitations. In widely-employed class AB power amplifiers, gain compression, cross-over distortion, memory effects, and thermal drift all distort the RF field modulation and can degrade image quality. Cartesian feedback (CF) linearization can mitigate these effects in MRI, if the quadrature mismatch and DC offset imperfections inherent in the architecture can be minimized. In this paper, we present a modified Cartesian feedback technique called “frequency-offset Cartesian feedback” (FOCF) that significantly reduces these problems. In the FOCF architecture, the feedback control is performed at a low intermediate frequency rather than DC, so that quadrature ghosts and DC errors are shifted outside the control bandwidth. FOCF linearization is demonstrated with a variety of typical MRI pulses. Simulation of the magnetization obtained with the Bloch equation demonstrates that high-fidelity RF reproduction can be obtained even with inexpensive class AB amplifiers. Finally, the enhanced RF fidelity of FOCF over CF is demonstrated with actual images obtained in a 1.5 T MRI system. PMID:20959264

  3. Temporal variation in the interhemispheric 14C offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormac, F. G.; Hogg, A. G.; Higham, T. F. G.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Broecker, W. S.; Baillie, M. G. L.; Palmer, J.; Xiong, L.; Pilcher, J. R.; Brown, D.; Hoper, S. T.

    Contemporaneous tree-ring dated wood, from trees in the northern and southern hemispheres, gives different 14C dates. Previous studies [Vogel et al., 1986; 1993] using wood from South Africa and The Netherlands have shown depletion's of -4.56 ± 0.85‰ and -5.12±0.62‰ respectively. This translates to age differences of 36±7 and 41±5 years (yrs) with the southern hemisphere giving the older dates. More recently, Stuiver and Braziunas [1998] have shown that an offset of 23±4 yrs exists between combined 19th century wood measurements from Tasmania and Chile in the southern hemisphere and the west coast of the U.S. (Washington) in the northern hemisphere. In this study measurements on contemporaneous decadal samples of oak from the British Isles and cedar from New Zealand over the period 1725 to 1885 AD show a depletion of -3.4±0.58‰ (27.2±4.7 yrs). However, data after 1895 AD has a mean offset of 0.66±1.06‰ (-5.3±8.5 yrs) with increased variance compared to 19th century data. This, we believe, is attributable to anthropogenic fossil fuel, which, due to its long residence time in the earth, has long since lost any 14C component and when burned preferentially depletes the northern hemisphere atmosphere of 14C.

  4. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) for liquid screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Recently, Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) has been discussed as a novel method for the screening of liquids, aerosols and gels (LAGs) at airports and for other security applications. SORS is an optical spectroscopic method which enables the precise chemical identification of substances from a reference list and, due to the rich spectral information, has an inherently high probability of detection and low false alarm rate. The method is generally capable of screening substances inside non-metallic containers such as plastic and glass bottles. SORS is typically successful through opaque plastic and coloured glass, which are often challenging for conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy. SORS is performed in just a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has different relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure Raman spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods in an automated process. In this paper, the latest results will be described from a prototype SORS device designed for aviation security and the advantages and limitations of SORS will be discussed.

  5. Microbiological degradation of a spent offset-printing developer.

    PubMed

    Vengris, Tomas; Binkiene, Rima; Butkiene, Rita; Nivinskiene, Ona; Melvydas, Vytautas; Manusadzianas, Levonas

    2004-09-10

    To decontaminate spent offset-printing developer Polychrome 4003, several microorganisms were separated from the soil that has been used for developer dumping for 3 years. Two organism cultures were isolated and identified to genus Geomyces pannorum and Bacteria spp. These organisms, as well as commercial Septic Gobbler (SG) bacteria, were used to decontaminate the developer. Reduction of both the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the amount of total identified organic compounds reached 30% after 40 day treatment of waste suspension by G. pannorum and Bacteria spp. A substantially higher degree of COD reduction by approximately 80% and the total amount of identified organic compounds by approximately 90% was achieved when SG bacteria have been applied for the same period. According to a rapid electrophysiological test with macrophytic algae Nitellopsis obtusa, the toxicity of spent offset-printing developer Polychrome 4003 was classified as extremely toxic (>100 toxic units, T.U.), and it remained at the same level after treatment with G. pannorum and Bacteria spp. More effective biodegradation with SG bacteria diminished toxicity substantially.

  6. Differential temperature stress measurement employing array sensor with local offset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesniak, Jon R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The instrument has a focal plane array of infrared sensors of the integrating type such as a multiplexed device in which a charge is built up on a capacitor which is proportional to the total number of photons which that sensor is exposed to between read-out cycles. The infrared sensors of the array are manufactured as part of an overall array which is part of a micro-electronic device. The sensor achieves greater sensitivity by applying a local offset to the output of each sensor before it is converted into a digital word. The offset which is applied to each sensor will typically be the sensor's average value so that the digital signal which is periodically read from each sensor of the array corresponds to the portion of the signal which is varying in time. With proper synchronization between the cyclical loading of the test object and the frame rate of the infrared array the output of the A/D converted signal will correspond to the stress field induced temperature variations. A digital lock-in operation may be performed on the output of each sensor in the array. This results in a test instrument which can rapidly form a precise image of the thermoelastic stresses in an object.

