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Sample records for administrative protective order

  1. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... and 5 p.m. on business days. Among other things, the Central Records Unit is responsible for... the APO/Dockets Unit are between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. on business days. Among other things, the APO... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Records Unit and Administrative...

  2. Administrator Protections in Negotiated Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisapia, John Ralph; Sells, Jack D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents specific examples of provisions currently found in administrator-board collective bargaining agreements that protect administrators from the adverse effects of both bilateral decisions made by boards with teachers, and unilateral decisions made by boards concerning principals. (Author)

  3. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners.

  4. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  5. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions, such as a particular time and place; (2) Confine discovery to a method other than that selected... PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Discovery § 20.606 Protective orders. (a) In considering a motion for an order of discovery—or a motion, by a...

  6. 38 CFR 42.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective order. 42.24 Section 42.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS... any criminal investigation, proceeding, or other administrative investigation only be disclosed in...

  7. 29 CFR 18.46 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In camera and protective orders. 18.46 Section 18.46 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.46 In camera and protective orders. (a) Privileges....

  8. 28 CFR 68.42 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In camera and protective orders. 68.42 Section 68.42 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE... In camera and protective orders. (a) Privileged communications. Upon application of any person,...

  9. 29 CFR 18.46 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true In camera and protective orders. 18.46 Section 18.46 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.46 In camera and protective orders. (a) Privileges....

  10. 28 CFR 68.42 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In camera and protective orders. 68.42 Section 68.42 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE... In camera and protective orders. (a) Privileged communications. Upon application of any person,...

  11. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. In an investigation...

  12. 19 CFR 207.7 - Limited disclosure of certain business proprietary information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information under administrative protective order. 207.7 Section 207.7 Customs Duties UNITED STATES... administrative protective order. (a)(1) Disclosure. Upon receipt of a timely application filed by an authorized... authorized applicant under an administrative protective order described in paragraph (b) of this section....

  13. 19 CFR 207.7 - Limited disclosure of certain business proprietary information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... information under administrative protective order. 207.7 Section 207.7 Customs Duties UNITED STATES... administrative protective order. (a)(1) Disclosure. Upon receipt of a timely application filed by an authorized... authorized applicant under an administrative protective order described in paragraph (b) of this section....

  14. 19 CFR 207.7 - Limited disclosure of certain business proprietary information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information under administrative protective order. 207.7 Section 207.7 Customs Duties UNITED STATES... administrative protective order. (a)(1) Disclosure. Upon receipt of a timely application filed by an authorized... authorized applicant under an administrative protective order described in paragraph (b) of this section....

  15. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24... with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to limit...

  16. 28 CFR 76.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method of discovery other... motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to... protect privileged information including one or more of the following orders: (1) That the discovery...

  17. 10 CFR 13.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective order. 13.24 Section 13.24 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective... information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the ALJ....

  18. 38 CFR 42.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective order. 42.24 Section 42.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a...

  19. 40 CFR 29.4 - What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order? 29.4 Section 29.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.4...

  20. 40 CFR 29.4 - What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order? 29.4 Section 29.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.4...

  1. 40 CFR 29.4 - What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order? 29.4 Section 29.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.4...

  2. 40 CFR 29.4 - What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order? 29.4 Section 29.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.4...

  3. 40 CFR 29.4 - What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the Administrator's general responsibilities under the Order? 29.4 Section 29.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.4...

  4. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to limit... or expense, or to protect trade secrets or confidential commercial information, as defined in § 20.61... discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including...

  5. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to limit... or expense, or to protect trade secrets or confidential commercial information, as defined in § 20.61... discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including...

  6. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to limit... or expense, or to protect trade secrets or confidential commercial information, as defined in § 20.61... discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including...

  7. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to limit... or expense, or to protect trade secrets or confidential commercial information, as defined in § 20.61... discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including...

  8. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to limit... or expense, or to protect trade secrets or confidential commercial information, as defined in § 20.61... discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including...

  9. 10 CFR 1013.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective order. 1013.24 Section 1013.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.24 Protective... simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed...

  10. 10 CFR 1013.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective order. 1013.24 Section 1013.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.24 Protective... simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed...

  11. 10 CFR 1013.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective order. 1013.24 Section 1013.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.24 Protective... simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed...

  12. 10 CFR 1013.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective order. 1013.24 Section 1013.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.24 Protective... simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed...

  13. 41 CFR 105-70.024 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective order. 105-70.024 Section 105-70.024 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  14. 41 CFR 105-70.024 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective order. 105-70.024 Section 105-70.024 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  15. 24 CFR 180.535 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.535 Protective orders. (a) Upon motion of a party or a person from whom discovery is sought or in accordance with... discovery request. The order may direct that: (1) The discovery may not be had; (2) The discovery may be...

  16. 24 CFR 180.535 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.535 Protective orders. (a) Upon motion of a party or a person from whom discovery is sought or in accordance with... discovery request. The order may direct that: (1) The discovery may not be had; (2) The discovery may be...

  17. 24 CFR 180.535 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.535 Protective orders. (a) Upon motion of a party or a person from whom discovery is sought or in accordance with... discovery request. The order may direct that: (1) The discovery may not be had; (2) The discovery may be...

  18. 24 CFR 180.535 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... order, to make all or part of the showing of good cause in camera. If such a showing is made, upon motion of the party or other person from whom discovery is sought, an in camera record of the proceedings may be made. If the ALJ enters a protective order, any in camera record of such showing shall...

  19. 24 CFR 180.535 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... order, to make all or part of the showing of good cause in camera. If such a showing is made, upon motion of the party or other person from whom discovery is sought, an in camera record of the proceedings may be made. If the ALJ enters a protective order, any in camera record of such showing shall...

  20. 29 CFR 18.15 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the administrative law judge may make any order which justice..., including one or more of the following: (1) The discovery not be had; (2) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) The discovery may be...

  1. 29 CFR 18.15 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the administrative law judge may make any order which justice..., including one or more of the following: (1) The discovery not be had; (2) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) The discovery may be...

  2. 29 CFR 18.15 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the administrative law judge may make any order which justice..., including one or more of the following: (1) The discovery not be had; (2) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) The discovery may be...

  3. 29 CFR 18.15 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the administrative law judge may make any order which justice..., including one or more of the following: (1) The discovery not be had; (2) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) The discovery may be...

  4. 29 CFR 18.15 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the administrative law judge may make any order which justice..., including one or more of the following: (1) The discovery not be had; (2) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) The discovery may be...

  5. 29 CFR 22.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  6. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with...) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method...

  7. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with...) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method...

  8. 38 CFR 42.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That discovery may be...

  9. 37 CFR 42.54 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... may, for good cause, issue an order to protect a party or person from disclosing confidential... discovery; (2) Specifying terms, including time and place, for the disclosure or discovery; (3) Prescribing a discovery method other than the one selected by the party seeking discovery; (4)...

  10. 22 CFR 224.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or, with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  11. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  12. 38 CFR 42.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That discovery may be...

  13. 28 CFR 71.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  14. 38 CFR 42.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That discovery may be...

  15. 14 CFR 1264.123 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with... the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be...

  16. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with...) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method...

  17. 10 CFR 13.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  18. 20 CFR 355.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  19. 31 CFR 16.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or... following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through...

  20. 20 CFR 355.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  1. 5 CFR 185.125 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  2. 31 CFR 16.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or... following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through...

  3. 20 CFR 355.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  4. 29 CFR 22.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  5. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... discovery or evidence be sealed or otherwise kept confidential; (7) That a deposition after being sealed be... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery will not be conducted; (2) That the discovery will...

  6. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  7. 14 CFR 1264.123 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with... the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be...

  8. 14 CFR 1264.123 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with... the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be...

  9. 37 CFR 42.54 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... may, for good cause, issue an order to protect a party or person from disclosing confidential... discovery; (2) Specifying terms, including time and place, for the disclosure or discovery; (3) Prescribing a discovery method other than the one selected by the party seeking discovery; (4)...

  10. 20 CFR 355.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  11. 10 CFR 13.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  12. 28 CFR 71.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  13. 28 CFR 71.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  14. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  15. 5 CFR 185.125 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  16. 22 CFR 224.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or, with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  17. 5 CFR 185.125 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  18. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with...) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method...

  19. 10 CFR 13.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  20. 5 CFR 185.125 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  1. 31 CFR 16.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or... following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through...

  2. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  3. 29 CFR 22.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  4. 28 CFR 71.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  5. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with...) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method...

  6. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discovery or evidence be sealed or otherwise kept confidential; (7) That a deposition after being sealed be... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery will not be conducted; (2) That the discovery will...

  7. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discovery or evidence be sealed or otherwise kept confidential; (7) That a deposition after being sealed be... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery will not be conducted; (2) That the discovery will...

  8. 29 CFR 22.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  9. 22 CFR 224.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or, with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  10. 22 CFR 224.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or, with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  11. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... discovery or evidence be sealed or otherwise kept confidential; (7) That a deposition after being sealed be... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery will not be conducted; (2) That the discovery will...

  12. 31 CFR 16.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or... following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through...

  13. 20 CFR 355.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  14. 29 CFR 22.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may...

  15. 5 CFR 185.125 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  16. 31 CFR 16.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... method of discovery other than that requested; (4) That certain matters not be inquired into, or that the... deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or... following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms...

  17. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discovery will be conducted only through a method of discovery other than that requested; (4) That certain... prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery will not be conducted; (2) That the discovery will...

  18. 14 CFR 1264.123 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only through a method of discovery other than that requested; (4) That certain matters not be inquired... a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with... the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on...

  19. 28 CFR 71.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method of discovery other than... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not...

  20. 10 CFR 13.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... had only through a method of discovery other than that requested; (4) That certain matters not be... witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only...

  1. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method of discovery other than... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not...

  2. 22 CFR 224.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the time or place; (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method of discovery other than... protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or, with respect to the hearing..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not...

  3. 7 CFR 1000.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1000.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Administrative Assessment and Marketing Service Deduction § 1000.85...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment for order administration. 1032.85 Section 1032.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AREA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Assessment and Marketing Service Deduction §...

  5. 7 CFR 1032.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Assessment for order administration. 1032.85 Section 1032.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AREA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Assessment and Marketing Service Deduction §...

  6. 7 CFR 1032.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment for order administration. 1032.85 Section 1032.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AREA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Assessment and Marketing Service Deduction §...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment for order administration. 1032.85 Section 1032.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AREA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Assessment and Marketing Service Deduction §...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Assessment for order administration. 1032.85 Section 1032.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... AREA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Assessment and Marketing Service Deduction §...

  9. 29 CFR 500.262 - Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge. 500.262 Section 500.262 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Administrative Proceedings...

  10. 7 CFR 1000.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition in the marketing area from a partially regulated distributing plant that exceeds the skim milk and... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Administrative Assessment and Marketing Service Deduction § 1000.85...

  11. 7 CFR 1000.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposition in the marketing area from a partially regulated distributing plant that exceeds the skim milk and... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Administrative Assessment and Marketing Service Deduction § 1000.85...

  12. 49 CFR 386.39 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the Assistant Administrator or the administrative law judge... following: (a) The discovery not be had; (b) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (c) The discovery may be had only by a method of...

  13. 49 CFR 386.39 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the Assistant Administrator or the administrative law judge... following: (a) The discovery not be had; (b) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (c) The discovery may be had only by a method of...

  14. 49 CFR 386.39 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the Assistant Administrator or the administrative law judge... following: (a) The discovery not be had; (b) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (c) The discovery may be had only by a method of...

  15. 49 CFR 386.39 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the Assistant Administrator or the administrative law judge... following: (a) The discovery not be had; (b) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (c) The discovery may be had only by a method of...

  16. 49 CFR 386.39 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... following: (a) The discovery not be had; (b) The discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (c) The discovery may be had only by a method of discovery... discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the Assistant Administrator or the administrative law...

  17. Administrator Tenure Statutes and Other Legislative Protection of Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan

    1983-01-01

    A pamphlet reviewing the employment rights of school administrators in each state, this report distinguishes between substantive and procedural rights for administrators threatened with demotion or dismissal. The author argues that principals should be aware of the kind and degree of statutory employment protection in their states, which differ in…

  18. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect...

  19. Protection of Human Subjects: A Primer for the New Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinert, Bruce W.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses clinical trials in general, protecting human research subjects, and the role the research administrator can play in facilitating the process. The discussion is not intended to be a thorough treatise on clinical trials, but is an overview of new and lesser known human protection issues that are better handled prospectively. (EV)

  20. 14 CFR 17.9 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a competitive advantage to one or more firms. (b) The terms of the Office of Dispute Resolution for... application shall establish that the applicant is not involved in competitive decisionmaking for any firm that could gain a competitive advantage from access to the protected information and that the applicant...

  1. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... material, as well as other information the release of which could result in a competitive advantage to one... the applicant is not involved in competitive decision-making for any firm that could gain a competitive advantage from access to the protected information and that there will be no significant risk...

  2. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material, as well as other information the release of which could result in a competitive advantage to one... the applicant is not involved in competitive decision-making for any firm that could gain a competitive advantage from access to the protected information and that there will be no significant risk...

  3. 14 CFR 17.9 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a competitive advantage to one or more firms. (b) The terms of the Office of Dispute Resolution for... application shall establish that the applicant is not involved in competitive decisionmaking for any firm that could gain a competitive advantage from access to the protected information and that the applicant...

  4. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... material, as well as other information the release of which could result in a competitive advantage to one... the applicant is not involved in competitive decision-making for any firm that could gain a competitive advantage from access to the protected information and that there will be no significant risk...

  5. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... material, as well as other information the release of which could result in a competitive advantage to one... the applicant is not involved in competitive decision-making for any firm that could gain a competitive advantage from access to the protected information and that there will be no significant risk...

  6. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... material, as well as other information the release of which could result in a competitive advantage to one... the applicant is not involved in competitive decision-making for any firm that could gain a competitive advantage from access to the protected information and that there will be no significant risk...

  7. 41 CFR 105-70.024 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden..., commercial information, or facts pertaining to any criminal investigation, proceeding, or...

  8. 41 CFR 105-70.024 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden..., commercial information, or facts pertaining to any criminal investigation, proceeding, or...

  9. 25 CFR 11.1208 - Service of the protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Service of the protection order. 11.1208 Section 11.1208 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1208 Service of...

  10. 25 CFR 11.1208 - Service of the protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of the protection order. 11.1208 Section 11.1208 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1208 Service of...

  11. 25 CFR 11.1208 - Service of the protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Service of the protection order. 11.1208 Section 11.1208 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1208 Service of...

  12. 25 CFR 11.1208 - Service of the protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Service of the protection order. 11.1208 Section 11.1208 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1208 Service of...

  13. 25 CFR 11.1208 - Service of the protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Service of the protection order. 11.1208 Section 11.1208 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1208 Service of...

  14. Protective/Restrictive Orders and Judicial Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickerell, Albert G.

    The issue of whether judicial orders restricting access to court proceedings should be subject to a procedural hearing, the standing of the media in such hearings, and the role of the media in the entire process are analyzed in this paper. The various sections of the paper deal with the following topics: the procedural plan, proposed to the…

  15. 4 CFR 28.42 - Discovery procedures and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery procedures and protective orders. 28.42 Section 28.42 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE... ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Procedures Discovery § 28.42 Discovery procedures and protective orders. (a) Discovery...

  16. 31 CFR 501.733 - Evidence: confidential information, protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... introduced as evidence; or any witness who testifies at a hearing may file a motion requesting a protective... introduced in a public hearing are presumed to be public. A motion for a protective order shall be granted... documents shall be maintained under seal and shall be disclosed only in accordance with orders of...

  17. 24 CFR 180.640 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false In camera and protective orders. 180.640 Section 180.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... at Hearing § 180.640 In camera and protective orders. The ALJ may limit discovery or the...

  18. 24 CFR 180.640 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In camera and protective orders. 180.640 Section 180.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... at Hearing § 180.640 In camera and protective orders. The ALJ may limit discovery or the...

  19. Protection Orders Protect against Assault and Injury: A Longitudinal Study of Police-Involved Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Catherine L.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Wiley, James A.; Fink, Jeffrey; Overholt, Scott; Dichter, Melissa E.; Marcus, Steven C.; Cerulli, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of protection orders (POs) in reducing assault and injury-related outcomes using a matched comparison group and tracking outcomes over time. This study was a retrospective review of police, emergency department, family court, and prosecutor administrative records for a cohort of…

  20. 76 FR 81929 - San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request...

  1. 10 CFR 205.198A - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... confidential may file a Motion for Discovery and Protective Order. This motion shall meet the requirements of § 205.198 and shall specify the particular confidential information that the movant seeks and...

  2. 10 CFR 205.198A - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... confidential may file a Motion for Discovery and Protective Order. This motion shall meet the requirements of § 205.198 and shall specify the particular confidential information that the movant seeks and...

  3. 17 CFR 201.322 - Evidence: Confidential information, protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice Rules Regarding Hearings § 201.322 Evidence... introduced as evidence, or any witness who testifies at a hearing may file a motion requesting a protective... hearing are presumed to be public. A motion for a protective order shall be granted only upon a...

  4. 29 CFR 18.46 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determines that this procedure is inadequate and that classified or otherwise sensitive matter must form part... protecting privileged communications. (b) Classified or sensitive matter. (1) Without limiting the discretion... disclosure of classified or sensitive matter. Where the administrative law judge determines that...

  5. 29 CFR 18.46 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determines that this procedure is inadequate and that classified or otherwise sensitive matter must form part... protecting privileged communications. (b) Classified or sensitive matter. (1) Without limiting the discretion... disclosure of classified or sensitive matter. Where the administrative law judge determines that...

  6. 19 CFR 356.12 - Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking. 356.12 Section 356.12 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE...

  7. 19 CFR 356.12 - Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking. 356.12 Section 356.12 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE...

  8. 19 CFR 356.30 - Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information. 356.30 Section 356.30 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE...

  9. 19 CFR 356.12 - Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions for violation of a protective order or disclosure undertaking. 356.12 Section 356.12 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE...

  10. 19 CFR 356.30 - Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions for violations of a protective order for privileged information. 356.30 Section 356.30 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE...

  11. Outcomes of Civil Protective Orders: Results from One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diviney, Charles L.; Parekh, Asha; Olson, Lenora M.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares final sentencing decisions ordered by judges to federal and state sentencing guidelines for protective order violations. The authors reviewed violations that were pled before the largest district court in Utah and found that in the majority of cases, defendants were not sentenced in accordance with federal and state guidelines.…

  12. Layered virus protection for the operations and administrative messaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortez, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.

  13. 29 CFR 801.67 - Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge. 801.67... Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 801.67 Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge. (a) The Administrative Law Judge shall prepare, as promptly as practicable after the expiration of the time set...

  14. 14 CFR § 1264.123 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had... discovery may be had only through a method of discovery other than that requested; (4) That certain...

  15. 32 CFR 635.29 - Domestic violence and protection orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Domestic violence and protection orders. 635.29... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.29 Domestic violence... permitted by law and regulation. AR 608-18 contains additional information about domestic violence...

  16. 32 CFR 635.29 - Domestic violence and protection orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Domestic violence and protection orders. 635.29... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.29 Domestic violence... permitted by law and regulation. AR 608-18 contains additional information about domestic violence...

  17. 32 CFR 635.29 - Domestic violence and protection orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic violence and protection orders. 635.29... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.29 Domestic violence... permitted by law and regulation. AR 608-18 contains additional information about domestic violence...

  18. 32 CFR 635.29 - Domestic violence and protection orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Domestic violence and protection orders. 635.29... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.29 Domestic violence... permitted by law and regulation. AR 608-18 contains additional information about domestic violence...

  19. 32 CFR 635.29 - Domestic violence and protection orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Domestic violence and protection orders. 635.29... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.29 Domestic violence... permitted by law and regulation. AR 608-18 contains additional information about domestic violence...

  20. 17 CFR 242.611 - Order protection rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Order protection rule. 242.611 Section 242.611 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation...

  1. 17 CFR 242.611 - Order protection rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order protection rule. 242.611 Section 242.611 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation...

  2. Civil Protective Order Outcomes: Violations and Perceptions of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Walker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study examined protective order (PO) outcomes for a period of 12 months for 698 women from multiple jurisdictions. Overall, results indicate that 2 out of 5 women did not experience violence after the PO was issued; however, 3 out of 5 women did experience ongoing violence. Two key risk factors were associated with PO violations and are…

  3. 3 CFR 13637 - Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013. Administration of Reformed Export Controls

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013. Administration of Reformed Export Controls 13637 Order 13637 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013 EO 13637 Administration of Reformed Export Controls By the authority...

  4. 7 CFR 1030.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... distributing plant that exceeds the skim milk and butterfat subtracted pursuant to § 1000.76(a)(1)(i) and (ii). ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST... with respect to: (a) Receipts of producer milk (including the handler's own production) other than...

  5. 7 CFR 1030.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distributing plant that exceeds the skim milk and butterfat subtracted pursuant to § 1000.76(a)(1)(i) and (ii). ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST... with respect to: (a) Receipts of producer milk (including the handler's own production) other than...

  6. Levosimendan Administration in Limb Ischemia: Multicomponent Signaling Serving Kidney Protection

    PubMed Central

    Onody, Peter; Aranyi, Peter; Turoczi, Zsolt; Stangl, Rita; Fulop, Andras; Dudas, Emese; Lotz, Gabor; Szijarto, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives Acute renal failure is a severe complication of lower extremity major arterial reconstructions, which could even be fatal. Levosimendan is a dual-acting positive inotropic and vasodilatory agent, which is suspected to have protective effects against cardiac ischemia. However, there is no data available on lower limb or remote organ ischemic injuries therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on lower limb ischemia-reperfusion injury and the corollary renal dysfunction. Methods Male Wistar rats underwent 180 min bilateral lower limb ischemia followed by 4 or 24 hours of reperfusion. Intravenous Levosimendan was administered continuously (0.2μg/bwkg/min) throughout the whole course of ischemia and the first 3h of reperfusion. Results were compared with sham-operated and ischemia-reperfusion groups. Hemodynamic monitoring was performed by invasive arterial blood pressure measurement. Kidney and lower limb muscle microcirculation was registered by a laser Doppler flowmeter. After 4h and 24h of reperfusion, serum, urine and histological samples were collected. Results Systemic hemodynamic parameters and microcirculation of kidney and the lower limb significantly improved in the Levosimendan treated group. Muscle viability was significantly preserved 4 and 24 hours after reperfusion. At the same time, renal functional laboratory tests and kidney histology demonstrated significantly less expressive kidney injury in Levosimendan groups. TNF-α levels were significantly less elevated in the Levosimendan group 4 hours after reperfusion. Conclusion The results claim a protective role for Levosimendan administration during major vascular surgeries to prevent renal complications. PMID:27684548

  7. Protection Orders Protect Against Assault and Injury: A Longitudinal Study of Police-Involved Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Catherine L.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Wiley, James A.; Fink, Jeffrey; Overholt, Scott; Dichter, Melissa E.; Marcus, Steven C.; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the efficacy of protection orders (POs) in reducing assault and injury-related outcomes using a matched comparison group and tracking outcomes over time. Methods This study was a retrospective review of police, emergency department, family court and prosecutor administrative records for a cohort of police-involved female IPV victims; all events over a four-year study period were abstracted. Victims who obtained protection orders (POs) were compared to a propensity-score-based match group without POs over three time periods: Before, during, and after the issuance of a PO. Results Having a PO in place was associated with significantly more calls to police for non-assaultive incidents, and more police charging requests that were multiple-count and felony-level. Comparing outcomes, PO victims had police incident rates that were more than double the matched group prior to the PO, but dropped to the level of the matched group during and after the order. ED visits dropped over time for both groups. Conclusion This study confirmed the protective effect of POs, which are associated with reduced police incidents and emergency department visits both during and after the order, and reduced police incidents compared to a matched comparison group. PMID:22491224

  8. 29 CFR 1979.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER... administrative law judge concludes that the party charged has violated the law, the order shall direct the party... request of the complainant, the administrative law judge shall assess against the named person all...

  9. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The PCII Program Manager shall... be known as the “Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS), to record... Program administration. (a) Preparedness Directorate Program Management. The Secretary of...

  10. 29 CFR 1980.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge. 1980... administrative law judge. (a) The decision of the ALJ will contain appropriate findings, conclusions, and an... violated the law, the order will provide all relief necessary to make the employee whole,...

  11. Protection orders protect against assault and injury: a longitudinal study of police-involved women victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Catherine L; Rhodes, Karin V; Wiley, James A; Fink, Jeffrey; Overholt, Scott; Dichter, Melissa E; Marcus, Steven C; Cerulli, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of protection orders (POs) in reducing assault and injury-related outcomes using a matched comparison group and tracking outcomes over time. This study was a retrospective review of police, emergency department, family court, and prosecutor administrative records for a cohort of police-involved female IPV victims; all events over a 4-year study period were abstracted. Victims who obtained POs were compared with a propensity-score-based match group without POs over three time periods: Before, During, and After the issuance of a PO. Having a PO in place was associated with significantly more calls to police for nonassaultive incidents and more police charging requests that were of multiple-count and felony-level. Comparing outcomes, PO victims had police incident rates that were more than double the matched group prior to the PO but dropped to the level of the matched group during and after the order. ED visits dropped over time for both groups. This study confirmed the protective effect of POs, which are associated with reduced police incidents and emergency department visits both during and after the order and reduced police incidents compared with a matched comparison group.

  12. 29 CFR 1981.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER... charged has violated the law, the order shall direct the party charged to take appropriate affirmative... administrative law judge shall assess against the named person all costs and expenses (including attorney...

  13. Thirteenth Annual Rank-Order Distribution of Administrative Salaries Paid 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Office of Institutional Research.