  7. Adaptive offset correction for intracortical brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Homer, Mark L; Perge, Janos A; Black, Michael J; Harrison, Matthew T; Cash, Sydney S; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2014-03-01

    Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) decode intended movement from neural activity for the control of external devices such as a robotic arm. Standard approaches include a calibration phase to estimate decoding parameters. During iBCI operation, the statistical properties of the neural activity can depart from those observed during calibration, sometimes hindering a user's ability to control the iBCI. To address this problem, we adaptively correct the offset terms within a Kalman filter decoder via penalized maximum likelihood estimation. The approach can handle rapid shifts in neural signal behavior (on the order of seconds) and requires no knowledge of the intended movement. The algorithm, called multiple offset correction algorithm (MOCA), was tested using simulated neural activity and evaluated retrospectively using data collected from two people with tetraplegia operating an iBCI. In 19 clinical research test cases, where a nonadaptive Kalman filter yielded relatively high decoding errors, MOCA significantly reduced these errors ( 10.6 ± 10.1% ; p < 0.05, pairwise t-test). MOCA did not significantly change the error in the remaining 23 cases where a nonadaptive Kalman filter already performed well. These results suggest that MOCA provides more robust decoding than the standard Kalman filter for iBCIs.

  8. Tidally Induced Offset Disks in Magellanic Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardy, Stephen A.; D’Onghia, Elena; Athanassoula, E.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Sheth, Kartik

    2016-08-01

    Magellanic spiral galaxies are a class of one-armed systems that often exhibit an offset stellar bar and are rarely found around massive spiral galaxies. Using a set of N-body and hydrodynamic simulations, we consider a dwarf–dwarf galaxy interaction as the driving mechanism for the formation of this peculiar class of systems. We investigate here the relation between the dynamical, stellar, and gaseous disk center and the bar. In all our simulations the bar center always coincides with the dynamical center, while the stellar disk becomes highly asymmetric during the encounter, causing the photometric center of the Magellanic galaxy disk to become mismatched with both the bar and the dynamical center. The disk asymmetries persist for almost 2 Gyr, the time that it takes for the disk to be recentered with the bar, and well after the companion has passed. This explains the nature of the offset bar found in many Magellanic-type galaxies, including the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and NGC 3906. In particular, these results, once applied to the LMC, suggest that the dynamical center should reside in the bar center instead of the H i center as previously assumed, pointing to a variation in the current estimate of the north component of the LMC proper motion.

  9. Beam scanning offset Cassegrain reflector antennas by subreflector movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapean, James W., Jr.; Stutzman, Warren L.

    1994-01-01

    In 1987 a NASA panel recommended the creation of the Mission to Planet Earth. This mission was intended to apply to remote sensing experience of the space community to earth remote sensing to enhance the understanding of the climatological processes of our planet and to determine if, and to what extent, the hydrological cycle of Earth is being affected by human activity. One of the systems required for the mission was a wide scanning, high gain reflector antenna system for use in radiometric remote sensing from geostationary orbit. This work describes research conducted at Virginia Tech into techniques for beam scanning offset Cassegrain reflector antennas by subreflector translation and rotation. Background material relevant to beam scanning antenna systems and offset Cassegrain reflector antenna system is presented. A test case is developed based on the background material. The test case is beam scanned using two geometrical optics methods of determining the optimum subreflector position for the desired scanned beam direction. Physical optics far-field results are given for the beam scanned systems. The test case system is found to be capable of beam scanning over a range of 35 half-power beamwidths while maintaining a 90 percent beam efficiency or 50 half-power beamwidths while maintaining less than l dB of gain loss during scanning.

  10. Crack Offset Measurement With the Projected Laser Target Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The device and associated analysis methodology summarized in this report were developed for the purpose of estimating the size of discontinuities in the surface of the foam that covers the Space Shuttle External Tank. These surface offsets are thought to be due to subsurface cracks in the foam insulation. The mathematical analysis and procedure described here provide a method to quantity the dimensions of the crack offset in a direction perpendicular to the surface, making use of the projected laser target device (PLTD) tool and a laser line projector. The keys to the construction and use of the PLTD are the following geometrical design requirements: Laser dots are on a square grid: length on a side. Laser beams are perpendicular to projected surface. Beams are parallel out to the distance being projected. The PLTD can be used to (1) calibrate fixed cameras of unknown magnification and orientation (far-field solution); (2) provide equivalent calibration to multiple cameras, previously achieved only by the use of known target points, for example, in 3.D foreign-object debris tracking on a fixed launch platform; (3) compute scaling for conventional 2.D images, and depth of field for 3.D images (near-field solution); and (4) in conjunction with a laser line projector, achieve accurate measurements of surface discontinuity (cracks) in a direction perpendicular to the surface.

  11. Offset coil designs for superconducting magnets, a logical development

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1986-03-01

    Dipoles and quadrupoles for any new, large proton ring must be stronger, smaller and have better field shape (systematic error) than those used in the Doubler. The present two-shell designs are rigid in that the coils are too thin but cannot be relatively fatter without destroying the field quality. An examination of the coil shapes for dipoles and quadrupoles which produce perfect fields from a uniform current density shows clearly that our persistent use of a circular form for the inner surface of the coils is a poor approximation. When this is corrected by ''offsets'' there is a striking improvement both in the strength of fields and in the field quality. The same analysis makes clear that the efficient use of superconductor and the overall magnet size is determined by the perfect coil shapes. Any reasonable magnet will not differ significantly from the ideal for these parameters. This will be particularly helpful in setting design goals for very large quadrupoles. The offset two-shell dipole design preserves the mechanical features of the highly successful, resilient doubler magnets while greatly extending the performance.

  12. Offset active galactic nuclei as tracers of galaxy mergers and supermassive black hole growth

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-07-10

    Offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are AGNs that are in ongoing galaxy mergers, which produce kinematic offsets in the AGNs relative to their host galaxies. Offset AGNs are also close relatives of dual AGNs. We conduct a systematic search for offset AGNs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by selecting AGN emission lines that exhibit statistically significant line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to systemic. From a parent sample of 18,314 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.21, we identify 351 offset AGN candidates with velocity offsets of 50 km s{sup –1} < |Δv| < 410 km s{sup –1}. When we account for projection effects in the observed velocities, we estimate that 4%-8% of AGNs are offset AGNs. We designed our selection criteria to bypass velocity offsets produced by rotating gas disks, AGN outflows, and gravitational recoil of supermassive black holes, but follow-up observations are still required to confirm our candidates as offset AGNs. We find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset candidates increases with AGN bolometric luminosity, from 0.7% to 6% over the luminosity range 43 < log (L{sub bol}) [erg s{sup –1}] <46. If these candidates are shown to be bona fide offset AGNs, then this would be direct observational evidence that galaxy mergers preferentially trigger high-luminosity AGNs. Finally, we find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset AGN candidates increases from 1.9% at z = 0.1 to 32% at z = 0.7, in step with the growth in the galaxy merger fraction over the same redshift range.

  13. Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J E; Lobell, D B; Field, C B

    2009-05-22

    The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency of these two energy pathways is not well quantified. Here, we show that bioelectricity outperforms ethanol across a range of feedstocks, conversion technologies, and vehicle classes. Bioelectricity produces an average of 81% more transportation kilometers and 108% more emissions offsets per unit area of cropland than does cellulosic ethanol. These results suggest that alternative bioenergy pathways have large differences in how efficiently they use the available land to achieve transportation and climate goals.

  14. Quasi MT Inversion of Short-Offset Transient Electromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-ying; Xue, Guo-qiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2016-07-01

    The short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) has been extensively used for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and hydrogeological investigations due to its ease of use and capability to generate diagnostic subsurface information. At present, the data processing methods of SOTEM are mainly focused on one dimensional inversion. To apply the proven inversion methods of frequency domain electromagnetic methods to SOTEM data, this paper presents a new transformation relation from time to frequency based on the similarity between SOTEM all-time apparent resistivity and magnetotelluric (MT) apparent resistivity. Results show that the transformation coefficients depend on the variation trend of SOTEM all-time apparent resistivity curves. Bostick inversion and conjugate gradient inversion techniques were applied to transformed SOTEM data and the results were validated by some simulated calculations and field measured data. This study provides a novel method to SOTEM data processing and a useful aid to join inversion with MT data.

  15. Offset dual reflector antenna for 20/30 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, R. I.

    The design and testing results of the TDS-6 high performance dual reflector antenna, intended for communications experiments with the ESA Olympus satellite in the 20/30 GHz band, are discussed. The offset Gregorian antenna has an aperture of 2.47 m, and it exhibits high gain while maintaining 90 percent of the sidelobes below 29-25 log theta dBi. The reflector shapes are optimized using the method of diffraction profile synthesis. A wide-band corrugated horn feed with a ring-loaded throat section has been incorporated in the antenna. The results show the achievement of an accuracy of 140-145 microns rms for the main reflectors.

  16. Conduction barrier offset engineering for DRAM capacitor scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešić, Milan; Knebel, Steve; Cho, Kyuho; Jung, Changhwa; Chang, Jaewan; Lim, Hanjin; Kolomiiets, Nadiia; Afanas'ev, Valeri V.; Mikolajick, Thomas; Schroeder, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    DRAM capacitors are reaching the scaling limit and new approaches are necessary to enable further reduction of the physical thickness of the capacitor dielectric. The conduction band offset (CBO) of a platinum noble metal electrode on atomic layer deposited ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 is evaluated and compared to a titanium nitride electrode. Internal Photo Emission Spectroscopy and Photoconductivity measurement are used to estimate the barrier height and band gap, respectively. The barrier height difference between the two electrodes is evaluated in comparison with a previously reported model. Finally, the impact of an increased barrier height on dielectric scaling will be discussed based on a leakage current simulation of a ZrO2 capacitor.

  17. Judy Creek: Successful use of offset VSP to find porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.; Pearcy, R.; Lee, H.; Hemingson, P.

    1994-12-31

    In March of 1993, Imperial Oil Resources Ltd. drilled the Judy Creek 14-7-64-10w5 well. The target was porosity on the front of the Judy Creek ``A`` reef. The well encountered poor porosity development. Available surface seismic was of low resolution, so an alternative method was sought to locate better porosity. An offset VSP was acquired, and an anomaly was observed on the P-wave data at a distance of 125 meters form the well. A short radius horizontal radial was drilled from the existing wellbore and encountered porosity development at 125 meters from the well bore. Subsequently, S-wave processing was carried out. Once again, an anomaly was observed at 125 meters form the well bore. The S-waves had the additional advantage of providing better resolution of the porous zone than the P-wave image.

  18. Environmental offsets, resilience and cost-effective conservation.

    PubMed

    Little, L R; Grafton, R Q

    2015-07-01

    Conservation management agencies are faced with acute trade-offs when dealing with disturbance from human activities. We show how agencies can respond to permanent ecosystem disruption by managing for Pimm resilience within a conservation budget using a model calibrated to a metapopulation of a coral reef fish species at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. The application is of general interest because it provides a method to manage species susceptible to negative environmental disturbances by optimizing between the number and quality of migration connections in a spatially distributed metapopulation. Given ecological equivalency between the number and quality of migration connections in terms of time to recover from disturbance, our approach allows conservation managers to promote ecological function, under budgetary constraints, by offsetting permanent damage to one ecological function with investment in another.

  19. Jet offset, harmonic content, and warble in the flute.

    PubMed

    Coltman, John W

    2006-10-01

    The effects of jet offset in the flute, directing the jet above or below the edge, were explored by two distinct means-experiments with a Boehm flute sounded by an artificial blower, and time domain simulation. Very large changes in harmonic content and dynamics were observed, changing greatly with blowing pressure. Warble, a modulation of the tone at frequencies of the order of 20 Hz, was observed both in the experiment and in the simulation. The phenomenon is explained as a beat between the frequency of a second harmonic generated by nonlinearity in the jet current and a neighboring partial sustained by jet feedback near the second mode resonance. A second type of warble, in which amplitude modulation occurs in all partials but with different phases, is yet to be explained.