    Administrative salaries from a representative group of public doctorate-granting institutions are reported, including data from 128 universities in 49 states and 24 university systems in 20 states. The report is comprised of rank-order distribution tables for l2-month salaries in three categories: (1) by administrative title (president/chancellor,…

  14. 20 CFR 726.313 - Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge. 726.313 Section 726.313 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 29 CFR 24.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative law judge issued under the Energy Reorganization Act, other than that portion of the order... privileges of employment, and compensatory damages. In cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or...

  16. 29 CFR 1980.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... violation has occurred may only be made if the complainant has demonstrated that protected behavior or... taken the same unfavorable personnel action in the absence of any protected behavior. Neither the.... All other portions of the judge's order will be effective 10 business days after the date of...

  17. Protective effect of co-administration of curcumin and sildenafil in alcohol induced neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Amarjeet; Kumar, Bimlesh; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Bhatia, Amit; Gulati, Monica; Prakash, T; Bawa, Palak; Malik, Adil Hussain

    2017-03-16

    Neuropathic pain associated with chronic alcohol consumption is a medico-socioeconomical problem that affects both central and peripheral nervous system and has no satisfactory treatment till date. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of co-administration of curcumin and sildenafil on alcohol induced neuropathic pain in rats. In order to carry out this, ethanol (35% v/v, 10g/kg, p.o.) was administered for 10 weeks to induce neuropathic pain. Curcumin (30 and 60mg/kg, i.p.) and sildenafil (5 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) were given alone and in combination at their lower doses (30mg/kg curcumin and 5mg/kg, sildenafil, i.p.) to investigate the changes in thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, allodynia and histopathological parameters. Biochemical estimations of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione and protein was also carried out to evaluate oxidative stress. The results revealed that chronic alcohol consumption for 10 weeks caused significant thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, allodynia and increased oxidative stress. Individual administration of both the drugs at their low as well as high doses were able to improve the symptoms of alcohol induced neuropathic pain. Whereas co-administration of curcumin and sildenafil at their lower doses itself were found to significantly improve nerve functions, biochemical and histopathological parameters as compared to their individual administration. It is therefore proposed that co-administration of curcumin and sildenafil may bring new dimension towards attenuation of alcohol induced neuropathic pain affecting central as well as peripheral nervous system.

  18. 4 CFR 22.25 - Protective Orders and In Camera Review [Rule 25].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective Orders and In Camera Review . 22.25 Section 22... ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.25 Protective Orders and In Camera Review . (a) Protective... specified in an order of the Board. (b) In camera review. Generally, all documents and evidence provided...

  19. 4 CFR 22.25 - Protective Orders and In Camera Review [Rule 25].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective Orders and In Camera Review . 22.25 Section 22... ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.25 Protective Orders and In Camera Review . (a) Protective... specified in an order of the Board. (b) In camera review. Generally, all documents and evidence provided...

  20. The impact of administration order in studies of computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (NCATs).

    PubMed

    Cole, Wesley R; Arrieux, Jacques P; Dennison, Elizabeth M; Ivins, Brian J

    2017-02-01

    Computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (NCATs) have become a common way to assess postconcussion symptoms. As there is increasing research directly comparing multiple NCATs to each other, it is important to consider the impact that order of test administration may have on the integrity of the results. This study investigates the impact of administration order in a study of four different NCATs; Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM4), CNS Vital Signs (CNS-VS), CogState, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). A total of 272 healthy active duty Service Members were enrolled into this study. All participants were randomly assigned to take two of the four NCATs with order of administration counterbalanced. Analyses attempted to investigate the effect of administration order alone (e.g., Time 1 versus Time 2), the effect of administration order combined with the impact of the specific NCAT received at Time 1, and only the impact of the Time 1 NCAT on Time 2 score variability. Specifically, independent samples t tests were used to compare Time 1 and Time 2 scores within each NCAT. Additional t tests compared Time 1 to Time 2 scores with Time 2 scores grouped by the NCAT received at Time 1. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare only an NCAT's Time 2 scores grouped by the NCAT received at Time 1. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all comparisons. The results from this study revealed statistically significant order effects for CogState and CNS-VS, though with effect sizes generally indicating minimum practical value, and marginal or absent order effects for ANAM4 and ImPACT with no clinically meaningful implications. Despite finding minimal order effects, clinicians should be mindful of the impact of administering multiple NCATs in a single session. Future studies should continue to be designed to minimize the potential effect of test administration order.

  1. 29 CFR 1981.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge. 1981.109 Section 1981.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.109 Decision and orders of...

  2. 29 CFR 1981.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge. 1981.109 Section 1981.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.109 Decision and orders of...

  3. 29 CFR 1981.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge. 1981.109 Section 1981.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.109 Decision and orders of...

  4. 29 CFR 1981.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge. 1981.109 Section 1981.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.109 Decision and orders of...

  5. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  6. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  7. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  8. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  9. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  10. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    No. DODIG-2015-141 J U LY 2 , 2 0 1 5 Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration Mission Our...r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e DODIG-2015-141 (Project No. D2014-D000RA-0116.000) │ i Results in Brief Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs...to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our objective was to determine whether Naval Facilities

  11. 28 CFR 68.42 - In camera and protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that this procedure is inadequate and that classified or otherwise sensitive matter must form part of... party, witness, or third party. (b) Classified or sensitive matter. (1) Without limiting the discretion... undue disclosure of classified or sensitive matter. When the Administrative Law Judge determines...

  12. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... as a PCII Officer in order to carry out the responsibilities stated in paragraph (d) of this...

  13. 29 CFR 1981.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board. 1981.110 Section 1981.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.110 Decision...

  14. 29 CFR 1981.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board. 1981.110 Section 1981.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.110 Decision...

  15. 29 CFR 458.92 - Compliance with decisions and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (in the case of labor organizations covered by the Congressional Accountability Act). ... Review Board. 458.92 Section 458.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT....92 Compliance with decisions and orders of the Administrative Review Board. When remedial action...

  16. 29 CFR 458.92 - Compliance with decisions and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (in the case of labor organizations covered by the Congressional Accountability Act). ... Review Board. 458.92 Section 458.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT....92 Compliance with decisions and orders of the Administrative Review Board. When remedial action...

  17. 29 CFR 1981.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.110 Decision and... for the Secretary and issue final decisions under this part. The decision of the administrative law... final order of the Secretary unless the Board, within 30 days of the filing of the petition, issues...

  18. 29 CFR 1981.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.110 Decision and... for the Secretary and issue final decisions under this part. The decision of the administrative law... final order of the Secretary unless the Board, within 30 days of the filing of the petition, issues...

  19. 29 CFR 1981.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.110 Decision and... for the Secretary and issue final decisions under this part. The decision of the administrative law... final order of the Secretary unless the Board, within 30 days of the filing of the petition, issues...

  20. 28 CFR 68.52 - Final order of the Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judge's consideration, the filing party shall submit to the Administrative Law Judge a copy of the... occurred on or after March 15, 1999. In determining the amount of the penalty, due consideration shall be... substantially justified or special circumstances make the award unjust. (d) Contents of final order with...

  1. Order of Conners' CPT-II Administration within a Cognitive Test Battery Influences ADHD Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdodi, Laszlo A.; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Saules, Karen K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of administration sequence on Conner's continuous performance test (CPT-II) scores in clients requesting psychological assessment. It was hypothesized that when administered at the end rather than beginning of a test battery, the test scores will show higher symptom severity. If present, order effects may cause the…

  2. 78 FR 40140 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent for the Mercury Refining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent for the Mercury Refining... between EPA and Titan Wheel Corporation of Illinois (hereafter ``Titan'') pertaining to the Mercury.... Comments should be sent to the individual identified below and should reference the Mercury...

  3. 76 FR 53898 - Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent; In Re: Ely Copper Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent; In Re: Ely Copper Mine... concerning the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site in Vershire, Vermont with the following settling party: Ely... e-mail at gardner.ann@epa.gov . Additional information on the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site can...

  4. 20 CFR 726.313 - Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge. 726.313 Section 726.313 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  5. 20 CFR 726.313 - Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge. 726.313 Section 726.313 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  6. 20 CFR 726.313 - Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Decision and order of Administrative Law Judge. 726.313 Section 726.313 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  7. 29 CFR 1982.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007, AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT, AS AMENDED BY SECTION 1521 OF THE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007 Litigation § 1982.109 Decision... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge....

  8. 29 CFR 1982.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007, AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT, AS AMENDED BY SECTION 1521 OF THE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007 Litigation § 1982.109 Decision... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge....

  9. 29 CFR 1982.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007, AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT, AS AMENDED BY SECTION 1521 OF THE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007 Litigation... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision and orders of the Administrative Review...

  10. 29 CFR 1982.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007, AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT, AS AMENDED BY SECTION 1521 OF THE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007 Litigation § 1982.109 Decision... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge....

  11. 29 CFR 1982.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007, AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT, AS AMENDED BY SECTION 1521 OF THE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007 Litigation... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision and orders of the Administrative Review...

  12. 29 CFR 1982.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007, AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT, AS AMENDED BY SECTION 1521 OF THE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007 Litigation... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision and orders of the Administrative Review...

  13. 29 CFR 1982.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007, AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT, AS AMENDED BY SECTION 1521 OF THE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007 Litigation § 1982.109 Decision... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge....

  14. 29 CFR 1982.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007, AND THE FEDERAL RAILROAD SAFETY ACT, AS AMENDED BY SECTION 1521 OF THE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 9/11 COMMISSION ACT OF 2007 Litigation... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision and orders of the Administrative Review...

  15. 25 CFR 11.1210 - Duration and renewal of a regular protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration and renewal of a regular protection order. 11.1210 Section 11.1210 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures §...

  16. 25 CFR 11.1210 - Duration and renewal of a regular protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration and renewal of a regular protection order. 11.1210 Section 11.1210 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures §...

  17. 25 CFR 11.1210 - Duration and renewal of a regular protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Duration and renewal of a regular protection order. 11.1210 Section 11.1210 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures §...

  18. 25 CFR 11.1206 - Obtaining a regular (non-emergency) order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11... act of domestic violence occurred, the court may issue an order of protection. The order must meet the... committed the act of domestic violence to refrain from acts or threats of violence against the petitioner...

  19. 25 CFR 11.1206 - Obtaining a regular (non-emergency) order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11... act of domestic violence occurred, the court may issue an order of protection. The order must meet the... committed the act of domestic violence to refrain from acts or threats of violence against the petitioner...

  20. 25 CFR 11.1210 - Duration and renewal of a regular protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration and renewal of a regular protection order. 11.1210 Section 11.1210 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures §...

  1. 25 CFR 11.1206 - Obtaining a regular (non-emergency) order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11... act of domestic violence occurred, the court may issue an order of protection. The order must meet the... committed the act of domestic violence to refrain from acts or threats of violence against the petitioner...

  2. 25 CFR 11.1206 - Obtaining a regular (non-emergency) order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11... act of domestic violence occurred, the court may issue an order of protection. The order must meet the... committed the act of domestic violence to refrain from acts or threats of violence against the petitioner...

  3. 25 CFR 11.1206 - Obtaining a regular (non-emergency) order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11... act of domestic violence occurred, the court may issue an order of protection. The order must meet the... committed the act of domestic violence to refrain from acts or threats of violence against the petitioner...

  4. 25 CFR 11.1210 - Duration and renewal of a regular protection order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration and renewal of a regular protection order. 11.1210 Section 11.1210 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures §...

  5. Protecting the normal in order to better kill the cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingya; Ezeogu, Lewis; Zellmer, Lucas; Yu, Baofa; Xu, Ningzhi; Joshua Liao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the only option for oncologists when a cancer has widely spread to different body sites. However, almost all currently available chemotherapeutic drugs will eventually encounter resistance after their initial positive effect, mainly because cancer cells develop genetic alterations, collectively coined herein as mutations, to adapt to the therapy. Some patients may still respond to a second chemo drug, but few cases respond to a third one. Since it takes time for cancer cells to develop new mutations and then select those life-sustaining ones via clonal expansion, “run against time for mutations to emerge” should be a crucial principle for treatment of those currently incurable cancers. Since cancer cells constantly change to adapt to the therapy whereas normal cells are stable, it may be a better strategy to shift our focus from killing cancer cells per se to protecting normal cells from chemotherapeutic toxicity. This new strategy requires the development of new drugs that are nongenotoxic and can quickly, in just hours or days, kill cancer cells without leaving the still-alive cells with time to develop mutations, and that should have their toxicities confined to only one or few organs, so that specific protections can be developed and applied. PMID:26177855

  6. 28 CFR 68.53 - Review of an interlocutory order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of an interlocutory order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.53 Section 68.53 Judicial Administration... Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. (a) Authority. In a case arising...

  7. 45 CFR 2554.30 - Are protective orders available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  8. 45 CFR 2554.30 - Are protective orders available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  9. 45 CFR 2554.30 - Are protective orders available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  10. 45 CFR 2554.30 - Are protective orders available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  11. 45 CFR 2554.30 - Are protective orders available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to..., oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a...

  12. 28 CFR 68.54 - Administrative review of a final order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.54 Section 68.54 Judicial... an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. (a) Authority of the Chief Administrative Hearing Officer. In a case arising under section 274A or 274C of the INA, the Chief...

  13. 25 CFR 11.1202 - How to petition for an order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1202 How to petition for an order of protection. A victim of domestic violence, or the parent, guardian of a victim, or... the act of domestic violence. (b) The petitioner is not required to file for annulment, separation,...

  14. 25 CFR 11.1202 - How to petition for an order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1202 How to petition for an order of protection. A victim of domestic violence, or the parent, guardian of a victim, or... the act of domestic violence. (b) The petitioner is not required to file for annulment, separation,...

  15. 25 CFR 11.1202 - How to petition for an order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1202 How to petition for an order of protection. A victim of domestic violence, or the parent, guardian of a victim, or... the act of domestic violence. (b) The petitioner is not required to file for annulment, separation,...

  16. 25 CFR 11.1202 - How to petition for an order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1202 How to petition for an order of protection. A victim of domestic violence, or the parent, guardian of a victim, or... the act of domestic violence. (b) The petitioner is not required to file for annulment, separation,...

  17. 25 CFR 11.1202 - How to petition for an order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1202 How to petition for an order of protection. A victim of domestic violence, or the parent, guardian of a victim, or... the act of domestic violence. (b) The petitioner is not required to file for annulment, separation,...

  18. TOMORROW: EPA Administrator to Focus on Protecting Clean Water in Travel to Minnesota, Texas and Illinois

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Tomorrow, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy is hitting the road to focus on the important need to protect the critical streams and wetlands that provide 1 in 3 Americans their drinking water and that are currently vulnerable to pollution

  19. Intranasal administration of live Lactobacillus species facilitates protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ha-Na; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Yu-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Yang, Si-Yong; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Woo, Seo-Hyung; Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continue to be a significant public health problem. For improved therapies and preventive measures against influenza, there has been an increased tendency in modern medicine involving the use of probiotics. In this study, we compared the protective efficacy of various live and dead Lactobacillus species against challenge with influenza virus in mice according to the administration route and dose. In addition, to understand the underlying mechanism behind this clinical protective effect, we performed immunologic assays including examination of IgA levels and cytokine profiles in the lung. The survival rate of mice receiving intranasal administration of Lactobacillus was higher than after oral administration, and administration of live bacteria was more protective than of dead bacteria. The lung levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IgA were significantly increased (P<0.05). Conversely, the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6 were decreased. Interestingly, there were huge differences in protective effects of various Lactobacillus strains on influenza virus infection. Therefore, for clinical applications, selection of effective strains could be critical and individually optimized application regimens of the selected strains are required.

  20. Parenteral administration of attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC is protective against salmonellosis in piglets.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, J; Pesciaroli, M; Gaetarelli, B; Scaglione, F E; Pregel, P; Ammendola, S; Battistoni, A; Bollo, E; Alborali, G L; Pasquali, P

    2014-07-07

    A major cause of salmonellosis in humans is the contamination of pork products. Infection in pigs can be controlled using bio-security programs, but they are not sufficient in countries where a high level of infection is recorded. In this context, the use of vaccines can represent a valid supplementary method of control. Recently, we have demonstrated that an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC) is protective against systemic and enteric salmonellosis in mouse and pig infection models, candidating this strain as an oral attenuated vaccine. In this study, we compared the efficacy of this attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain when administered orally or parenterally. Furthermore, in order to reproduce a pseudo-natural infection model, vaccinated pigs were allocated in the same pen with animals shedding virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. Animals were monitored weekly after vaccination and contact with infected piglets. Diarrhea and ataxia were recorded and Salmonella shedding was tested individually through bacterial culture. After four weeks of cohousing, piglets were euthanized, after which lymph nodes reactivity and gross lesions of the gut sections were scored at necropsy. Organs were submitted to microbiological and histological analyses. The data reported herein show that parenterally vaccinated animals do not shed the attenuated strain, and at the same time the absence of symptoms and decrease in virulent strain shedding in feces from day 6 after challenge demonstrated protection against infection induced by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. In conclusion, our findings suggest that this is an alternative route of Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC administration, without ignoring the advantages associated with oral vaccination.

  1. Guarantying the quality of chemotherapy: from the order to the administration.

    PubMed

    Spahni, S; Lovis, C; Ackermann, M; Mach, N; Bonnabry, P; Geissbuhler, A

    2006-01-01

    Ensuring the quality and security when prescribing drugs like chemotherapies is a complex task if one wants to cover the whole chain from the prescribing physician to the administrant nurse. At the University hospitals of Geneva, new applications covering the whole chain from the prescription up to and including the fabrication of the products have been developed in three phases and are being used in a production stage. In order to cover the "last yard" at the bed level, a fourth phase has been started with a pilot study based on labels containing RFID chips for preparations and for patients. The last phase will make use of all traceability data acquired from the prescription to the preparation to validate that the right product is administered to the right patient, and to record who is administrating it.

  2. 3 CFR 13627 - Executive Order 13627 of September 25, 2012. Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Executive Order 13627 of September 25, 2012... Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13627 of September 25, 2012 EO 13627 Strengthening Protections... States Agency for International Development, and the heads of such other executive departments...

  3. 75 FR 51267 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Order On Consent for the Kerber Creek Site, Saguache County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Cercla Administrative Order On Consent for the Kerber Creek Site, Saguache County, CO..., and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 USC 9622(I), notice is hereby given of a proposed Administrative Order on Consent (``AOC'') under sections 104, 106, 107, and 122 of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9604,...

  4. 75 FR 53301 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Order on Consent for the Standard Mine Site, Gunnison County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY Proposed Cercla Administrative Order on Consent for the Standard Mine Site, Gunnison County, CO..., and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(I), notice is hereby given of a proposed Administrative Order on Consent (``AOC'') under sections 104, 106, 107, and 122 of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9604,...

  5. 77 FR 52322 - McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... AGENCY McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent AGENCY... given that a proposed administrative order on consent concerning portions of the McClellan Air Force...''), the U.S. Air Force is performing the CERCLA response actions for the Site; however, the FFA...

  6. Universal Pressure Pumping Inc. Ordered to Comply with Environmental Laws and Protect Public Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (May 28, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently issued a consent agreement and final order to Universal Pressure Pumping Inc. (UPP) and eight of their facilities across Texas. The company violated laws under the Resource Co

  7. Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Status, and Protective Orders: Does "Living in Sin" Entail a Different Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.; Cole, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The legal status of women's intimate relationships may allow for different experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) and the protections received from the criminal justice system. There has been limited research examining differences in IPV and protective orders for women in marital and cohabiting intimate relationships. This study examines…

  8. 76 FR 2728 - Securities Investor Protection Corporation; Order Approving a Proposed Bylaw Change Relating to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... COMMISSION Securities Investor Protection Corporation; Order Approving a Proposed Bylaw Change Relating to SIPC Fund Assessments on SIPC Members January 10, 2011. On October 8, 2010, the Securities Investor... proposed bylaw change pursuant to Section 3(e)(1) of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970...

  9. Administrative barriers reduce emergency physician ordering of nasal and acromioclavicular joint radiographs.

    PubMed

    Ripper, Jill R; Soltis, Robert M; Peredy, Tamas R; Powers, Robert D

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether administrative barriers to clinician ordering of nasal bone and acromioclavicular (AC) joint radiographs would result in a significant diminution in emergency department use of these films and in patient charges. This study involved a retrospective cohort or pre-post analysis of radiograph ordering by emergency care providers seeing adult patients with nasal area or shoulder injuries. Numbers of films ordered before and after enactment of a restrictive policy change were determined, as well as any charge reductions associated with diminished film use. For each radiograph type, there was a 1-year preintervention period, and 2 subsequent 12-month periods after the policy change. Nasal bone radiographs decreased from 166 in 1994 to 10 in 1995 and 4 in 1996 (P <.001, chi(2)). This resulted in potential annual charge savings of 33,176 dollars. AC joint radiographs decreased from 35 films in 1994 to 5 in 1995 and 8 in 1996 (P <.001, chi(2)), with potential annual charge savings of 6,578 dollars. Adoption of an interdepartmental policy that prohibits physicians from routinely ordering radiographs of limited clinical value can result in significant reduction of radiograph use. This drop in use can lead to considerable reductions in patient charges.

  10. Prolonged Oral Administration of Oleuropein Might Protect Heart against Aconitine-induced Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Esmailidehaj, Mansour; Mirhosseini, Seyed-Jalil; Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Rasoulian, Bahram; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Haghshenas, Damoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it was surveyed to know whether an oral single dose of oleuropein could mimic the cardiac preconditioning in rats’ hearts or whether its prolonged oral administration could protect the heart against the aconitine-induced arrhythmia in rats. Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into two series (n = 8 in each group). In the first series, all groups (except the control (Con) group) were given a single oral dose of oleuropein (20 mg/Kg) 1, 3, 24 and 48 h before the infusion of aconitine. In the second series, except the Con group, the other four groups were given oral oleuropein (20 mg/Kg/day) for 3, 7, 14 and 28 days, before the infusion of aconitine. Electrocardiogram was recorded to monitor arrhythmia. Data of the first series showed that the initiation time of arrhythmia, the initiation of ventricular tachycardia (VT), the numbers of reversible ventricular fibrillation (VF) and the death time had no significant difference compared with Con group. In the second series, a significant protection was occurred only in the 28 days group that was evident with increased initiation time of arrhythmia, increased initiation time of VT, and increased the number of reversible VF and death time in compared to the Con group. The findings of this study show that the oral administration of a single dose of oleuropein could not mimic the preconditioning effects in rat hearts, but the prolonged administration of oleuropein for about four weeks could protect the heart against aconitine-induced arrhythmia. PMID:24250560

  11. Intravenous Administration of Lycopene, a Tomato Extract, Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chao; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Lianlian; Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiaotao; Xu, Ping; Li, Jinjin; Delplancke, Thibaut; Zhang, Hua; Qi, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral uptake of lycopene has been shown to be beneficial for preventing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the strong first-pass metabolism of lycopene influences its bioavailability and impedes its clinic application. In this study, we determined an intravenous (IV) administration dose of lycopene protects against myocardial infarction (MI) in a mouse model, and investigated the effects of acute lycopene administration on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and related signaling pathways during myocardial I/R. Methods: In this study, we established both in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cell model and in vivo regional myocardial I/R mouse model by ligating left anterior artery descending. TTC dual staining was used to assess I/R induced MI in the absence and presence of acute lycopene administration via tail vein injection. Results: Lycopene treatment (1 μM) before reoxygenation significantly reduced cardiomyocyte death induced by H/R. Intravenous administration of lycopene to achieve 1 μM concentration in circulating blood significantly suppressed MI, ROS production, and JNK phosphorylation in the cardiac tissue of mice during in vivo regional I/R. Conclusion: Elevating circulating lycopene to 1 μM via IV injection protects against myocardial I/R injury through inhibition of ROS accumulation and consequent inflammation in mice. PMID:26950150

  12. Dexamethasone loaded nanoparticles exert protective effects against Cisplatin-induced hearing loss by systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Lin, Xin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2016-04-21

    Ototoxicity is one of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. As a common treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, systemic administration of steroids was demonstrated ineffective against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) in published studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated in polyethyleneglycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss following systemic administration. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using emulsion and evaporation technique as previously reported. DEX or DEX-NPs was administered intraperitoneally to guinea pigs 1h before cisplatin administration. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were measured at four frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24kHz) 1 day before and three days after cisplatin injection. Cochlear morphology was examined to evaluate inner ear injury induced by cisplatin exposure. A single dose of DEX-NPs 1h before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea, which was equivalent to the effect of multidose (3 days) DEX injection. In contrast, no significant protective effect was observed by single dose injection of DEX. The results of histological examination of the cochleae were consistent with the functional measurements. In conclusion, a single dose DEX-NPs significantly attenuated cisplatin ototoxicity in guinea pigs after systemic administration at both histological and functional levels indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of these nanoparticles for enhancing the delivery of DEX in acute sensorineural hearing loss.

  13. 25 CFR 11.1204 - Obtaining an emergency order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1204... petition clearly shows that an act of domestic violence has occurred. The order must meet the content... to have committed a family violence act and seek to hold a hearing as soon as possible. If a...

  14. 25 CFR 11.1204 - Obtaining an emergency order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1204... petition clearly shows that an act of domestic violence has occurred. The order must meet the content... to have committed a family violence act and seek to hold a hearing as soon as possible. If a...

  15. 25 CFR 11.1204 - Obtaining an emergency order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1204... petition clearly shows that an act of domestic violence has occurred. The order must meet the content... to have committed a family violence act and seek to hold a hearing as soon as possible. If a...

  16. 25 CFR 11.1204 - Obtaining an emergency order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1204... petition clearly shows that an act of domestic violence has occurred. The order must meet the content... to have committed a family violence act and seek to hold a hearing as soon as possible. If a...