  20. Focal surfaces of offset dual-reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sletten, C. J.; Shore, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical technique is described for finding the best focal surfaces for offset-fed dual-reflector antennas. A ray tracing procedure traces the loci of rays incident on the main reflector onto a plane or 'screen' situated perpendicular to a central ray of the antenna system. Given, then, by computer graphics, the best feed locations for azimuth and elevation plane patterns, an aperture diffraction method is used which can compute the sidelobe levels and beamwidths resulting from aperture phase errors on scanned or multibeam patterns. High-magnification Cassegrain or Gregorian antennas, with tilt angles optimised according to Japanese criteria, produce excellent radiation diagrams many beamwidths from the central, unaberrated pattern direction.

  1. Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1991-06-01

    A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

  2. Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

  3. Secondary pattern computation of an offset reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Reflector antennas are widely used in communications satellite systems because they provide high gain at low cost. In analyzing reflector antennas the computation of the secondary pattern is the main concern. A computer program for calculating the secondary pattern of an offset reflector has been developed and implemented at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The theoretical foundation for this program is based on the use of geometrical optics to describe the fields from the feed to the reflector surface and to the aperture plane. The resulting aperture field distribution is then transformed to the far-field zone by the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Comparing this technique with other well-known techniques (the geometrical theory of diffraction, physical optics (Jacobi-Bessel), etc.) shows good agreement for large (diameter of 100 lambda or greater) reflector antennas.

  4. Environmental offsets, resilience and cost-effective conservation

    PubMed Central

    Little, L. R.; Grafton, R. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation management agencies are faced with acute trade-offs when dealing with disturbance from human activities. We show how agencies can respond to permanent ecosystem disruption by managing for Pimm resilience within a conservation budget using a model calibrated to a metapopulation of a coral reef fish species at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. The application is of general interest because it provides a method to manage species susceptible to negative environmental disturbances by optimizing between the number and quality of migration connections in a spatially distributed metapopulation. Given ecological equivalency between the number and quality of migration connections in terms of time to recover from disturbance, our approach allows conservation managers to promote ecological function, under budgetary constraints, by offsetting permanent damage to one ecological function with investment in another. PMID:26587260

  5. The offset of morphine tolerance in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Cox, B M; Ginsburg, M; Willis, J

    1975-03-01

    1. In rats and mice made tolerant to morphine by pretreatment with the drug, the shift to the right of the log dose/analgesic response line for in naive animals occurs without significant change in slope provided that sufficient time is allowed for elimination of pretreatment drug. 2. Responsiveness to the analgesic effects of morphine, given together with cycloheximide to prevent reinforcement of tolerance, was measured in rats (paw pressure method) and mice (hot plate method) at intervals during 1-23 days following cessation of a variety of regimens of tolerance-inducing drug treatments. 3. A biphasic pattern of recovery of responsiveness was observed, which was independent of the regimen or the drug (morphine, methadone or diamorphine) used to induce tolerance. Estimates of the rates of the first, fast phase are imprecise but the rate of the second phase of offset, from 4th day after cessation of pretreatment had, in rats, a mean half-time of 13.2 plus or minus 0.53 days-for all pretreatments combined, there being no significant differences between the various pretreatment regimens employed. In mice, similarly, a biphasic recovery of analgesic responsiveness was seen after morphine pretreatment, the mean half-time of the slower phase being 17.4 days. 4. Precipitation of an acute withdrawal syndrome in rats by naloxone HCl given 6 h after the final injection of a tolerance-inducing treatment with morphine did not affect the subsequent rate of recovery from tolerance. 5. During the period following a tolerance-inducing pretreatment with morphine in mice, the rate of attenuation of the naloxone-evoked jumping response was faster than the rate of offset of tolerance. PMID:1169082

  6. Determination of VOC emission rates and compositions for offset printing.

    PubMed

    Wadden, R A; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E; Conroy, L M; Keil, C B

    1995-07-01

    The release rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC) as fugitive emissions from offset printing are difficult to quantify, and the compositions are usually not known. Tests were conducted at three offset printing shops that varied in size and by process. In each case, the building shell served as the test "enclosure," and air flow and concentration measurements were made at each air entry and exit point. Emission rates and VOC composition were determined during production for (1) a small shop containing three sheetfed presses and two spirit duplicators (36,700 sheets, 47,240 envelopes and letterheads), (2) a medium-size industrial in-house shop with two webfed and three sheetfed presses, and one spirit duplicator (315,130 total sheets), and (3) one print room of a large commercial concern containing three webfed, heatset operations (1.16 x 10(6) ft) served by catalytic air pollution control devices. Each test consisted of 12 one-hour periods over two days. Air samples were collected simultaneously during each period at 7-14 specified locations within each space. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) for total VOC and for 13-19 individual organics. Samples of solvents used at each shop were also analyzed by GC. Average VOC emission rates were 4.7-6.1 kg/day for the small sheetfed printing shop, 0.4-0.9 kg/day for the industrial shop, and 79-82 kg/day for the commercial print room. Emission compositions were similar and included benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and hexane. Comparison of the emission rates with mass balance estimates based on solvent usage and composition were quite consistent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Can carbon offsetting pay for upland ecological restoration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.