  17. 25 CFR 11.1204 - Obtaining an emergency order of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Child Protection and Domestic Violence Procedures § 11.1204... petition clearly shows that an act of domestic violence has occurred. The order must meet the content... to have committed a family violence act and seek to hold a hearing as soon as possible. If a...

  18. Ethanol self-administration in mice under a second-order schedule.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Richard J; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ginsburg, Brett C

    2015-09-01

    Long Fixed-Interval (FI) schedules, particularly second-order schedules, can engender substantial responding before drug or ethanol delivery that is uninfluenced by the direct effects of the drug or ethanol. Thus, these schedules can be used to study the effects of medications upon drug- or ethanol-seeking, uninfluenced by the direct effects of the self-administered drug or ethanol. Long FI second-order schedules are frequently used in primates and occasionally in rats. Under second-order schedules, completion of one response requirement, e.g., a Fixed Ratio 10 (FR10:S), produces a brief stimulus presentation, e.g., a 1-s 80-dB 4-kHZ tone, and this FR10:S serves as the response unit under another schedule, e.g., an FI 1800-s. Thus, the first FR10 completed after 1800 s would result in delivery both of the tone and of reinforcement, e.g., 10 × 0.01 mL 16% (w/v) ethanol. To examine if such schedules could be effectively used in mice, which have advantages in neurobiological and genetic studies, we trained eight C57BL/6J mice to respond under the schedule just described. This schedule maintained substantial responding. The temporal pattern of behavior was typical of an FI schedule with responding accelerating across the interval. We also examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of fluvoxamine on this responding, and these were modest. Finally, we examined responding when alcohol and/or tone deliveries were withheld, and found that extinction occurred most rapidly when both were withheld. This work demonstrates that long FI schedules of ethanol delivery may be useful in studying ethanol seeking in mice.

  19. Oral Administration of Probiotics Inhibits Absorption of the Heavy Metal Cadmium by Protecting the Intestinal Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qixiao; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Narbad, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that causes adverse health effects in humans and animals. Our previous work demonstrated that oral administration of probiotics can significantly inhibit Cd absorption in the intestines of mice, but further evidence is needed to gain insights into the related protection mode. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether probiotics can inhibit Cd absorption through routes other than the Cd binding, with a focus on gut barrier protection. In the in vitro assay, both the intervention and therapy treatments of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 alleviated Cd-induced cytotoxicity in the human intestinal cell line HT-29 and protected the disruption of tight junctions in the cell monolayers. In a mouse model, probiotics with either good Cd-binding or antioxidative ability increased fecal Cd levels and decreased Cd accumulation in the tissue of Cd-exposed mice. Compared with the Cd-only group, cotreatment with probiotics also reversed the disruption of tight junctions, alleviated inflammation, and decreased the intestinal permeability of mice. L. plantarum CCFM8610, a strain with both good Cd binding and antioxidative abilities, exhibited significantly better protection than the other two strains. These results suggest that along with initial intestinal Cd sequestration, probiotics can inhibit Cd absorption by protecting the intestinal barrier, and the protection is related to the alleviation of Cd-induced oxidative stress. A probiotic with both good Cd-binding and antioxidative capacities can be used as a daily supplement for the prevention of oral Cd exposure. IMPORTANCE The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that causes adverse health effects in humans and animals. For the general population, food and drinking water are the main sources of Cd exposure due to the biomagnification of Cd within the food chain; therefore, the intestinal tract is the first organ that is susceptible to Cd

  20. 20 CFR 655.75 - Decision and order of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investigation and the administrative law judge determines that the Administrator's request was not warranted... data or the names of establishments contacted in developing the survey which is the basis for the...

  1. Augmentation of protective immune responses against viral infection by oral administration of schizophyllan

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Wataru

    1997-01-01

    An oral administration of fungal polysaccharide schizophyllan has augmented protective immune responses to Sendai virus infection in mice and the rodshaped DNA virus of Penaeus japonicus (RV-PJ) infection in Kuruma shrimps. When schizophyllan was administered orally at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight per day, the survival rates after virus challenge were significantly higher than those of the control groups. High phagocytic activities were observed in the haemocytes of the schizophyllan-fed shrimps.These results suggest that schizophyllan confers effective protection against viral infection by increasing antiviral immune responses, and that it could be used to boost immunity to virus infection in animals or in invertebrates. PMID:18472856

  2. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... amending its regulations on administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption. As required... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250)....

  3. 20 CFR 655.1040 - Decision and order of administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the event that the Administrator's determination(s) of wage violation(s) is based upon a wage determination obtained by the Administrator from ETA during the investigation (paragraph (b)(6) of appendix A of..., but shall, based on the evidence (including the ETA administrative record), either accept the...

  4. Systemic Administration of Proteoglycan Protects BALB/c Retired Breeder Mice from Experimental Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda de Campos; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Marcolino, Larissa Doddi; Marques, Camila; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valerio; Sartori, Alexandrina

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG) administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups) or three (3xPG50 group) intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg) every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3(+) T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis.

  5. Systemic Administration of Proteoglycan Protects BALB/c Retired Breeder Mice from Experimental Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda de Campos; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Marcolino, Larissa Doddi; Marques, Camila; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valerio; Sartori, Alexandrina

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG) administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups) or three (3xPG50 group) intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg) every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+ T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis. PMID:27294161

  6. In vivo protective role against water contamination with cerium via chronic administration of omega 3.

    PubMed

    Beltifa, Asma; Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Ferieni, Anouar; Elfekih, Abdelfettah; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Allagui, Mohamed Sallah

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, adult, healthy male Wistar rats (120 ± 10 g) were pre-treated by intragastric administration of cerium chloride (CeCl3) 10 mg/kg (BW) each day during 60 days. Control animal were treated with omega 3, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3), by an intragastric administration at 10 mg/kg of BW for 60 days. Our results showed that CeCl3-induced alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. In fact, CeCl3-induced the increase the level of both the creatinine concentration and the expression of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminase activities in serum. On the other hand, CeCl3 significantly increased the levels of lipid peroxidation in the renal and hepatic tissues. The capacity of CeCl3 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) could explain his ability to induce morphological alterations, such as centrilobular hemorrhage, hepatic necrosis, and vacuolization of the cytoplasm in hepatic tissues, and the atrophy of the glomerulus and dilatation of urinary space in renal tissues. However, omega 3, after gastric administration, reduced significantly the toxic effect caused by CeCl3 according to his high ability to scavenge ROS. The present study indicates that omega 3 is a significant compound with protective activity against intoxication with heavy metal, the cerium, and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  7. 8 CFR 1003.46 - Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Immigration Courts. 1003.46 Section 1003.46 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.46 Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts. (a) Authority. In...

  8. 8 CFR 1003.46 - Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Immigration Courts. 1003.46 Section 1003.46 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.46 Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts. (a) Authority. In...

  9. 8 CFR 1003.46 - Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Immigration Courts. 1003.46 Section 1003.46 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.46 Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts. (a) Authority. In...

  10. 8 CFR 1003.46 - Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Immigration Courts. 1003.46 Section 1003.46 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.46 Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts. (a) Authority. In...

  11. 8 CFR 1003.46 - Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Immigration Courts. 1003.46 Section 1003.46 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.46 Protective orders, sealed submissions in Immigration Courts. (a) Authority. In...

  12. 19 CFR 210.34 - Protective orders; reporting requirement; sanctions and other actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and...) Issuance of protective order. Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought or by..., or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That discovery not be had;...

  13. 19 CFR 210.34 - Protective orders; reporting requirement; sanctions and other actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and...) Issuance of protective order. Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought or by..., or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That discovery not be had;...

  14. 19 CFR 210.34 - Protective orders; reporting requirement; sanctions and other actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and...) Issuance of protective order. Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought or by..., or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) That discovery not be had;...

  15. 19 CFR 210.34 - Protective orders; reporting requirement; sanctions and other actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective orders; reporting requirement; sanctions and other actions. 210.34 Section 210.34 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE... time or place; (3) That discovery may be had only by a method of discovery other than that selected...

  16. 50 CFR 21.48 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect public resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.48 Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect... not harmful to other nesting birds by the responsible Agency. (2) Double-crested cormorants may...

  17. 50 CFR 21.48 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect public resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.48 Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect... not harmful to other nesting birds by the responsible Agency. (2) Double-crested cormorants may...

  18. 50 CFR 21.48 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect public resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.48 Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect... not harmful to other nesting birds by the responsible Agency. (2) Double-crested cormorants may...

  19. Fifteenth Annual Rank-Order Distribution of Administrative Salaries Paid, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Office of Institutional Research.

    Administrative salaries in 1981-82 in 132 state-supported universities in 45 states and 31 university systems in 24 states were surveyed. Only full-time administrators were included but their responsibilities and functions range from the director of a single office to the university president. To provide anonymity, the universities are not…

  20. 78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2011... food for human or animal consumption which were established to implement changes to the FD&C Act...

  1. 29 CFR 1979.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 519 OF THE WENDELL H. FORD AVIATION INVESTMENT AND REFORM ACT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY... served on the Assistant Secretary, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and on the Associate..., Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and on the Associate Solicitor, Division of Fair Labor...

  2. 77 FR 54608 - Public Land Order No. 7796; Partial Withdrawal Revocation and Transfer of Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Administrative Jurisdiction, Kirtland Air Force Base; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... in connection with Kirtland Air Force Base, is hereby revoked only insofar as it affects...

  3. 78 FR 22540 - Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Petition... the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR...

  4. Chronic administration of troxerutin protects mouse brain against D-galactose-induced impairment of cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ye, Qin; Fan, Shao-Hua; Shan, Qun; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2010-02-01

    Previous evidence showed that administration of d-galactose (d-gal) increased ROS production and resulted in impairment of cholinergic system. Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of troxerutin against d-gal-induced impairment of cholinergic system, and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results displayed that troxerutin administration significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in step-through test and morris water maze task. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was decreased AGEs, ROS and protein carbonyl levels in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and front cortex of d-gal-treated mice. Furthermore, our results also showed that troxerutin significantly inhibited cholinesterase (AchE) activity, increased the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (nAchRalpha7) and enhanced interactions between nAchRalpha7 and either postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors subunit 1 (NMDAR1) in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and front cortex of d-gal-treated mice, which could help restore impairment of brain function.

  5. Oral Administration of Fermented Soymilk Products Protects the Skin of Hairless Mice against Ultraviolet Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kubota, Norihiro; Masuoka, Norie; Hori, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. PMID:27556484

  6. 76 FR 78945 - Summary of Commission Practice Relating to Administrative Protective Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... and control of the authorized applicant or another authorized applicant in the same firm whose... report immediately known violations of an APO, and the failure to adequately supervise non-lawyers in the... law firm or consultants working with a firm who were granted access to APO materials by the...

  7. 75 FR 66127 - Summary of Commission Practice Relating to Administrative Protective Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... the Tariff Act of 1930. In addition, there is a summary of rules violation investigations completed in... receiving information that there is a reason to believe one has occurred, the Commission Secretary notifies... direction contained in the Conference Report to the Customs and Trade Act of 1990. Over time, the...

  8. 78 FR 79481 - Summary of Commission Practice Relating to Administrative Protective Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... actions in response to violations of Commission APOs and the 24-hour rule. See 56 FR 4846 (February 6, 1991); 57 FR 12335 (April 9, 1992); 58 FR 21991 (April 26, 1993); 59 FR 16834 (April 8, 1994); 60 FR 24880 (May 10, 1995); 61 FR 21203 (May 9, 1996); 62 FR 13164 (March 19, 1997); 63 FR 25064 (May 6,...

  9. 77 FR 76518 - Summary of Commission Practice Relating to Administrative Protective Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... of 1990. Over time, the Commission has added to its report discussions of APO breaches in Commission... provides a summary of investigations completed during calendar year 2011 of breaches in proceedings under... proceedings as to some specific types of APO breaches encountered by the Commission and the...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart G of... - Implementation Procedures for the Farmland Protection Policy Act; Executive Order 11988...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Policy Act; Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management; Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands..., Floodplain Management; Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands; and Departmental Regulation 9500-3... or real property is located in a floodplain or wetland. a. Determine whether important land...

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart G of... - Implementation Procedures for the Farmland Protection Policy Act; Executive Order 11988...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Policy Act; Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management; Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands..., Floodplain Management; Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands; and Departmental Regulation 9500-3... or real property is located in a floodplain or wetland. a. Determine whether important land...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart G of... - Implementation Procedures for the Farmland Protection Policy Act; Executive Order 11988...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Policy Act; Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management; Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands..., Floodplain Management; Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands; and Departmental Regulation 9500-3... or real property is located in a floodplain or wetland. a. Determine whether important land...

  13. The economic costs of partner violence and the cost-benefit of civil protective orders.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William

    2012-04-01

    Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of costs of partner violence to be considered. This study is one of the first to examine a wide range of economic costs of partner violence and to examine the economic costs and cost-benefits of civil protective orders. Overall, including changes in quality of life, protective orders were estimated to have saved taxpayers in one small state US$85 million in a 1-year period. More generally, this study provides a framework to address more specific complexities associated with cost-benefit analyses of partner violence and the impact of justice system interventions.

  14. Intentions to consume omega-3 fatty acids: a comparison of protection motivation theory and ordered protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Calder, Samuel Christian; Davidson, Graham R; Ho, Robert

    2011-06-01

    There has been limited research to date into methods for increasing people's intentions to use omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which have been linked with decreased risk of suffering from numerous major diseases. The present study employed a cross-sectional design with 380 university students, employees, and visitors to investigate the efficacy of the protection motivation (PM) theory and the ordered protection motivation (OPM) theory, to predict behavioral intention to consume omega-3 rich foods and dietary supplements. Analysis of model fit indicated that both the PM model and the OPM model adequately represented the structural relationships between the cognitive variables and intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Further evaluation of relative fit of the two competing models suggested that the PM model might provide a better representation of decision-making following evaluation of the health threat of n-3 PUFA deficiency. Path analysis indicated that the component of coping appraisal was significantly associated with the behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Threat appraisal was found to be significantly associated with behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA only for the OPM model. Overall, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the roles that cognitive appraisal processes play in young and healthy individuals' protective health decision-making regarding consumption of n-3 PUFA. Implications of the findings and recommendations, which include (a) encouraging the consumption of n-3 PUFA as an effective barrier against the incidence of disease, and (b) effective health messaging that focuses on beliefs about the effectiveness of n-3 PUFA in reducing health risks, are discussed.

  15. Order of Administration of Math and Verbal Tests: An Ecological Intervention to Reduce Stereotype Threat on Girls' Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeding, Annique; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Régner, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    In 2 field experiments, we relied on the very features of real testing situations--where both math and verbal tests are administered--to examine whether order of test administration can, by itself, create vs. alleviate stereotype threat (ST) effects on girls' math performance. We predicted that taking the math test before the verbal test would be…

  16. 77 FR 31611 - Proposed CERCLA Section 122(g)(4) Administrative Agreement and Order on Consent for the Mercury...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Section 122(g)(4) Administrative Agreement and Order on Consent for the Mercury... the Mercury Refining Superfund Site (``Site'') located in the Towns of Guilderland and Colonie, Albany... Hazardous Substance Superfund Mercury Refining Superfund Site Special Account, which combined total...

  17. 29 CFR 24.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Litigation § 24.110 Decision and orders of the... issued under the Energy Reorganization Act, other than that portion of the order awarding compensatory... employment, and compensatory damages. In cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or the...

  18. 29 CFR 24.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Litigation § 24.110 Decision and orders of the... issued under the Energy Reorganization Act, other than that portion of the order awarding compensatory... employment, and compensatory damages. In cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or the...

  19. 29 CFR 24.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Litigation § 24.110 Decision and orders of the... issued under the Energy Reorganization Act, other than that portion of the order awarding compensatory... employment, and compensatory damages. In cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or the...

  20. 29 CFR 24.110 - Decision and orders of the Administrative Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Litigation § 24.110 Decision and orders of the... issued under the Energy Reorganization Act, other than that portion of the order awarding compensatory... employment, and compensatory damages. In cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or the...

  1. Early Administration of Glutamine Protects Cardiomyocytes from Post-Cardiac Arrest Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Ren; Li, Chao-Jui; Syu, Shih-Han; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Wu, Han-Ping; Hsu Chen, Cheng; Lu, Huai-En; Chen, Wen-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n = 20) and control (normal saline, n = 20) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group (p < 0.05). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells' beating function at a low pH level.

  2. Early Administration of Glutamine Protects Cardiomyocytes from Post-Cardiac Arrest Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Syu, Shih-Han; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Hsu Chen, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n = 20) and control (normal saline, n = 20) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group (p < 0.05). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells' beating function at a low pH level. PMID:28058255

  3. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure Information...) Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The PCII Program Manager...

  4. Oral Administration of a Salmonella enterica-Based Vaccine Expressing Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Confers Protection against Aerosolized B. anthracis▿

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Margaret G. M.; Titball, Richard W.; Neeson, Brendan N.; Galen, James E.; Walker, Nicola J.; Stagg, Anthony J.; Jenner, Dominic C.; Thwaite, Joanne E.; Nataro, James P.; Baillie, Leslie W. J.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease that affects wildlife, livestock, and humans. Protection against anthrax is primarily afforded by immunity to the B. anthracis protective antigen (PA), particularly PA domains 4 and 1. To further the development of an orally delivered human vaccine for mass vaccination against anthrax, we produced Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing full-length PA, PA domains 1 and 4, or PA domain 4 using codon-optimized PA DNA fused to the S. enterica serovar Typhi ClyA and under the control of the ompC promoter. Oral immunization of A/J mice with Salmonella expressing full-length PA protected five of six mice against a challenge with 105 CFU of aerosolized B. anthracis STI spores, whereas Salmonella expressing PA domains 1 and 4 provided only 25% protection (two of eight mice), and Salmonella expressing PA domain 4 or a Salmonella-only control afforded no measurable protection. However, a purified recombinant fusion protein of domains 1 and 4 provided 100% protection, and purified recombinant 4 provided protection in three of eight immunized mice. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of an oral S. enterica-based vaccine against aerosolized B. anthracis spores. PMID:17145938

  5. TUESDAY: EPA Administrator to Discuss Historic Clean Power Plan to Cut U.S. Carbon Pollution and Protect Public Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - On Tuesday, August 11, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will be discussing the Clean Power Plan at the Resources for the Future (RFF) Leadership Forum. The Clean Power Plan will protect public health, spur clean energy investments and st

  6. Resource quality of a symmetry-protected topologically ordered phase for quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacob; Miyake, Akimasa

    2015-03-27

    We investigate entanglement naturally present in the 1D topologically ordered phase protected with the on-site symmetry group of an octahedron as a potential resource for teleportation-based quantum computation. We show that, as long as certain characteristic lengths are finite, all its ground states have the capability to implement any unit-fidelity one-qubit gate operation asymptotically as a key computational building block. This feature is intrinsic to the entire phase, in that perfect gate fidelity coincides with perfect string order parameters under a state-insensitive renormalization procedure. Our approach may pave the way toward a novel program to classify quantum many-body systems based on their operational use for quantum information processing.

  7. 29 CFR 24.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Litigation § 24.109 Decision and orders of the... cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or the Toxic Substances Control Act, exemplary damages... brought under the Energy Reorganization Act, when an ALJ issues a decision that the complaint has...

  8. 29 CFR 24.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Litigation § 24.109 Decision and orders of the... cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or the Toxic Substances Control Act, exemplary damages... brought under the Energy Reorganization Act, when an ALJ issues a decision that the complaint has...

  9. 29 CFR 24.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Litigation § 24.109 Decision and orders of the... cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or the Toxic Substances Control Act, exemplary damages... brought under the Energy Reorganization Act, when an ALJ issues a decision that the complaint has...

  10. 29 CFR 24.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENERGY REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Litigation § 24.109 Decision and orders of the... cases arising under the Safe Drinking Water Act or the Toxic Substances Control Act, exemplary damages... brought under the Energy Reorganization Act, when an ALJ issues a decision that the complaint has...

  11. Short-Range-Order Mineral Physical Protection On Black Carbon Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Song, Y. F.; Lehmann, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter is one of the largest reservoirs in global carbon cycle, and black carbon (BC) represents a chemical resistant component. Black C plays an important role in global climate change. Generally considered recalcitrant due to high aromaticity, the reactive surface and functional groups of BC are crucial for carbon sequestration in soils. Mineral sorption and physical protection is an important mechanism for BC long term stabilization and sequestration in environments. Previous studies on mineral protection of BC were limited to analysis techniques in two-dimensions, for example, by SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS. Little is known about the scope of organo-mineral association, the in-situ distribution and forms of minerals, and the ultimate interplay of BC and minerals. The aim of this study is to investigate the three-dimensional interaction of organic C and minerals in submicron scale using synchrotron-based Transmission X-ray Microcopy (TXM) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Abundant poorly-crystallined nano-minerals particles were observed. These short-range-order (SRO) minerals also aggregate into clusters and sheets, and form envelops-like structures on the surface of BC. On top of large surface contact area, the intimate interplay between BC and minerals reinforces the stability of both organic C and minerals, resulting from chemical bonding through cation bridging and ligand exchange. The mineral protection enhances BC stabilization and sequestration and lowers its bioavailability in environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding.

  12. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The PCII Program Manager shall... be known as the “Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS), to record... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure...

  13. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The PCII Program Manager shall... be known as the “Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS), to record... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure...

  14. [Protective action figurations for superoxide dismutase - chondroitin sulfate - catalase bienzyme conjugate after its medicative administration in endotoxin shock].

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, A V; Vavaeva, A V; Zvyagintseva, M A; Abramov, A A; Timoshin, A A; Vavaev, A V; Lakomkin, V L

    2016-03-01

    Previously it found that the bienzymatic conjugate superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulfate, catalase (SOD-CHS-CAT) increased the survival rate of rats with endotoxic shock caused by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This effect was observed both in preventive (before LPS) and therapeutic conjugate administration (after the administration of LPS). This study shows that the development of endotoxic shock is accompanied by increased levels of NO in the liver, lungs, kidneys, heart; administration of the SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate insignificantly influenced this parameter. At the same time, the changes in blood urea and creatinine suggest the protective effect of the conjugate on renal function, while diverse changes in biochemical parameters studied complicate the formation of the agreed conclusions on the state of other organs.

  15. 40 CFR 305.27 - Accelerated order, order to dismiss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accelerated order, order to dismiss. 305.27 Section 305.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  16. 40 CFR 305.27 - Accelerated order, order to dismiss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accelerated order, order to dismiss. 305.27 Section 305.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  17. 40 CFR 305.27 - Accelerated order, order to dismiss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accelerated order, order to dismiss. 305.27 Section 305.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  18. 40 CFR 305.27 - Accelerated order, order to dismiss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accelerated order, order to dismiss. 305.27 Section 305.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  19. 40 CFR 305.27 - Accelerated order, order to dismiss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accelerated order, order to dismiss. 305.27 Section 305.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  20. Tensor-entanglement-filtering renormalization approach and symmetry-protected topological order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-10-01

    We study the renormalization group flow of the Lagrangian for statistical and quantum systems by representing their path integral in terms of a tensor network. Using a tensor-entanglement-filtering renormalization approach that removes local entanglement and produces a coarse-grained lattice, we show that the resulting renormalization flow of the tensors in the tensor network has a nice fixed-point structure. The isolated fixed-point tensors Tinv plus the symmetry group Gsym of the tensors (i.e., the symmetry group of the Lagrangian) characterize various phases of the system. Such a characterization can describe both the symmetry breaking phases and topological phases, as illustrated by two-dimensional (2D) statistical Ising model, 2D statistical loop-gas model, and 1+1D quantum spin-1/2 and spin-1 models. In particular, using such a (Gsym,Tinv) characterization, we show that the Haldane phase for a spin-1 chain is a phase protected by the time-reversal, parity, and translation symmetries. Thus the Haldane phase is a symmetry-protected topological phase. The (Gsym,Tinv) characterization is more general than the characterizations based on the boundary spins and string order parameters. The tensor renormalization approach also allows us to study continuous phase transitions between symmetry breaking phases and/or topological phases. The scaling dimensions and the central charges for the critical points that describe those continuous phase transitions can be calculated from the fixed-point tensors at those critical points.

  1. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    PubMed

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1 : 100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFcε-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFcε-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the

  2. 28 CFR 68.57 - Judicial review of the final agency order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review of the final agency order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274B. 68.57 Section 68.57 Judicial... of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274B. Any person aggrieved by a...

  3. 75 FR 26226 - Executive Order 13508 Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration Section 203 Final Coordinated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Implementation Strategy AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of a final strategy for restoration and protection of the... Protection and Restoration. The purpose of this strategy is to describe federal actions to protect...