    2012-04-01

    Upland peat soils represent a large terrestrial carbon store and as such have the potential to be either an ongoing net sink of carbon or a significant net source of carbon. In the UK many upland peats are managed for a range of purposes but these purposes have rarely included carbon stewardship. However, there is now an opportunity to consider whether management practices could be altered to enhance storage of carbon in upland peats. Further, there are now voluntary and regulated carbon trading schemes operational throughout Europe that mean stored carbon, if verified, could have an economic and tradeable value. This means that new income streams could become available for upland management. The 'Sustainable Uplands' RELU project has developed a model for calculating carbon fluxes from peat soils that covers all carbon uptake and release pathways (e.g. fluvial and gaseous pathways). The model has been developed so that the impact of common management options within UK upland peats can be considered. The model was run for a decade from 1997-2006 and applied to an area of 550 km2 of upland peat soils in the Peak District. The study estimates that the region is presently a net sink of -62 Ktonnes CO2 equivalent at an average export of -136 tonnes CO2 equivalent/km2/yr.. If management interventions were targeted across the area the total sink could increase to -160 Ktonnes CO2/yr at an average export of -219 tonnes CO2 equivalent/km2/yr. However, not all interventions resulted in a benefit; some resulted in increased losses of CO2 equivalents. Given present costs of peatland restoration and value of carbon offsets, the study suggests that 51% of those areas, where a carbon benefit was estimated by modelling for targeted action of management interventions, would show a profit from carbon offsetting within 30 years. However, this percentage is very dependent upon the price of carbon used.

  8. Offsetting Ongoing Methane Emissions --- An Alternative to Emission Equivalence Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clisby, N.; Enting, I. G.; Lauder, A.; Carter, J.; Cowie, A.; Henry, B.; Raupach, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been widely adopted as a metric for comparing the climate impact of different greenhouse gases. As has been frequently noted, there are many problems with using GWPs to define emission equivalence in spite of the use of GWPs for this purpose in contexts such as the Kyoto Protocol. We propose that for methane, rather than define emission equivalence, the appropriate comparison is between ongoing emissions of 0.9 to 1.0 kg of CH4 per year and one-off emissions of 1 tonne of carbon. This approach represents an approximate solution to the inverse problem of defining a forcing equivalent index (FEI) that gives exact equivalence of radiative forcing over a range of timescales. In our approach, if ongoing methane emissions are offset by a one-off carbon removal that is built up with 40-year e-folding time, then the result is close to radiatively neutral over periods from years to centuries. In contrast, the GWP provides radiative equivalence (in integrated terms) only at a single time, with large discrepancies at other times. Our approach also follows from consideration of greenhouse gas stabilisation, since stabilising atmospheric CO2 requires an approximate cap on total emissions, while stabilising methane requires stabilisation of ongoing emissions. Our quantitative treatment recognises that, on time scales of centuries, removal of 1 tonne of carbon only lowers the atmospheric carbon content by 0.3 to 0.35 tonnes. We discuss the implications for rangeland grazing systems. In the absence of effective mitigation techniques for methane from rangeland systems, this approach may provide an attractive offset mechanism in spite of requiring that woody vegetation be established and maintained over about 15% of the landscape, or an equivalent amount of carbon storage in soil.

  9. 13 CFR 140.3 - What rights do you have when SBA tries to collect a debt from you through offset?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEBT COLLECTION Offset § 140.3 What rights do you have when SBA tries to..., history of the debt, and agency program under which it arose also will be disclosed. (d) If you respond to... which to file your request for review. (2) Where an income tax refund offset is proposed, you will...

  10. 7 CFR 1951.137 - Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... administrative offset (TOP), Internal Revenue Service offset administered through TOP and Treasury's Cross..., may be excluded from TOP or Cross-Servicing. Guaranteed debtors will only be referred to TOP upon... subject to TOP or Cross-Servicing by the Director of Kansas City Finance Office. The borrower will...

  11. Effect of DC Offset on the T-Wave Residuum Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, N.; Greco, E. C.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The T-wave residuum (TWR) is a relatively new 12-lead ECG parameter that may reflect cardiac repolarization heterogeneity. TWR shows clinical promise and may become an important diagnostic tool if accurate, consistent, and convenient methods for its calculation can be developed. However, there are discrepancies between the methods that various investigators have used to calculate TWR, as well as some questions about basic methodology and assumptions that require resolution. The presence of a DC offset or very low frequency AC component to the ECG is often observed. Many researchers have attempted to compensate for these by high pass filters and by median beat techniques. These techniques may help minimize the contribution of a low frequency AC component to the TWR, but they will not eliminate a DC offset inherent within the instrumentation. The present study examined the presence of DC offsets in the ECG record, and their effect on TWR. Specifically, in healthy individuals, a DC offset was added to all 8 channels collectively or to each channel selectively. Even with offsets that were relatively small compared to T-wave amplitude, the addition of either collectively or individually applied offsets was observed to produce very significant changes in the TWR, affecting its value by as much as an order of magnitude. These DC offsets may arise from at least two possible sources: a transient artifact from EMG or electrode movement resulting in a transient baseline offset in one or more channels. Since highpass filters have a settling time of several seconds, these artifacts will contribute to a transitory baseline offset lasting 1020 cycles. The machine hardware may also introduce an offset. Regardless of the cause or source of a DC offset, this study demonstrates that offsets have a very significant impact on TWR, and that future studies must not ignore their presence, but rather more appropriately compensate for them.

  12. Transverse offset loss between two identical noncircular single-mode waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, A. H.; Tsang, H. K.

    1995-08-01

    We derive an approximation for the transverse offset loss based on the Laplacian mode-field half-width (MFHW) and far-field second moment for two arbitrary identical noncircular single-mode waveguides. The relation is reduced to the known result for circular-symmetric, single-mode waveguides. Numerical results for symmetrical rectangular waveguides show that the transverse offset loss calculated from the Laplacian MFHW is more accurate than that from the elliptical Gaussian MFHW for small transverse offsets. To our knowledge, this is the first calculation of the errors in the approximate transverse offset loss relations derived from the Laplacian and the elliptical Gaussian MFHW for noncircular optical waveguides.