  4. Protection against SHIV Challenge by Subcutaneous Administration of the Plant-Derived PGT121 Broadly Neutralizing Antibody in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Lewis, Mark G.; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan P.; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) has shown promise for prevention and treatment of HIV infection. However, multiple IV administrations in geographic locations with poor accessibility to medical care have practical limitations. We have assessed the efficacy of plant-derived PGT121 delivered subcutaneously (SC) against pre-and post-intravaginal challenge using a rigorous SHIV-SF162P3 macaque protection model. SC administered PGT121 exhibited a longer serum half-life than IV administration and was more consistent than intramuscular delivery. A dose of 3.5mg/kg PGT121 prevented infection at a minimum ID50 neutralization titer of 1:295 while 5mg/kg protected five of six macaques when delivered immediately post-challenge. These results suggest the utility of plant-derived bnAbs delivered SC for HIV prevention. PMID:27031108

  5. The Goals of IPV Survivors Receiving Orders of Protection: An Application of the Empowerment Process Model.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Grossmann, Jessica; Chapman, Aliya R

    2016-10-01

    Protection orders (POs) are a widely recommended and commonly used intervention for intimate partner violence (IPV), but evidence for their effectiveness is mixed. This mixed methods study used the framework of empowerment to explore the goals of petitioners who seek POs, and the extent to which one group of experts considers these goals to be a good fit with the court's intent. We collected data in three phases: (a) We conducted a qualitative study to generate a list of goals (n = 10); (b) we administered the list to a sample of IPV survivors (n = 157); and (c) we surveyed a group of attorneys (n = 10). Results showed that petitioners endorse many goals for seeking POs and that while their highest priority goals relate to safety, other nearly universally endorsed goals are more psychological in nature, such as moving on with one's life. Petitioners also use the orders to navigate complex relationships, helping themselves to set boundaries in addition to sending a clear message to respondents. Our group of lawyers viewed petitioners' highest priority goals as a relatively good fit with the system, but was fairly pessimistic about the likelihood of success. Petitioners' ratings of progress toward their goals, at the time of the PO hearing, differed markedly from lawyers' perceptions. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Influence of Route of Administration on Immediate and Extended Protection in Rats Immunized with Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Klipstein, Frederick A.; Engert, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of route of administration, dosage, and number of boosts employed during immunization with the polymyxin-release form of Escherichia coli heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin on the degree and duration of protection afforded was evaluated in rats which were challenged by the ligated loop technique. Increasing the boosting dosage by fivefold from 50 to 250 μg resulted in a marked increase in protection against challenge with toxin in rats immunized either just by the parenteral route (i.p./i.p.) or by a parenteral prime, followed by peroral boosts (i.p./p.o.) in rats pretreated with cimetidine to ablate gastric secretions; such was not the case, however, even with a 50-fold increase in dosage in rats immunized just by the peroral route (p.o./p.o.). Four weekly peroral boosts were required to achieve the strongest degree of protection. Increasing the boosting dosage also increased the degree of protection against challenge with viable LT+/ST− and LT+/ST+ strains (ST indicates heat-stable enterotoxin) in rats immunized by the i.p./p.o., but not by the i.p./i.p., route; no protection was evident against an LT−/ST+ strain. Protection was lost within 3 weeks after immunization in rats immunized by the i.p./i.p. route. In contrast, protection was extended over the 3-month observation period in those immunized by the i.p./p.o. route; the degree of protection was enhanced in rats which received an additional boost at 2 months. These observations establish the fact that immunization with LT is similar to that with cholera toxin in that arousal of the local immune intestinal response by means of peroral immunization provides maximal extended protection. PMID:6987180

  7. Issuance of final revised guidance on the use and issuance of administrative orders under Section 7003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-26

    The directive discusses guidance on the use and issuance of Administrative Orders under Section 7003 of RCRA where there is an emiminent and substantial endangerment to public health and the environment. In order to issue a Section 7003 order, the Administrator must possess evidence that the handling, storage, treatment, transportation or disposal of any solid waste or hazardous waste may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to health or the environment (42 U.S.C. Section 6973). Additionally, Section 7003 requires that the Administrator provide notice to the affected State prior to issuance of the order. Each of these requirements is discussed in the directive.

  8. Pollution prevention and stratospheric ozone layer protection through innovative procurement methods: The chiller basic ordering agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.E.; Coyle, J.E.; Guice, J.R. Jr.; Kale, S.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the General Services Administration (GSA) have devised an affirmative procurement vehicle to encourage replacement of chillers using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants harmful to the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. Procurement selections are based on lowest life cycle cost. Linked with a DOE-developed Equipment Specification for 100 to 2,000 ton chillers that is crafted broadly enough to address about 90% of the Federal water-cooled chiller procurements, the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) process significantly reduces redundant design, procurement, and other costs associated with Federal purchasing of chillers through the cutting of red tape associated with buying industrial equipment. While serving to minimize the release of ozone-depleting substances (about six million tons of CFCs) to the environment, the installation of more energy-efficient chillers also promotes environmental stewardship in that reduced energy consumption translates into reduced emissions of noxious gases from the generation of electricity. Use of the BOA to purchase chillers consistent with Federal energy efficiency standards will contribute to reductions of almost a million tons annually of nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxide, and other pollutants from power plant emissions. Reduced electricity consumption of approximately 1.5 billion kilowatt hours per year by switching to more efficient chillers equates to an annual monetary savings of $75 million.

  9. Protective effect of selenium on certain hepatotoxic and pancreotoxic manifestations of subacute cadmium administration.

    PubMed

    Merali, Z; Singhal, R L

    1975-10-01

    Administration of cadmium chloride (1.0 mg/kg s.c.) to rats, twice a day for 7 days, significantly stimulated the activities of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase, markedly increased the concentration of hepatic cyclic adenosine monophosphate and circulating blood glucose and significantly reduced serum insulin levels. Furthermore, subacute exposure to cadmium induced glucose intolerance that was associated with a decreased pancreatic secretory activity as evidenced by lowered insulinogenic indices and marked inhibition of phentolamine-stimulated insulin release. In contrast to cadmium, administration of selenium dioxide (2 X 1.0 mg/kg/day s.c., 7 days) failed to alter significantly the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes, hepatic cyclic adenosine monophosphate, blood glucose or serum insulin levels, glucose tolerance or the pancreatic secretory activity. However, administration of selenium concurrently with cadmium completely prevented the cadmium-induced increases of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. Treatment with selenium ameliorated the cadmium-induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and the suppression of pancreatic secretory activity, whereas it failed to alter significantly the cadmium-induced elevation of hepatic cyclic AMP levels. Data provide evidence suggesting that subacute exposure to cadmium alters several parameters of carbohydrate metabolism and suppresses pancreatic secretory activity and that administration of selenium alone is without any appreciable effect on the above parameters. However, administration of selenium concurrently with cadmium prevents, to varying degrees, several of the cadmium-induced metabolic and functional changes.

  10. Protection against Amorimia septentrionalis poisoning in goats by the continuous administration of sodium monofluoroacetate-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Layze C A; Pessoa, Danielle A N; Lopes, Jose R G; de Albuquerque, Laio G; da Silva, Leomyr S A; Garino Junior, Felicio; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-03-01

    The intraruminal inoculation of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA)-degrading bacteria has been proposed as a method to prevent poisoning by MFA-containing plants. In previous experiments, MFA-degrading bacteria were inoculated intraruminally before or concurrent with plant challenge, with both strategies conferring partial protection to poisoning. To evaluate the protection to Amorimia septentrionalis poisoning provided by the continuous inoculation of MFA-degrading bacteria isolated from plants and soils, 18 goats were divided into three experimental groups of six animals each: Group 1 goats received daily doses of a mixture of Paenibacillus sp. and Cupriavidus sp., and Group 2 goats received a mixture of Ralstonia sp. and Burkholderia sp., for 40 days, while Group 3 goats were not inoculated. Ten days after initiation of bacterial inoculation in Groups 1 and 2, all goats were challenged daily with 5 g/kg body weight of green leaves from A. septentrionalis. Four goats from Group 1 consumed the leaves throughout the 30-day consumption period and showed clinical signs such as transient tachycardia and engorgement of the jugular. The two remaining animals from Group 1 showed obvious signs of intoxication, and plant administration was suspended on days 17 and 19. The goats in Group 2 consumed the leaves throughout the 30-day study without showing signs of poisoning. The goats from Group 3 (control) manifested severe clinical signs of poisoning between the 3rd and 10th days following the start of the A. septentrionalis challenge. Under the conditions of this experiment continuous intraruminal administration of Ralstonia sp. and Burkholderia sp. provided complete protection to poisoning by A. septentrionalis in goats, while continuous intraruminal administration of Paenibacillus sp. and Cupriavidus sp. provided partial protection.

  11. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125

  12. 97 Savvy Secrets for Protecting Self and School: A Practical Guide for Today's Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesno, Alice Healy

    A teacher's professional integrity faces numerous challenges in the classroom. To help educators safeguard against potentially career-ending incidents, numerous "survival rules" are provided in this text. It argues that teachers must safeguard themselves with self-protecting knowledge and, in some instances, must reprogram themselves…

  13. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... industry engaged in the manufacture, production, or wholesale of a like or directly competitive article in the United States; (E) A trade or business association a majority of whose members manufacture... materials sought to be protected from public disclosure by a person do not constitute confidential...

  14. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... industry engaged in the manufacture, production, or wholesale of a like or directly competitive article in the United States; (E) A trade or business association a majority of whose members manufacture... materials sought to be protected from public disclosure by a person do not constitute confidential...

  15. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... industry engaged in the manufacture, production, or wholesale of a like or directly competitive article in the United States; (E) A trade or business association a majority of whose members manufacture... materials sought to be protected from public disclosure by a person do not constitute confidential...

  16. 28 CFR 68.53 - Review of an interlocutory order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION... section 274A or 274C of the Immigration and Nationality Act, the Chief Administrative Hearing Officer may... Administrative Hearing Officer, all parties retain the right to request administrative review of the final...

  17. Sublingual administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus affects respiratory immune responses and facilitates protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Na; Youn, Ha-Na; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Kim, Ki-Taek; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-05-01

    The extensive morbidity and mortality caused by influenza A viruses worldwide prompts the need for a deeper understanding of the host immune response and novel therapeutic and/or prophylactic interventions. In this study, we assessed the sublingual route as an effective means of delivering probiotics against influenza virus in mice. In addition, IgA levels, NK cell activity, T cell activation, and cytokine profiles in the lungs were examined to understand the mechanism underlying this protective effect. Sublingual administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus provided enhanced protection against influenza virus infection by enhancing mucosal secretory IgA production, and T and NK cell activity. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-12 levels in the lungs increased significantly. Conversely, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in the lungs decreased significantly. On the basis of these promising findings, we propose that the sublingual mucosal route is an attractive alternative to mucosal routes for administering probiotics against influenza virus.

  18. Joint Audit of Blackwater Contract and Task Orders for Worldwide Personal Protective Services in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Information Bulletin ( PIB ) 2007-21, which provides guidance for the administration of contractor-held government-furnished property, requires annual... PIB 2007-21 specifi es responsibilities for the property administrator, including managing all government-furnished property and contractor-acquired...Acquisition cost data required by the FAR and the PIB for government-fur- nished property was often missing from or listed as “N/A” on Blackwater

  19. Protective effect of oral L-arginine administration on gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Can, C; Sen, S; Boztok, N; Tuglular, I

    2000-03-03

    We investigated the effects of orally supplemented L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide (NO) and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor in gentamicin-induced renal failure. Rats were given gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day s.c.), gentamicin and L-arginine (2 g/l, drinking water), gentamicin and L-NAME (100 mg/l, drinking water) or gentamicin plus L-arginine and L-NAME. After 8 days, the gentamicin group developed marked renal failure, characterized by a significantly decreased creatinine clearance and increased blood creatinine, fractional excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of lithium, urine gamma glutamyl transferase, systolic blood pressure and daily urine volume when compared to controls. Renal histological analysis confirmed tubular necrosis. L-arginine administration caused normalization of these parameters, whereas L-NAME led to aggravation of the failure. Concomitant administration of L-NAME and L-arginine to gentamicin-treated rats caused no significant changes when compared to the rats receiving gentamicin alone. We conclude that L-arginine supplementation has beneficial effects in gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats and that these effects are reversed by the NO-synthase inhibitor, L-NAME.

  20. U.S. EPA orders companies in Visalia, Calif., to protect Mill Creek from polluted wastewater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced the resolution of a series of enforcement actions for Clean Water Act violations at three manufacturing companies located in Visalia, Calif. The facilities owned by Univar USA, Advan

  1. Myocardial protection by intracoronary nicardipine administration during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Hanet, C; Rousseau, M F; Vincent, M F; Lavenne-Pardonge, E; Pouleur, H

    1987-05-01

    To determine if the calcium antagonist nicardipine protects the myocardium against ischemia, myocardial lactate, hypoxanthine and prostanoid function was studied in 12 patients during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Values were obtained before balloon inflation and during 4 minutes after deflation. Intracoronary injection of 0.2 mg of nicardipine distal to the stenosis was done randomly before the first or second inflation; the other inflation served as a control. One minute after deflation, coronary sinus flow levels were similar during the nicardipine and control procedure (161 +/- 61 vs 159 +/- 72 ml/min); lactate (-9 +/- 21% vs -17 +/- 21%, p less than 0.025) and hypoxanthine production (-107 +/- 85% vs -218 +/- 153%, p less than 0.05) were less severe after nicardipine pretreatment than after control. All patients reverted to lactate extraction 4 minutes after inflation plus nicardipine infusion, whereas lactate was still produced 4 minutes after control inflation. No significant changes in thromboxane B2 or prostacyclin levels were observed in the coronary sinus 1 minute after inflation, but higher arterial thromboxane B2 values were observed after control inflation than after inflation with nicardipine infusion (median values 169 vs 78 pg/ml, p less than 0.05). In conclusion, intracoronary infusion of nicardipine reduced signs of ischemia and alterations in prostanoid handling after coronary occlusion. The mechanisms of myocardial protection appeared unrelated to coronary sinus blood flow changes or to a systemic effect of nicardipine.

  2. Administration of defined microbiota is protective in a murine Salmonella infection model.

    PubMed

    Martz, Sarah-Lynn E; McDonald, Julie A K; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Gloor, Gregory B; Noordhof, Curtis; He, Shu-Mei; Gerbaba, Teklu K; Blennerhassett, Michael; Hurlbut, David J; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Claud, Erika C; Petrof, Elaine O

    2015-11-04

    Salmonella typhimurium is a major cause of diarrhea and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and perturbations of the gut microbiota are known to increase susceptibility to enteric infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic (MET-1) consisting of 33 bacterial strains, isolated from human stool and previously used to cure patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, could also protect against S. typhimurium disease. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with streptomycin prior to receiving MET-1 or control, then gavaged with S. typhimurium. Weight loss, serum cytokine levels, and S. typhimurium splenic translocation were measured. NF-κB nuclear staining, neutrophil accumulation, and localization of tight junction proteins (claudin-1, ZO-1) were visualized by immunofluorescence. Infected mice receiving MET-1 lost less weight, had reduced serum cytokines, reduced NF-κB nuclear staining, and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the cecum. MET-1 also preserved cecum tight junction protein expression, and reduced S. typhimurium translocation to the spleen. Notably, MET-1 did not decrease CFUs of Salmonella in the intestine. MET-1 may attenuate systemic infection by preserving tight junctions, thereby inhibiting S. typhimurium from gaining access to the systemic circulation. We conclude that MET-1 may be protective against enteric infections besides C. difficile infection.

  3. Delayed administration of darbepoetin or erythropoietin protects against ischemic acute renal injury and failure.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Pat, B; Vesey, D A; Guan, Z; Endre, Z; Gobe, G C

    2006-05-01

    Administration of human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) at time of acute ischemic renal injury (IRI) inhibits apoptosis, enhances tubular epithelial regeneration, and promotes renal functional recovery. The present study aimed to determine whether darbepoetin-alfa (DPO) exhibits comparable renoprotection to that afforded by EPO, whether pro or antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are involved, and whether delayed administration of EPO or DPO 6 h following IRI ameliorates renal dysfunction. The model of IRI involved bilateral renal artery occlusion for 45 min in rats (N = 4 per group), followed by reperfusion for 1-7 days. Controls were sham-operated. Rats were treated at time of ischemia or sham operation (T0), or post-treated (6 h after the onset of reperfusion, T6) with EPO (5000 IU/kg), DPO (25 mug/kg), or appropriate vehicle by intraperitoneal injection. Renal function, structure, and immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax were analyzed. DPO or EPO at T0 significantly abrogated renal dysfunction in IRI animals (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.08 +/- 0.03 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.04 +/- 0.01 mmol/l, P = 0.01). Delayed administration of DPO or EPO (T6) also significantly abrogated subsequent renal dysfunction (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.06 +/- 0.01 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.03 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, P = 0.01). There was also significantly decreased tissue injury (apoptosis, P < 0.05), decreased proapoptotic Bax, and increased regenerative capacity, especially in the outer stripe of the outer medulla, with DPO or EPO at T0 or T6. These results reaffirm the potential clinical application of DPO and EPO as novel renoprotective agents for patients at risk of ischemic acute renal failure or after having sustained an ischemic renal insult.

  4. 18 CFR 385.410 - Objections to discovery, motions to quash or to compel, and protective orders (Rule 410).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Objections to discovery... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.410 Objections to discovery, motions to quash or to compel, and protective orders (Rule 410)....

  5. 18 CFR 385.410 - Objections to discovery, motions to quash or to compel, and protective orders (Rule 410).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Objections to discovery... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.410 Objections to discovery, motions to quash or to compel, and protective orders (Rule 410)....

  6. 18 CFR 385.410 - Objections to discovery, motions to quash or to compel, and protective orders (Rule 410).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Objections to discovery... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.410 Objections to discovery, motions to quash or to compel, and protective orders (Rule 410)....

  7. 18 CFR 385.410 - Objections to discovery, motions to quash or to compel, and protective orders (Rule 410).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Objections to discovery... RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.410 Objections to discovery, motions to quash or to compel, and protective orders (Rule 410)....

  8. 77 FR 70463 - Public Land Order No. 7801; Withdrawal of Public Lands for Protection of Proposed Expansion of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Public Land Order No. 7801; Withdrawal of Public Lands for Protection of Proposed Expansion of Twentynine Palms, CA Correction In notice document 2012-23479 beginning on page 58864 of the issue of...

  9. Therapeutic Administration of a Monoclonal Anti-Il-1β Antibody Protects Against Experimental Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; De Jong, Hanna K.; De Boer, Onno J.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Day, Nicholas P.; Gram, Hermann; De Vos, Alex F.; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Melioidosis, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a common cause of community-acquired sepsis in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream product interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) have been proposed to play crucial roles in melioidosis. In this study, we characterized the role of IL-1β more closely and we assessed its therapeutic potential. Methods: mRNA expression of inflammasome components was determined in isolated leukocytes of 32 healthy controls and 34 patients with sepsis caused by B pseudomallei. Wild-type (WT), NLRP3-deficient (Nlrp3−/−), and Asc−/− mice were infected with B pseudomallei. In additional experiments, infected WT mice were treated with an anti-IL-1β antibody. After 24, 48, and 72 hours (h) mice were sacrificed and organs were harvested. Furthermore, survival studies were performed. Results: Patients with melioidosis exhibited lower mRNA levels of caspase-1, NLRP3, and ASC. Bacterial dissemination and organ damage were increased in B pseudomallei-infected Nlrp3−/− and Asc−/− mice, together with a reduced pulmonary cell influx. Anti-IL-1β treatment of B pseudomallei challenged mice resulted in strongly reduced bacterial counts, organ damage, and pulmonary granulocyte influx together with reduced mortality. Postponement of anti-IL-1β treatment for 24 h postinfection still protected mice during melioidosis. Conclusion: Expression of caspase-1, NLRP3, and ASC is altered in melioidosis patients. In mice, both NLRP3 and ASC contribute to the host defense against melioidosis. Anti-IL-1β treatment protects mice against B pseudomallei infection and might be a novel treatment strategy in melioidosis. PMID:27219859

  10. Oral administration of a recombinant attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain elicits protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-11-27

    A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis PB1+ (Yptb PB1+) mutant strain combined with chromosome insertion of the caf1R-caf1A-caf1M-caf1 operon and deletions of yopJ and yopK, χ10068 [pYV-ω2 (ΔyopJ315 ΔyopK108) ΔlacZ044::caf1R-caf1M-caf1A-caf1] was constructed. Results indicated that gene insertion and deletion did not affect the growth rate of χ10068 compared to wild-type Yptb cultured at 26 °C. In addition, the F1 antigen in χ10068 was synthesized and secreted on the surface of bacteria at 37 °C (mammalian body temperature), not at ambient culture temperature (26 °C). Immunization with χ10068 primed antibody responses and specific T-cell responses to F1 and YpL (Y. pestis whole cell lysate). Oral immunization with a single dose of χ10068 provided 70% protection against a subcutaneous (s.c.) challenge with ∼ 2.6 × 10(5) LD50 of Y. pestis KIM6+ (pCD1Ap) (KIM6+Ap) and 90% protection against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ∼ 500 LD50 of KIM6+Ap in mice. Our results suggest that χ10068 can be used as an effective precursor to make a safe vaccine to prevent plague in humans and to eliminate plague circulation among humans and animals.

  11. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 protects hairless mouse against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Mee; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Soo Dong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Ji Woong; Jang, Sung Sik; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Chung, Dae Kyun; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2014-11-28

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation alters multiple molecular pathways in the skin, thereby inducing skin damage, including photoaging. In recent years, probiotics have gained interest due to their beneficial effects on skin health, such as inhibiting atopic dermatitis and improving skin immunity or inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of probiotics on UVBinduced photoaging. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 against UVB-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice. The results showed that L. plantarum HY7714 treatment effectively rescued UVB-reduced procollagen expression through the inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Data from a western blot showed that L. plantarum HY7714 inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase, thereby suppressing the UVB-induced phosphorylation and expression of c-Jun. Oral administration of L. plantarum HY7714 clearly inhibited the number, depth, and area of wrinkles in hairless mouse skin. Histological data showed that L. plantarum HY7714 significantly inhibited UVB-induced epidermal thickness in mice. Western blot and zymography data also revealed that L. plantarum HY7714 effectively inhibited MMP-13 expression as well as MMP-2 and -9 activities in dermal tissue. Collectively, these results provide further insight regarding the skin biological actions of L. plantarum HY7714, a potential skin anti-photoaging agent.

  12. Do family order and neighbor intervention against intimate partner violence protect children from abuse? Findings from Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Do, Mi Hyang; Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on previous research on intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, and informal social control, we hypothesized relationships between child abuse severity and (1) protective informal social control of intimate partner violence (ISC_IPV) by neighbors, (2) intimate terrorism, (3) family order, and (4) the power of mothers in intimate relationships. In what we believe may be a first study of physical child abuse by parents in Nepal, we used a three stage cluster approach to draw a random sample of 300 families in Kathmandu. Random effects regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. The analyses found support for hypotheses one and two, but with an important caveat. Although observed (actual) protective ISC_IPV had the hypothesized negative association with child abuse severity, in one of our models perceived protective ISC_IPV was positively associated with child abuse severity. The models clarify that the overall direction of protective ISC_IPV appears to be negative (protective), but the positive finding is important to consider for both research and practice. A significant relationship between family order and child abuse severity was found, but the direction was negative rather than positive as in hypothesis three. Implications for neighborhood research and typological research on IPV and child maltreatment are discussed.

  13. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. 75 FR 14152 - Executive Order 13508; Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration Section 502; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...-effective tools and practices that reduce water pollution and requests public comment. The document was... Chesapeake Bay watershed describing proven, cost-effective tools and practices that reduce water pollution...: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 2822T, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW.,...

  15. Protective effects of sildenafil citrate administration on cisplatin-induced ovarian damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mine Islimye; Yay, Arzu; Adali, Ertan; Balcioglu, Esra; Inceboz, Umit

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate on cisplatin-induced ovarian toxicity. Thirty-two female rats were divided into four groups. Group 1: saline control; group 2: cisplatin; group 3: sildenafil citrate; and group 4: cisplatin plus sildenafil citrate group. In groups 2 and 4, the rats were injected with 5 mg/kg cisplatin intraperitoneally (i.p.). In groups 3 and 4, the rats were injected with 1.4 mg/kg sildenafil citrate i.p. The ovaries were removed two weeks later in all groups. Histopathologic examination, follicle counting and classification were performed. The expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was detected immunohistochemically in the ovarian tissues. Sildenafil alleviated cisplatin-induced histopathological changes in the ovarian tissue. Primordial, secondary and tertiary follicles were diminished in group 2 compared with group 1 (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with sildenafil citrate preserved primordial follicle count in group 4 compared with group 2, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). According to our results, immunoreactivity intensity of AMH was lower in group 2 compared with group 1 (92.4 ± 3.97 versus 88.8 ± 1.77) but not significantly, whereas immunoreactivity intensity of AMH was higher in group 4 compared with group 2 (88.8 ± 1.77 versus 94.1 ± 2.36; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with sildenafil citrate is beneficial for protecting the ovaries from cisplatin-induced damage. Sildenafil citrate can be a choice for fertility preservation.