  13. Wavelength tunable coherent burst-mode receiver design under transient frequency offset.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Qiu, Kun

    2013-08-26

    Wavelength tunable optical coherent burst-mode receivers (BMR) can offer flexibility and sub-wavelength granularity for dynamic WDM networks. A new BMR design with dispersion equalizer plus frequency offset estimator is proposed for simultaneous dispersion compensation and frequency offset estimation. Its good performance is verified by simulations. A training sequence as short as 4 K symbols, corresponding to an initialization time of 160 ns, is found to be enough to support 200 km transmission distance plus over ± 5 GHz frequency offset. The new BMR design can also work under the case when transient frequency offset from wavelength tuning exists in the system.

  14. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants C Appendix C to Part 79 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to...

  15. 5 CFR 839.401 - What can I elect if I was put in CSRS or CSRS Offset by mistake?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What can I elect if I was put in CSRS or CSRS Offset by mistake? 839.401 Section 839.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) CORRECTION OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE ERRORS UNDER THE FEDERAL ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT...

  16. The effects of roughness and offset on fracture compliance ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Taleghani, A. Dahi; Sayers, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    Fractures are a source of extra compliance in the rock mass. The mechanical properties of the rock matrix as well as the propagation of seismic waves inside the rock medium are dependent on the magnitude of roughness and offset between the imperfect fracture interfaces. Fracture compliance can estimate the degree of contact between fracture faces, type of fluid filling the fracture and the fracture roughness. To characterize these fracture properties, compliance ratio, known by the ratio of normal-to-shear compliance, can be a potential tool in the subsurface studies to improve the well layout design. The focus of this study is to illustrate how the compliance ratio of a rough fracture, with or without the offset between the fracture faces, can diverge from the compliance ratio of a fracture with smooth interface. Quasi-static and dynamic methods are two common ways to calculate the compliance. The former calculates the compliance by measuring the change in the displacement with the applied stress, while the latter estimates the compliance through monitoring the changes in propagation of seismic waves. To compare the compliance ratios of fractures with imperfect and smooth interfaces in an infinite medium, a numerical finite-element model is built in commercial finite-element software. The imperfect interface of the fracture is modeled with saw-tooth-like structures where they can be partially or fully in contact. The defined saw-tooth-like structures of contact asperities impose an in-plane asymmetry in the shear direction. This asymmetry causes two different values for the compliance in shear direction, known as the soft and stiff shear compliance. Our numerical simulations suggest the increase in the degree of contact between the fracture faces increases the compliance ratio in the stiff direction more than the soft direction. The compliance ratio of the fracture with the imperfect interface is larger than the compliance ratio of the smooth fracture. We suggest

  17. A method for calculating minimum biodiversity offset multipliers accounting for time discounting, additionality and permanence

    PubMed Central

    Laitila, Jussi; Moilanen, Atte; Pouzols, Federico M

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity offsetting, which means compensation for ecological and environmental damage caused by development activity, has recently been gaining strong political support around the world. One common criticism levelled at offsets is that they exchange certain and almost immediate losses for uncertain future gains. In the case of restoration offsets, gains may be realized after a time delay of decades, and with considerable uncertainty. Here we focus on offset multipliers, which are ratios between damaged and compensated amounts (areas) of biodiversity. Multipliers have the attraction of being an easily understandable way of deciding the amount of offsetting needed. On the other hand, exact values of multipliers are very difficult to compute in practice if at all possible. We introduce a mathematical method for deriving minimum levels for offset multipliers under the assumption that offsetting gains must compensate for the losses (no net loss offsetting). We calculate absolute minimum multipliers that arise from time discounting and delayed emergence of offsetting gains for a one-dimensional measure of biodiversity. Despite the highly simplified model, we show that even the absolute minimum multipliers may easily be quite large, in the order of dozens, and theoretically arbitrarily large, contradicting the relatively low multipliers found in literature and in practice. While our results inform policy makers about realistic minimal offsetting requirements, they also challenge many current policies and show the importance of rigorous models for computing (minimum) offset multipliers. The strength of the presented method is that it requires minimal underlying information. We include a supplementary spreadsheet tool for calculating multipliers to facilitate application. PMID:25821578

  18. The rise flank trails left by migrating offsets of the equatorial East Pacific Rise axis

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, P. )

    1989-01-10

    Sea Beam and magnetic surveys of the young (<1 Ma) rise flank around nontransform rise crest offsets at 5.5{degree}N, 4.9{degree}N, 3.4{degree}, 2.0{degree}N, and 2.8{degree}S mapped distinctive trails of obliquely lineated, highly magnetic crust that spreads from the characteristically curving overlapping rift zones. A Deep Tow survey around the small (1.5 km) 3.9{degree}N offset and the large (27 km) 2.0{degree}N offset provided more detailed infromation on the formation of crust in the offset trails, and of the structure of tectoniclly modified crust at interrift rise crest sites. Patches of interrift crust, which forms deep overlap basins at medium size offsets and basins and plateaus of rotated abyssal hills at large offsets, are periodically shed from the axial zone, together with abandoned portions of overlapped rift zone, to become important elements of the rise flank trails. The oblique aximuths of the paired 'fracture zone' trails that diverge from the rise crest offsets show that most have migrated along the rise crest at average speeds of 25-125 mm/yr. Net movement of the 27-km 2.8{degree}S offset has been slower, with alternating periods of rapid northward and southward migration. Information on the migration history of the surveyed offsets was supplemented by inferring the migration direction of another eight offsets on the equatorial East Pacific Rise (EPR) whose trails were less throughly mapped. Most offsets of the southern Pacific-Cocos boundary have migrated south, and most on the northern Pacific-Nazca boundary have migrated south, and most on the northern Pacific-Nazca boundary have migrated north; the patterns are not readily explained by the inferred distribution of mantle upwellings along the EPR axis.