  16. Systemic Administration of Oleoylethanolamide Protects from Neuroinflammation and Anhedonia Induced by LPS in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sayd, Aline; Antón, María; Alén, Francisco; Caso, Javier Rubén; Pavón, Javier; Leza, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acylethanolamides oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide are endogenous lipid mediators with proposed neuroprotectant properties in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. The precise mechanisms remain partly unknown, but growing evidence suggests an antiinflammatory/antioxidant profile. Methods: We tested whether oleoylethanolamide/palmitoylethanolamide (10mg/kg, i.p.) attenuate neuroinflammation and acute phase responses (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis stress axis activation, thermoregulation, and anhedonia) induced by lipopolysaccharide (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Results: Lipopolysaccharide increased mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, nuclear transcription factor-κB activity, and the expression of its inhibitory protein IκBα in cytoplasm, the inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase mRNA, and proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 content in frontal cortex 150 minutes after administration. As a result, the markers of nitrosative/oxidative stress nitrites (NO2 -) and malondialdehyde were increased. Pretreatment with oleoylethanolamide/ palmitoylethanolamide reduced plasma tumor necrosis factor-α levels after lipopolysaccharide, but only oleoylethanolamide significantly reduced brain tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. Oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB)/IκBα upregulation in nuclear and cytosolic extracts, respectively, the expression of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase and the levels of prostaglandin E2. Additionally, both acylethanolamides reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress. Neither oleoylethanolamide nor palmitoylethanolamide modified plasma corticosterone levels after lipopolysaccharide, but both

  17. CBLB502 administration protects gut mucosal tissue in ulcerative colitis by inhibiting inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Dong, Hongxia; Ge, Changhui; Gao, Yan; Liu, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a nonspecific inflammatory disease for which medications and therapeutic strategies have only been moderately successful. CBLB502, a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist derived from Salmonella flagellin, exhibits anticancer and radioprotective activities via modulation of TLRs and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and can protect against acute renal ischemic failure. In this study, we intend to examine the effects of CBLB502 on both TLR responses and the interleukin (IL) and NF-κB signaling pathways in UC treatment. Methods The UC mouse model was prepared in BALB/c mice by administering 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). CBLB502 was used as the therapeutic drug. After CBLB502 therapy, the IL and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured by ELISA. Total RNA and protein of colon samples was extracted. Results We found that CBLB502 had a distinctive therapeutic effect in the UC model. In control group animals, IL-10 expression in serum was 91.48±24.38 ng/mL; this was higher than in the model group (59.36±14.46 ng/mL, P<0.05) or the treatment group (54.29±5.83 ng/mL, P<0.05). In model group animals, the concentration of TNF-α in serum was 140.11±12.70 ng/mL, which was lower than protein levels in the control group (173.86±29.26 ng/mL, P<0.05). The mRNA levels of TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 in the CBLB502 treatment group were significantly lower than in the model group (P<0.05). Western blot revealed that CBLB502 also reduced NF-κB expression in the mouse colon, but that NF-κB expression was not significantly lower than the model group. Conclusions CBLB502 can reduce mucosal damage induced by TNBS and inhibit inflammation and TLR expression. The inhibition of UC by CBLB502 is strictly TLR-IL-dependent and is dose-dependent within the efficacious dose range. Therefore, our results suggested that CBLB502 might be a candidate drug for the treatment of UC. PMID:27668221

  18. 20 CFR 655.840 - What are the requirements for a decision and order of the administrative law judge?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the decision, including judicial review, a petition for Secretary's review thereof shall be filed... decision, or, unless and until 30 calendar days have passed after the Secretary's receipt of the petition... administrative law judge's decision. (b) The decision of the administrative law judge shall include a...

  19. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    President William Jefferson Clinton's Executive Order that each Federal agency assess safety risks to children; and ensure that policies, programs, activities, and standards address disproportionate risks. Also established the Task Force.

  20. 77 FR 58867 - Public Land Order No. 7799; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Rock Springs Administrative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... the general land laws, including the United States mining laws, for a period of 20 years to protect..., location, and entry under the general land laws, including the United States mining laws, but not from leasing under the mineral leasing laws, for the Bureau of Land Management to protect the...

  1. Sexual assault and other types of intimate partner violence in women with protection orders in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual assault in the context of intimate partner violence in a sample of women receiving a protection order in South Africa. In all, 268 women (18 years of age and older) consecutively receiving a protection order in the Vhembe District in South Africa were assessed by an external interviewer. Results indicate that from the total sample, 40.7% reported sexual assault, one or more times, during the relationship in the past 3 months; 58.2% reported stalking by the intimate partner; and almost all reported some form of psychological abuse (94.0%), physical violence (93.7%), and danger (99.3%). In all, 37% reported psychological, physical, and sexual violence. In multivariate regression psychological abuse, physical violence and stalking were found to be associated with sexual assault.

  2. Protection of the infant thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide. An experimental evaluation in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J L; Hummel, W A; Broerse, J J; de Vijlder, J J; Vulsma, T; van Bekkum, D W

    1997-06-01

    Protection of the thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide was investigated in chimpanzees aged 2 to 98 weeks. The uptake of iodide in the thyroid was measured with 123I-. The animals were subjected to a control measurement first, and subsequently the thyroid uptake of 123I- was determined twice; once at the start and once at the end of 11 days of ingestion of 0.5, 1.5 or 5.0 mg of stable iodide per kg body weight per day. The three doses of iodide reduced the control thyroid iodide uptake of 10 to 30% to lower than 1% when ingested 1 h before exposure to the tracer and to 2-4% when ingested 20 h before exposure. In the latter experiments 0.5 mg iodide/kg was less effective than doses of 1.5 mg/kg or higher. The physiological state of the thyroid of control infant chimpanzees does not differ from that of human infants. Incidentally, an increased level of TSH was found during the ingestion of iodide, but with unaltered thyroxine levels. Therefore, it is concluded that a daily dose of 1.5 mg stable iodide/kg body weight and higher offers optimal protection of the thyroid against exposure to radioactive iodine in infants and that, when used during 10 days, it leaves the thyroid unaffected.

  3. Administration of nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding broadly neutralizing antibody protects humanized mice from HIV-1 challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pardi, Norbert; Secreto, Anthony J.; Shan, Xiaochuan; Debonera, Fotini; Glover, Joshua; Yi, Yanjie; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Ni, Houping; Mui, Barbara L.; Tam, Ying K.; Shaheen, Farida; Collman, Ronald G.; Karikó, Katalin; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn A.; Madden, Thomas D.; Hope, Michael J.; Weissman, Drew

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are one of the fastest growing classes of pharmaceutical products, however, their potential is limited by the high cost of development and manufacturing. Here we present a safe and cost-effective platform for in vivo expression of therapeutic antibodies using nucleoside-modified mRNA. To demonstrate feasibility and protective efficacy, nucleoside-modified mRNAs encoding the light and heavy chains of the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibody VRC01 are generated and encapsulated into lipid nanoparticles. Systemic administration of 1.4 mg kg−1 of mRNA into mice results in ∼170 μg ml−1 VRC01 antibody concentrations in the plasma 24 h post injection. Weekly injections of 1 mg kg−1 of mRNA into immunodeficient mice maintain trough VRC01 levels above 40 μg ml−1. Most importantly, the translated antibody from a single injection of VRC01 mRNA protects humanized mice from intravenous HIV-1 challenge, demonstrating that nucleoside-modified mRNA represents a viable delivery platform for passive immunotherapy against HIV-1 with expansion to a variety of diseases. PMID:28251988

  4. Fragility of symmetry-protected topological order on a Hubbard ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moudgalya, Sanjay; Pollmann, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Anfuso and Rosch [Phys. Rev. B 75, 144420 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.144420] showed that the "topological" Haldane phase in a fermionic spin-1 /2 ladder can be continuously deformed into a "trivial" phase without explicitly breaking symmetries when local charge fluctuations are taken into account. Within the framework of symmetry-protected topological phases, we revisit the model and demonstrate how the Haldane phase can be adiabatically connected to a trivial phase due to charge fluctuations. Furthermore, we show that the Haldane phase remains stable as long as the system is symmetric under particular reflection symmetries.

  5. EPA Order 1000.17 on Policy and Procedures of Protection of Human Research Subjects in EPA Conducted or Supported Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Order supersedes EPA Order 1000.17 Policy and Procedures on Protection of Human Subjects, July 30, 1999 including changes thereto, and establishes EPA responsibilities and policies for the use of human subjects in research.

  6. Reservoir-induced Thouless pumping and symmetry-protected topological order in open quantum chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linzner, D.; Wawer, L.; Grusdt, F.; Fleischhauer, M.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a classification of symmetry-protected topological phases applicable to stationary states of open systems based on a generalization of the many-body polarization. The polarization can be used to probe topological properties of noninteracting and interacting closed and open systems and remains a meaningful quantity even in the presence of moderate particle-number fluctuations. As examples, we discuss two open-system versions of a topological Thouless pump in the steady state of one-dimensional lattices driven by Markovian reservoirs. In an analogous unitary system, the Su-Shrieffer-Heeger model, symmetries enforce a quantization of the geometric Zak phase, which acts as a topological invariant. Introducing a further degree of freedom, a nontrivial winding of the phase can be observed upon cyclic variations of parameters. Associated with this is a quantization or, respectively, a winding of the polarization corresponding to a quantized transport (Thouless pump). We here show that in the open system, where the Zak phase loses its meaning, the same symmetries enforce a quantization and more generally a winding of the generalized many-body polarization. These features are shown to be robust against Hamiltonian perturbations as well as homogeneous dephasing and particle losses.

  7. Protective Effects of Edaravone in Adult Rats with Surgery and Lipopolysaccharide Administration-Induced Cognitive Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Ma, Li; Zhou, Xueyue; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yongan

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by cognitive declines in patients after surgery. Previous studies have suggested that surgery contributed to such impairment. It has been proven that neuroinflammation may exacerbate surgery-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. The free radical scavenger edaravone has high blood brain barrier permeability, and was demonstrated to effectively remove free radicals from the brain and alleviate the development of POCD in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, suggesting its potential role in preventing POCD. For this reason, this study was designed to determine whether edaravone is protective against POCD through its inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. First, Sprague Dawley adult male rats were administered 3 mg/kg edaravone intraperitoneally after undergoing a unilateral nephrectomy combined with lipopolysaccharide injection. Second, behavioral parameters related to cognitive function were recorded by fear conditioning and Morris Water Maze tests. Last, superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortex on postoperative days 3 and 7, and microglial (Iba1) activation, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and synaptic function (synapsin 1) were also examined 3 and 7 days after surgery. Rats that underwent surgery plus lipopolysaccharide administration showed significant impairments in spatial and working memory, accompanied by significant reductions in hippocampal-dependent and independent fear responses. All impairments were attenuated by treatment with edaravone. Moreover, an abnormal decrease in superoxide dismutase activation, abnormal increase in malondialdehyde levels, significant increase in microglial reactivity, downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and a statistically significant decrease in synapsin-1 were observed in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortices of

  8. Effect of sub-acute oral cyanide administration in rats: protective efficacy of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Tulsawani, R K; Debnath, M; Pant, S C; Kumar, Om; Prakash, A O; Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhattacharya, R

    2005-09-10

    Chronic toxicity of cyanide in humans and animals has been previously described. Alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) and sodium thiosulfate (STS) are known to confer remarkable protection against acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. Their efficacy against sub-acute or chronic cyanide exposure is not known. The objective of the present study was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) in female rats following oral administration of 7.0 mg/kg (0.5 LD50) for 14 d. The effect of alpha-KG (oral; 1.0 g/kg) and/or STS (intraperitoneal, 1.0 g/kg) on cyanide toxicity was also evaluated. Various hematological and biochemical indices were determined after 7 d of treatment and additional parameters like organ-body weight index (OBI) and histology of brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen were performed after 14 and 21 d (recovery group) of cyanide exposure. Sub-acute exposure of KCN did not produce any significant change in body weight of the animals, OBI, hematology and the levels of blood urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). The levels of temporal glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSSG were unaffected. However, in KCN treated animals elevated levels of blood glucose and reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase were observed. Activities of cytochrome c oxidase in the brain and rhodanese in the liver were diminished. Reduced levels of GSH and enhanced levels of MDA in brain were observed. Increased levels of blood thiocyanate were observed in all the treatments of KCN. Additionally, KCN also produced various histological changes in the brain, heart, liver and kidney. Although, treatment of alpha-KG and STS alone significantly blunted the toxicity of KCN, concomitant use of both interventions afforded to maximum protection. This study indicates a promising role of alpha-KG and STS for the treatment of prolonged cyanide exposures.

  9. Protection genes in nucleus accumbens shell affect vulnerability to nicotine self-administration across isogenic strains of adolescent rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Luo, Rui; Gong, Suzhen; Matta, Shannon G; Sharp, Burt M

    2014-01-01

    Classical genetic studies show the heritability of cigarette smoking is 0.4-0.6, and that multiple genes confer susceptibility and resistance to smoking. Despite recent advances in identifying genes associated with smoking behaviors, the major source of this heritability and its impact on susceptibility and resistance are largely unknown. Operant self-administration (SA) of intravenous nicotine is an established model for smoking behavior. We recently confirmed that genetic factors exert strong control over nicotine intake in isogenic rat strains. Because the processing of afferent dopaminergic signals by nucleus accumbens shell (AcbS) is critical for acquisition and maintenance of motivated behaviors reinforced by nicotine, we hypothesized that differential basal gene expression in AcbS accounts for much of the strain-to-strain variation in nicotine SA. We therefore sequenced the transcriptome of AcbS samples obtained by laser capture microdissection from 10 isogenic adolescent rat strains and compared all RNA transcript levels with behavior. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, a systems biology method, found 12 modules (i.e., unique sets of genes that covary across all samples) that correlated (p<0.05) with amount of self-administered nicotine; 9 of 12 correlated negatively, implying a protective role. PCR confirmed selected genes from these modules. Chilibot, a literature mining tool, identified 15 genes within 1 module that were nominally associated with cigarette smoking, thereby providing strong support for the analytical approach. This is the first report demonstrating that nicotine intake by adolescent rodents is associated with the expression of specific genes in AcbS of the mesolimbic system, which controls motivated behaviors. These findings provide new insights into genetic mechanisms that predispose or protect against tobacco addiction.

  10. Protective effects of intraperitoneal vitamin C, aprotinin and melatonin administration on retinal edema during experimental uveitis in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kükner, A Sahap; Kükner, Aysel; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Colakoğlu, Neriman; Celebi, Serdal; Yilmaz, Turgut; Aydemir, Orhan

    2004-01-01

    .05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that oedematous effects of EU on the retina were reduced by the administration of intraperitoneal vitamin C, aprotinin and melatonin, i.e. these antioxidants had significant protective effects on the retina of guinea pigs against oedematous damage in EU. However, the reductive effect of vitamin C on EU was greater than that of aprotinin and melatonin. The intraperitoneal vitamin C, aprotinin and melatonin supplementations may strengthen the antioxidant defence system because of decreased ROS, and these agents may play a role in treating uveitis.

  11. Prior access to a sweet is more protective against cocaine self-administration in female rats than in male rats.

    PubMed

    Cason, Angie M; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-03-15

    It is well established that female rats are more sensitive than male rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (Lynch, 2008 [42] for review). We hypothesized that greater preference for cocaine would support greater avoidance of a cocaine-paired taste cue in female vs. male rats. Moreover, at least in male rats, greater avoidance of the taste cue is associated with greater cocaine self-administration (Grigson and Twining, 2002 [3]). Thus, we anticipated that female rats would not only demonstrate greater avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue, but greater drug-taking as well. We tested these hypotheses by examining avoidance of a saccharin cue in male and female rats following several pairings with self-administered saline or cocaine (0.16, 0.33, or 0.66 mg/infusion). Contrary to expectations, the results showed that female rats exhibited less avoidance of the cocaine-associated saccharin cue than male rats and self-administered less, rather than more, cocaine, Thus, while female rats reportedly take more drug than male rats when the drug is presented in the absence of an alternative reward, they take less drug than male rats when the opportunity to self-administer cocaine is preceded by access to a palatable sweet. Females, then, may not simply be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of drug, but also to the reinforcing properties of natural rewards and this increase in sensitivity to sweets may serve to protect against drug-taking behavior.

  12. Detection of symmetry-protected topological order in AKLT states by exact evaluation of the strange correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierschem, K.; Beach, K. S. D.

    2016-06-01

    The strange correlator [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247202 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.247202] has been proposed as a measure of symmetry protected topological order in one- and two-dimensional systems. It takes the form of a spin-spin correlation function, computed as a mixed overlap between the state of interest and a trivial local product state. We demonstrate that it can be computed exactly (asymptotically, in the Monte Carlo sense) for various Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki states by direct evaluation of the wave function within the valence bond loop gas framework. We present results for lattices with chain, square, honeycomb, cube, diamond, and hyperhoneycomb geometries. In each case, the spin quantum number S is varied such that 2 S (the number of valence bonds emerging from each site) achieves various integer multiples of the lattice coordination number. We introduce the concept of strange correlator loop winding number and point to its utility in testing for the presence of symmetry protected topological order.

  13. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  14. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  15. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  16. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  17. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  18. Using AHP to analyze and ascertain the priority protective order of endangered plants in East Alashan-West Erdos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhang; Wei, Wang; Wang, Gary Z.; Luo, Hongyan; Liang, Cunzhu; Liu, Jiahui; An, Huijun; Pei, Hao; Zhong, Huidong; Chen, Xiaojun

    2006-08-01

    AHP is a kind of very effective systematic analytical method, widely applied to energy utilizing and resource analyzing, talent predicting, economic management project, urban industries planning, communications and transportation, water resource using and so on, using this method to solve the problem of ecology also have very strong practicability and validity. Using 15 kinds of endured plants in East Alashan-West Erdos as the research objects, this paper adopts 3S technique and outfield investigates to confirm the geographical distributions, extent density in the distribution area, plant community construction, and plant community environment of the plants. Then invite the experts to give marks according to this datum and using the AHP method to deal with the results, thereby get the priority protective order of endangered plants in East Alashan-West Erdos.

  19. 40 CFR 90.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test orders. 90.503 Section 90.503....503 Test orders. (a) The Administrator shall require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant...

  20. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  1. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  2. 40 CFR 90.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 90.503 Section 90.503....503 Test orders. (a) The Administrator shall require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant...

  3. Efficacy of polysaccharide from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 administration as protection against γ-radiation in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Amal I.; Ghoneim, Mona A. M.; Mahmoud, Manal G.; Asker, Mohsen M. S.; Mohamed, Saher S.

    2016-01-01

    Damage to normal tissues is a consequence of both therapeutic and accidental exposures to ionizing radiation. A water-soluble heteropolysaccharide called AXEPS, composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and glucouronic acid in a molar ratio of nearly 1.0:1.6:0.4:2.3, respectively, was isolated from culture medium of strain Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 by ethanol precipitation followed by freeze-drying. Chemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and chromatographic studies revealed that the molecular weight was 1.6 × 104 g mol−1. This study was designed to investigate the radioprotective and biological effects of AXEPS in alleviating the toxicity of ionizing radiation in female albino rats. A total of 32 female albino rats were divided into four groups. In the control group, rats were administered vehicle by tube for four weeks. The second group was administered AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for four weeks. Animals in the third group were exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy) and remained for 2 weeks without treatment. The fourth group received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for two weeks before being exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy), then 24 h post γ-rays, they received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) in a treatment continuing till the end of the experiment (15 days after the whole–body γ-irradiation). Oral administration of AXEPS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed the oxidative stress effects of radiation, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in the bone marrow. Assessment of apoptosis and cell proliferation markers revealed that caspase-3 significantly increased in the irradiated group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the hematological constituents of peripheral blood, the chemotactic index and CD8+ T cells were observed in animals in the irradiation-only group, whereas an increase in the lymphocyte index was observed in animals in that group. In contrast, AXEPS treatment prevented these alterations. From our results, we conclude that

  4. Efficacy of polysaccharide from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 administration as protection against γ-radiation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Amal I; Ghoneim, Mona A M; Mahmoud, Manal G; Asker, Mohsen M S; Mohamed, Saher S

    2016-03-01

    Damage to normal tissues is a consequence of both therapeutic and accidental exposures to ionizing radiation. A water-soluble heteropolysaccharide called AXEPS, composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and glucouronic acid in a molar ratio of nearly 1.0:1.6:0.4:2.3, respectively, was isolated from culture medium of strain Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 by ethanol precipitation followed by freeze-drying. Chemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and chromatographic studies revealed that the molecular weight was 1.6 × 10(4) g mol(-1). This study was designed to investigate the radioprotective and biological effects of AXEPS in alleviating the toxicity of ionizing radiation in female albino rats. A total of 32 female albino rats were divided into four groups. In the control group, rats were administered vehicle by tube for four weeks. The second group was administered AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for four weeks. Animals in the third group were exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy) and remained for 2 weeks without treatment. The fourth group received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for two weeks before being exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy), then 24 h post γ-rays, they received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) in a treatment continuing till the end of the experiment (15 days after the whole-body γ-irradiation). Oral administration of AXEPS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed the oxidative stress effects of radiation, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in the bone marrow. Assessment of apoptosis and cell proliferation markers revealed that caspase-3 significantly increased in the irradiated group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the hematological constituents of peripheral blood, the chemotactic index and CD8+ T cells were observed in animals in the irradiation-only group, whereas an increase in the lymphocyte index was observed in animals in that group. In contrast, AXEPS treatment prevented these alterations. From our results, we conclude that

  5. Vaccination with liposomal leishmanial antigens adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-TDM) confers long-term protection against visceral leishmaniasis through a human administrable route.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajesh; Maji, Mithun; Ali, Nahid

    2012-01-01

    The development of a long-term protective subunit vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis depends on antigens and adjuvants that can induce an appropriate immune response. The immunization of leishmanial antigens alone shows limited efficacy in the absence of an appropriate adjuvant. Earlier we demonstrated sustained protection against Leishmania donovani with leishmanial antigens entrapped in cationic liposomes through an intraperitoneal route. However, this route is not applicable for human administration. Herein, we therefore evaluated the immune response and protection induced by liposomal soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) formulated with monophosphoryl lipid-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-TDM) through a subcutaneous route. Subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c mice with SLA entrapped in liposomes or with MPL-TDM elicited partial protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, liposomal SLA adjuvanted with MPL-TDM induced significantly higher levels of protection in liver and spleen in BALB/c mice challenged 10 days post-vaccination. Protection conferred by this formulation was sustained up to 12 weeks of immunization, and infection was controlled for at least 4 months of the challenge, similar to liposomal SLA immunization administered intraperitoneally. An analysis of cellular immune responses of liposomal SLA + MPL-TDM immunized mice demonstrated the induction of IFN-γ and IgG2a antibody production not only 10 days or 12 weeks post-vaccination but also 4 months after the challenge infection and a down regulation of IL-4 production after infection. Moreover, long-term immunity elicited by this formulation was associated with IFN-γ production also by CD8⁺ T cells. Taken together, our results suggest that liposomal SLA + MPL-TDM represent a good vaccine formulation for the induction of durable protection against L. donovani through a human administrable route.

  6. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 alleviates rotavirus gastroenteritis through regulation of intestinal homeostasis by inducing mucosal protective factors

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Tomohiro; Makizaki, Yutaka; Oikawa, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Maeda, Ayako; Shimakawa, Masaki; Komoto, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Kyoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model. As well as prophylactic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 2 days before RV infection, therapeutic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 1 day after RV infection significantly alleviated RV-induced diarrhea. Therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 reduced various types of damage in the small intestine, such as epithelial vacuolization and villous shortening, and significantly diminished the infectious RV titer in mixtures of cecal contents and feces. It was also shown that therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly increased the number of acidic mucin-positive goblet cells and the gene expression of mucosal protective factors including MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, TGFβ1 and TFF3 in the small intestine. This led to alleviation of low gut permeability shown as decreased gene expression levels of occludin, claudin-1 and villin-1 after RV infection. Furthermore, in the small intestine, therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly palliated the decreased gene expression of SGLT-1, which plays an important role in water absorption. In the large intestine, administered BBG9-1 was shown to replicate to assimilate undigested nutrients, resulting in normalization of the abnormally high osmotic pressure. These results suggested that water malabsorption caused by RV infection was alleviated in mice administered

  7. The chicken or the egg? Systematic investigation of the effect of order of administration of Memory Questionnaires and Well-being Scales.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Frederick L; Bouizegarene, Nabil; Guilbault, Valérie; Rajotte, Guillaume; Houle, Iliane

    2015-01-01

    Narrative research claims that episodic/autobiographical memory characteristics and themes represent stable individual differences that relate to well-being. However, the effects of the order of administration of memory descriptions and well-being scales have never been investigated. Of importance, social cognitive research has shown that trivial contextual factors, such as completing a self-report measure, can influence the type of memories recollected afterwards and that memory recollection can transiently affect subsequent self-report ratings--both of which underscore that transient contextual effects, rather than stable individual differences in memory could be responsible for the correlation between memory characteristics and well-being. The present study examined if the order in which (positive or negative) memory and well-being scales are completed affects the characteristics and themes of the memory described, the scores of well-being reported and the relationship between the two. The results revealed some effects of order of administration when memories were described before completing well-being scales, but only on a situational measure of well-being, not on a trait measure. In sum, we recommend assessing memory-related material at the end of questionnaires to avoid potential mood-priming effects.

  8. Oral Administration of Electron-Beam Inactivated Rhodococcus equi Failed to Protect Foals against Intrabronchial Infection with Live, Virulent R. equi

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joana N.; Cohen, Noah D.; Bordin, Angela I.; Brake, Courtney N.; Giguère, Steeve; Coleman, Michelle C.; Alaniz, Robert C.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Mwangi, Waithaka; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no licensed vaccine that protects foals against Rhodococcus equi–induced pneumonia. Oral administration of live, virulent R. equi to neonatal foals has been demonstrated to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with virulent R. equi. Electron beam (eBeam)-inactivated R. equi are structurally intact and have been demonstrated to be immunogenic when administered orally to neonatal foals. Thus, we investigated whether eBeam inactivated R. equi could protect foals against developing pneumonia after experimental infection with live, virulent R. equi. Foals (n = 8) were vaccinated by gavaging with eBeam-inactivated R. equi at ages 2, 7, and 14 days, or gavaged with equal volume of saline solution (n = 4), and subsequently infected intrabronchially with live, virulent R. equi at age 21 days. The proportion of vaccinated foals that developed pneumonia following challenge was similar among the vaccinated (7/8; 88%) and unvaccinated foals (3/4; 75%). This vaccination regimen did not appear to be strongly immunogenic in foals. Alternative dosing regimens or routes of administration need further investigation and may prove to be immunogenic and protective. PMID:26828865

  9. Oral Administration of Electron-Beam Inactivated Rhodococcus equi Failed to Protect Foals against Intrabronchial Infection with Live, Virulent R. equi.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joana N; Cohen, Noah D; Bordin, Angela I; Brake, Courtney N; Giguère, Steeve; Coleman, Michelle C; Alaniz, Robert C; Lawhon, Sara D; Mwangi, Waithaka; Pillai, Suresh D

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no licensed vaccine that protects foals against Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia. Oral administration of live, virulent R. equi to neonatal foals has been demonstrated to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with virulent R. equi. Electron beam (eBeam)-inactivated R. equi are structurally intact and have been demonstrated to be immunogenic when administered orally to neonatal foals. Thus, we investigated whether eBeam inactivated R. equi could protect foals against developing pneumonia after experimental infection with live, virulent R. equi. Foals (n = 8) were vaccinated by gavaging with eBeam-inactivated R. equi at ages 2, 7, and 14 days, or gavaged with equal volume of saline solution (n = 4), and subsequently infected intrabronchially with live, virulent R. equi at age 21 days. The proportion of vaccinated foals that developed pneumonia following challenge was similar among the vaccinated (7/8; 88%) and unvaccinated foals (3/4; 75%). This vaccination regimen did not appear to be strongly immunogenic in foals. Alternative dosing regimens or routes of administration need further investigation and may prove to be immunogenic and protective.