  19. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Grandey, B. S.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate. PMID:26293204

  20. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandey, B. S.; Wang, C.

    2015-08-01

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate.

  1. Bird Community Conservation and Carbon Offsets in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Richard; Martin, Tara G.; Arcese, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Conservation initiatives to protect and restore valued species and communities in human-dominated landscapes face huge challenges linked to the cost of acquiring habitat. We ask how the sale of forest carbon offsets could reduce land acquisition costs, and how the alternate goals of maximizing α or β-diversity in focal communities could affect the prioritization land parcels over a range of conservation targets. Maximizing total carbon storage and carbon sequestration potential reduced land acquisition costs by up to 48%. Maximizing β rather than α-diversity within forest and savannah bird communities reduced acquisition costs by up to 15%, and when these solutions included potential carbon credit revenues, acquisition cost reductions up to 32% were achieved. However, the total cost of conservation networks increased exponentially as area targets increased in all scenarios. Our results indicate that carbon credit sales have the potential to enhance conservation outcomes in human-dominated landscapes by reducing the net acquisition costs of land conservation in old and maturing forests essential for the persistence of old forest plant and animal communities. Maximizing β versus α-diversity may further reduce costs by reducing the total area required to meet conservation targets and enhancing landscape heterogeneity. Although the potential value of carbon credit sales declined as a fraction of total acquisition costs, even conservative scenarios using a carbon credit value of $12.5/T suggest reductions in acquisition cost of up to $235 M, indicating that carbon credit sales could substantially reduce the costs of conservation. PMID:24918621

  2. Offset dual reflector antennas for very low sidelobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, C. J.; Payne, W.; Shillue, W.

    1986-05-01

    Design procedures for controlling sidelobe levels with low losses in antenna aperture efficiencies are emphasized. A new subreflector edge shaping technique is described for reducing the far-out and back-direction sidelobes on dual reflector antennas. Corrugated horn feeds with wide semi-flare angles are used to improve the bandwidth of the offset Gregorian subreflector antenna. A study of 'ideal' dish aperture distributions is presented. It relates computed horn radiation illumination of the subreflector and paraboloid aperture with several of the best analytical models for achieving low near-in sidelobe levels. Dolph-Chebychev distributions on linear arrays are shown to be useful guides for attaining very low sidelobes. Subreflector shape synthesis computer programs are described for converting the horn illuminations that are near ideal to the best analytical aperture distributions. Shaping of only the subreflector edges can be used without main dish shaping in most cases to control the levels of far-out sidelobes, correct for horn phase errors, and approximate the ideal aperture distributions.

  3. Fluorescence suppression using micro-scale spatially offset Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Conti, Claudia; Botteon, Alessandra; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-09-21

    We present a new concept of fluorescence suppression in Raman microscopy based on micro-spatially offset Raman spectroscopy which is applicable to thin stratified turbid (diffusely scattering) matrices permitting the retrieval of the Raman signals of sublayers below intensely fluorescing turbid over-layers. The method is demonstrated to yield good quality Raman spectra with dramatically suppressed fluorescence backgrounds enabling the retrieval of Raman sublayer signals even in situations where conventional Raman microscopy spectra are fully overwhelmed by intense fluorescence. The concept performance was studied theoretically using Monte Carlo simulations indicating the potential of up to an order or two of magnitude suppression of overlayer fluorescence backgrounds relative to the Raman sublayer signals. The technique applicability was conceptually demonstrated on layered samples involving paints, polymers and stones yielding fluorescence suppression factors between 12 to above 430. The technique has potential applications in a number of analytical areas including cultural heritage, archaeology, polymers, food, pharmaceutical, biological, biomedical, forensics and catalytic sciences and quality control in manufacture.

  4. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall.

    PubMed

    Grandey, B S; Wang, C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate. PMID:26293204

  5. Adaptive Offset Correction for Intracortical Brain Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Mark L.; Perge, János A.; Black, Michael J.; Harrison, Matthew T.; Cash, Sydney S.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2014-01-01

    Intracortical brain computer interfaces (iBCIs) decode intended movement from neural activity for the control of external devices such as a robotic arm. Standard approaches include a calibration phase to estimate decoding parameters. During iBCI operation, the statistical properties of the neural activity can depart from those observed during calibration, sometimes hindering a user’s ability to control the iBCI. To address this problem, we adaptively correct the offset terms within a Kalman filter decoder via penalized maximum likelihood estimation. The approach can handle rapid shifts in neural signal behavior (on the order of seconds) and requires no knowledge of the intended movement. The algorithm, called MOCA, was tested using simulated neural activity and evaluated retrospectively using data collected from two people with tetraplegia operating an iBCI. In 19 clinical research test cases, where a nonadaptive Kalman filter yielded relatively high decoding errors, MOCA significantly reduced these errors (10.6 ±10.1%; p<0.05, pairwise t-test). MOCA did not significantly change the error in the remaining 23 cases where a nonadaptive Kalman filter already performed well. These results suggest that MOCA provides more robust decoding than the standard Kalman filter for iBCIs. PMID:24196868

  6. Fluorescence suppression using micro-scale spatially offset Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Conti, Claudia; Botteon, Alessandra; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-09-21

    We present a new concept of fluorescence suppression in Raman microscopy based on micro-spatially offset Raman spectroscopy which is applicable to thin stratified turbid (diffusely scattering) matrices permitting the retrieval of the Raman signals of sublayers below intensely fluorescing turbid over-layers. The method is demonstrated to yield good quality Raman spectra with dramatically suppressed fluorescence backgrounds enabling the retrieval of Raman sublayer signals even in situations where conventional Raman microscopy spectra are fully overwhelmed by intense fluorescence. The concept performance was studied theoretically using Monte Carlo simulations indicating the potential of up to an order or two of magnitude suppression of overlayer fluorescence backgrounds relative to the Raman sublayer signals. The technique applicability was conceptually demonstrated on layered samples involving paints, polymers and stones yielding fluorescence suppression factors between 12 to above 430. The technique has potential applications in a number of analytical areas including cultural heritage, archaeology, polymers, food, pharmaceutical, biological, biomedical, forensics and catalytic sciences and quality control in manufacture. PMID:27338230

  7. Carrier-envelope-offset frequency detection of an ultrafast VECSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, M.; Zaugg, C. A.; Klenner, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Link, S. M.; Emaury, F.; Golling, M.; Gini, E.; Saraceno, C. J.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrafast VECSELs with high peak power are of great interest for gigahertz frequency combs, as they provide a high power per comb-line and large comb-tooth spacing. However, the detection and stabilization of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency (fCEO) using an f-to-2f detection scheme, crucial for most frequency comb applications, requires short pulse durations around 100 fs combined with kilowatt peak power to generate a coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum. We present the detection of the fCEO beat notes from an ultrafast semiconductor laser. The laser is a SESAM-modelocked VECSEL which generates 231-fs pulses in 100-mW average output power at a repetition rate of 1.75 GHz and a wavelength of 1040 nm. As the performance of the oscillator is not sufficient for direct fCEO detection the pulses were amplified in an Yb-doped fiber amplifier and subsequently broadened by self-phase modulation in a large mode area fiber. The amplified pulses were compressed to a pulse duration of 85 fs at 2.2 W of average output power and launched into a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum covering 680 nm to 1360 nm was generated, which supported for the first time fCEO detection from a femtosecond VECSEL in a standard f-to-2f interferometer.

  8. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall.

    PubMed

    Grandey, B S; Wang, C

    2015-08-21

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate.

  9. Incident User Cohorts for Assessing Medication Cost-Offsets

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Bruce; Loh, F Ellen; Roberto, Pamela; Miller, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and test incident drug user designs for assessing cost savings from statin use in diabetics. Data Source Random 5 percent sample of Medicare beneficiaries, 2006–2008. Study Design Seven-step incident user design to assess impact of statin initiation on subsequent Medicare spending: (1) unadjusted pre/post initiation test; (2) unadjusted difference-in-difference (DID) with comparison series; (3) adjusted DID; (4) propensity score (PS)-matched DID with static and dynamic baseline covariates; (5) PS-matched DID by drug adherence strata; (6) PS-matched DID for high adherers controlling for healthy adherer bias; and (7) replication for ACE-inhibitor/ARB initiators. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Subjects with prevalent diabetes and no statin use (January–June 2006) and statin initiation (July 2006–January 2008) compared to nonusers with a random “potential-initiation” month. Monthly Medicare spending tracked 24 months pre- and post-initiation. Principal Findings Statistically significant savings in Medicare spending were observed beginning 7 months post-initiation for statins and 13 months post-initiation for ACEIs/ARBs. However, these savings were only observed for adherent patients in steps 5 and 6. Conclusions Drug initiator designs are more robust to confounding than prevalent user designs in assessing cost-offsets from drug use but still require other adjustments and sensitivity analysis to ensure proper inference. PMID:24628528

  10. 27 CFR 25.159 - Time of tax determination and payment; offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.159 Time of tax determination and payment; offsets. (a) Time and payment. The tax on beer will be... part. (b) Offsets. During any business day, the quantity of beer returned to the same brewery...

  11. 31 CFR 285.8 - Offset of tax refund payments to collect state income tax obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... collect state income tax obligations. 285.8 Section 285.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Offset § 285.8 Offset of tax refund payments to collect state income tax obligations. (a) Definitions... income tax obligation unless otherwise indicated. Debtor as used in this section means a person who...

  12. No Offset Press? No Problem--Teach Duotone Production with Screen Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Cara L.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers can integrate halftone or duotone production into a graphic communications class even if they lack access to an offset press. The approach described in this article, in fact, offers a benefit in that the dots involved in screen printing halftones and dutones can be enlarged to make them easily visible, while those used in offset printing…

  13. 27 CFR 25.159 - Time of tax determination and payment; offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.159 Time of tax determination and payment; offsets. (a) Time and payment. The tax on beer will be... part. (b) Offsets. During any business day, the quantity of beer returned to the same brewery...

  14. 27 CFR 25.159 - Time of tax determination and payment; offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.159 Time of tax determination and payment; offsets. (a) Time and payment. The tax on beer will be... part. (b) Offsets. During any business day, the quantity of beer returned to the same brewery...

  15. 27 CFR 25.159 - Time of tax determination and payment; offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.159 Time of tax determination and payment; offsets. (a) Time and payment. The tax on beer will be... part. (b) Offsets. During any business day, the quantity of beer returned to the same brewery...

  16. 10 CFR 490.808 - Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall. 490.808 Section 490.808 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.808 Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction...

  17. 10 CFR 490.808 - Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall. 490.808 Section 490.808 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.808 Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction...

  18. 10 CFR 490.808 - Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall. 490.808 Section 490.808 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.808 Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction...

  19. 10 CFR 490.808 - Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall. 490.808 Section 490.808 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.808 Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction...

  20. 10 CFR 490.808 - Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction shortfall. 490.808 Section 490.808 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.808 Use of credits to offset petroleum reduction...