  10. Mental health, partner violence and HIV risk among women with protective orders against violent partners in Vhembe district, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mental health, substance use and intimate partner violence in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk in South Africa. In all 268 women (18 years and older) consecutively receiving a protection order in the Vhembe district in South Africa were assessed by an external interviewer. Results indicate that 69.8% of the women had never used a condom with their abusive partner and 16.4% had been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past three months. A high proportion (51.9%) had Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression (66.4%). In multivariate analysis, being married or cohabiting, lower psychological abuse, higher physical violence and lower sexual violence, and having a PTSD was associated with never using a condom in the past 3 months; higher psychological abuse and higher physical and sexual violence were associated with a history of an STI in the past 3 months. Severity of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and suffering from PTSD increased HIV risk calling for multimodal interventions.

  11. The effect of cortisol on emotional responses depends on order of cortisol and placebo administration in a within-subjects design

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michelle M.; Scherer, Sean M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1 mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48 hours apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol’s effects on emotion in two ways: A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g. habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes. PMID:21232874

  12. The effect of cortisol on emotional responses depends on order of cortisol and placebo administration in a within-subject design.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michelle M; Scherer, Sean M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2011-08-01

    Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48h apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol's effects on emotion in two ways: (A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and (B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g., habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes.

  13. Acute but not chronic administration of pioglitazone promoted behavioral and neurochemical protective effects in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Janaína K; Santiago, Ronise M; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ariza, Deborah; Morais, Lívia H; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neurochemical, motor and cognitive effects of pioglitazone in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In the first experiment, we administered MPTP, and 1h later administered a single oral dose of pioglitazone (5, 15 and 30 mg/kg). The following day, we performed the open-field test and neurochemical dose response curve. We demonstrated that 30 mg/kg of pioglitazone was capable of restoring striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations and motor behaviors. A second experiment was conducted to test the effects of two protocols (acute and chronic) of pioglitazone (30 mg/kg) administration in the open-field test, two-way active avoidance task and in the DA and metabolites levels. The acute protocol consisted of a single oral administration 1 h after MPTP, whereas the chronic protocol was performed with daily administrations starting 1 h after MPTP and ending 22 days after that. Results showed that neither protocol was able to reverse the cognitive impairment promoted by MPTP. We also demonstrated that acute treatment generated some level of neuroprotection, as confirmed by the absence of DA reduction in the group treated with pioglitazone in comparison to the sham group. By contrast, chronic treatment leaded to a reduction of striatal DA, close to MPTP administration alone. These findings suggest that acute administration of pioglitazone (30 mg/kg) was more efficient in generating beneficial effects on motor behaviors and in striatal DA levels. Nevertheless, we failed to demonstrate that pioglitazone administration improved performance on a dopamine-related cognitive task after MPTP.

  14. Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against Pneumonic Plague ▿ #

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devender; Kirimanjeswara, Girish; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of Yersinia pestis causes pneumonic plague, which rapidly progresses to death. A previously licensed killed whole-cell vaccine is presently unavailable due to its reactogenicity and inconclusive evidence of efficacy. The present study now shows that vaccination intranasally (i.n.) with inactivated Y. pestis CO92 (iYp) adjuvanted with interleukin-12 (IL-12) followed by an i.n. challenge with a lethal dose of Y. pestis CO92 prevented bacterial colonization and protected 100% of mice from pneumonic plague. Survival of the vaccinated mice correlated with levels of systemic and lung antibodies, reduced pulmonary pathology and proinflammatory cytokines, and the presence of lung lymphoid cell aggregates. Protection against pneumonic plague was partially dependent upon Fc receptors and could be transferred to naïve mice with immune mouse serum. On the other hand, protection was not dependent upon complement, and following vaccination, depletion of CD4 and/or CD8 T cells before challenge did not affect survival. In summary, the results demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of i.n. administered iYp plus IL-12 in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. PMID:21880856

  15. Long-term administration of a small molecular weight catalytic metalloporphyrin antioxidant, AEOL 10150, protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    SciTech Connect

    Rabbani, Zahid N.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Huang Jie; Day, Brian J.; Alexander, Elaine; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko . E-mail: vujas@radonc.duke.edu

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL 10150, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic properties, reduces the severity of radiation-induced injury to the lung from single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy. Methods and Materials: Rats were randomly divided into four different dose groups (0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150), receiving either short-term (1 week) or long-term (10 weeks) drug administration via osmotic pumps. Rats received single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy to the right hemithorax. Breathing rates, body weights, blood samples, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess lung damage. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the study endpoints between the irradiated controls and the three groups receiving RT and short-term administration of AEOL 10150. For the long-term administration, functional determinants of lung damage 20 weeks postradiation were significantly worse for RT + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and RT + 1 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150 as compared with the irradiated groups treated with higher doses of AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day). Lung histology at 20 weeks revealed a significant decrease in structural damage and collagen deposition in rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg/day after radiation in comparison to the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia in rats receiving AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day) after lung irradiation compared with the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Conclusions: The chronic administration of a novel catalytic antioxidant, AEOL 10150, demonstrates a significant protective effect from radiation-induced lung injury. AEOL 10150 has its primary impact on the cascade of events after irradiation, and adding the drug before irradiation and its short-term administration have no significant

  16. Administration of a probiotic associated with nasal vaccination with inactivated Lactococcus lactis-PppA induces effective protection against pneumoccocal infection in young mice.

    PubMed

    Vintiñi, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M

    2010-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain.

  17. Systemic administration of the iron chelator deferiprone protects against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Zhong, Yong; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the light damage (LD) model of retinal degeneration as well as in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since iron can promote oxidative stress, the iron chelator Deferiprone (DFP) was tested for protection against light-induced retinal degeneration. To accomplish this, A/J mice were treated with or without DFP in drinking water, and then were placed in constant bright white fluorescent light (10,000 lux) for 20 hours. Retinas were evaluated at several time points after light exposure. Photoreceptor apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL assay. Retinal degeneration was assessed by histology 10 days after exposure to damaging white light. Two genes upregulated by oxidative stress, heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and ceruloplasmin (Cp), as well as complement component 3 (C3) were quantified by RT-qPCR. Cryosections were immunolabeled for oxidative stress marker (nitrotyrosine), a microglial marker (Iba1) as well as both heavy (H) and light (L) ferritin. Light exposure resulted in substantial photoreceptor-specific cell death. Dosing with DFP protected photoreceptors, decreasing the numbers of TUNEL-positive photoreceptors and increasing the number of surviving photoreceptors. The retinal mRNA levels of oxidative stress related genes and C3 were upregulated following light exposure and diminished by DFP treatment. Immunostaining for nitrotyrosine indicated that DFP reduced the nitrative stress caused by light exposure. Robust H/L-ferritin-containing microglial activation and migration to the outer retina occurred after light exposure and DFP treatment reduced microglial invasion. DFP is protective against light-induced retinal degeneration and has the potential to diminish oxidative stress in the retina. PMID:22579919

  18. EPA Takes Action to Protect the Public from an Unregistered Pesticide / EPA issues order to stop the sale of BioStorm and NanoStrike

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued an order to Nano Defense Solutions, Inc. in Saint Augustine, Fla. to stop the sale of BioStorm and NanoStrike. BioStorm and NanoStrike are products that are being marketed by th

  19. EPA Takes Action to Protect the Public from an Unregistered Pesticide/EPA issues order to stop the sale of OxiTitan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued an order to EcoActive Surfaces, Inc. in Pompano Beach, Fla.; WellShield, LLC in Boca Raton, Fla.; and, BioRelief, Inc. in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. to stop the sale, use or removal of

  20. Co-Administration of a Plasmid DNA Encoding IL-15 Improves Long-Term Protection of a Genetic Vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicole L.; Blazevic, Azra; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.; Hoft, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Immunization of mice with the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) gene using plasmid DNA, adenoviral vector, and CpG-adjuvanted protein delivery has proven highly immunogenic and provides protection against acute lethal challenge. However, long-term protection induced by TS DNA vaccines has not been reported. The goal of the present work was to test whether the co-administration of a plasmid encoding IL-15 (pIL-15) could improve the duration of protection achieved through genetic vaccination with plasmid encoding TS (pTS) alone. Methodology We immunized BALB/c mice with pTS in the presence or absence of pIL-15 and studied immune responses [with TS-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT, serum IgG ELISAs, intracellular cytokine staining (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2), tetramer staining, and CFSE dilution assays] and protection against lethal systemic challenge at 1 to 6 months post vaccination. Mice receiving pTS alone developed robust TS-specific IFN-γ responses and survived a lethal challenge given within the first 3 months following immunization. The addition of pIL-15 to pTS vaccination did not significantly alter T cell responses or protection during this early post-vaccination period. However, mice vaccinated with both pTS and pIL-15 challenged 6 months post-vaccination were significantly more protected against lethal T. cruzi challenges than mice vaccinated with pTS alone (P<0.05). Improved protection correlated with significantly higher numbers of TS-specific IFN-γ producing total and CD8+ T cells detected>6 months post immunization. Also, these TS-specific T cells were better able to expand after in vitro re-stimulation. Conclusion Addition of pIL-15 during genetic vaccination greatly improved long-term T cell survival, memory T cell expansion, and long-term protection against the important human parasite, T. cruzi. PMID:21408124

  1. Protection of the maternal and fetal thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide during pregnancy. An experimental evaluation in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J L; Hummel, W A; Broerse, J J; de Vijlder, J J; Vulsma, T; Jansen, J T; van Bekkum, D W

    1997-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of the administration of stable iodide to protect the fetal thyroid from exposure to radioactive iodide were investigated in chimpanzees in weeks 19 to 21 of pregnancy. The mean 24-h uptake of iodide in the fetal thyroid, determined with 123I-, was 1.8%. Administration of stable potassium iodide (KI), 0.65, 1.95 or 6.5 mg per kg body weight, 1 h before tracer injection reduced the fetal uptake satisfactorily. Only the higher doses were effective after 20 h. Excess iodide may impair a child's thyroid status. However, adverse effects were not found during the 11 days the animals ingested these doses. Tracer concentrations in the amniotic fluid were 30- to 130-fold lower than in the urine. The dose to the fetus from radioactivity in the maternal bladder was estimated by computer simulation. The potential increment of the risk from this dose during the ingestion of stable iodide is smaller than the reduction of risk achieved by inhibiting the uptake of radioactive iodide by the fetal thyroid. The conclusion of the experiments is that stable iodide can be used safely and effectively to protect the fetal thyroid against contamination with radioactive iodine.

  2. 40 CFR 305.36 - Final order; costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final order; costs. 305.36 Section 305.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  3. 40 CFR 305.36 - Final order; costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final order; costs. 305.36 Section 305.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  4. 40 CFR 305.36 - Final order; costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final order; costs. 305.36 Section 305.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  5. 40 CFR 305.36 - Final order; costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final order; costs. 305.36 Section 305.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  6. 40 CFR 305.36 - Final order; costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final order; costs. 305.36 Section 305.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  7. Protective Effects of Co-Administration of Gallic Acid and Cyclosporine on Rat Myocardial Morphology Against Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Mahin; Sadeghi, Najmeh; Badavi, Mohammad; Panahi, Marziyeh; Taheri Moghadam, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Irreversible myocardial ischemic injury begins 20 minutes after the onset of coronary occlusion. Then the infarcted cells show signs of necrosis and death. Objectives: This study investigated the effects of co-administration of Gallic acid (antioxidant) with cyclosporine (mitochondrial permeability transition pore [mPTP] inhibitor) on myocardial morphology of rats during ischemia and reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four male Wistar rats (250-300 g), were randomly divided into 9 groups: sham, control (Ca received saline, 1 mL/kg, Cb: perfused with cyclosporine CsA 0.2 µM), 3 groups pretreated with Gallic acid in saline (G1a:7.5, G2a:15, and G3a: 30 mg/kg/day, and gavage daily for 10 days, n = 6), and the other three groups were pretreated with Gallic acid then perfused using CsA, (G1b:7.5, G2b:15, and G3b: 30 mg/kg/day) at the first 13 minutes of reperfusion period. After 10 days pretreatment, the rat hearts were isolated and transferred to Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 minutes ischemia following 60 minutes reperfusion. Afterward, the hearts were preserved in 10% formalin for histological studies at the end of the experiment. Finally, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining techniques were used for evaluating the changes in myocardial architecture, degradation of myofibers, and collagen integrity. The differences were analyzed using Pearson test. Results: Cell degenerative changes, pyknotic nuclei, contraction bands, edema, and loosening of collagen in between muscle fibers were observed during ischemia-reperfusion. Myocardial architecture and cellular morphology were recovered in co-administration groups, especially in (Gallic acid 15 mg/kg + CsA, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest the important role of the antioxidant system potentiation in the prevention of myocardial damage. PMID:25625048

  8. Acute Coronary Syndromes, Gastrointestinal Protection, and Recommendations Regarding Concomitant Administration of Proton-Pump Inhibitors (Omeprazol/Esomeprazole) and Clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Iñigo; Sanchez-Insa, Esther; de Leiras, Sergio Rodríguez; Carrillo, Pilar; Ruiz-Quevedo, Valeriano; Pinar, Eduardo; Gopar-Gopar, Silvia; Bayon, Jeremías; Mañas, Pilar; Lasa, Garikoitz; CruzGonzalez, Ignacio; Hernandez, Felipe; Fernandez-Portales, Javier; Fernandez-Fernandez, Javier; Pérez-Serradilla, Ana; de la Torre Hernandez, José M; Gomez-Jaume, Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency sent a warning in 2010 discouraging the concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole. The purpose is to know the gastroprotective approach in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the level of follow-up of the alert. In 17 hospitals with catheterization laboratory in Spain, 1 per region, we studied 25 consecutive patients per hospital whose diagnosis of discharge since October 1, 2013, had been any type of ACS. We analyzed their baseline clinical profile, the gatroprotective agents at admission and discharge and the antiplatelet therapy at discharge. The number of patients included was 425: age 67.2 ± 12.5 years, women 29.8%, diabetes 36.5%. The patients presented unstable angina in 21.6%, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 35.3% and ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 43.1%. Conservative approach was chosen in 17.9%, bare-metal stents 32.2%, ≥ 1 drug-eluting stent 48.5%, and surgery 1.4%. Aspirin was indicated in 1.9%, aspirin + clopidogrel 73.6%, aspirin + prasugrel 17.6%, and aspririn + ticagrelor 6.8%. Gastroprotective agents were present in 40.2% patients at admission and this percentage increased to 93.7% at discharge. Of the 313 (73.6%) on clopidogrel in 96 (30.6%) was combined with omeprazole and 3 (0.95%) with esomeprazole, whereas the most commonly used was pantoprazole with 190 patients (44.7%). In conclusion, almost the totality of the patients with an ACS receive gastroprotective agents at the moment of discharge, most of them with proton-pump inhibitors. In one every 3 cases of the patients who are on clopidogrel, the recommendation of the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency is not followed.

  9. 78 FR 40499 - Public Land Order No. 7818; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Protection and Preservation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Preservation of Solar Energy Zones for Future Energy Development; Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New... laws, subject to valid existing rights, for a period of 20 years to protect 17 Solar Energy Zones (SEZ) for future solar energy development. The lands have been and will remain open to mineral...

  10. In ovo administration of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and the recombinant microneme protein MIC2 protects against Eimeria infections.

    PubMed

    Dalloul, Rami A; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Klinman, Dennis M; Ding, Xicheng; Min, Wongi; Heckert, Robert A; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2005-05-02

    We have previously demonstrated that short oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) exert a positive effect on weight loss and oocyst shedding associated with Eimeria infection when injected in vivo. The present work investigated the effects of in ovo vaccination with CpG ODNs and an Eimeria recombinant microneme protein (MIC2), alone or in combination, on susceptibility to coccidiosis. In ovo injection of CpG ODNs alone enhanced resistance to experimental Eimeria acervulina infection as best exemplified by reduced oocyst shedding. Two CpG ODNs reduced the oocyst load, but did not affect weight gain. When co-administered with the recombinant microneme protein, both ODNs reduced oocyst shedding; however, only ODN D19 plus MIC2 consistently improved weight gain. Vaccinating with ODN 2006 or MIC2 protein curtailed oocyst shedding but did not enhance weight gain in Eimeria tenella-infected birds. Co-administration of CpG ODN and MIC2 did not have an additive effect in reducing the oocyst output; however, it resulted in the highest and lowest Ab response before and after Eimeria tenella infection, respectively. Collectively, CpG ODNs administered in ovo demonstrated immunoenhancing and adjuvant effects following Eimeria infections.

  11. [Protective effect of oral administration of several traditional Kampo-medicines on lethal Candida infection in immunosuppressed mice].

    PubMed

    Abe, S; Ishibashi, H; Tansho, S; Hanazawa, R; Komatsu, Y; Yamaguchi, H

    2000-01-01

    The protective effects of a "hozai" type of Kampo medicine, Juzen-taiho-to (Shi-quan-da-bu-tang, TJ-48), Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang, TJ-41) or Ninjin-yoei-to (Ren-shen-yang-rong-tang, TJ-108) on experimental candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice were investigated. ICR mice, which were immunosuppressed by injection of cyclophosphamide or prednisolone, were given these medicines orally andchallenged intravenously with Candida albicans (day 0). Treatments with a daily dose of 1 g/kg/day of TJ-48 or that of 1 or 2 g/kg/day of TJ-108 for 4 consecutive days from day-4 significantly prolonged the survival time of the Candida-infected mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. Treatments with a daily dose of 1 g/kg/day of TJ-48 for 4 consecutive days from day 0, but not from day -4, significantly prolonged the life span of the Candida-infected mice pretreated with prednisolone. On the basis of these results and previous findings, characteristics of these kampo medicines as therapeutic agents against candidiasis in immunosuppressed hosts were discussed.

  12. Pre-training administration of tianeptine, but not propranolol, protects hippocampus-dependent memory from being impaired by predator stress.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Zoladz, Phillip R; Muñoz, Carmen; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-02-01

    Extensive research has shown that the antidepressant tianeptine blocks the adverse effects of chronic stress on hippocampal functioning. The current series of experiments extended this area of investigation by examining the influence of tianeptine on acute stress-induced impairments of spatial (hippocampus-dependent) memory. Tianeptine (10 mg/kg, ip) administered to adult male rats before, but not after, water maze training blocked the amnestic effects of predator stress (occurring between training and retrieval) on memory. The protective effects of tianeptine on memory occurred in rats which had extensive pre-stress training, as well as in rats which had only a single day of training. Tianeptine blocked stress effects on memory without altering the stress-induced increase in corticosterone levels. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip), in contrast, did not block stress-induced amnesia. These findings indicate that treatment with tianeptine, unlike propanolol, provides an effective means with which to block the adverse effects of stress on cognitive functions of the hippocampus.

  13. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome by continuous oral administration of a low concentration of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen.

    PubMed

    Pham, K-C; Tran, H T T; Van Doan, C; Le, P H; Van Nguyen, A T; Nguyen, H A; Hong, H A; Cutting, S M; Phan, T-N

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a chimeric protein, CotB-VP28, were used as a probiotic vaccine to protect black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g pellet) to shrimps induced immune-relating phenoloxydase activity (PO) in shrimps after 14 days of feeding (prior challenge) and at day 3 post challenge (1·26 and 1·70 fold increase respectively). A 75% protection rate was obtained by continuous feeding of the spore-coated pellets at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g for 14 days prior to WSSV challenge and during all the postchallenge period. Even when the amount of CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets was reduced down to ≥5 × 10(7)  CFU per g and ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g, relatively high protection rates of 70 and 67·5%, respectively, were still obtained. By contrast, feeding pellets without spores (untreated group) and with naked spores (PY79 group) at ≥1 × 10(9)  CFU per g could not protect shrimps against WSSV. These data suggest that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at low dose of ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g could be effective as a prophylactic treatment of WSS for black tiger shrimps.

  14. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  15. Hibiscus sabdariffa ethanolic extract protects against dyslipidemia and oxidative stress induced by chronic cholesterol administration in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ekor, M; Adesanoye, O A; Udo, I E; Adegoke, O A; Raji, J; Farombi, E O

    2010-12-01

    Excessive intake of cholesterol (CHOL) and induction of free radical production play a critical role in the pathophysiology of several human diseases. Dietary therapy with plant products rich in flavonoids has been shown to provide benefits without the adverse effects of agents used in clinical practice. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been used for various purposes due to myriads of flavonoids present in it. In this study, the chemopreventive property of HS ethanolic extract (HSE) was investigated in dyslipidemia and oxidant stress associated with prolonged CHOL administration in rabbits. Twenty-five (25) adult male rabbits weighing between 1.5 and 1.7 kg were used and randomly divided into five groups of five rabbits per group. The CHOL-fed rabbits received 1 g/kg/day of CHOL suspended in 1 ml of corn oil for 8 weeks. Group 1 received 1 ml of corn oil and served as control. Group 2 was fed with CHOL only while groups 3, 4 and 5 received daily doses ofcholestyramine (questran, 260 mg/kg), HSE 200 mg/kg and HSE 300 mg/kg respectively along with CHOL. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24-hours after last dose. Enzymic and non-enzymic markers of oxidative stress and lipid profile were analysed in serum, liver, kidney and heart of rabbits. HSE significantly attenuated the alteration in lipid levels and antioxidant status induced by high CHOL intake in rabbits in this study. Both serum and tissue levels of low density lipoprotein-CHOL, triglycerides, phospholipids, and total CHOL decreased with increase in high density lipoprotein-CHOL except in the heart, following treatment with HSE in CHOL-fed rabbits when compared with the untreated group (p<0.05). Similarly, HSE prevented CHOL-induced depletion of enzymic (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and non-enzymic (reduced glutathione, vitamin C) antioxidants with the attendant increases in lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in these animals. The effectiveness of HSE in this condition was comparable

  16. Postchallenge Administration of Brincidofovir Protects Healthy and Immune-Deficient Mice Reconstituted with Limited Numbers of T Cells from Lethal Challenge with IHD-J-Luc Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Kevin Tyler; Cruz, Stephanie; Thomas, Antonia; Diaz, Claudia G.; Keilholz, Laurie; Grossi, Irma M.; Trost, Lawrence C.; Golding, Hana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protection from lethality by postchallenge administration of brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) was studied in normal and immune-deficient (nude, nu/nu) BALB/c mice infected with vaccinia virus (VACV). Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to record total fluxes in the nasal cavity, lungs, spleen, and liver and to enumerate pox lesions on tails of mice infected via the intranasal route with 105 PFU of recombinant IHD-J-Luc VACV expressing luciferase. Areas under the flux curve (AUCs) were calculated for individual mice to assess viral loads. A three-dose regimen of 20 mg/kg BCV administered every 48 h starting either on day 1 or day 2 postchallenge protected 100% of mice. Initiating BCV treatment earlier was more efficient in reducing viral loads and in providing protection from pox lesion development. All BCV-treated mice that survived challenge were also protected from rechallenge with IHD-J-Luc or WRvFire VACV without additional treatment. In immune-deficient mice, BCV protected animals from lethality and reduced viral loads while animals were on the drug. Viral recrudescence occurred within 4 to 9 days, and mice succumbed ∼10 to 20 days after treatment termination. Nude mice reconstituted with 105 T cells prior to challenge with 104 PFU of IHD-J-Luc and treated with BCV postchallenge survived the infection, cleared the virus from all organs, and survived rechallenge with 105 PFU of IHD-J-Luc VACV without additional BCV treatment. Together, these data suggest that BCV protects immunocompetent and partially T cell-reconstituted immune-deficient mice from lethality, reduces viral dissemination in organs, prevents pox lesion development, and permits generation of VACV-specific memory. IMPORTANCE Mass vaccination is the primary element of the public health response to a smallpox outbreak. In addition to vaccination, however, antiviral drugs are required for individuals with uncertain exposure status to smallpox or for whom vaccination is contraindicated

  17. Long-term statin administration to dams on high-fat diet protects not only them but also their offspring from cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Elahi, M M; Cagampang, F R; Ohri, S K; Hanson, M A

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to study the effects of long-term statin administration to high fat (HF)-fed female mice from the time they were weaned through to pregnancy and lactation on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in their HF-fed offspring. Female C57 mice on HF (45% kcal fat) were given pravastatin in their drinking water from the time they were weaned, during pregnancy and lactation. Weaned offspring were then fed an HF diet until adulthood generating the dam/offspring dietary groups HF/HF and HF plus pravastatin from the time dams were weaned, during pregnancy and lactation/HF (HF+S/HF). These groups were compared with offspring from mothers fed standard chow (control) which were then fed a control diet up to adulthood (control/control; C/C). HF+S dams showed significantly reduced total cholesterol concentrations and systolic blood pressure (SBP) versus HF dams. The reduction in total cholesterol and SBP in the HF+S dams did not restore values to those observed in the C group. Both male and female HF+S/HF offspring were significantly lighter in weight, and had lower SBP and serum cholesterol concentrations versus HF/HF. HF/HF offspring had elevated C-reactive protein levels but HF+S/HF animals of both sexes had reduced levels similar to those found in the C/C group. Long-term pravastatin administration to dams not only protects them from the deleterious effects of an HF diet, but this long-term maternal statin protection also has an equal and permanent effect in both male and female offspring up to their adult life, which is a novel finding.

  18. Role of amphotericin B upon enhancement of protective immunity elicited by oral administration with liposome-encapsulated-Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Shun; Chuang, Chuan-Chang; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Liu, Yu-Tien; Lin, Wen-Po; Liang, Chung-Chih; Liu, Wen-Tssann

    2010-09-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is an antifungal antibiotic the activity of which has been associated with modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in cultured cells. Herein we reveal that co-administration with AmB enhances the immunogenicity of oral Lip-JENS1 vaccine which derived from liposomes functionalized with DSPC (distearoylphosphatidylcholine) and cholesterol (2:1, molar ratio)-bearing JE virus NS1 protein (600 microg ml(-1)). Oral single dose of Lip-JENS1 elicited a detectable serum NS1-specific IgG antibody response from a mouse model. Remarkably, the addition of AmB (125 microg per mouse), particularly, 2 h prior to, but not simultaneously with, the administration of Lip-JENS1 significantly enhanced the systemic antigen-specific antibody response, providing superior protection against lethal JEV challenges. Further, we observed AmB-induced the transcription of cytokine expression and translocation of transcriptional factor NF-kappaB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus for the murine macrophage J774A.1. Moreover, Peyer's-patch lymphocytes (PPL) from AmB-treated mice produced high levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression compared to the corresponding control of cells from non-treated mice. Taken together, the results suggest that AmB exerts a profound influence upon mucosal vaccination with Lip-JENS1, possibly playing an adjuvant-augmented role to "fine-tune" humoral as well as cellular immune response, thus conferring enhanced protective immunity for immunising individuals against JE infection.

  19. Administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) protects the neurovascular unit and reduces secondary injury after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Akbar; Crupi, Rosalia; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Campolo, Michela; Marino, Angela; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2012-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and morbidity in young adults. This complex condition is characterized by significant blood brain barrier leakage that stems from cerebral ischemia, inflammation, and redox imbalances in the traumatic penumbra of the injured brain. Recovery of function after TBI is partly through neuronal plasticity. In order to test whether treatments that enhance plasticity might improve functional recovery, a controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult mice, as a model of TBI, in which a controlled cortical impactor produced full thickness lesions of the forelimb region of the sensorimotor cortex, was performed. Once trauma has occurred, combating these exacerbations is the keystone of an effective TBI therapy. The endogenous fatty acid palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is one of the members of N-acyl-ethanolamines family that maintain not only redox balance but also inhibit the mechanisms of secondary injury. Therefore, we tested whether PEA shows efficacy in a mice model of experimental TBI. PEA treatment is able to reduced edema and brain infractions as evidenced by decreased 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining across brain sections. PEA-mediated improvements in tissues histology shown by reduction of lesion size and improvement in apoptosis level further support the efficacy of PEA therapy. The PEA treatment blocked infiltration of astrocytes and restored CCI-mediated reduced expression of PAR, nitrotyrosine, iNOS, chymase, tryptase, CD11b and GFAP. PEA inhibited the TBI-mediated decrease in the expression of pJNK and NF-κB. PEA-treated injured animals improved neurobehavioral functions as evaluated by behavioral tests.

  20. Oral administration of the immunomodulator JBT-3002 induces endogenous interleukin 15 in intestinal macrophages for protection against irinotecan-mediated destruction of intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, H; Killion, J J; Bucana, C D; Yano, S; Fidler, I J

    1999-08-01

    We recently reported that p.o. administration of the new synthetic bacterial lipopeptide JBT-3002 can protect mice from irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced intestinal injury, but the mechanism was not known. Because interleukin-15 (IL-15) is associated with maintenance of intestinal epithelial cell integrity, we examined whether p.o. administration of JBT-3002 elevates expression of this monocyte-derived cytokine. Four daily i.p. injections of 100 mg/kg CPT-11 were effective against liver metastases produced by CT-26 murine colon cancer cells, but severe damage to the intestinal epithelium and early death of the mice also resulted. Three consecutive daily p.o. doses of JBT-3002 prior to i.p. injection of irinotecan prevented the undesirable side effects of irinotecan without reducing its ability to eradicate liver metastases. Immunohistochemical analyses of the intestines of mice treated with JBT-3002 and CPT-11 demonstrated an increase in the number of dividing cells in the crypts and enhanced expression of IL-15 in lamina propria cells; the increase correlated with increased expression of the IL-15 gene as determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that JBT-3002 induced expression of IL-15 in peritoneal macrophages but not in normal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). Moreover, the presence of IL-15 decreased irinotecan-mediated cytotoxicity of IEC-6 epithelial cells. These data show that the p.o. administration of JBT-3002 induces expression of IL-15 by macrophages in the lamina propria, which can prevent irinotecan-induced injury to the intestinal mucosa.

  1. Oral Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain AYA Enhances IgA Secretion and Provides Survival Protection against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Kunitoh-Asari, Ayami; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Imai, Shinjiro; Kasuya, Kenji; Abe, Kimio; Adachi, Yu; Fukudome, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer’s patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer’s patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA+ B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection. PMID:24466081

  2. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Kunitoh-Asari, Ayami; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Imai, Shinjiro; Kasuya, Kenji; Abe, Kimio; Adachi, Yu; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+) B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection.

  3. 77 FR 58864 - Public Land Order No. 7801; Withdrawal of Public Lands for Protection of Proposed Expansion of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Land Policy and Management Act of 1976; 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: 1. Subject to valid existing rights, the following described lands are hereby withdrawn from all forms of appropriation under...\\, lot 2 of NW\\1/4\\, and S\\1/2\\S\\1/2\\; Sec. 4, lots 1 and 2 of NE\\1/4\\, lots 1 and 2 of NW\\1/4\\, SW\\1/...

  4. Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.

    PubMed

    Duszczyk-Budhathoki, Michalina; Olczak, Mieszko; Lehner, Malgorzata; Majewska, Maria Dorota

    2012-02-01

    Thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We previously showed that its administration to infant rats causes behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological abnormalities similar to those present in autism. Here we examined, using microdialysis, the effect of thimerosal on extracellular levels of neuroactive amino acids in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC). Thimerosal administration (4 injections, i.m., 240 μg Hg/kg on postnatal days 7, 9, 11, 15) induced lasting changes in amino acid overflow: an increase of glutamate and aspartate accompanied by a decrease of glycine and alanine; measured 10-14 weeks after the injections. Four injections of thimerosal at a dose of 12.5 μg Hg/kg did not alter glutamate and aspartate concentrations at microdialysis time (but based on thimerosal pharmacokinetics, could have been effective soon after its injection). Application of thimerosal to the PFC in perfusion fluid evoked a rapid increase of glutamate overflow. Coadministration of the neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS; 80 mg/kg; i.p.) prevented the thimerosal effect on glutamate and aspartate; the steroid alone had no influence on these amino acids. Coapplication of DHEAS with thimerosal in perfusion fluid also blocked the acute action of thimerosal on glutamate. In contrast, DHEAS alone reduced overflow of glycine and alanine, somewhat potentiating the thimerosal effect on these amino acids. Since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, our data imply that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. DHEAS may partially protect against mercurials-induced neurotoxicity.

  5. Gastrointestinal protective efficacy of Kolaviron (a bi-flavonoid from Garcinia kola) following a single administration of sodium arsenite in rats: Biochemical and histopathological studies

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinde, Akinleye S.; Olowu, Ebunoluwa; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Omobowale, Olutayo T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arsenic intoxication is known to produce symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting, which are indications of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Objective: We investigated whether Kolaviron (KV) administration protected against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced damage to gastric and intestinal epithelium in rats. Materials and Methods: Control rats (Group I) were given a daily oral dose of corn oil. Rats in other groups were given a single dose of NaAsO2 (100 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) alone (Group II) or after pretreatment for 7 days with KV at 100 mg/kg (Group III) and 200 mg/kg (Group IV). Rats were sacrificed afterward and portions of the stomach, small intestine and colon were processed for histopathological examination. Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments. Results: NaAsO2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines. KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner. The different segments had marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, with hyperplasia of the crypts, which occurred to much lesser degrees with KV administration. Conclusion: The present findings showed that KV might be a potent product for mitigating NaAsO2 toxicity in the GIT. PMID:26130939

  6. Structural Order in Ultrathin Films of the Monolayer Protected Clusters Based Upon 4-nm Gold Nanocrystals: An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Khanal, Subarna; Bahena, Daniel; Olmos-Asar, Jimena A.; Ponce, Arturo; Whetten, Robert L.; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The structural order in ultrathin films of monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) is important in a number of application areas but can be difficult to demonstrate by conventional methods, particularly when the metallic core dimension, d, is in the intermediate size-range, 1.5 < d < 5.0 nm. Here, improved techniques for the synthesis of monodisperse thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles have made possible the production of dodecane-thiolate saturated ~ 4 ± 0.5 nm Au clusters with single-crystal core structure and morphology. An ultrathin ordered film or superlattice of these nanocrystal-core MPCs is prepared and investigated using aberration corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) which allowed imaging of long-range hexagonally ordered superlattices of the nanocrystals, separated by the thiolate groups. The lattice constants determined by direct imaging are in good agreement with those determined by small-angle electron diffraction. The STEM image revealed the characteristic grain boundary (GB) with sigma (Σ) 13 in the interface between two crystals. The formation and structures found are interpreted on the basis of theoretical calculations employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and coarse-grained (CG) approach. PMID:24875295

  7. Protective Immunity against Murine Hepatitis Virus (MHV) Induced by Intranasal or Subcutaneous Administration of Hybrids of Tobacco Mosaic Virus That Carries an MHV Epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Moses; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Lettieri, Gerard A.; Paoletti, Alyssa D.; Lane, Thomas E.; Fitchen, John H.; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Beachy, Roger N.

    1999-07-01

    Hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were constructed with the use of fusion to the coat protein peptides of 10 or 15 amino acids, containing the 5B19 epitope from the spike protein of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and giving rise to TMV-5B19 and TMV-5B19L, respectively. The TMV hybrids were propagated in tobacco plants, and the virus particles were purified. Immunogold labeling, with the use of the monoclonal MAb5B19 antibody, showed specific decoration of hybrid TMV particles, confirming the expression and display of the MHV epitope on the surface of the TMV. Mice were immunized with purified hybrid viruses after several regimens of immunization. Mice that received TMV-5B19L intranasally developed serum IgG and IgA specific for the 5B19 epitope and for the TMV coat protein. Hybrid TMV-5B19, administered by subcutaneous injections, elicited high titers of serum IgG that was specific for the 5B19 epitope and for coat protein, but IgA that was specific against 5B19 was not observed. Mice that were immunized with hybrid virus by subcutaneous or intranasal routes of administration survived challenge with a lethal dose (10 × LD50) of MHV strain JHM, whereas mice administered wild-type TMV died 10 d post challenge. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the dose of administered immunogen and protection against MHV infection. These studies show that TMV can be an effective vaccine delivery vehicle for parenteral and mucosal immunization and for protection from challenge with viral infection.

  8. Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine protection in mice challenged with ectromelia virus.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott; Crump, Ryan; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Lanier, E Randall; Painter, George; Schriewer, Jill; Trost, Lawrence C; Buller, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Natural orthopoxvirus outbreaks such as vaccinia, cowpox, cattlepox and buffalopox continue to cause morbidity in the human population. Monkeypox virus remains a significant agent of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Furthermore, monkeypox virus's broad host-range and expanding environs make it of particular concern as an emerging human pathogen. Monkeypox virus and variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox) are both potential agents of bioterrorism. The first line response to orthopoxvirus disease is through vaccination with first-generation and second-generation vaccines, such as Dryvax and ACAM2000. Although these vaccines provide excellent protection, their widespread use is impeded by the high level of adverse events associated with vaccination using live, attenuated virus. It is possible that vaccines could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to reduce the incidence and severity of vaccine-associated adverse events, or as a preventive in individuals with uncertain exposure status or contraindication to vaccination. We have used the intranasal mousepox (ectromelia) model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with Dryvax or ACAM2000 in conjunction with treatment using the broad spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001). We found that co-treatment with BCV reduced the severity of vaccination-associated lesion development. Although the immune response to vaccination was quantifiably attenuated, vaccination combined with BCV treatment did not alter the development of full protective immunity, even when administered two days following ectromelia challenge. Studies with a non-replicating vaccine, ACAM3000 (MVA), confirmed that BCV's mechanism of attenuating the immune response following vaccination with live virus was, as expected, by limiting viral replication and not through inhibition of the immune system. These studies suggest that, in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis, co-administration of BCV with vaccination should be considered

  9. 40 CFR 86.603-88 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test orders. 86.603-88 Section 86.603... Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.603-88 Test orders. (a) The Administrator will require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed...

  10. 40 CFR 86.603-88 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test orders. 86.603-88 Section 86.603... Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.603-88 Test orders. (a) The Administrator will require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed...

  11. 40 CFR 86.603-88 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test orders. 86.603-88 Section 86.603... New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.603-88 Test orders. (a) The Administrator will require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the...

  12. Comparative effects of repeated administration of cadmium chloride during pregnancy and lactation and selenium protection against cadmium toxicity on some organs in immature rats' offsprings.

    PubMed

    Bekheet, Souad H M

    2011-12-01

    This research comprises studies on the transfer of cadmium (CdCl(2)) from the lactating dam to the pup via milk and absorbed in the suckling, showing that cadmium is transferred to the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland during development. The present studies were carried out in order to assess the protective effects of selenium against cadmium toxicity in pregnant rats. On the sixth day of gestation, the females were dosed subcutaneously either with cadmium or with cadmium and selenium in the following doses (mg/kg of body weight): 0, 1 Cd, 1 Cd + 1 Se, 2 Cd, 2 Cd + 2 Se. In groups treated with cadmium, no maternal or embryonic toxicities were observed; however, an increase in testes diameters of seminiferous tubules, a progressive sloughing of germ cells, vacuolization of Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells hyperplasia were noted. The reduction in the ovary size and inhibited folliculogenesis resulted in diminution of the numbers of primordial, growing, and tertiary follicles. The pathological change in the cerebellum, the migration of granular cells from the external germinal layer to the internal granular layer, was strongly retarded. Also, the formation of many microfollicles in the thyroid gland which mimic the changes was seen in thyrotoxicosis. It also appears that selenium used at a low-enough dose could be a very effective protection against cadmium-induced developmental toxicity in the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland but not in the higher dose in the ovary and cerebellum.

  13. Sublingual administration of a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing the codon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan-hui; Jiao, Yue-Ying; He, Jin-sheng; Giang, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yi-Fei; Ma, Yao; Hua, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Xiang-Lei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Hong, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Sublingual (s.l.) immunization has been described as a convenient and safe way to induce mucosal immune responses in the respiratory and genital tracts. We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing a condon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein (sFsyn) of respiratory syncytial virus (HDAd-sFsyn) and explored the potential of s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn to stimulate immune responses in the respiratory mucosa. The RSV specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were generated in BALB/c mice, and the serum IgG with neutralizing activity was significantly elevated after homologous boost with s.l. application of HDAd-sFsyn. Humoral immune responses could be measured even 14weeks after a single immunization. Upon challenge, s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn displayed an effective protection against RSV infection. These findings suggest that s.l. administration of HDAd-sFsyn acts as an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against RSV infection, and may be a useful tool in the prevention of RSV infection.

  14. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  15. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 enhances protection against influenza virus infection by stimulation of type I interferon production in mice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Risa; Hirose, Yoshitaka; Murosaki, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kase, Tetsuo; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2009-08-01

    We have previously reported that heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (HK-LP) stimulates macrophage/dendritic cells to produce T helper (Th) 1-related cytokines in vitro and in vivo in mice. We here examined the effect of oral administration of HK-LP on protection against influenza virus infection in mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given HK-LP from day -7 to 7 and intranasally infected with influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1, a mouse-adapted strain) at 100 pfu on day 0. The survival time was significantly prolonged in mice treated with HK-LP than that in mice treated with PBS as controls. The viral titers in the lung were significantly lower in mice treated with HK-LP than controls at the early stage after influenza virus infection. An appreciable level of interferon (IFN)-beta was detected in the serum of mice treated with HK-LP, while no IFN-beta was detected in controls after influenza infection. Our results suggest that HK-LP, a potent IFN-beta inducer, is useful for prevention against influenza infection.

  16. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  17. Systemic administration of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody protects against endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qingman; Wang, Shaocheng; Zheng, Yuezhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of systemic injection of an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody (mAb) on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats (6–8 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: EIU, anti-TNF-α mAb + EIU, and control. EIU was induced by injecting Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the hind footpad of the rats (150 μg/rat). The anti-TNF-α mAb (1 μg/kg) was administrated 30 min before LPS injection through one-time intravenous injection. The onset time and peak time of EIU were recorded. The serum and aqueous humor (AH) TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 4, 24, and 72 h post-LPS injection. Clinical manifestations of EIU and eye histopathology were scored. Results: Compared with the EIU rats, anti-TNF-α mAb + EIU rats showed significantly delayed onset of uveitis (t = 7.41, P < 0.001), lower clinical scores and histopathological grades (t = 3.18/2.22, P < 0.001), reduced levels of TNF-α (F = 15.06/59.43, P < 0.001) and IL-6 (F = 99.63/14.92, P < 0.001), and increased levels of IL-10 (F = 24.94/8.99, P < 0.001) in the serum and AH. AH TNF-α, serum IL-6, and AH IL-6 levels are positively correlated, whereas serum IL-10 levels were negatively correlated with EIU activity. Conclusion: Antagonizing TNF-α by system injection of the anti-TNF-α mAb protects against EIU in rats. Blocking TNF-α signaling could be a useful strategy for managing uveitis. PMID:28112125

  18. The influence of antiobesity media content on intention to eat healthily and exercise: a test of the ordered protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Ritland, Raeann; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people's appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people's intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people's intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them). Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people's intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat) appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change).

  19. The Influence of Antiobesity Media Content on Intention to Eat Healthily and Exercise: A Test of the Ordered Protection Motivation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ritland, Raeann; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people's appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people's intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people's intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them). Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people's intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat) appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change). PMID:25505981

  20. ADMINISTRATION OF A SUBSTITUTED ADAMANTLY-UREA INHIBITOR OF THE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE PROTECTS THE KIDNEY FROM DAMAGE IN HYPERTENSIVE GOTO-KAKIZAKI RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypertension and type II diabetes are co-morbid diseases that lead to the development of nephropathy. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are reported to provide protection from renal injury. We hypothesized that the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) protects ...

  1. Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories.

    PubMed

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Concina, Giulia; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injection into the higher order auditory cortex Te2, on the remote emotional memories of either threat or incentive experiences in rats. We found that intra-Te2 nicotine injection decreased the fear-evoked responses to a tone previously paired with footshock. This effect was cue- and dose-specific and was not due to any interference with auditory stimuli processing, innate anxiety and fear processes, or with motor responses. Nicotine acts acutely in the presence of threat stimuli but it did not determine the permanent degradation of the fear-memory trace, since memories tested one week after nicotine injection were unaffected. Remarkably, nicotine did not affect the memory of a similar tone that was paired to incentive stimuli. We conclude from our results that nicotine, when acting acutely in the auditory cortex, relieves the fear charge embedded by learned stimuli.

  2. Formation of higher-order nuclear Rad51 structures is functionally linked to p21 expression and protection from DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Raderschall, Elke; Bazarov, Alex; Cao, Jiangping; Lurz, Rudi; Smith, Avril; Mann, Wolfgang; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Sedivy, John M; Golub, Efim I; Fritz, Eberhard; Haaf, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    After exposure of mammalian cells to DNA damage, the endogenous Rad51 recombination protein is concentrated in multiple discrete foci, which are thought to represent nuclear domains for recombinational DNA repair. Overexpressed Rad51 protein forms foci and higher-order nuclear structures, even in the absence of DNA damage, in cells that do not undergo DNA replication synthesis. This correlates with increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21. Following DNA damage, constitutively Rad51-overexpressing cells show reduced numbers of DNA breaks and chromatid-type chromosome aberrations and a greater resistance to apoptosis. In contrast, Rad51 antisense inhibition reduces p21 protein levels and sensitizes cells to etoposide treatment. Downregulation of p21 inhibits Rad51 foci formation in both normal and Rad51-overexpressing cells. Collectively, our results show that Rad51 expression, Rad51 foci formation and p21 expression are interrelated, suggesting a functional link between mammalian Rad51 protein and p21-mediated cell cycle regulation. This mechanism may contribute to a highly effective recombinational DNA repair in cell cycle-arrested cells and protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

  3. Is length of shelter stay and receipt of a protection order associated with less violence and better functioning for abused women? Outcome data 4 months after receiving services.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Judith; Symes, Lene; Maddoux, John; Gilroy, Heidi; Koci, Anne

    2014-10-01

    To provide differential effectiveness on length of stay at a shelter and receipt versus non-receipt of a protection order (PO), and outcomes of violence, functioning, and resiliency, in 300 abused women (150 first-time users of a shelter and 150 first-time applicants for a PO) who participate in a 7-year study with outcomes measured every 4 months. Four months after a shelter stay or application for a PO, abused women staying 21 days or less at a shelter reported similar outcomes compared with women staying longer than 21 days. Similarly, women receiving and not receiving a PO reported overall equivalent outcomes. Seeking shelter or justice services results in similar improved outcomes for abused women 4 months later, regardless of length of stay at the shelter or receipt or no receipt of the PO. Contact with shelter and justice services results in positive outcomes for abused women and indicates the urgent need to increase availability, accessibility, and acceptability of shelter and justice services.

  4. Computation of stochastic wellhead protection zones by combining the first-order second-moment method and Kolmogorov backward equation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstmann, H.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2000-11-01

    Input parameters of groundwater models are usually poorly known and model results suffer from uncertainty. When conservative decisions have to be drawn, the quantification of uncertainties is necessary. Monte Carlo techniques are suited for this analysis but usually require a huge computational effort. An alternative and computationally efficient approach is the first-order second-moment (FOSM) analysis which directly propagates the uncertainty originating from input parameters into the result. We apply the FOSM method to both the groundwater flow and solute transport equations. It is shown how calibration on the basis of measured heads yields the "Principle of Interdependent Uncertainty" that correlates the uncertainties of feasible transmissivities and recharge rates. The method is used to compute the uncertainty of steady state heads and of steady state solute concentrations. The second-moment analysis of solute concentrations is combined with the Kolmogorov backward equations and applied to the stochastic computation of wellhead protection zones for a pumping well group in Gambach (Germany). Unconditional and conditional simulation results are compared to corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. The unconditioned FOSM method reveals a computational advantage of a factor of 5-10 against the Monte Carlo method in terms of CPU time requirements. Conditioned FOSM shows an even larger advantage with a factor of 50-100 against the usual inverse stochastic modeling method based on Monte Carlo techniques.

  5. Obama Administration Takes Historic Action on Climate Change/Clean Power Plan to protect public health, spur clean energy investments and strengthen U.S. leadership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -President Obama announced the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final Clean Power Plan today, which will cut U.S. carbon pollution from the power sector by 870 million tons, or 32 percent

  6. What Effect Did General Order Number 1 and the Force Protection Measures Have on Task Force Eagle Operations in Bosnia During Implementation Force?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Intelligence CIMIC Civil Military Information Center COL Colonel COMEAGLE Commander Task Force Eagle COMIFOR Commander Implementation Force CSS Combat Service...Protection Team FWF Former Warring Factions HMMWV High Mobility, Multipurpose, Wheeled Vehicle HUMINT Human Intelligence G2 Divisional Intelligence ...security, personal protective services, and supported by intelligence , counterintelligence and other security programs.7 This is more useful as it clearly

  7. 7 CFR 2.49 - Administrator, Rural Housing Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (“the Act”), as amended: (i) Sections 104 (a... significant risk to human health; (iv) Section 104(j) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9604(j)), with respect to the... with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or an administrative consent order or a...

  8. Johnny M Administrative Order on Consent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Settlement Agreement provides for the performance of a removal action and the reimbursement of certain response costs incurred by the United States at or in connection with the Johnny M Mine Area.

  9. NASA Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.

  10. Administration of zinc complex of acetylsalicylic acid after the onset of myocardial injury protects the heart by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Atmanli, Ayhan; Radovits, Tamás; Li, Shiliang; Hegedüs, Peter; Ruppert, Mihály; Brlecic, Paige; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2016-03-01

    We recently demonstrated that the pre-treatment of rats with zinc and acetylsalicylic acid complex in the form of bis(aspirinato)zinc(II) [Zn(ASA)2] is superior to acetylsalicylic acid in protecting the heart from acute myocardial ischemia. Herein, we hypothesized that Zn(ASA)2 treatment after the onset of an acute myocardial injury could protect the heart. The rats were treated with a vehicle or Zn(ASA)2 after an isoproterenol injection. Isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage [inflammatory infiltration into myocardial tissue, DNA-strand breakage evidenced by TUNEL-assay, increased 11-dehydro thromboxane (TX)B2-levels, elevated ST-segment, widened QRS complex and prolonged QT-interval] was prevented by the Zn(ASA)2 treatment. In isoproterenol-treated rats, load-independent left ventricular contractility parameters were significantly improved after Zn(ASA)2. Furthermore, Zn(ASA)2 significantly increased the myocardial mRNA-expression of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-4 and decreased the level of Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase. Postconditioning with Zn(ASA)2 protects the heart from acute myocardial ischemia. Its mechanisms of action might involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory prostanoids and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  12. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 164.4 - Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... financial information, other than information relating to the formulas of a pesticide, the Administrative... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions. 164.4 Section 164.4 Protection of Environment...

  14. Combined administration of synthetic RNA and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Belén; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Mateos, Francisco; Lorenzo, Gema; Cardillo, Sabrina; Smitsaart, Eliana; Sobrino, Francisco; Sáiz, Margarita

    2017-03-16

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. We have previously reported the use of RNA transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the FMDV RNA as potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an FMD vaccine in mice. Here, we describe the enhancing effect of RNA delivery on the immunogenicity and protection induced by a suboptimal dose of a conventional FMD vaccine in pigs. Animals receiving the RNA developed earlier and higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against homologous and heterologous isolates, compared to those immunized with the vaccine alone, and had higher anti-FMDV titers at late times post-vaccination. RNA delivery also induced higher specific T-cell response and protection levels against FMDV challenge. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs inoculated with RNA and the vaccine had a higher IFN-γ specific response than those from pigs receiving the vaccine alone. When challenged with FMDV, all three animals immunized with the conventional vaccine developed antibodies to the non-structural viral proteins 3ABC and two of them developed severe signs of disease. In the group receiving the vaccine together with the RNA, two pigs were fully protected while one showed delayed and mild signs of disease. Our results support the immunomodulatory effect of these RNA molecules in natural hosts and suggest their potential use for improvement of FMD vaccines strategies.

  15. Protection against Rift Valley fever virus infection in mice upon administration of interferon-inducing RNA transcripts from the FMDV genome.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Gema; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; López-Gil, Elena; Sobrino, Francisco; Borrego, Belén; Sáiz, Margarita; Brun, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    In this work we have addressed the effect of synthetic, non-infectious, RNA transcripts, mimicking structural domains of the non-coding regions (NCRs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome on the infection of mice with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Groups of 5 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 200 μg of synthetic RNA resembling the 5'-terminal S region, the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) or the 3'-NCR of the FMDV genome. RNA inoculation was performed 24h before (-24 h), 24 h after (+24 h) or simultaneously to the challenge with a lethal dose of RVFV. Administration of the IRES RNA afforded higher survival rates than administration of S or 3'NCR transcripts either at -24h or +24h after challenge. In contrast, when RNA inoculation and viral challenge were performed simultaneously, all mice survived in both IRES- and 3'NCR-inoculated groups, with an 80% survival in mice receiving the S RNA. Among survivors, a complete correlation between significant anti-RVFV circulating antibody titers and resistance to a second lethal challenge with the virus was observed, supporting a limited viral replication in the RNA-inoculated animals upon the first challenge. All three RNA transcripts were able to induce the production of systemic antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data show that triggering of intracellular pathogen sensing pathways constitutes a promising approach towards development of novel RVF preventive or therapeutic strategies.

  16. Balance between oxidative damage and proliferative potential in an experimental rat model of CCl4-induced cirrhosis: protective role of adenosine administration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Muñoz, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M; López, V; López-Barrera, F; Yáñez, L; Vidrio, S; Aranda-Fraustro, A; Chagoya de Sánchez, V

    1997-11-01

    Oxidative stress and its consequent lipid peroxidation (LP) exert harmful effects, which have been currently involved in the generation of carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. However, the recent report that "physiological" LP can be associated with liver regeneration (LR) makes it necessary to discriminate between oxidative stress-induced and LR-associated LP. In rats rendered cirrhotic by continuous CCl4 administration for 4 weeks, moderate cell necrosis and fine fatty infiltration were found. The histological abnormalities were accompanied by increased LP, mainly accounted for by the microsomal and cytosolic fractions and evidence of oxidative stress (decreased hepatic glutathione content and changes in xanthine oxidase and pentose phosphate pathway activities). After 8 weeks, a micronodular cirrhosis developed, but oxidative stress was greatly attenuated, only persisting in the enhanced LP confined to microsomes. Simultaneous administration of adenosine, a reliable hepatoprotector that readily prevents the onset of liver fibrosis, was able to block the oxidative stress induced by the long-term CCl4 treatment but elicited a selective subcellular distribution of increased LP, similar to that found during LR. The adenosine-induced changes in liver LP (mainly in the nuclear fraction) correlated with an increased activity of thymidine kinase. Therefore, data suggest that adenosine-mediated preservation of energy availability and mitochondrial function could participate in preventing the onset of oxidative stress in cirrhotic rats. The latter could induce a successful liver recovery, curtailing the sequence of events leading to fibrogenesis.

  17. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  18. Lack of protective effect of local administration of triamcinolone or systemic treatment with methylprednisolone against damages caused by optic nerve crush in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu Lun; Chang, Chung Hsing; Lin, Kung Hung; Sheu, Min Muh; Tsai, Rong Kung

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of administrations of triamcinolone acetonide and systemic methylprednisolone sodium succinate on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in a rat model of optic nerve crush. The treated groups either received triamcinolone immediately in the form of two pieces of soaked-gelform surrounding retrobulbar optic nerves (0.5 mg/per gelform) or methylprednisolone via peritoneal injection, and control group received intra-peritoneal injection with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) after crush experiments. RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with Fluorogold, and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Terminal transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assays, Western blot analysis of serine/threonine kinase (p-Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and immunohistochemistry of ED1, marker of macrophage/microglia in the optic nerve were conducted. Two and four weeks after optic nerve crush experiments, neither triamcinolone nor methylprednisolone treatment rescued the RGC from death in the central and mid-peripheral retinas compared with those of the corresponding optic nerve-crushed and PBS-treated rats. Visual-evoked potentials measurements showed a prolonged latency of the P(1) wave in all treated groups (triamcinolone-treated: 123 ± 23 ms, methylprednisolone-treated: 133 ± 25 ms and PBS-treated: 151 ± 55 ms) after two weeks. TUNEL assays showed that there was no decrease in apoptotic cells in the RGC layers of both triamcinolone treated and methylprednisolone-treated retinas. Western blot analysis showed that p-AKT, p-ERK and p-Stat3 were not up-regulated in either retina of the triamcinolone or methylprednisolone treated rats. In addition, the number of ED1-positive cells was not attenuated at the lesion sites of the ON in either treatment group. Based upon these results

  19. Protective effect of systemic L-kynurenine and probenecid administration on behavioural and morphological alterations induced by toxic soluble amyloid beta (25-35) in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Fortoul-van Der Goes, Teresa I; Santamaría, Abel

    2010-07-11

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide exerts different toxic effects at a cellular level, including over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of NMDAr and alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Systemic administrations of both the immediate metabolic precursor of KYNA, L-kynurenine (L-KYN), and a proved inhibitor of KYNA's brain transport, probenecid (PROB), have shown to produce neuroprotective effects in a considerable number of experimental toxic conditions; however, this strategy has not been tested in the toxic model Abeta peptide so far. In this study we evaluated the effects of systemic administration of PROB (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days), L-KYN (75 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and their combination, on behavioural (locomotor activity and spatial memory) and morphological alterations induced by an intrahippocampal infusion of Abeta 25-35 to rats. An additional group was administered with the potent NMDAr antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801, 0.8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) for comparative purposes. A significant improvement of spatial memory was evident in Abeta-lesioned rats since post-lesion day 21 with all treatments tested and this effect was correlated with a reduction of cell damage and a decrease in reactive gliosis in hippocampal CA1 area. Neither L-KYN, nor PROB, or their combination, produced major alterations in motor function when given alone to rats. These results suggest that modulation of NMDAr activity by mean of therapeutic strategies designed to enhance KYNA in the brain may help to counteract neurodegenerative events coursing with Abeta toxicity and excitotoxic patterns.

  20. Protection against cognitive deficits and markers of neurodegeneration by long-term oral administration of melatonin in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Olcese, James M; Cao, Chuanhai; Mori, Takashi; Mamcarz, Malgorzata B; Maxwell, Anne; Runfeldt, Melissa J; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Guixin; Arendash, Gary W

    2009-08-01

    The neurohormone melatonin has been reported to exert anti-beta-amyloid aggregation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions in various in vitro and animal models. To comprehensively determine the potential for long-term melatonin treatment to protect Alzheimer's transgenic mice against cognitive impairment and development of beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuropathology, we administered melatonin (100 mg/L drinking water) to APP + PS1 double transgenic (Tg) mice from 2-2.5 months of age to their killing at age 7.5 months. A comprehensive behavioral battery administered during the final 6 weeks of treatment revealed that Tg mice given melatonin were protected from cognitive impairment in a variety of tasks of working memory, spatial reference learning/memory, and basic mnemonic function; Tg control mice remained impaired in all of these cognitive tasks/domains. Immunoreactive Abeta deposition was significantly reduced in hippocampus (43%) and entorhinal cortex (37%) of melatonin-treated Tg mice. Although soluble and oligomeric forms of Abeta1-40 and 1-42 were unchanged in the hippocampus and cortex of the same melatonin-treated Tg mice, their plasma Abeta levels were elevated. These Abeta results, together with our concurrent demonstration that melatonin suppresses Abeta aggregation in brain homogenates, are consistent with a melatonin-facilitated removal of Abeta from the brain. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were decreased in hippocampus (but not plasma) of Tg+ melatonin mice. Finally, the cortical mRNA expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) was significantly reduced to non-Tg levels by long-term melatonin treatment in Tg mice. Thus, melatonin's cognitive benefits could involve its anti-Abeta aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and/or antioxidant properties. Our findings provide support for long-term melatonin therapy as a primary or complementary strategy for abating the progression of

  1. 14 CFR 193.7 - What does it mean for the FAA to designate information as protected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information as protected? 193.7 Section 193.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INFORMATION § 193.7 What does it mean for the FAA to designate information as protected? (a) General. When the FAA issues an order designating information as protected under this part, the FAA does not...

  2. Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM5805 enhances lung immune response resulting in protection from murine parainfluenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jounai, Kenta; Sugimura, Tetsu; Ohshio, Konomi; Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    When activated by viral infection, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a primary role in the immune response through secretion of IFN-α. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM5805 (JCM5805) is a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that activates murine and human pDCs to express type I and type III interferons (IFNs). JCM5805 has also been shown to activate pDCs via a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) dependent pathway. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of oral administration of JCM5805 using a mouse model of murine parainfluenza virus (mPIV1) infection. JCM5805-fed mice showed a drastic improvement in survival rate, prevention of weight loss, and reduction in lung histopathology scores compared to control mice. We further examined the mechanism of anti-viral effects elicited by JCM5805 administration using naive mice. Microscopic observations showed that JCM5805 was incorporated into CD11c+ immune cells in Peyer's patches (PP) and PP pDCs were significantly activated and the expression levels of IFNs were significantly increased. Interestingly, nevertheless resident pDCs at lung were not activated and expressions levels of IFNs at whole lung tissue were not influenced, the expressions of anti-viral factors induced by IFNs, such as Isg15, Oasl2, and Viperin, at lung were up-regulated in JCM5805-fed mice compared to control mice. Therefore expressed IFNs from intestine might be delivered to lung and IFN stimulated genes might be induced. Furthermore, elevated expressions of type I IFNs from lung lymphocytes were observed in response to mPIV1 ex vivo stimulation in JCM5805-fed mice compared to control. This might be due to increased ratio of pDCs located in lung were significantly increased in JCM5805 group. Taken together, a specific LAB strain might be able to affect anti-viral immunological profile in lung via activation of intestinal pDC leading to enhanced anti-viral phenotype in vivo.

  3. Protection of the Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Explores three potential sources of harrassment from whom the librarian requires protection--patrons, lower-echelon supervisors, and library administrators. Types of protection provided by library associations, the courts, unionization, librarians' professional goals, actions of progressive administrators, collective bargaining, and public and…

  4. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  5. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  6. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  7. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  8. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  9. 40 CFR 30.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  10. 40 CFR 30.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  11. 40 CFR 30.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  12. 40 CFR 30.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  13. 40 CFR 108.7 - Hearing before Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator...

  14. 40 CFR 108.7 - Hearing before Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator...

  15. Intranasal Administration of GDNF Protects Against Neural Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Through PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yue, Peijian; Gao, Lin; Wang, Xuejing; Ding, Xuebing; Teng, Junfang

    2017-02-28

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays important roles in protecting the damaged or dying dopamine neurons in the animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was to determine the effect and mechanisms of GDNF on the apoptosis of neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced Parkinson's disease model of rats. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-240 g) were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). 6-OHDA was used to establish the PD rat model. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry was used to assess the neuron loss in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. TUNEL and western blot were used to identify the effects and mechanisms of GDNF in the rat model of PD. The numbers of TH-positive neurons in the 6-OHDA-injected lesioned substantia nigra (SN) decreased significantly compared with the Sham group. GDNF treatment effectively ameliorated the apoptosis of neuronal cells in SN induced by 6-OHDA. In addition, GDNF significantly increased serine protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) phosphorylation induced by 6-OHDA. In contrast, application of LY294002 or triciribine reversed the roles of GDNF in PD models. The results implicated that the anti-apoptosis effects of GDNF in neurons might be mediated through PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. Therefore, GDNF may be a promising agent for PD treatment.

  16. Protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Guinea Pigs via Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Expressing VP1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Pan, Li; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhongwang; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum strains NC8 and WCFS1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a pSIP411-VP1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with NC8-pSIP411, NC8-pSIP411-VP1, WCFS1-pSIP411, WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 or milk. Animals immunized with NC8-pSIP411-VP1 and WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 developed high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG, IgA, IgM, mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) and neutralizing antibodies, and revealed stronger cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced protection against FMDV challenge compared with control groups. The recombinant pSIP411-VP1 effectively improved immunoprotection against FMDV in guinea pigs. PMID:26629822

  17. Protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Guinea Pigs via Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Expressing VP1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Pan, Li; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhongwang; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum strains NC8 and WCFS1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a pSIP411-VP1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with NC8-pSIP411, NC8-pSIP411-VP1, WCFS1-pSIP411, WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 or milk. Animals immunized with NC8-pSIP411-VP1 and WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 developed high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG, IgA, IgM, mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) and neutralizing antibodies, and revealed stronger cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced protection against FMDV challenge compared with control groups. The recombinant pSIP411-VP1 effectively improved immunoprotection against FMDV in guinea pigs.

  18. Mucosal vaccination with a live recombinant rhinovirus followed by intradermal DNA administration elicits potent and protective HIV-specific immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Tomusange, Khamis; Wijesundara, Danushka; Gummow, Jason; Wesselingh, Steve; Suhrbier, Andreas; Gowans, Eric J.; Grubor-Bauk, Branka

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal immunity is deemed crucial to control sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Herein we report the efficacy of a mucosal HIV vaccine strategy comprising intranasal (IN) vaccination with a cocktail of live recombinant human rhinoviruses (HRVs) encoding overlapping fragments of HIV Gag and full length Tat (rHRV-Gag/Tat) followed by intradermal (ID) vaccination with DNA vaccines encoding HIV Gag and Tat (pVAX-Gag-Tat). This heterologous prime-boost strategy will be referred to hereafter as rHRV-DNA. As a control, IN vaccination with wild type (wt)-HRV-A1 followed by a single ID dose of pVAX (wt-HRV-A1/pVAX vaccination) was included. rHRV-DNA vaccination elicited superior multi-functional CD8+T cell responses in lymphocytes harvested from mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens, and higher titres of Tat-specific antibodies in blood and vaginal lavages, and reduced the viral load more effectively after challenge with EcoHIV, a murine HIV challenge model, in peritoneal macrophages, splenocytes and blood compared compared with wt-HRV-A1/pVAX vaccination or administration of 3 ID doses of pVAX-Gag-Tat (3X pVAX-Gag-Tat vaccination). These data provide the first evidence that a rHRV-DNA vaccination regimen can induce HIV-specific immune responses in the gut, vaginal mucosa and systemically, and supports further testing of this regimen in the development of an effective mucosally-targeted HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:27853256

  19. Protective effects of vitamins (C and E) and melatonin co-administration on hematological and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Feriani, Anouer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Alimi, Hichem; Murat, Jean Claud; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of vitamins (C and E)/melatonin co-administration on the hematologic and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg b.w. for 2 days) induced a significant increase of blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with serious hematologic disorders (P < 0.01) evidenced by the decrease in the levels of red blood cell count (RBC) (-18%), hematocrit (Ht) (-18%), hemoglobin content (Hb) (-36%), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (-17%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (-16%). The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the plasmatic levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride contents of diabetic rats were, however, noted to undergo significant increases by 42% (P < 0.01), 134% (P < 0.001), 27.5% (P < 0.01), 147% (P < 0.001), and 67% (P < 0.01), respectively, as compared to the control animals. Furthermore, a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were observed in the plasma and hepatic tissues of diabetic rats when compared to the controls. Interestingly, the treatment with vitamins (C, E) in combination with melatonin was noted to reduce the plasma levels of glucose, lower the MDA levels, and restore the hematologic parameters and biochemical and antioxidant levels of diabetic rats back to normal values, alleviating diabetes metabolic disorders in rats.

  20. Co-administration of rIpaB domain of Shigella with rGroEL of S. Typhi enhances the immune responses and protective efficacy against Shigella infection.

    PubMed

    Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju

    2015-11-01

    Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants.

  1. 40 CFR 22.42 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of compliance orders issued to owners or operators of public water systems under part B of the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.42 Section 22.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor administration after traumatic brain injury in the rat does not protect against behavioral or histological deficits.

    PubMed

    Blaha, G R; Raghupathi, R; Saatman, K E; McIntosh, T K

    2000-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of excitotoxicity, axotomy and cerebral ischemia. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following traumatic brain injury in the rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=99) were anesthetized and subjected to lateral fluid percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.4-2.8 atm) or sham injury. Four hours after injury, the animals were reanesthetized, an indwelling, intraparenchymal cannula was implanted, and infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or phosphate-buffered saline vehicle was initiated from a mini-osmotic pump and continued for two weeks. In Study 1 (N=48), vehicle or 12 microg/day of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was infused into the dorsal hippocampus. In Study 2 (N=51), vehicle or brain-derived neurotrophic factor at a high (12 microg/day) or low dose (1.2 microg/day) was infused into the injured parietal cortex. All animals were evaluated for neurological motor function at two days, one week and two weeks post-injury. Cognitive function (learning and memory) was assessed at two weeks post-injury using a Morris Water Maze. At two weeks post-injury, neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA3 and dentate hilus and in the injured cortex was evaluated. In Study 2, neuronal loss was also quantified in the thalamic medial geniculate nucleus. All of the above outcome measures demonstrated significant deleterious effects of brain injury (P<0.05 compared to sham). However, post-traumatic brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion did not significantly affect neuromotor function, learning, memory or neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex or thalamus when compared to vehicle infusion in brain-injured animals, regardless of the infusion site or infusion dose (P>0.05 for each). In contrast to previous studies of axotomy, ischemia and excitotoxicity, our data indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is not protective against

  4. Recombinant fowlpox viruses coexpressing chicken type I IFN and Newcastle disease virus HN and F genes: influence of IFN on protective efficacy and humoral responses of chickens following in ovo or post-hatch administration of recombinant viruses.

    PubMed

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Winslow, B J; Junker, D E; Reddy, S; Cochran, M; McMillen, J

    1998-10-01

    We have constructed recombinant (r) fowl pox viruses (FPVs) coexpressing chicken type I interferon (IFN) and/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We administered rFPVs and FPV into embryonated chicken eggs at 17 days of embryonation or in chickens after hatch. Administration of FPV or rFPVs did not influence hatchability and survival of hatched chicks. In ovo or after hatch vaccination of chickens with the recombinant viruses resulted in protection against challenge with virulent FPV and NDV. Chickens vaccinated with FPV or FPV-NDV recombinant had significantly lower body weight 2 weeks following vaccination. This loss in body weight was not detected in chickens receiving FPV-IFN and FPV-NDV-IFN recombinants. Chickens vaccinated with FPV coexpressing IFN and NDV genes produced less antibodies against NDV in comparison with chickens vaccinated with FPV expressing NDV genes.

  5. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  6. Liver-targeting self-assembled hyaluronic acid-glycyrrhetinic acid micelles enhance hepato-protective effect of silybin after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Manyuan; Li, Jing; Xu, Yongsong; He, Rui; Guan, Hongyu; Yue, Zhujun; Gong, Muxin

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance oral bioavailability and liver targeting delivery of silybin, two amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivatives, hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HA-adh-DOCA) and hyaluronic acid-glycyrrhetinic acid (HA-adh-GA) conjugates, were designed and synthesized. Silybin was successfully loaded in HA-adh-DOCA and HA-adh-GA micelles with high drug-loading capacities (20.3% ± 0.5% and 20.6% ± 0.6%, respectively). The silybin-loaded micelles were spherical in shape with the average size around 130 nm. In vitro release study showed that two silybin-loaded micelles displayed similar steady continued-release pattern in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and PBS. Single-pass intestinal perfusion studies indicated that silybin-loaded micelles were absorbed in the whole intestine and transported via a passive diffusion mechanism. Compared with suspension formulation, silybin-loaded HA-adh-DOCA and HA-adh-GA micelles achieved significantly higher AUC and Cmax level. Moreover, liver targeting drug delivery of micelles was confirmed by in vivo imaging analysis. In comparison between the two micellar formulations, HA-adh-GA micelles possessed higher targeting capacity than HA-adh-DOCA micelles, owing to the active hepatic targeting properties of glycyrrhetinic acid. In the treatment of acute liver injury induced by CCl4, silybin-loaded HA-adh-GA micelles displayed better effects over suspension control and silybin-loaded HA-adh-DOCA micelles. Overall, pharmaceutical and pharmacological indicators suggested that the HA-adh-GA conjugates can be successfully utilized for liver targeting of orally administered therapeutics.

  7. Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications To Downgrade Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Birney, Cathleen; Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document is part of an effort to reevaluate 37 FFACO and Administrative URs against the current Soils Risk-Based Corrective Action Evaluation Process. After reviewing 37 existing FFACO and Administrative URs, 11 URs addressed in this document have sufficient information to determine that these current URs may be downgraded to Administrative URs based on the RBCA criteria. This document presents recommendations on modifications to existing URs that will be consistent with the RBCA criteria.

  8. 78 FR 13747 - Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges... secured before permitting a train to pass a signal that is displaying a stop indication and protecting a..., it was normally left in an open position when not needed in order to allow pleasure craft to...

  9. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  10. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  11. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  14. Wielding the wand without facing the music: allowing utilization review physicians to trump doctors' orders, but protecting them from legal risk ordinarily attached to the medical degree.

    PubMed

    Record, Katherine L

    2010-02-01

    This Note identifies a discrepancy in the law governing the decisionmaking that directs patient care. Seeking treatment that a third party will pay for, a patient needs not only a physician-prescribed course of treatment but also an insurer's verification that the cost is medically necessary or otherwise covered by the patient's plan. Both of these decisions directly impact the ultimate care delivered to the patient, but are governed by two very different liability regimes. A patient who suffers an adverse outcome may sue his physician in tort, while a patient who suffers from a lack of coverage may generally sue his insurer only under contract. In other words, when a patient suffers from inadequate care, his potential remedies vary considerably depending on whether the physician or the insurer is the defendant. This discrepancy in liability is the consequence of the federal law governing the administration of employer-sponsored health plans, and its extensive preemption of related state law. Many commentators have called for legal reform to address the distortion of managed care liability that results, arguing that managed care liability must be consistent or that wronged beneficiaries must have access to meaningful remedies. This Note argues that the federal law governing managed care organizations is problematic for a different reason and that the first step toward reform may be more elementary than previously suggested. Specifically, it suggests that the law governing insurers' coverage decisions is inconsistent with the law governing treatment recommendations. Patients suffer the same harm from error in both contexts-but because they can recover substantially more from treating physicians, doctors are named as defendants even when the insurers make errors. Further, this Note argues that simply aligning these two standards might offer a gateway to reform.

  15. Collaboration with Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Through this partnership, U.S. and Taiwan environmental authorities have developed a strong capacity to reduce pollution and manage the environment through joint projects, innovate research, and knowledge exchange.

  16. 40 CFR 97.508 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative appeal procedures. 97.508 Section 97.508 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Trading Program § 97.508 Administrative appeal procedures. The administrative appeal procedures...

  17. 40 CFR 97.508 - Administrative appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative appeal procedures. 97.508 Section 97.508 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Trading Program § 97.508 Administrative appeal procedures. The administrative appeal procedures...

  18. Segregated ordered lipid phases and protein-promoted membrane cohesivity are required for pulmonary surfactant films to stabilize and protect the respiratory surface.

    PubMed

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Vargas, Rodolfo; Picardi, Victoria; Cruz, Antonio; Arranz, Rocío; Valpuesta, José M; Mateu, Leonardo; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-protein complex essential to stabilize alveoli, by forming surface active films able to reach and sustain very low surface tensions (< 2 mN m(-1)) during the film compression that occurs at end-expiration. The particular lipid composition of surfactant, including a high proportion of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), induces segregation of fluid ordered and disordered phases in surfactant membranes and films at physiological temperatures. The segregation of DPPC-enriched ordered phase has been related with the ability of surfactant films to produce very low tensions, while the presence in surfactant of two specific hydrophobic polypeptides, SP-B and SP-C, is absolutely required to facilitate surfactant dynamics, including film formation and re-spreading during expansion at inspiration. In the present study, we have used X-ray scattering to analyze the structure of (1) whole native surfactant membranes purified from porcine lungs, (2) membranes reconstituted from the organic extract of surfactant containing the full lipid complement and the physiological proportion of SP-B and SP-C, and (3) membranes reconstituted from the lipid fraction of surfactant depleted of proteins. Small angle X-ray scattering data from whole surfactant or from membranes reconstituted from surfactant organic extract indicated the co-existence of two lamellar phases with different thicknesses. Such phase coexistence disappeared upon heating of the samples at temperatures above physiological values. When assessed in a captive bubble surfactometer, which mimics interfacial compression-expansion dynamics, the ability of surfactant films to produce very low tensions is only maintained at temperatures permitting the coexistence of the two lamellar phases. On the other hand, membranes reconstituted in the absence of proteins produced diffractograms indicative of the existence of a single dominant lamellar phase at all temperatures. These data suggest that SP

  19. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  20. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…